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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446383/development-and-validation-of-the-parenteral-nutrition-impact-questionnaire-pniq-a-patient-centric-outcome-measure-for-home-parenteral-nutrition
#1
Jeanette Wilburn, Stephen P McKenna, Alice Heaney, Matthew Rouse, Michael Taylor, Alison Culkin, Simon Gabe, Sorrel Burden, Simon Lal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with Type 3 Intestinal Failure (IF) who need Home Parenteral Nutrition (HPN) face several clinical, psychological and social problems. The study was designed to produce and test the first patient-centric measure for HPN ('PNIQ: Parenteral Nutrition Impact Questionnaire'). The new measure focused on the extent to which patients were able to fulfil their human needs. METHODS: Questionnaire content was derived from the analysis of transcripts of interviews conducted with UK HPN patients...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431449/peripheral-and-central-glucocorticoid-signaling-contributes-to-positive-energy-balance-in-rats
#2
Tássia Karin Borba, Lígia Cristina Monteiro Galindo, Kelli Nogueira Ferraz-Pereira, Raquel da Silva Aragão, Ana Elisa Toscano, Omar Guzmán-Quevedo, Raul Manhães-de-Castro
The obesity epidemic has been the target of several studies to understand its etiology. The pathophysiological processes that take to obesity generally relate to the rupture of energy balance. This imbalance can result from environmental and/or endogenous events. Among the endogenous events, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which promotes stress response via glucocorticoid activity, is considered a modulator of energy balance. However, it remains controversial whether the increase in plasma levels of glucocorticoids results in a positive or negative energy balance...
April 21, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423931/comparative-effectiveness-of-two-walking-interventions-on-participation-step-counts-and-health
#3
Aaron Smith-McLallen, Debbie Heller, Kristin Vernisi, Diana Gulick, Samantha Cruz, Richard L Snyder
PURPOSE: To (1) compare the effects of two worksite-based walking interventions on employee participation rates; (2) compare average daily step counts between conditions, and; (3) examine the effects of increases in average daily step counts on biometric and psychologic outcomes. DESIGN: We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in which six employer groups were randomly selected and randomly assigned to condition. SETTING: Four manufacturing worksites and two office-based worksite served as the setting...
March 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415920/what-can-the-food-and-drink-industry-do-to-help-achieve-the-5-free-sugars-goal
#4
Sigrid Gibson, Margaret Ashwell, Jenny Arthur, Lindsey Bagley, Alison Lennox, Peter J Rogers, Sara Stanner
AIMS: To contribute evidence and make recommendations to assist in achieving free sugars reduction, with due consideration to the broader picture of weight management and dietary quality. METHODS: An expert workshop in July 2016 addressed options outlined in the Public Health England report 'Sugar reduction: The evidence for action' that related directly to the food industry. Panel members contributed expertise in food technology, public heath nutrition, marketing, communications, psychology and behaviour...
April 1, 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401817/contesting-facts-about-wind-farms-in-australia-and-the-legitimacy-of-adverse-health-effects
#5
Shannon Clark, Linda Courtenay Botterill
The development of wind energy in Australia has been subject to ongoing public debate and has been characterised by concerns over the health impacts of wind turbines. Using discursive psychology, we examine 'wind turbine syndrome' as a contested illness and analyse how people build and undermine divergent arguments about wind-farm health effects. This article explores two facets of the dispute. First, we consider how participants construct 'facts' about the health effects of wind farms. We examine rhetorical resources used to construct wind farms as harmful or benign...
February 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385036/ethnic-inequalities-in-doctor-patient-communication-regarding-personal-care-plans-the-mediating-effects-of-positive-mental-wellbeing
#6
Kanayo F Umeh
OBJECTIVE: There is limited understanding of ethnic inequalities in doctor-patient communication regarding personal care plans (PCPs). This study investigated the mediating effects of positive mental wellbeing on differences in PCP-related doctor-patient communication amongst South Asian and Caucasian UK residents. DESIGN: Data from 10,980 respondents to the 2013 Health Survey for England was analysed using bootstrapping methods. Constructs from the WEMWBS (Warwick and Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale) (Stewart-Brown, S...
April 6, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380599/estimation-of-the-energy-expenditure-of-grazing-ruminants-by-incorporating-dynamic-body-acceleration-into-a-conventional-energy-requirement-system
#7
M Miwa, K Oishi, H Anzai, H Kumagai, S Ieiri, H Hirooka
The estimation of energy expenditure (EE) of grazing animals is of great importance for efficient animal management on pasture. In the present study, a method is proposed to estimate EE in grazing animals based on measurements of body acceleration of animals in combination with the conventional Agricultural and Food Research Council (AFRC) energy requirement system. Three-dimensional body acceleration and heart rate were recorded for tested animals under both grazing and housing management. An acceleration index, vectorial dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA), was used to calculate activity allowance (AC) during grazing and then incorporate it into the AFRC system to estimate the EE (EE derived from VeDBA [EE]) of the grazing animals...
February 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374662/longitudinal-effects-of-disaster-related-experiences-on-mental-health-among-fukushima-nuclear-plant-workers-the-fukushima-news-project-study
#8
A Ikeda, T Tanigawa, H Charvat, H Wada, J Shigemura, I Kawachi
BACKGROUND: The Fukushima Nuclear Energy Workers' Support (NEWS) Project Study previously showed that experiences related to the Fukushima nuclear disaster on 11 March 2011 had a great impact on psychological states, including post-traumatic stress response (PTSR) and general psychological distress (GPD), among the Fukushima nuclear plant workers. To determine the causal relationship between disaster-related experiences and levels of psychological states, we conducted a 3-year longitudinal study from 2011 to 2014...
April 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357830/preparation-and-medical-follow-up-for-a-single-handed-transatlantic-rowing-race
#9
Mathieu Carron, Mathieu Coulange, Christophe Dupuy, Pierre Mastalski, Bruno Barberon, Alexis Roullaud, Agnalys Desplantes, Jean-Pierre Auffray
BACKGROUND: A single-handed transatlantic rowing race was organised between Senegal and French Guyana (2600 nautical miles). During the race, rowers adjust their lifestyle to maintain an optimal level of performance. Nutrition, circadian rhythm disturbance, psychological state, pain and other medical problems impact on physical abilities and increase the occurrence of accidents. We surveyed the prevalence of medical complications during this race and the preparation that we could suggest for this kind of activity...
2017: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353489/sharing-a-personal-trainer-personal-and-social-benefits-of-individualized-small-group-training
#10
Heidi A Wayment, Rachel McDonald
We examined a novel personal fitness training program that combines personal training principles in a small group training environment. In a typical training session, exercisers warm-up together but receive individualized training for 50 minutes with 1-5 other adults who range in age, exercise experience, and goals for participation. Study participants were 98 regularly exercising adult members of a fitness studio in the southwestern United States (64 females; 32 males), aged 19-78 years (mean = 46.52 years; SD = 14...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350939/the-advancing-role-of-neuromodulation-for-the-management-of-chronic-treatment-refractory-pain
#11
Mohammed F Shamji, Cecile De Vos, Ashwini Sharan
Neuropathic pain is a common cause of disability and health care utilization. While judicious pharmacotherapy and management of comorbid psychological distress can provide for improved quality of life, some patients with treatment-refractory disease require more invasive therapies. Spinal cord stimulation can provide for improvement in pain and decrease in medication utilization, with level 1 evidence supporting its use across various pain etiologies including persistent postoperative neuropathic pain, complex regional pain syndrome, chronic inoperable limb ischemia, treatment refractory angina, and painful diabetic neuropathy...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349947/patterns-of-correlation-of-facial-shape-with-physiological-measurements-are-more-integrated-than-patterns-of-correlation-with-ratings
#12
S Windhager, F L Bookstein, E Millesi, B Wallner, K Schaefer
This article exploits a method recently incorporated in the geometric morphometric toolkit that complements previous approaches to quantifying the facial features associated with specific body characteristics and trait attribution during social perception. The new method differentiates more globally encoded from more locally encoded information by a summary scaling dimension that is estimated by fitting a line to the plot of log bending energy against log variance explained, partial warp by partial warp, for some sample of varying shapes...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344742/psychophysiological-tracking-of-a-female-physique-competitor-through-competition-preparation
#13
Brandon J Rohrig, Robert W Pettitt, Cherie D Pettitt, Todd L Kanzenbach
Natural physique competitions are based on subjective judgments of how a competitor appears on show day. Prior to competition, there is a prolonged dieting phase referred to as contest preparation. The primary goal is to reduce body fat levels while maintaining skeletal muscle mass. The study tracked the physiological and psychological changes for a 24 year old female preparing for a physique competition. PURPOSE: The study was conducted to describe the physiological and psychological changes of a female physique competitor who engages in long-term contest preparation...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330831/the-efficacy-of-internet-based-mindfulness-training-and-cognitive-behavioral-training-with-telephone-support-in-the-enhancement-of-mental-health-among-college-students-and-young-working-adults-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Winnie Ws Mak, Floria Hn Chio, Amy Ty Chan, Wacy Ws Lui, Ellery Ky Wu
BACKGROUND: College students and working adults are particularly vulnerable to stress and other mental health problems, and mental health promotion and prevention are needed to promote their mental health. In recent decades, mindfulness-based training has demonstrated to be efficacious in treating physical and psychological conditions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to examine the efficacy of an Internet-based mindfulness training program (iMIND) in comparison with the well-established Internet-based cognitive-behavioral training program (iCBT) in promoting mental health among college students and young working adults...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323807/the-trauma-collaborative-care-study-tccs
#15
Stephen T Wegener, Andrew N Pollak, Katherine P Frey, Robert A Hymes, Kristin R Archer, Clifford B Jones, Rachel B Seymour, Robert V OʼToole, Renan C Castillo, Yanjie Huang, Daniel O Scharfstein, Ellen J MacKenzie
Previous research suggests that the care provided to trauma patients could be improved by including early screening and management of emotional distress and psychological comorbidity. The Trauma Collaborative Care (TCC) program, which is based on the principles of well-established models of collaborative care, was designed to address this gap in trauma center care. This article describes the TCC program and the design of a multicenter study to evaluate its effectiveness for improving patient outcomes after major, high-energy orthopaedic trauma at level 1 trauma centers...
April 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315884/complementary-feeding-micronutrients-and-developmental-outcomes-of-children
#16
Jacqueline F Gould
The period of complementary feeding (6-24 months of age) can be a challenging and vulnerable time for infant nutrition due to disproportionately high requirements for metabolic processes, rapid developmental processes, and limited gastric capacity. This is a period of crucial brain development where high caloric intake is necessary to allow synaptogenesis (creation of channels between neurons for communication), and maintenance of established synapses, myelination (laying the myelin sheath around neuronal axons) and everyday psychological functioning...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292531/stress-overeating-and-obesity-insights-from-human-studies-and-preclinical-models
#17
REVIEW
Maria Razzoli, Carolyn Pearson, Scott Crow, Alessandro Bartolomucci
Eating disorders and obesity have become predominant in human society. Their association to modern lifestyle, encompassing calorie-rich diets, psychological stress, and comorbidity with major diseases are well documented. Unfortunately the biological basis remains elusive and the pharmacological treatment inadequate, in part due to the limited availability of valid animal models. Human research on binge eating disorder (BED) proves a strong link between stress exposure and bingeing: state-levels of stress and negative affect are linked to binge eating in individuals with BED both in laboratory settings and the natural environment...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282447/neonatal-overfeeding-disrupts-pituitary-ghrelin-signalling-in-female-rats-long-term-implications-for-the-stress-response
#18
Luba Sominsky, Ilvana Ziko, Sarah J Spencer
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to psychological stress are exacerbated in adult female but not male rats made obese due to overfeeding in early life. Ghrelin, traditionally known for its role in energy homeostasis, has been recently recognised for its role in coordinating the HPA responses to stress, particularly by acting directly at the anterior pituitary where the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), the receptor for acyl ghrelin, is abundantly expressed. We therefore hypothesised that neonatal overfeeding in female rats would compromise pituitary responsiveness to ghrelin, contributing to a hyperactive central stress responsiveness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281176/are-ethnic-disparities-in-hba1c-levels-explained-by-mental-wellbeing-analysis-of-population-based-data-from-the-health-survey-for-england
#19
Kanayo Umeh
AIMS: It is unclear how ethnic differences in HbA1c levels are affected by individual variations in mental wellbeing. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the extent to which HbA1c disparities between Caucasian and South Asian adults are mediated by various aspects of positive psychological functioning. METHODS: Data from the 2014 Health Survey for England was analysed using bootstrapping methods. A total of 3894 UK residents with HbA1c data were eligible to participate...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275127/persistence-of-weight-loss-and-acquired-behaviors-2-y-after-stopping-a-2-y-calorie-restriction-intervention
#20
Kara L Marlatt, Leanne M Redman, Jeff H Burton, Corby K Martin, Eric Ravussin
Background: Calorie restriction (CR) influences aging processes and extends average and maximal life spans. The CALERIE 2 (Comprehensive Assessment of Long-Term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy Phase 2) study was the first randomized clinical trial to examine the metabolic and psychological effects of CR in nonobese humans.Objective: We conducted a 2-y follow-up study of adults who underwent 2 y of CR or ad libitum (control) consumption and determined whether weight loss and acquired behaviors persisted after the study ended when participants determined their own lifestyle behaviors...
April 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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