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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430753/impact-of-chlorhexidine-cord-cleansing-on-mortality-omphalitis-and-cord-separation-time-among-facility-born-babies-in-nepal-and-bangladesh
#1
Luke C Mullany, Shams El Arifeen, Subarna K Khatry, Joanne Katz, Rashed Shah, Abdullah H Baqui, James M Tielsch
Guidance is needed regarding potential extension of the WHO recommendation for cord cleansing with chlorhexidine to babies born in facilities. Among 3,223 facility-born babies from Nepal and Bangladesh, mortality was approximately halved among those allocated to the intervention clusters (10.5/1000 vs. 19.4/1000, RR=0.54; 95% CI: 0.30 - 0.97). In high-mortality settings, a single policy for home and facility births is warranted.
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420253/myths-on-chemical-burns-in-the-diaper-area
#2
Kara Shah
Over the past several years, a number of articles and online posts have circulated on the Internet associating use of disposable and cloth diapers with chemical burns on babies' skin. Because both mild chemical burns and diaper dermatitis (diaper rash) can cause skin redness and peeling, it is not surprising that some confusion has arisen regarding the association between these two conditions. However, diapers cannot cause chemical burns because they are made of inert materials. Diaper rash and chemical burns are distinct conditions that require different evaluation and treatment, which is why it is important for pediatricians to help parents understand the difference...
May 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416559/a-novel-non-antibiotic-nitroglycerin-based-catheter-lock-solution-for-the-prevention-of-intraluminal-central-venous-catheter-infections-in-cancer-patients
#3
Anne-Marie Chaftari, Ray Hachem, Ariel Szvalb, Mahnaz Taremi, Bruno Granwehr, George Michael Viola, Amin Sapna, Andrew Assaf, Numan Yazan, Pankil Shah, Ketevan Gasitashvili, Elizabeth Natividad, Ying Jiang, Rebecca Slack, Ruth Reitzel, Joel Rosenblatt, Elie Mouhayar, Issam Raad
Background: For long-term central lines (CL), the lumen is the major source of central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). Current standard of care for maintaining catheter patency includes flushing the CL with saline or heparin. Neither agent has any antimicrobial activity. Furthermore heparin may enhance staphylococcal biofilm formation. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel non-antibiotic catheter lock solution for the prevention of CLABSI.Patients and Methods: Between November 2015, and February 2016, we enrolled 60 patients with hematologic malignancies who had peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) to receive the study lock solution...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405538/henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura-presenting-as-severe-gastrointestinal-and-renal-involvement-with-mixed-outcomes-in-an-adult-patient
#4
Raj Shah, Madhuri Ramakrishnan, Alexis Vollmar, Amanda Harrell, Richard Van Trump, Amgad Masoud
Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is typically seen as a self-limiting disease in children, but can present more severely in adults, especially when there is renal involvement. Management of HSP in adults also remains a controversial topic with very few studies evaluating available therapies. In this case, HSP presenting as a combination of severe gastrointestinal involvement and a rapid decline in renal function in an adult patient directed our therapy. The patient was a 48-year-old Caucasian male with no known past medical history, who presented with a combination of purpuric rash over the lower extremities, severe abdominal pain with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and a rapidly increasing serum creatinine, with hematuria...
March 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270803/vibrio-cholerae-o1-with-reduced-susceptibility-to-ciprofloxacin-and-azithromycin-isolated-from-a-rural-coastal-area-of-bangladesh
#5
Shah M Rashed, Nur A Hasan, Munirul Alam, Abdus Sadique, Marzia Sultana, Md Mozammel Hoq, R Bradley Sack, Rita R Colwell, Anwar Huq
Cholera outbreaks occur each year in the remote coastal areas of Bangladesh and epidemiological surveillance and routine monitoring of cholera in these areas is challenging. In this study, a total of 97 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from Mathbaria, Bangladesh, collected during 2010 and 2014 were analyzed for phenotypic and genotypic traits, including antimicrobial susceptibility. Of the 97 isolates, 95 possessed CTX-phage mediated genes, ctxA, ace, and zot, and two lacked the cholera toxin gene, ctxA. Also both CTX(+) and CTX(-)V...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155175/incidence-and-timing-of-common-adverse-events-in-lenvatinib-treated-patients-from-the-select-trial-and-their-association-with-survival-outcomes
#6
Robert I Haddad, Martin Schlumberger, Lori J Wirth, Eric J Sherman, Manisha H Shah, Bruce Robinson, Corina E Dutcus, Angela Teng, Andrew G Gianoukakis, Steven I Sherman
PURPOSE: In the study of (E7080) lenvatinib in differentiated cancer of the thyroid, most patients experienced an adverse event. In this report, we examine common lenvatinib-emergent adverse events in this phase three, randomized, double-blind study. METHODS: Adverse events were graded per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. 392 patients were enrolled (lenvatinib: 261, placebo: 131) and received lenvatinib 24 mg/day or placebo. The main outcome measures were: associations with progression-free survival and overall survival in exploratory univariate and multivariate analyses along with additional variables...
April 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076589/time-volunteered-on-community-health-activities-by-brigadistas-in-nicaragua
#7
Meredith Adamo, Dixmer Rivera, Rashed Shah, Jeanne Koepsell, Leonel Martínez, Justo Pastor Ortiz, Carlos José Jarquín Navarrete, David R Marsh
Objective: To report on how brigadistas ("health brigadiers") in Nicaragua volunteer their time before the introduction of expanded responsibilities (beyond the scope of integrated community case management (iCCM)) for sick children 2-59 months old. Methods: Three complete teams of brigadistas (n = 12 brigadistas total) were selected from remote communities in the department of Matagalpa. Each respondent brigadista was interviewed privately regarding the frequency and duration (i...
November 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007529/application-of-a-paper-based-device-containing-a-new-culture-medium-to-detect-vibrio-cholerae-in-water-samples-collected-in-haiti
#8
REVIEW
Romain Briquaire, Rita R Colwell, Jacques Boncy, Emmanuel Rossignol, Aline Dardy, Isabelle Pandini, François Villeval, Jean-Louis Machuron, Anwar Huq, Shah Rashed, Thierry Vandevelde, Christine Rozand
Cholera is now considered to be endemic in Haiti, often with increased incidence during rainy seasons. The challenge of cholera surveillance is exacerbated by the cost of sample collection and laboratory analysis. A diagnostic tool is needed that is low cost, easy-to-use, and able to detect and quantify Vibrio cholerae accurately in water samples within 18-24h, and perform reliably in remote settings lacking laboratory infrastructure and skilled staff. The two main objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a new culture medium embedded in a new diagnostic tool (PAD for paper based analytical device) for detecting Vibrio cholerae from water samples collected in Haiti...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717333/a-household-based-survey-of-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-towards-dengue-fever-among-local-urban-communities-in-taiz-governorate-yemen
#9
Thaker A A Alyousefi, Rashad Abdul-Ghani, Mohammed A K Mahdy, Samira M A Al-Eryani, Abdulsalam M Al-Mekhlafi, Yahia A Raja, Shamusul Azhar Shah, John C Beier
BACKGROUND: Yemen has witnessed several dengue fever outbreaks coincident with the social unrest and war in the country. The aim of the present study was to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) of at-risk urban populations residing in Taiz, southwest of Yemen. In addition, factors possibly associated with poor preventive practices were investigated. METHODS: A household-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three urban districts encompassing 383 households...
October 7, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701080/cobimetinib
#10
Jessie Signorelli, Arpita Shah Gandhi
OBJECTIVE: To review and summarize data on cobimetinib, which was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in November 2015 for use in combination with vemurafenib for unresectable or metastatic melanoma with a BRAFV600E or V600K mutation. DATA SOURCES: A literature search using PubMed was conducted using the terms cobimetinib, MEK inhibitor, and melanoma from January 2000 to June 2016. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: The literature search was confined to human studies published in English...
February 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650823/origin-of-the-zika-virus-revealed-a-historical-journey-across-the-world
#11
Stephanie Mlacker, Golsa Shafa, Adam S Aldahan, Vidhi V Shah, Sahal Samarkandy, Keyvan Nouri
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus within the Flaviviridae family, the recent spread of which has promoted public concern. METHODS: This study outlines the clinical features, potential for teratogenicity, diagnosis, and treatment of ZIKV infection. RESULTS: Zika virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected Stegomyia (= Aedes) mosquito, blood transfusion, sexual intercourse, and perinatal routes. Infection has been characterized as mildly symptomatic...
December 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486835/xylitol-for-preventing-acute-otitis-media-in-children-up-to-12-years-of-age
#12
REVIEW
Amir Azarpazhooh, Herenia P Lawrence, Prakeshkumar S Shah
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common bacterial infection among young children in the United States. There are limitations and concerns over its treatment with antibiotics and surgery and so effective preventative measures are attractive. A potential preventative measure is xylitol, a natural sugar substitute that reduces the risk of dental decay. Xylitol can reduce the adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S pneumoniae) and Haemophilus influenzae (H influenzae) to nasopharyngeal cells in vitro...
August 3, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455441/prevalence-serotype-distribution-and-mortality-risk-associated-with-group-b-streptococcus-colonization-of-newborns-in-rural-bangladesh
#13
Mohammad Shahidul Islam, Samir K Saha, Maksuda Islam, Joyanta K Modak, Rashed Shah, Radwanur R Talukder, Shams El Arifeen, Abdullah H Baqui, Gary L Darmstadt, Luke C Mullany
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a predominant cause of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) globally; however, the impact of this organism on the health of newborns in South Asia is debated, due in part to a paucity of community-based assessments. We estimated the prevalence and serotypes of GBS colonization of the umbilical cord stump, and the association of colonization with mortality in a population-based cohort of newborns in rural Sylhet District, Bangladesh. METHODS: Umbilical cord swabs were collected from 646 newborns up to three times within the first week after birth (ages <24 hours, ~3 days, ~6 days) and processed to identify GBS serotypes...
July 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335642/improving-maternal-confidence-in-neonatal-care-through-a-checklist-intervention
#14
Dina Radenkovic, Shrinal Kotecha, Shreena Patel, Anjali Lakhani, Katharina Reimann-Dubbers, Shreya Shah, Daniyal Jafree, Stefan Mitrasinovic, Melissa Whitten
Previous qualitative studies suggest a lack of maternal confidence in care of their newborn child upon discharge into the community. This observation was supported by discussion with healthcare professionals and mothers at University College London Hospital (UCLH), highlighting specific areas of concern, in particular identifying and managing common neonatal presentations. The aim of this study was to design and introduce a checklist, addressing concerns, to increase maternal confidence in care of their newborn child...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260223/zika-virus-infection-and-development-of-a-murine-model
#15
Ankit Shah, Anil Kumar
In view of the recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV), there is an urgent need to investigate the pathogenesis of the symptoms associated with ZIKV infection. Since the first identification of the virus in 1947, the pathologies associated with ZIKV infection were thought to be limited with mild illness that presented fever, rashes, muscle aches, and weakness. However, ZIKV infection has been shown to cause Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and numerous cases of congenital microcephaly in children have been reported when pregnant females were exposed to the virus...
August 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158444/adrenocorticotropic-hormone-gel-in-the-treatment-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-retrospective-study-of-patients
#16
Xiao Li, Josh Golubovsky, Joyce Hui-Yuen, Ummara Shah, Ewa Olech, Rosalia Lomeo, Vijay Singh, Howard Busch, Mary Jane Strandberg, Kayla Strandberg, Leslie Horowitz, Anca Askanase
OBJECTIVES: Acthar Gel is a long-acting formulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) with anti-inflammatory effects thought to be mediated in part through melanocortin receptor activation. This study was initiated to understand the role of Acthar Gel in SLE treatment in rheumatology practices. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of nine adult female patients treated with Acthar Gel for at least six months at five academic centers. Treating physicians completed a one-page questionnaire on lupus medications, disease activity, and outcomes...
2015: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146758/sunitinib-in-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-experience-from-single-center-study-efficacy-and-safety
#17
K B Patel, H P Panchal, A B Karanwal, B B Parekh, S Shah, S Prasad
BACKGROUND: The 5-year survival rate for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is estimated to be <10%. RCC is highly resistant to chemotherapy. Targeted agents are now first choice of therapy for metastatic RCC such as sunitinib and sorafenib. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of 15 patients having metastatic RCC treated with sunitinib. Apart from three patients, all had clear cell histology. Thirteen patients received dosage of 50 mg/d (4 weeks on/2 weeks off cycles)...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083332/ponatinib-versus-imatinib-for-newly-diagnosed-chronic-myeloid-leukaemia-an-international-randomised-open-label-phase-3-trial
#18
Jeffrey H Lipton, Charles Chuah, Agnès Guerci-Bresler, Gianantonio Rosti, David Simpson, Sarit Assouline, Gabriel Etienne, Franck E Nicolini, Philipp le Coutre, Richard E Clark, Leif Stenke, David Andorsky, Vivian Oehler, Stephanie Lustgarten, Victor M Rivera, Timothy Clackson, Frank G Haluska, Michele Baccarani, Jorge E Cortes, François Guilhot, Andreas Hochhaus, Timothy Hughes, Hagop M Kantarjian, Neil P Shah, Moshe Talpaz, Michael W Deininger
BACKGROUND: Ponatinib has shown potent activity against chronic myeloid leukaemia that is resistant to available treatment, although it is associated with arterial occlusion. We investigated whether this activity and safety profile would result in superior outcomes compared with imatinib in previously untreated patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. METHODS: The Evaluation of Ponatinib versus Imatinib in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (EPIC) study was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial designed to assess the efficacy and safety of ponatinib, compared with imatinib, in newly diagnosed patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia...
May 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27052651/clinical-experience-with-lenalidomide-alone-or-in-combination-with-rituximab-in-indolent-b-cell-and-mantle-cell-lymphomas
#19
REVIEW
J Ruan, B Shah, P Martin, S J Schuster
Lenalidomide is an oral immunomodulatory drug with significant activity in indolent B-cell and mantle cell lymphomas. Lenalidomide has a manageable safety profile whether administered as a single agent or in combination with rituximab. The combination of lenalidomide with rituximab, known as the 'R(2)' regimen, enhances efficacy over what has been shown with monotherapy and has demonstrated activity in patients considered resistant to rituximab. Tolerability of these regimens has been consistent among studies...
July 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26980836/phylogenetic-diversity-of-vibrio-cholerae-associated-with-endemic-cholera-in-mexico-from-1991-to-2008
#20
Seon Young Choi, Shah M Rashed, Nur A Hasan, Munirul Alam, Tarequl Islam, Abdus Sadique, Fatema-Tuz Johura, Mark Eppinger, Jacques Ravel, Anwar Huq, Alejandro Cravioto, Rita R Colwell
UNLABELLED: An outbreak of cholera occurred in 1991 in Mexico, where it had not been reported for more than a century and is now endemic. Vibrio cholerae O1 prototype El Tor and classical strains coexist with altered El Tor strains (1991 to 1997). Nontoxigenic (CTX(-)) V. cholerae El Tor dominated toxigenic (CTX(+)) strains (2001 to 2003), but V. cholerae CTX(+) variant El Tor was isolated during 2004 to 2008, outcompeting CTX(-) V. cholerae. Genomes of six Mexican V. cholerae O1 strains isolated during 1991 to 2008 were sequenced and compared with both contemporary and archived strains of V...
March 15, 2016: MBio
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