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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542251/transcriptome-microrna-analysis-of-sarcoptes-scabiei-and-host-immune-response
#1
Ran He, Xiaobin Gu, Weimin Lai, Xuerong Peng, Guangyou Yang
Scabies is a parasitic disease, caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, and is considered one of the top 50 epidemic diseases and one the most common human skin disease, worldwide. Allergic dermatitis, including an intense itch, is a common symptom, however diagnosis is difficult and there is currently no effective vaccine. The goal of this study was to examine the immune interaction mechanism of both S. scabiei and infected hosts. mRNA-seq and microRNA-seq were conducted on the S. scabiei mite and on infected and uninfected hosts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531943/recent-trends-in-zikv-research-a-step-away-from-cure
#2
REVIEW
Aftab Alam, Nikhat Imam, Anam Farooqui, Shahnawaz Ali, Md Zubbair Malik, Romana Ishrat
Zika virus (ZikV) is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family, genus Flavivirus has emerged as a potential threat to human health worldwide. Consequences of vertical infections includes microcephaly with brain and eye anomalies, and adult infections includes Guillain-Barrésyndrome (GBS), brain ischemia, myelitis and meningoencephalitis. To develop a better treatment, many efforts are being made, like drug-repurposing concept for FDA-approved drugs for antiviral activity are screened against ZikV infection and emerging as a promising alternative to expedite drug development and various vaccines like DNA, ZPIV, LAIV, mRNA and AGS-v vaccines have been designed and in under clinical trial phases...
May 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521031/expression-of-host-defense-peptides-in-the-intestine-of-eimeria-challenged-chickens
#3
S Su, D M Dwyer, K B Miska, R H Fetterer, M C Jenkins, E A Wong
Avian coccidiosis is caused by the intracellular protozoan Eimeria, which produces intestinal lesions leading to weight gain depression. Current control methods include vaccination and anticoccidial drugs. An alternative approach involves modulating the immune system. The objective of this study was to profile the expression of host defense peptides such as avian beta-defensins (AvBDs) and liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2), which are part of the innate immune system. The mRNA expression of AvBD family members 1, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, and 13 and LEAP2 was examined in chickens challenged with either E...
May 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511091/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-dngr-1-in-rhesus-macaques
#4
Wen-Rong Yao, Lei Yu, Dong Li, Gui-Bo Yang
DC, NK lectin group receptor-1 (DNGR-1), also known as C-type lectin domain family 9 member A (CLEC9A), is a promising target for immunological therapeutics and vaccination against tumors and viruses. However, little is known about its property in rhesus macaques. In this study, we cloned rhesus macaque DNGR-1 cDNA, and found that its coding region could encode a 241-amino acid polypeptide with 91.7% sequence identity and similar antigenicity to that of humans. Both free and cell surface rhesus macaque DNGR-1 expressed in vitro could bind to apoptotic/dead cells induced by serum deprivation or freeze-thaw, and to pyroptotic cells stimulated with PMA and LPS...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502165/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-inhibits-mucin-synthesis-and-viral-replication-by-suppression-of-ap-1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-via-p38-mapks-jnk-signaling-pathways-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infected-a549-cells
#5
Jin-Woo Lee, Young Il Kim, Chang-Nim Im, Sung Wan Kim, Su Jin Kim, Seoyeon Min, Yong Hoon Joo, Sung-Vin Yim, Namhyun Chung
Airway epithelial cells are often infected by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), one of the most common causes of asthma, bronchiolitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. During the infection process, excessive mucins aggravate airway inflammation. However, the mechanism underlying RSV-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation is poorly understood. Furthermore, no reliable vaccines or drugs for antiviral therapy are available. In this study, the effect of the natural compound grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) on RSV-infected human airway epithelial cells A549 was evaluated...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495513/high-hydrostatic-pressure-affects-antigenic-pool-in-tumor-cells-implication-for-dendritic-cell-based-cancer-immunotherapy
#6
Linda Urbanova, Nada Hradilova, Irena Moserova, Sarka Vosahlikova, Lenka Sadilkova, Michal Hensler, Radek Spisek, Irena Adkins
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can be used to generate dendritic cell (DC)-based active immunotherapy for prostate, lung and ovarian cancer. We showed here that HHP treatment of selected human cancer cell lines leads to a degradation of tumor antigens which depends on the magnitude of HHP applied and on the cancer cell line origin. Whereas prostate or ovarian cell lines displayed little protein antigen degradation with HHP treatment up to 300MPa after 2h, tumor antigens are hardly detected in lung cancer cell line after treatment with HHP 250MPa at the same time...
May 8, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484452/integration-of-immune-cell-populations-mrna-seq-and-cpg-methylation-to-better-predict-humoral-immunity-to-influenza-vaccination-dependence-of-mrna-seq-cpg-methylation-on-immune-cell-populations
#7
Michael T Zimmermann, Richard B Kennedy, Diane E Grill, Ann L Oberg, Krista M Goergen, Inna G Ovsyannikova, Iana H Haralambieva, Gregory A Poland
The development of a humoral immune response to influenza vaccines occurs on a multisystems level. Due to the orchestration required for robust immune responses when multiple genes and their regulatory components across multiple cell types are involved, we examined an influenza vaccination cohort using multiple high-throughput technologies. In this study, we sought a more thorough understanding of how immune cell composition and gene expression relate to each other and contribute to interindividual variation in response to influenza vaccination...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475628/control-of-the-induction-of-type-i-interferon-by-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus
#8
Beatriz Sanz Bernardo, Stephen Goodbourn, Michael D Baron
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a morbillivirus that produces clinical disease in goats and sheep. We have studied the induction of interferon-β (IFN-β) following infection of cultured cells with wild-type and vaccine strains of PPRV, and the effects of such infection with PPRV on the induction of IFN-β through both MDA-5 and RIG-I mediated pathways. Using both reporter assays and direct measurement of IFN-β mRNA, we have found that PPRV infection induces IFN-β only weakly and transiently, and the virus can actively block the induction of IFN-β...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472506/transport-related-stress-and-its-resolution-in-turkey-pullets-activation-of-a-pro-inflammatory-response-in-peripheral-blood-leukocytes
#9
Yossi Wein, Zohar Geva, Enav Bar-Shira, Aharon Friedman
The transportation process is one of the most stressful practices in poultry and livestock management. Extensive knowledge is available on the impact of transport on stress and animal welfare; however, little is known on the impact of transport on the physiology of turkey pullets, their welfare and health, and even less on the process of homeostatic recovery in the post-transport new environment. The main focus of this manuscript was to focus on trauma, stress, and recovery following transport of turkey pullets from nurseries to pullet farms...
May 3, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468947/phase-i-trial-of-intratumoral-injection-of-ccl21-gene-modified-dendritic-cells-in-lung-cancer-elicits-tumor-specific-immune-responses-and-cd8-t-cell-infiltration
#10
Jay Moon M Lee, Mi-Heon Lee, Edward Garon, Jonathan W Goldman, Ramin Salehi-Rad, Felicita E Baratelli, Dorthe Schaue, Gerald Wang, Fran Rosen, Jane Yanagawa, Tonya C Walser, Ying Lin, Stacy J Park, Sharon Adams, Francesco M Marincola, Paul C Tumeh, Fereidoun Abtin, Robert Suh, Karen L Reckamp, Gina Lee, William D Wallace, Sarah Lee, Gang Zeng, David A Elashoff, Sherven Sharma, Steven M Dubinett
PURPOSE: A phase I study was conducted to determine safety, clinical efficacy, and anti-tumor immune responses in patients with advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) following intratumoral (IT) administration of autologous dendritic cells (DC) transduced with an adenoviral (Ad) vector expressing the CCL21 gene (Ad-CCL21-DC). We evaluated safety and tumor antigen-specific immune responses following in situ vaccination (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01574222). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Sixteen stage IIIB/IV NSCLC subjects received two vaccinations (1 x 106, 5 x 106, 1 x 107, or 3 x 107 dendritic cells/injection) by CT- or bronchoscopic-guided IT injections (days 0 and 7)...
May 3, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463648/a-functional-tollip-variant-is-associated-with-bcg-specific-immune-responses-and-tuberculosis
#11
Javeed A Shah, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Muki Shey, David J Horne, Richard D Wells, Glenna J Peterson, Jeffery S Cox, Michelle Daya, Eileen G Hoal, Lin Lin, Raphael Gottardo, Willem A Hanekom, Thomas J Scriba, Mark Hatherill, Thomas R Hawn
RATIONALE: The molecular mechanisms that regulate tuberculosis susceptibility and BCG-induced immunity are mostly unknown. However, induction of the adaptive immune response is a critical step in host control of M. tuberculosis. TOLLIP is a ubiquitin-binding protein that regulates innate immune responses, including TLR signaling, which initiate adaptive immunity. TOLLIP variation is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis, but the mechanism by which it regulates tuberculosis immunity is poorly understood...
May 2, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457665/preclinical-and-clinical-demonstration-of-immunogenicity-by-mrna-vaccines-against-h10n8-and-h7n9-influenza-viruses
#12
Kapil Bahl, Joe J Senn, Olga Yuzhakov, Alex Bulychev, Luis A Brito, Kimberly J Hassett, Michael E Laska, Mike Smith, Örn Almarsson, James Thompson, Amilcar Mick Ribeiro, Mike Watson, Tal Zaks, Giuseppe Ciaramella
Recently, the World Health Organization confirmed 120 new human cases of avian H7N9 influenza in China resulting in 37 deaths, highlighting the concern for a potential pandemic and the need for an effective, safe, and high-speed vaccine production platform. Production speed and scale of mRNA-based vaccines make them ideally suited to impede potential pandemic threats. Here we show that lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-formulated, modified mRNA vaccines, encoding hemagglutinin (HA) proteins of H10N8 (A/Jiangxi-Donghu/346/2013) or H7N9 (A/Anhui/1/2013), generated rapid and robust immune responses in mice, ferrets, and nonhuman primates, as measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) assays...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451173/a-novel-route-for-preparing-5-cap-mimics-and-capped-rnas-phosphate-modified-cap-analogues-obtained-via-click-chemistry
#13
Sylwia Walczak, Anna Nowicka, Dorota Kubacka, Kaja Fac, Przemyslaw Wanat, Seweryn Mroczek, Joanna Kowalska, Jacek Jemielity
The significant biological role of the mRNA 5' cap in translation initiation makes it an interesting subject for chemical modifications aimed at producing useful tools for the selective modulation of intercellular processes and development of novel therapeutic interventions. However, traditional approaches to the chemical synthesis of cap analogues are time-consuming and labour-intensive, which impedes the development of novel compounds and their applications. Here, we explore a different approach for synthesizing 5' cap mimics, making use of click chemistry (CuAAC) to combine two mononucleotide units and yield a novel class of dinucleotide cap analogues containing a triazole ring within the oligophosphate chain...
January 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449134/characterizing-exogenous-mrna-delivery-trafficking-cytoplasmic-release-and-rna-protein-correlations-at-the-level-of-single-cells
#14
Jonathan L Kirschman, Sushma Bhosle, Daryll Vanover, Emmeline L Blanchard, Kristin H Loomis, Chiara Zurla, Kathryn Murray, Blaine C Lam, Philip J Santangelo
The use of synthetic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) to express specific proteins is a highly promising therapeutic and vaccine approach that avoids many safety issues associated with viral or DNA-based systems. However, in order to optimize mRNA designs and delivery, technology advancements are required to study fundamental mechanisms of mRNA uptake and localization at the single-cell and tissue level. Here, we present a single RNA sensitive fluorescent labeling method which allows us to label and visualize synthetic mRNA without significantly affecting function...
April 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436620/arginine-rich-peptide-based-mrna-nanocomplexes-efficiently-instigate-cytotoxic-t-cell-immunity-dependent-on-the-amphipathic-organization-of-the-peptide
#15
Vimal K Udhayakumar, Ans De Beuckelaer, Joanne McCaffrey, Cian M McCrudden, Jonathan L Kirschman, Daryll Vanover, Lien Van Hoecke, Kenny Roose, Kim Deswarte, Bruno G De Geest, Stefan Lienenklaus, Philip J Santangelo, Johan Grooten, Helen O McCarthy, Stefaan De Koker
To date, the mRNA delivery field has been heavily dominated by lipid-based systems. Reports on the use of nonlipid carriers for mRNA delivery in contrast are rare in the context of mRNA vaccination. This paper describes the potential of a cell-penetrating peptide containing the amphipathic RALA motif to deliver antigen-encoding mRNA to the immune system. RALA condenses mRNA into nanocomplexes that display acidic pH-dependent membrane disruptive properties. RALA mRNA nanocomplexes enable mRNA escape from endosomes and thereby allow expression of mRNA inside the dendritic cell cytosol...
April 24, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432975/vaccination-strategies-against-zika-virus
#16
REVIEW
Estefania Fernandez, Michael S Diamond
The epidemic emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in 2015-2016 has been associated with congenital malformations and neurological sequela. Current efforts to develop a ZIKV vaccine build on technologies that successfully reduced infection or disease burden against closely related flaviviruses or other RNA viruses. Subunit-based (DNA plasmid and modified mRNA), viral vectored (adeno- and measles viruses) and inactivated viral vaccines are already advancing to clinical trials in humans after successful mouse and non-human primate studies...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432455/dual-activation-of-toll-like-receptors-7-and-9-impairs-the-efficacy-of-antitumor-vaccines-in-murine-models-of-metastatic-breast-cancer
#17
Mariela A Moreno Ayala, María Florencia Gottardo, María Soledad Gori, Alejandro Javier Nicola Candia, Carla Caruso, Andrea De Laurentiis, Mercedes Imsen, Slobodanka Klein, Elisa Bal de Kier Joffé, Gabriela Salamone, Maria G Castro, Adriana Seilicovich, Marianela Candolfi
PURPOSE: Since combination of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands could boost antitumor immunity, we evaluated the efficacy of dendritic cell (DC) vaccines upon dual activation of TLR9 and TLR7 in breast cancer models. METHODS: DCs were generated from mouse bone marrow or peripheral blood from healthy human donors and stimulated with CpG1826 (mouse TLR9 agonist), CpG2006 or IMT504 (human TLR9 agonists) and R848 (TLR7 agonist). Efficacy of antitumor vaccines was evaluated in BALB/c mice bearing metastatic mammary adenocarcinomas...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426973/non-linear-enhancement-of-mrna-delivery-efficiencies-by-influenza-a-derived-ns1-protein-engendering-host-gene-inhibition-property
#18
Kyle K L Phua, Yi Liu, Shun Hui Sim
Nucleic acid induced immunogenicity remains a significant impediment in biomedical therapeutics because the innate immune system is a complex network overlaid with functional redundancies. Herein we report that non-structural protein 1 (NS1), an immune evasion protein derived from influenza A virus, when co-delivered in mRNA format is a potent mRNA transfection enhancer without toxicity. Transfection enhancement is mediated by NS1's effector domain through inhibition of IRF3 and PKR, activators of early anti-viral responses as well as CPSF30, a non immunostimulating protein...
April 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421832/experimental-induction-of-chicken-aa-amyloidosis-in-white-layer-chickens-by-inoculation-with-inactivated-vaccines
#19
Wazir Ahmad Habibi, Takuya Hirai, Mohammad Hakim Niazmand, Naoko Okumura, Ryoji Yamaguchi
We investigated the amyloidogenic potential of inactivated vaccines and the localized production of serum amyloid A (SAA) at the injection site in white layer chickens. Hens in the treated group were injected intramuscularly three times with high doses of inactivated oil-emulsion Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and multivalent viral and bacterial inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines at two week intervals. Chickens in the control group did not receive any inoculum. In the treated group, emaciation, and granulomas were present, while several chickens died between 4-6 weeks after the first injection...
April 19, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421187/subset-specific-expression-of-toll-like-receptors-by-bovine-afferent-lymph-dendritic-cells
#20
Dirk Werling, Jayne C Hope, Nazneen Siddiqui, Stephanie Widdison, Chris Russell, Paul Sopp, Tracey J Coffey
Within the ruminant system, several possibilities exist to generate dendritic cells migrating out from the tissue into the regional draining lymph nodes as afferent lymph dendritic cells (ALDCs). Here, we analyzed toll-like receptor (TLR) 1-10 mRNA expression by using quantitative real-time PCR in highly purified subsets of bovine ALDC. As TLR expression may be influenced by pathogens or vaccines and their adjuvant, it is necessary to understand what TLRs are expressed in a steady-state system to elucidate specific differences and to potentially optimize targeted vaccines...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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