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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339091/an-energetic-view-of-stress-focus-on-mitochondria
#1
REVIEW
Martin Picard, Bruce S McEwen, Elissa Epel, Carmen Sandi
Energy is required to sustain life and enable stress adaptation. At the cellular level, energy is largely derived from mitochondria - unique multifunctional organelles with their own genome. Four main elements connect mitochondria to stress: 1) Energy is required at the molecular, (epi)genetic, cellular, organ, and systemic levels to sustain components of stress responses; 2) Glucocorticoids and other steroid hormones are produced and metabolized by mitochondria; 3) Reciprocally, mitochondria functionally respond to neuroendocrine and metabolic stress mediators; and 4) Experimentally manipulating mitochondrial functions alters physiological and behavioral responses to psychological stress...
January 12, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334694/home-alone-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-the-effects-of-individual-housing-on-body-weight-food-intake-and-visceral-fat-mass-in-rodents
#2
REVIEW
L Schipper, L Harvey, E M van der Beek, G van Dijk
Rats and mice are widely used to study environmental effects on psychological and metabolic health. Study designs differ widely and are often characterized by varying (social) housing conditions. In itself, housing has a profound influence on physiology and behaviour of rodents, affecting energy balance and sustainable metabolic health. However, evidence for potential long-term consequences of individual versus social housing on body weight and metabolic phenotype is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses assessing effects of individual versus social housing of rats and mice, living under well-accepted laboratory conditions, on measures of metabolic health, including body weight, food intake and visceral adipose tissue mass...
January 15, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332020/predictors-of-improvements-in-mental-health-from-mindfulness-meditation-in-stressed-older-adults
#3
Barry S Oken, Elena Goodrich, Daniel Klee, Tabatha Memmott, Jeffrey Proulx
Context • The benefits of a mindfulness meditation (MM) intervention are most often evidenced by improvements in self-rated stress and mental health. Given the physiological complexity of the psychological stress system, it is likely that some people benefit significantly, whereas others do not. Clinicians and researchers could benefit from further exploration to determine which baseline factors can predict clinically significant improvements from MM. Objectives • The study intended to determine (1) whether the baseline measures for participants who significantly benefitted from MM training were different from the baseline measures of participants who did not, and (2) whether a classification analysis using a decision-tree, machine-learning approach could be useful in predicting which individuals would be most likely to improve...
January 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325935/upgrading-gestalt-psychology-with-variational-neuroethology-the-case-of-perceptual-pleasures-comment-on-answering-schr%C3%A3-dinger-s-question-a-free-energy-formulation-by-m-j-desormeau-ramstead-et-al
#4
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325481/stress-management-and-the-role-of-rhodiola-rosea-a-review
#5
Ion-George Anghelescu, David Edwards, Erich Seifritz, Siegfried Kasper
OBJECTIVE: Stress describes the physiological reaction to threat or pressure, which manifests as physical symptoms of exhaustion or energy loss and psychological symptoms, including irritability or tension. If untreated, chronic stress or burnout may develop, both are areas of unmet medical need. Evidence-based treatment and prevention measures are needed. METHODS: Prevention strategies and existing treatment options for stress-related symptoms were evaluated to establish criteria for an adequate pharmacological approach to stress...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320878/exercise-training-for-improving-outcomes-post-burns-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Orlando Flores, Zephanie Tyack, Kellie Stockton, Robert Ware, Jennifer D Paratz
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of different modalities of exercise and to evaluate the safety of exercise-based interventions post-burns. DATA SOURCES: Six databases were searched from inception to October 2017 using "burn," "exercise" and synonyms as keywords. Relevant authors, key journals and reference lists of included studies were hand-searched. REVIEW METHODS: Articles reporting on exercise interventions in patients post-burn and considering physical, physiological or psychological outcomes were considered...
January 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313968/cochrane-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-impact-of-psychological-treatments-for-people-with-epilepsy-on-health-related-quality-of-life
#7
REVIEW
Rosa Michaelis, Venus Tang, Janelle L Wagner, Avani C Modi, W Curt LaFrance, Laura H Goldstein, Tobias Lundgren, Markus Reuber
OBJECTIVE: Given the significant impact epilepsy can have on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of individuals with this condition and their families, there is great clinical interest in evidence-based psychological treatments aimed at enhancing well-being in people with epilepsy (PWE). An evaluation of the current evidence is needed to assess the effects of psychological treatments for PWE on HRQoL outcomes to inform future therapeutic recommendations and research designs. METHODS: The operational definition of psychological treatments included a broad range of interventions that use psychological or behavioral techniques designed to improve HRQoL, psychiatric comorbidities, and seizure frequency and severity for adults and children with epilepsy...
January 3, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301248/differences-in-the-plasma-proteome-of-patients-with-hypothyroidism-before-and-after-thyroid-hormone-replacement-a-proteomic-analysis
#8
Assim A Alfadda, Hicham Benabdelkamel, Afshan Masood, Anwar A Jammah, Aishah A Ekhzaimy
Thyroid hormone is a potent stimulator of metabolism, playing a critical role in regulating energy expenditure and in key physiological mechanisms, such as growth and development. Although administration of thyroid hormone in the form of levo thyroxine (l-thyroxine) has been used to treat hypothyroidism for many years, the precise molecular basis of its physiological actions remains uncertain. Our objective was to define the changes in circulating protein levels that characterize alterations in thyroid hormone status...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289556/chronopathophysiological-implications-of-orexin-in-sleep-disturbances-and-lifestyle-related-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Hiroshi Tsuneki, Tsutomu Wada, Toshiyasu Sasaoka
Sleep, a mysterious behavior, has recently been recognized as a crucial factor for health and longevity. The daily sleep/wake cycle provides the basis of biorhythms controlling whole-body homeostasis and homeodynamics; therefore, disruption of sleep causes several physical and psychological disorders, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, cancer, anxiety, depression, and cognitive dysfunction. However, the mechanism linking sleep disturbances and sleep-related disorders remains unknown. Orexin (also known as hypocretin) is a neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus...
December 28, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278225/quality-improvement-lessons-from-the-english-national-health-services
#10
Suzie Bailey, Helen Bevan
Based on our own experiences leading healthcare improvement in the English National Health Service (NHS), we identify seven themes that connect with the story of front-line ownership (FLO): Create investors not buyers of change - "buy-in" is too late in the change process; We need to combine both technical and cultural aspects of change - go slow to go fast and make sure that we pay attention to the human dimensions of change; Build strong ties AND weak ties - reach out to your usual suspects AND find your unusual suspects and unlikely allies; If we want innovation, we need to create psychological safety - the conditions of trust and support that make people feel safe to try new things that might fail; Build energy for change for the long haul, right from the start of your change efforts - go beyond the typical "intellectual" energy and build "social" and "spiritual" energy that create strong foundations for change; Challenge "the myth of the disinterested" - everyone is passionate about something; The leader as coach and team member - be the leadership role model that enables change...
2017: HealthcarePapers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261116/is-job-control-a-double-edged-sword-a-cross-lagged-panel-study-on-the-interplay-of-quantitative-workload-emotional-dissonance-and-job-control-on-emotional-exhaustion
#11
Anne-Kathrin Konze, Wladislaw Rivkin, Klaus-Helmut Schmidt
Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees' self-control...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248436/estrogen-signaling-in-the-medial-amygdala-decreases-emotional-stress-responses-and-obesity-in-ovariectomized-rats
#12
Christina M Estrada, Valentina Ghisays, Elizabeth T Nguyen, Jody L Caldwell, Joshua Streicher, Matia B Solomon
Declining estradiol (E2), as occurs during menopause, increases risk for obesity and psychopathology (i.e., depression, anxiety). E2 modulates mood and energy homeostasis via binding to estrogen receptors (ER) in the brain. The often comorbid and bidirectional relationship between mood and metabolic disorders suggests shared hormonal and/or brain networks. The medial amygdala (MeA) is abundant in ERs and regulates mood, endocrine, and metabolic stress responses; therefore we tested the hypothesis that E2 in the MeA mitigates emotional and metabolic dysfunction in a rodent model of surgical menopause...
December 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248306/mental-toughness-and-behavioural-perseverance-a-conceptual-replication-and-extension
#13
Brandon Giles, Paul S R Goods, Dylan R Warner, Dale Quain, Peter Peeling, Kagan J Ducker, Brian Dawson, Daniel F Gucciardi
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to conduct a conceptual replication of the proposition that mental toughness is associated positively with behavioural perseverance. DESIGN: Repeated-measures design. METHODS: In total, 38 male Australian rules footballers took part in this study (age, 21±3 y; mass, 82.7±11.0kg; height, 1.84±.07m; football experience, 13±4 y). Participants self-reported mental toughness approximately one week prior to their first testing session where we assessed their aerobic capacity via the measurement of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241896/an-exploratory-study-on-using-principal-component-analysis-and-confirmatory-factor-analysis-to-identify-bolt-on-dimensions-the-eq-5d-case-study
#14
Aureliano Paolo Finch, John Edward Brazier, Clara Mukuria, Jakob Bue Bjorner
OBJECTIVE: Generic preference-based measures such as the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) are used in economic evaluation, but may not be appropriate for all conditions. When this happens, a possible solution is adding bolt-ons to expand their descriptive systems. Using review-based methods, studies published to date claimed the relevance of bolt-ons in the presence of poor psychometric results. This approach does not identify the specific dimensions missing from the Generic preference-based measure core descriptive system, and is inappropriate for identifying dimensions that might improve the measure generically...
December 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234392/1h-nmr-based-metabonomic-study-of-functional-dyspepsia-in-stressed-rats-treated-with-chinese-medicine-weikangning
#15
Yu Guo, Zhongfeng Li, Xinfeng Liu, Xiaolan Su, Yijie Li, Jiajie Zhu, Yilin Song, Ping Zhang, Jiande D Z Chen, Ruhan Wei, Jianqin Yang, Wei Wei
1H NMR-based metabolic profiling combined with multivariate data analysis was used to explore the metabolic phenotype of functional dyspepsia (FD) in stressed rats and evaluate the intervention effects of the Chinese medicine Weikangning (WKN). After a 7-day period of model establishment, a 14-day drug administration schedule was conducted in a WKN-treated group of rats, with the model and normal control groups serving as negative controls. Based on 1H NMR spectra of urine and serum from rats, PCA, PLS-DA, and OPLS-DA were performed to identify changing metabolic profiles...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229845/brain-urea-increase-is-an-early-huntington-s-disease-pathogenic-event-observed-in-a-prodromal-transgenic-sheep-model-and-hd-cases
#16
Renee R Handley, Suzanne J Reid, Rudiger Brauning, Paul Maclean, Emily R Mears, Imche Fourie, Stefano Patassini, Garth J S Cooper, Skye R Rudiger, Clive J McLaughlan, Paul J Verma, James F Gusella, Marcy E MacDonald, Henry J Waldvogel, C Simon Bawden, Richard L M Faull, Russell G Snell
The neurodegenerative disorder Huntington's disease (HD) is typically characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons and the midlife onset of debilitating and progressive chorea, dementia, and psychological disturbance. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene, translating to an elongated glutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. The pathogenic mechanism resulting in cell dysfunction and death beyond the causative mutation is not well defined. To further delineate the early molecular events in HD, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) on striatal tissue from a cohort of 5-y-old OVT73-line sheep expressing a human CAG-expansion HTT cDNA transgene...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224693/musculoskeletal-health-and-frailty
#17
REVIEW
Fiona E McGuigan, Patrik Bartosch, Kristina E Åkesson
Frailty is a consequence of advanced aging, where the frailty phenotype tries to capture overall decline in health. Frailty involves multiple physiological systems that are intrinsically inter-related and with highly complex interactions. Frailty is closely linked to musculoskeletal health; musculoskeletal functioning is a key component in quantifying frailty, while at the same time, frailty is associated with the most common age-related musculoskeletal conditions: osteoporosis, fractures, falls, osteoarthritis, and spinal conditions...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224510/researcher-self-care-in-emotionally-demanding-research-a-proposed-conceptual-framework
#18
Smita Kumar, Liz Cavallaro
Researchers are emotionally and psychologically affected by emotionally demanding research that demands a tremendous amount of mental, emotional, or physical energy and potentially affects or depletes the researcher's well-being. Little attention has been given to preparing doctoral students and novice researchers engaged in such studies. Four possible types of emotionally demanding research experiences are presented: sensitive issues, personal trauma previously experienced, experience of traumatic life events during research, and unexpected events that arise during research in what was previously not identified as a sensitive issue...
December 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222629/postinflammatory-hyperpigmentation-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Bridget P Kaufman, Taulun Aman, Andrew F Alexis
Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is a reactive hypermelanosis that develops following cutaneous inflammation. Common causes of PIH include intrinsic skin conditions (e.g., acne and eczema) as well as external insults to the skin, such as burn injuries and dermatologic procedures. PIH more commonly occurs in individuals with darker skin, for whom it is often a source of significant psychological distress. Several therapeutic modalities are available for the treatment of PIH, including topical agents, chemical peels, and energy-based devices...
December 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210981/health-co-benefits-of-green-building-design-strategies-and-community-resilience-to-urban-flooding-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#20
REVIEW
Adele Houghton, Carlos Castillo-Salgado
Climate change is increasingly exacerbating existing population health hazards, as well as resulting in new negative health effects. Flooding is one particularly deadly example of its amplifying and expanding effect on public health. This systematic review considered evidence linking green building strategies in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design® (LEED) Rating System with the potential to reduce negative health outcomes following exposure to urban flooding events. Queries evaluated links between LEED credit requirements and risk of exposure to urban flooding, environmental determinants of health, co-benefits to public health outcomes, and co-benefits to built environment outcomes...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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