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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013751/an-exploration-into-the-motivation-for-gluten-avoidance-in-the-absence-of-coeliac-disease
#1
Lucy Harper, Justine Bold
Aim: To explore the motivation for gluten avoidance in the absence of coeliac disease (CD) and ascertain what symptoms are triggered by gluten and what beliefs/reasons influence this decision. Background: Links between physical/psychological symptoms and gluten in CD are well known but less is known about those who self-select a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the absence of CD. Methods: An empirical study using responses to an anonymous on-line questionnaire...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012119/traumatic-journeys-understanding-the-rhetoric-of-patients-complaints
#2
May McCreaddie, Bethan Benwell, Alice Gritti
BACKGROUND: Research on patients' complaints about healthcare has tended to focus on the typology of complaints and complainants to homogenise complaints and better understand safety implications. Nonetheless, complaints speak to a broader spectrum of harm and suffering that go beyond formal adverse events. Complaints about care episodes can take considerable time and effort, generate negative energy and may leave a dogged 'minority' embittered. METHODS: This study provides an overview of the process and rhetoric of how patients formulate written complaints...
July 16, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009998/acylated-ghrelin-suppresses-the-cytokine-response-to-lipopolysaccharide-and-does-so-independently-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#3
Ilvana Ziko, Luba Sominsky, Simone N De Luca, Francis Lelngei, Sarah J Spencer
Ghrelin, one of the major metabolic hormones involved in controlling energy balance, has recently been shown to have other properties including regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to psychological stress and being a potent anti-inflammatory agent. Ghrelin's HPA axis and anti-inflammatory actions have previously been identified as principally due to the acylated form (AG). However, our recent work has also suggested a role for des-acylated ghrelin (DAG) in these functions. Here we hypothesized ghrelin's anti-inflammatory activity is mediated by the HPA axis and this effect is differentially executed by AG and DAG...
July 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001713/health-outcomes-associated-with-reallocations-of-time-between-sleep-sedentary-behaviour-and-physical-activity-a-systematic-scoping-review-of-isotemporal-substitution-studies
#4
REVIEW
Jozo Grgic, Dorothea Dumuid, Enrique Garcia Bengoechea, Nipun Shrestha, Adrian Bauman, Timothy Olds, Zeljko Pedisic
BACKGROUND: During a 24-h day, each given period is spent in either sedentary behaviour, sleeping, light physical activity (LPA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In epidemiological research most studies have traditionally analysed the associations of these behaviours in isolation from each other; that is, without taking into account the displacement of time spent in the remaining behaviours. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in exploring how all the behaviours across the energy expenditure spectrum influence health outcomes...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983171/hip-fractures-in-the-non-elderly-who-why-and-whither
#5
Cecilia Rogmark, Morten Tange Kristensen, Bjarke Viberg, Sebastian Strøm Rönnquist, Søren Overgaard, Henrik Palm
Nonelderly hip fracture patients have gathered little scientific attention, and our understanding of the group may be biased by patient case-mix and lack of follow-up. Preconceptions may thwart adequate investigation of bone health and other comorbidities. This literature review focusses on who these patients between 20 and 60 years are, how to treat them and how to evaluate the outcome. 2-11% of the hip fractures occur in non-elderly, equally common in men and women. Every second to forth patient smoke, have chronic diseases, and abuse alcohol...
June 25, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29969483/identifying-common-factors-of-functioning-participation-and-environment-amongst-adults-requiring-specialist-oral-health-care-using-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health
#6
Alison Dougall, Francisca Martinez Pereira, Gustavo Molina, Caroline Eschevins, Blánaid Daly, Denise Faulks
INTRODUCTION: Persons unable to access oral health care in the conventional primary health care setting suffer from inequalities in oral health, particularly in terms of unmet dental need. The International Classification of Functioning, disability and health (ICF) is designed to look beyond medical diagnosis and to describe individuals or populations in terms of their ability to function and participate in a social environment. The objective of the study was to describe an adult population requiring specialist oral health care using the ICF and to identify common factors of functioning, participation and environmental context...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938242/mental-and-physical-effects-of-energy-drinks-consumption-in-an-italian-young-people-group-a-pilot-study
#7
F Petrelli, I Grappasonni, D Evangelista, P Pompei, G Broglia, P Cioffi, L Kracmarova, S Scuri
Introduction: The primary consumers of energy drinks were athletes, to combat fatigue, but in reality, thanks to their fast expansion and economic growth, young adults and teenagers represent the new target market. Consumption of energy drinks by both recreational and competitive athletes has increased dramatically in recent years, though they are often unaware of what is being ingested, believing to improve their physical and psychological performance. The literature shows contradictions about the capacity of energy drinks to enhance psychophysical results...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938241/energy-drink-consumption-a-survey-in-high-school-students-and-associated-psychological-effects
#8
S Scuri, F Petrelli, M Tesauro, F Carrozzo, L Kracmarova, I Grappasonni
Introduction: Energy drinks represent an emerging health problem among young people. Energy drinks generally refer to a class of beverages containing sugars and various combinations of bioactive ingredients such as caffeine, taurine etc. Also the mix of energy drinks with alcohol is fairly frequent among young people and could be associated with dangerous effects. Methods: In 2016-2017, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1581 students attending eight high school in the Marche Region...
March 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29937725/hebbian-plasticity-in-cpg-controllers-facilitates-self-synchronization-for-human-robot-handshaking
#9
Melanie Jouaiti, Lancelot Caron, Patrick Hénaff
It is well-known that human social interactions generate synchrony phenomena which are often unconscious. If the interaction between individuals is based on rhythmic movements, synchronized and coordinated movements will emerge from the social synchrony. This paper proposes a plausible model of plastic neural controllers that allows the emergence of synchronized movements in physical and rhythmical interactions. The controller is designed with central pattern generators (CPG) based on rhythmic Rowat-Selverston neurons endowed with neuronal and synaptic Hebbian plasticity...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927763/nutrition-dietary-intake-and-eating-behavior-after-liver-transplantation
#10
Lucilene Rezende Anastácio, Samanta Catherine Ferreira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nutritional status of patients after liver transplantation is affected by dietary intake and this, in turn, is affected by eating behavior. The present review will highlight recent studies on these topics after liver transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Malnutrition drops significantly after liver transplantation. Recovery of weight lost during liver disease occurs within 1 year. Liver transplantation recipients gain weight up to the second or third year, often becoming overweight and obese...
June 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907241/eating-habits-and-behaviors-of-older-people-where-are-we-now-and-where-should-we-go
#11
REVIEW
Mary Yannakoulia, Eirini Mamalaki, Costas A Anastasiou, Niki Mourtzi, Irene Lambrinoudaki, Nikolaos Scarmeas
Nutrition is a modifiable factor affecting the quality of life and independence of older people. The physiological, psychological and social changes during aging affect their dietary choices. Many older adults have inadequate energy and protein intake. Carbohydrate intake and intake of total lipids, in terms of contribution to total energy intake, generally are within the recommended levels, but a decline in overall energy intake as well as the limited variety of micronutrient-dense foods that older people tend to consume result in an inadequate intake of several micronutrients...
August 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905600/rehabilitation-for-cancer-survivors-how-we-can-reduce-the-healthcare-service-inequality-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#12
Sumadi Lukman Anwar, Guritno Adistyawan, Wahyu Wulaningsih, Christoph Gutenbrunner, Boya Nugraha
Cancer diagnosis often substantially affects patient's physical, psychological, and emotional status. The majority of cancer patients experience declining of energy, activity levels, social-cultural participation and relationships. In addition, cancer progression and side effects of aggressive cancer treatment often cause debilitating pain, fatigue, weakness, joint stiffness, depression, emotional instability, limited mobility, poor nutritional status, skin breakdown, bowel dysfunction, swallowing difficulty, and lymphedema leading into functional impairment and disability that can be addressed through rehabilitation care...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902053/unpredictability-body-awareness-and-eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-a-cognitive-schemas-approach
#13
Randi P Proffitt Leyva, Sarah E Hill
OBJECTIVE: The current research examined whether cognitive schemas that emerge in the context of early life stress predict psychological and behavioral outcomes that increase obesity risk. Three studies tested this hypothesis, predicting that having an unpredictability schema-which is a mindset characterized by the belief that the world and the people in it are unpredictable and unreliable-would predict low body awareness and eating in the absence of hunger. METHOD: Self-report measures of early life environment, unpredictability schema, body awareness, and eating habits were used in Studies 1-3...
July 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884603/individually-tailored-adaptive-intervention-to-manage-gestational-weight-gain-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-women-with-overweight-and-obesity
#14
Danielle Symons Downs, Jennifer S Savage, Daniel E Rivera, Joshua M Smyth, Barbara J Rolls, Emily E Hohman, Katherine M McNitt, Allen R Kunselman, Christy Stetter, Abigail M Pauley, Krista S Leonard, Penghong Guo
BACKGROUND: High gestational weight gain is a major public health concern as it independently predicts adverse maternal and infant outcomes. Past interventions have had only limited success in effectively managing pregnancy weight gain, especially among women with overweight and obesity. Well-designed interventions are needed that take an individualized approach and target unique barriers to promote healthy weight gain. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the study is to describe the study protocol for Healthy Mom Zone, an individually tailored, adaptive intervention for managing weight in pregnant women with overweight and obesity...
June 8, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884232/huddling-remodels-gut-microbiota-to-reduce-energy-requirements-in-a-small-mammal-species-during-cold-exposure
#15
Xue-Ying Zhang, Gansukh Sukhchuluun, Ting-Bei Bo, Qing-Sheng Chi, Jun-Jie Yang, Bin Chen, Lei Zhang, De-Hua Wang
BACKGROUND: Huddling is highly evolved as a cooperative behavioral strategy for social mammals to maximize their fitness in harsh environments. Huddling behavior can change psychological and physiological responses. The coevolution of mammals with their microbial communities confers fitness benefits to both partners. The gut microbiome is a key regulator of host immune and metabolic functions. We hypothesized that huddling behavior altered energetics and thermoregulation by shaping caecal microbiota in small herbivores...
June 8, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870397/the-dolotest%C3%A2-in-a-specialized-headache-center-among-patients-receiving-psychological-treatment-a-pilot-study
#16
Marianne Kromann Nielsen, Maria Lurenda Westergaard, Dorte Kjeldgaard Nielsen, Trine Zimmer, Rigmor Hoejland Jensen
Background The DoloTest is a newer health-related quality of life (HRQoL) monitoring instrument for pain, not yet validated for headache. Aims To examine the usefulness of the DoloTest in a specialized headache center. Methods The sample consisted of patients referred to psychologists from the Danish Headache Center (DHC) for whom the test was carried out at start of, end of, and 6 months after treatment. Points on eight scales of the test were measured (values ranged from 0 to 100), then totaled (0 to 800)...
July 26, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863949/epistemic-divides-and-ontological-confusions-the-psychology-of-vaccine-scepticism
#17
Matthew Browne
Vaccine scepticism is an increasingly important barrier to optimal coverage in developed countries. In this commentary, we make the case that negative attitudes towards vaccines reflect a broader and deeper set of beliefs about health and wellbeing. We suggest that this alternative worldview is influenced by ontological confusions (e.g. regarding purity, natural energy), and knowledge based on personal lived experience and trusted peers, rather than the positivist epistemological framework. Our view is supported by recent social-psychological research, including strong correlations of vaccine scepticism with adherence to complementary and alternative medicine, magical health beliefs, and conspiracy ideation...
June 4, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860237/low-energy-availability-surrogates-correlate-with-health-and-performance-consequences-of-relative-energy-deficiency-in-sport
#18
Kathryn E Ackerman, Bryan Holtzman, Katherine M Cooper, Erin F Flynn, Georgie Bruinvels, Adam S Tenforde, Kristin L Popp, Andrew J Simpkin, Allyson L Parziale
Low energy availability (EA) is suspected to be the underlying cause of both the Female Athlete Triad and the more recently defined syndrome, Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). The International Olympic Committee (IOC) defined RED-S as a syndrome of health and performance impairments resulting from an energy deficit. While the importance of adequate EA is generally accepted, few studies have attempted to understand whether low EA is associated with the health and performance consequences posited by the IOC...
June 2, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859056/the-characterisation-of-overweight-and-obese-women-who-are-under-reporting-energy-intake-during-pregnancy
#19
L J Moran, S A McNaughton, Z Sui, C Cramp, A R Deussen, R M Grivell, J M Dodd
BACKGROUND: Misreporting of energy intake is common and can contribute to biased estimates of the relationship between diet and disease. Energy intake misreporting is poorly understood in pregnancy and there is limited research assessing characteristics of women who misreport energy intake or changes in misreporting of energy intake across pregnancy. METHODS: An observational study in n = 945 overweight or obese pregnant women receiving standard antenatal care who participated in the LIMIT randomised trial...
June 1, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801781/stress-free-microbes-lack-vitality
#20
REVIEW
John E Hallsworth
Stress is an inextricable aspect of life, and stress biology has been a field of intensive study over the last 200-300 years. In human psychology, we consider a stress-free condition to be one of relaxation or happiness, yet with respect to microbial cells we do not have a concept that describes being non-stressed. Stresses within, and stress tolerance of, microbial systems lie at the crux of critical global challenges, such as optimising soil- and plant-health and crop yields; reducing food spoilage; bioremediation of polluted environments; effective biological control and biofuel production; gaining insight into aging processes in humans; and understanding astrobiology...
June 2018: Fungal Biology
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