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mRNA vaccine

Haibo Jin, Ye Xu, Fushan Shi, Songhua Hu
This study was to evaluate the effects of anatomical sites for vaccination on the immune responses. In experiment A, rats were subcutaneously (s.c.) immunized with a quintuplet vaccine twice at houhai acupoint, underjaw, popliteal fossa or back with a two weeks interval. The serum specific antibody levels were determined 2, 4 and 6 weeks after second immunization. Splenocytes were separated for detection of lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine mRNA expression. In experiment B, 10 female Rottweiler puppies at their age of 34 ± 2 days were subcutaneously injected with a bivalent vaccine Nobivac® Puppy DP containing live attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV) and parvovirus (CPV) for primary vaccination, and a quadrivalent vaccine Nobivac® DHPPI containing live attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV), adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), parvovirus (CPV) and parainfluenza virus (CPIV) for subsequent vaccination at houhai acupoint (4 dogs), the shoulder (3 dogs) or the nape (3 dogs) region...
November 13, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Taniya Mitra, Fana Alem Kidane, Michael Hess, Dieter Liebhart
The protozoan parasite Histomonas meleagridis is the causative agent of histomonosis in gallinaceous birds, predominantly in turkeys and chickens. Depending on the host species the outcome of the disease can be very severe with high mortality as observed in turkeys, whereas in chickens the mortality rates are generally lower. The disease is known for more than 100 years when in vitro and in vivo investigations started to understand histomonosis and the causative pathogen. For decades histomonosis could be well-controlled by effective drugs for prevention and therapy until the withdrawal of such chemicals for reasons of consumer protection in Europe, the USA and additional countries worldwide...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Witness Mapanga, Brendan Girdler-Brown, Shingairai A Feresu, Tsungai Chipato, Elvira Singh
BACKGROUND: There is scanty or inconclusive evidence on which cervical cancer screening tool is effective and suitable for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive women. The aim of this review was to assess, synthesise and document published evidence relating to the available cervical cancer screening modalities for HIV-seropositive women in developing countries. This paper did not review the issue of human papillomavirus (HPV) prophylactic vaccine on HIV-seropositive women. METHODS: Five electronic databases were systematically searched from inception to January 2018 for relevant published original research examining cervical cancer prevention modalities for HPV infection, abnormal cytology and direct visualisation of the cervix amongst HIV-seropositive women in developing countries...
November 17, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Xiuli Chen, Digang Zeng, Weilin Zhu, Min Peng, Chunling Yang, Qiangyong Li, Qingyun Liu, Qiong Yang, Hui Wang, Min Li, Yong Lin, Yongzhen Zhao, Xiaohan Chen
The Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) (also known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus, IHHNV), a very small DNA virus, is a major shrimp pathogen. The PstDNV genome encodes only two nonstructural proteins and one capsid protein. This virus is thus an ideal, simple model for the investigation of virus-host interactions. To explore the role of the PstDNV capsid in viral infections, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) cDNA library was constructed based on Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei mRNA...
November 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jingxuan Yan, Ruying Chen, Hong Zhang, James D Bryers
mRNA vaccines have proven to be more stable, effective, and specific than protein/peptide-based vaccines in stimulating both humoral and cellular immune response. However, mRNA's fast degradation rate and low-transfection efficiency in vivo impede its potential in vaccination. Recent research in gene delivery has focused on nonviral vaccine carriers and either implantable or injectable delivery systems to improve transgene expression in vivo. Here, an injectable chitosan-alginate gel scaffold for the local delivery of mRNA vaccines is reported...
November 16, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Endika Varela-Martínez, Naiara Abendaño, Javier Asín, Maialen Sistiaga-Poveda, Marta Maria Pérez, Ramsés Reina, Damián de Andrés, Lluís Luján, Begoña M Jugo
There have been few in vivo studies on the effect of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant and its influence on the immune response to vaccination. In this study, lambs received a parallel subcutaneous treatment with either commercial vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide or an equivalent dose of this compound only with the aim of identifying the activated molecular signature. Blood samples were taken from each animal at the beginning and at the end of the experiment and PBMCs isolated. Total RNA and miRNA libraries were prepared and sequenced...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ji Won Kim, Dharmendra K Yadav, Soo Jin Kim, Moo-Yeol Lee, Jung-Min Park, Bum Seok Kim, Mi-Hyun Kim, Hyeung-Geun Park, Keon Wook Kang
GV1001, a 16-amino acid fragment of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (hTERT), has been developed as an injectable formulation of cancer vaccine. Here, we revealed for the first time that GV1001 is a novel ligand for gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR). The docking prediction for GV1001 against GnRHR showed high binding affinity. Binding of GV1001 to GnRHR stimulated the Gαs-coupled cAMP signaling pathway and antagonized Gαq-coupled Ca2+ release by leuprolide acetate (LA), a GnRHR agonist...
October 1, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Daven B Khana, David S Peterson, James B Stanton, Megan E Schreeg, Adam J Birkenheuer, Jaime L Tarigo
Cytauxzoonosis is a highly fatal disease of domestic cats caused by the apicomplexan protozoan Cytauxzoon felis, which is most closely related to Theileria spp. The growing prevalence, high morbidity and mortality, and treatment cost of cytauxzoonosis emphasize the need for vaccine development. Traditional approaches for vaccine development, however, have been hindered by the inability to culture C. felis in vitro. Recent availability of the annotated C. felis genome combined with genome-based vaccine design and protein microarray immunoscreening allowed for high-throughput identification of C...
November 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Pengfei Li, Xiangle Zhang, Weijun Cao, Fan Yang, Xiaoli Du, Zhengwang Shi, Miaotao Zhang, Xiangtao Liu, Zixiang Zhu, Haixue Zheng
BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a key cytosolic receptor of the innate immune system. Seneca valley virus (SVV) is a newly emerging RNA virus that infects pigs causing significant economic losses in pig industry. RIG-I plays different roles during different viruses infections. The role of RIG-I in SVV-infected cells remains unknown. Understanding of the role of RIG-I during SVV infection will help to clarify the infection process of SVV in the infected cells. METHODS: In this study, we generated a RIG-I knockout (KO) porcine kidney PK-15 cell line using the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (Cas9) genome editing tool...
October 23, 2018: Virology Journal
Osvaldo A de Sousa, Reinaldo F Cooke, Alice P Brandão, Kelsey M Schubach, Thiago F Schumaher, David W Bohnert, Rodrigo S Marques
This experiment evaluated the effects of supplementing a saponin-containing feed ingredient, manufactured from purified extract of Yucca schidigera [Micro-Aid (MA); DPI Global; Porterville, CA], on performance, health, and physiological responses of receiving cattle. A total of 105 recently-weaned Angus x Hereford calves (75 steers and 30 heifers), originating from 8 cow-calf operations, were obtained from an auction facility on d -2 and road-transported (800 km; 12 h) to the experimental facility. Immediately after arrival on d -1, shrunk body weight (BW) was recorded and calves were grouped with free-choice access to grass hay, mineral supplement, and water...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Alessandra Pierangeli, Carolina Scagnolari, Guido Antonelli
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of infant hospitalization and causes a high burden of disease in the elderly, too. This enveloped negative-stranded RNA virus has been recently reclassified in the Pneumoviridae family. Infections of the respiratory cells happens when the two major surface glycoproteins, G and F, take contact with the cell receptor CX3CR1 and mediate entry by fusion, respectively. Viral mRNA transcription, genomic RNA synthesis and nucleocapsid formation occur in large cytoplasmic inclusion bodies to avoid recognition by the host innate immune response...
October 18, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Amelia R Woolums, Brandi Bourg Karisch, Jane A Parish, Jooyoun Park, Keun Seok Seo, Peres Badial, Steven C Olsen
The effect of a DNA immunostimulant on inflammatory and immune responses, performance, and health in calves following abrupt weaning and introduction to a concentrate diet was tested. Sixty-four single source Angus crossbred steers were weaned on day 1 and assigned to receive a DNA immunostimulant (TRT) or saline (CON) on days 0, 2, 4, and 6. On day 0, steers received clostridial and respiratory vaccines and anthelmintic; they were then transported 2 h, allocated to pens (n = 8 per pen), and introduced to total mixed ration...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Binnian Zhu, Tianyu He, Xiangyun Gao, Minghua Shi, Hongxiang Sun
PURPOSE: The purified fraction of Albizia julibrissin saponins (AJSAF) was evaluated and characterized for the adjuvant activity on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine. METHODS: The effects of AJSAF on serum PRRSV N protein-specific antibody titers, splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, mRNA expression of cytokines and transcription factors, secretion of cytokines, T cells response in splenocytes, as well as delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) in the mice immunized PRRSV vaccine were determined by ELISA, MTT assay, flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
October 16, 2018: Immunological Investigations
Rui Zhang, Margaret M Billingsley, Michael J Mitchell
The idea of developing therapeutic vaccines against cancer has been explored since the early discovery of tumor-specific antigens by Georg Klein in 1967. However, challenges including weak immunogenicity, systematic toxicity, and off-target effects of cancer vaccines remain as barriers to their broad clinical translation. The emerging field of biomaterials has led to advancements in many different biomedical applications, and it may also help cancer vaccines overcome the various aforementioned challenges. Here, we discuss the rational design and clinical status of several classes of cancer vaccines (i...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Lorna Leal, Alberto C Guardo, Sara Morón-López, Maria Salgado, Beatriz Mothe, Carlo Heirman, Pieter Pannus, Guido Vanham, Henk Jan van den Ham, Rob Gruters, Arno Andeweg, Sonja Van Meirvenne, Judit Pich, Joan Albert Arnaiz, Josep M Gatell, Christian Brander, Kris Thielemans, Javier Martínez-Picado, Montserrat Plana, Felipe García
OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of therapeutic vaccines against HIV-1 infection has been modest. New inerts to redirect responses to vulnerable sites are urgently needed to improve these results. DESIGN: We performed the first-in-human clinical trial with naked mRNA (iHIVARNA) combining a dendritic cell activation strategy (TriMix:CD40L+CD70+caTLR4 RNA) with a novel HIV immunogen sequences (HTI immunogen). METHODS: A dose escalation, phase I clinical trial was performed in 21 chronic HIV-1-infected patients under ART who received three intranodal doses of mRNA (weeks 0, 2 and 4) as follow: TriMix-100 g, TriMix-300 g, TriMix-300 g with HTI-300 g, TriMix-300 g with HTI-600 g, TriMix-300 g with HTI-900 g...
November 13, 2018: AIDS
Hsing-Chieh Wu, Jai-Wei Lee, Jin-Jie Lin, Hsian-Yu Wang, Chun-Yen Chu
AIMS: To evaluate the effect of a DNA priming and protein boosting immunization scheme in ducks. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pekin ducks were immunized with pTCY/VP2 DNA vaccine; on day 14 (D14) after primary immunization, the ducks were boosted with either the same vaccine (DNA + DNA) or the rVP2 vaccine (DNA + rVP2). CpG oligodeoxynucleotides containing 3 copies of GACGTT motifs were used as the adjuvant in the vaccines. Compared with unimmunized controls, both immunization schemes significantly increased the titer of antigen-specific antibodies, lymphocyte proliferation index, percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and mRNA expression of interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-12 in antigen-stimulated PBMCs...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Susanne Rauch, Edith Jasny, Kim E Schmidt, Benjamin Petsch
Ever since the development of the first vaccine more than 200 years ago, vaccinations have greatly decreased the burden of infectious diseases worldwide, famously leading to the eradication of small pox and allowing the restriction of diseases such as polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and measles. A multitude of research efforts focuses on the improvement of established and the discovery of new vaccines such as the HPV (human papilloma virus) vaccine in 2006. However, radical changes in the density, age distribution and traveling habits of the population worldwide as well as the changing climate favor the emergence of old and new pathogens that bear the risk of becoming pandemic threats...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yanguo Han, Xiaoli Peng, Kai Li, Xunping Jiang, Guiqiong Liu, Liguo Yang, Caiyou Liang, Yuhetian Zhao, Yongjie Huang, Guangxin E, Yongju Zhao, Yongfu Huang
BACKGROUND: Most studies on immunocastration currently focused on male animals. However, immunization of male animals does not completely inhibit sexual behavior and fertility. This study aimed to compare the immunocastration effect of KISS1 DNA vaccines encoding different lengths of kisspeptins in female rats for effective castration effects on both male and female rats. METHODS: Fifteen female rats were randomly divided into three groups. The rats in T1 group or T2 group was orally given respectively KISS1-54 or KISS1-10 DNA vaccines with fused tPA signal peptide, and the control group (Group C) was orally administered with empty vector vaccine, at a dose of 5 × 109 CFU/rat at weeks 0, 3 and 6 of the study...
September 28, 2018: Vaccine
Ya-Nan Fan, Min Li, Ying-Li Luo, Qian Chen, Li Wang, Hou-Bing Zhang, Song Shen, Zhen Gu, Jun Wang
Message RNA-based vaccines with prominent advantages such as facile production, no requirement for nuclear entry and high safety without the need for integration into host genome have been shown to be potent activators of the cytotoxic immune system. However, wider applications of mRNA-based therapeutics have been hindered because of their intrinsically high vulnerability to expressed nucleases and difficulty while entering antigen-presenting cells (APCs) directly. Here, we investigated the potential of cationic lipid-assisted nanoparticles (CLAN), which form a clinically translatable nucleic acid delivery system working as a carrier of an mRNA vaccine...
November 1, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Elias J Sayour, Adam Grippin, Gabriel De Leon, Brian Stover, Maryam Rahman, Aida Karachi, Brandon Wummer, Ginger Moore, Paul Castillo-Caro, Kristianna Fredenburg, Matthew R Sarkisian, Jianping Huang, Loic P Deleyrolle, Bikash Sahay, Sheila Carrera-Justiz, Hector R Mendez-Gomez, Duane A Mitchell
Translation of nanoparticles (NPs) into human clinical trials for patients with refractory cancers has lagged due to unknown biologic reactivities of novel NP designs. To overcome these limitations, simple well-characterized mRNA lipid-NPs have been developed as cancer immunotherapeutic vaccines. While the preponderance of RNA lipid-NPs encoding for tumor-associated antigens or neoepitopes have been designed to target lymphoid organs, they remain encumbered by the profound intratumoral and systemic immunosuppression that may stymie an activated T cell response...
October 10, 2018: Nano Letters
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