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mRNA vaccine

Ebele Onuigbo, Joy Iseghohimhen, Kennedy Chah, Moses Gyang, Anthony Attama
Oral fowl typhoid (FT) vaccine is necessary for improved flock vaccinations and economic growth. This study was undertaken to evaluate the immune responses of birds given oral fowl typhoid vaccine coated with chitosan/alginate microparticles and comparing it with the conventional subcutaneous route of administration. Preliminary studies were done to evaluate the particle size, encapsulation efficiency and agglutination. Sixty day-old chicks were divided into three groups of twenty birds each. This comprised a negative control group NEG 451 (non-vaccinated and non-challenged used as control for cytokine quantification), SC 634 (live 9R vaccine by the injection route) and OCV 567 (live 9R vaccine coated with chitosan/alginate microparticles)...
July 12, 2018: Vaccine
Farhan Anwar Khan, Gang Zhao, Yusi Guo, Muhammad Faisal, Jin Chao, Xi Chen, Chenfei He, Harish Menghwar, Rahim Dad, Muhammad Zubair, Changmin Hu, Yingyu Chen, Huanchun Chen, Zhang Rui, Aizhen Guo
Mycoplasma bovis ( M. bovis ) is an important pathogen of cattle. An attenuated live vaccine has recently been developed by this laboratory. However, an effective assay for the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) is still lacking. Therefore, a comparative immunoproteomics study of the membrane and membrane associated proteins (MAPs) of M. bovis HB0801 and its attenuated strain ( M. bovis -150) was aimed to identify potential antigens for DIVA assay. Triton-X-114 fractionated liposoluble proteins of both the virulent and attenuated strains were separated with 2-DE and proteins reacting with sera against the virulent M...
June 19, 2018: Oncotarget
Ashley Markazi, Amanda Luoma, Revathi Shanmugasundaram, Michaela Mohnl, G Raj Murugesan, Ramesh Selvaraj
This experiment was conducted to study the effects of drinking water supplementation of synbiotic product PoultryStar®sol (containing Lactobacillus reuteri, Bifidobacterium animalis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Enterococcus faecium, and fructo-oligosaccharide) in laying hens with and without a Salmonella challenge. A total of 384 one-day-old layer chicks were randomly distributed to the drinking water synbiotic supplementation or control groups. At 14 wk of age, the birds were vaccinated with a Salmonella vaccine, resulting in a 2 (control and synbiotic) X 2 (non-vaccinated and vaccinated) factorial arrangement...
July 3, 2018: Poultry Science
Sabari Nath Neerukonda, Upendra K Katneni, Matthew Bott, Serguei P Golovan, Mark S Parcells
Marek's disease (MD) is a pathology of chickens associated with paralysis, immune suppression, and the rapid formation of T-cell lymphomas. MD is caused by the herpesvirus, Marek's disease virus (MDV). We examined endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways during MDV infection of cells in culture and lymphocytes in vivo. MDV strains activate the UPR as measured by increased mRNA expression of GRP78/BiP with concomitant XBP1 splicing and induction of its target gene, EDEM1...
July 3, 2018: Virology
Yong-Jie Yang, Zeng-Shan Liu, Shi-Ying Lu, Pan Hu, Chuang Li, Waqas Ahmad, Yan-Song Li, Yun-Ming Xu, Feng Tang, Yu Zhou, Hong-Lin Ren
Introduction: Serological diagnosis of brucellosis is still a great challenge due to the infeasibility of discriminating infected animals from vaccinated ones, so it is necessary to search for diagnostic biomarkers for differential diagnosis of brucellosis. Material and Methods: Cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) from sheep ( Ovis aries ) (OaCdc42) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and then tissue distribution and differential expression levels of OaCdc42 mRNA between infected and vaccinated sheep were analysed by RT-qPCR...
March 2018: Journal of Veterinary Research
Svenja Fritzlar, Sinthujan Jegaskanda, Turgut Esad Aktepe, Julia Emiley Prier, Lauren Elise Holz, Peter A White, Jason M Mackenzie
Human Noroviruses are highly infectious, single stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses and the major cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. With the discovery of Murine Norovirus (MNV) and the introduction of an effective model for norovirus infection and replication, knowledge about infection mechanisms and its impact on the host immune response has progressed. A major player in the immune response against viral infections is the group of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins, which present viral antigen to immune cells...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Virology
Shuang-Shuang Yang, Jigui Wang, Zhaoda Li, Shangjin Cui, Weiquan Liu
Mink enteritis virus (MEV), as a parvovirus, is among the smallest of the animal DNA viruses. The limited genome leads to multifunctional sequences and complex gene expression regulation. Here we show that the expression of viral capsid protein 2 (VP2) of MEV requires its 5' untranslated regions (5' UTR) which promote VP2 gene expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. The expression of VP2 was inhibited in several common eukaryotic expression vectors. Our data showed that the 5' UTR of VP2 enhanced capsid gene transcription but not increased stability or promotes nucleo-cytoplasmic export of VP2 mRNA...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Virology
Giulia Fabozzi, Andrew J Oler, Poching Liu, Yong Chen, Samuel Mindaye, Michael A Dolan, Heather Kenney, Marjan Gucek, Jun Zhu, Ronald L Rabin, Kanta Subbarao
Host-influenza virus interplay at the transcript level has been extensively characterized in epithelial cells. Yet, there are no studies that simultaneously characterize human host and influenza A virus (IAV) genomes. We infected human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells with two seasonal IAV/H3N2 strains, Brisbane/10/07 and Perth/16/09 (reference strains for past vaccine seasons) and the well-characterized laboratory strain Udorn/307/72. Strand-specific RNA-seq of the infected BEAS-2B cells allowed for simultaneous analysis of host and viral transcriptomes, in addition to pathogen genomes, to reveal changes in mRNA expression and alternative splicing (AS)...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Virology
Suyeon Park, Gayeon Won, Jehyoung Kim, Hyeun Bum Kim, John Hwa Lee
The obligate intracellular pathogen Lawsonia intracellularis (LI), the etiological agent of proliferative enteropathy (PE), poses a substantial economic loss in the swine industry worldwide. In this study, we genetically engineered an O-antigen-deficient (rough) Salmonella strain secreting four selected immunogenic LI antigens, namely OptA, OptB, LfliC, and Lhly. The genes encoding these antigens were individually inserted in the expression vector plasmid pJHL65, and the resultant plasmids were transformed into the ∆asd ∆lon ∆cpxR ∆rfaL Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) strain JOL1800...
July 5, 2018: Veterinary Research
W C Wu, S S Chen, K Wang, Y Yang, Y F Wu, L Zhao
Objective: To illuminate the temporal expression of the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) in the experimental periodontitis in rat and to investigate the function of TREM-1 in the pathogenesis of experimental periodontitis in rat. Methods: The experimental periodontitis model was established in the maxillary first molar by means of 'wire ligation + vaccination periodontal pathogen Porphyromanus gingivalis (Pg) + high-sugar diet' in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The experimental animals were divided into six groups: the control group and each of the time points of establishing the models for one week and two to five weeks...
March 9, 2018: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
Asher Mullard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2018: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Cristina Fornaguera, Marta Guerra-Rebollo, Miguel Ángel Lázaro, Cristina Castells-Sala, Oscar Meca-Cortés, Victor Ramos-Pérez, Anna Cascante, Núria Rubio, Jerónimo Blanco, Salvador Borrós
The encapsulation of mRNA in nanosystems as gene vaccines for immunotherapy purposes has experienced an exponential increase in recent years. Despite the many advantages envisaged within these approaches, their application in clinical treatments is still limited due to safety issues. These issues can be attributed, in part, to liver accumulation of most of the designed nanosystems and to the inability to transfect immune cells after an intravenous administration. In this context, this study takes advantage of the known versatile properties of the oligopeptide end-modified poly (β-amino esters) (OM-PBAEs) to complex mRNA and form discrete nanoparticles...
June 19, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Francesco Santoro, Elena Pettini, Dmitri Kazmin, Annalisa Ciabattini, Fabio Fiorino, Gregor D Gilfillan, Ida M Evenroed, Peter Andersen, Gianni Pozzi, Donata Medaglini
Transcriptomic profiling of the immune response induced by vaccine adjuvants is of critical importance for the rational design of vaccination strategies. In this study, transcriptomics was employed to profile the effect of the vaccine adjuvant used for priming on the immune response following re-exposure to the vaccine antigen alone. Mice were primed with the chimeric vaccine antigen H56 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis administered alone or with the CAF01 adjuvant and boosted with the antigen alone. mRNA sequencing was performed on blood samples collected 1, 2, and 7 days after priming and after boosting...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mareike Grees, Adi Sharbi-Yunger, Christos Evangelou, Daniel Baumann, Gal Cafri, Esther Tzehoval, Stefan B Eichmüller, Rienk Offringa, Jochen Utikal, Lea Eisenbach, Viktor Umansky
Despite melanoma immunogenicity and remarkable therapeutic effects of negative immune checkpoint inhibitors, a significant fraction of patients does not respond to current treatments. This could be due to limitations in tumor immunogenicity and profound immunosuppression in the melanoma microenvironment. Moreover, insufficient tumor antigen processing and presentation by dendritic cells (DC) may hamper the development of tumor-specific T cells. Using two genetically engineered mouse melanoma models ( RET and BRAFV600E transgenic mice), in which checkpoint inhibitor therapy alone is not efficacious, we performed proof-of-concept studies with an improved, multivalent DC vaccination strategy based on our recently developed genetic mRNA cancer vaccines...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Hui Cai, Meisui Liu, Charles J Russell
Reporter viruses provide a powerful tool to study infection, yet incorporating a non-essential gene often results in virus attenuation and genetic instability. Here, we used directed evolution of a luciferase-expressing pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) 2009 influenza A virus in mice to restore replication kinetics and virulence, increase the bioluminescence signal, and maintain reporter gene expression. An unadapted pH1N1 virus with NanoLuc luciferase inserted into the 5' end of the PA gene segment grew to titers 10-fold less than wild-type in MDCK cells and in DBA/2 mice and was less virulent...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
Janet Lei, Egon J Jacobus, William K Taverner, Kerry D Fisher, Silvio Hemmi, Katy West, Lorna Slater, Fred Lilley, Alice Brown, Brian Champion, Margaret R Duffy, Len W Seymour
BACKGROUND: Oncolytic viruses are currently experiencing accelerated development in several laboratories worldwide, with some forty-seven clinical trials currently recruiting. Many oncolytic viruses combine targeted cytotoxicity to cancer cells with a proinflammatory cell lysis. Due to their additional potential to express immunomodulatory transgenes, they are also often known as oncolytic viral vaccines. However, several types of oncolytic viruses are human-specific and the lack of suitable immune-competent animal models complicates biologically relevant evaluation of their vaccine potential...
June 13, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Rajkumar Paul, Sandeep Jaiswal, Natarajan Mahalakshmi, Perumal Kaliraj
Human lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne neglected tropical parasitic disease, needs an early development of prophylactic agents such as a vaccine for its successful elimination. Our earlier study suggested the enhanced immunological response by fusion protein (P-TUFT-ALT-2) of Tuftsin and ALT-2 in a mice model. We cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and treated cells with Escherichia coli -expressed ALT-2 (E-ALT-2) and P-TUFT-ALT-2. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to identify the mRNA copy number of various cytokine and transcription factor genes...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Fana Alem Kidane, Taniya Mitra, Patricia Wernsdorf, Michael Hess, Dieter Liebhart
Histomonosis is a parasitic disease of gallinaceous birds characterized by necrotic lesions in cacum and liver that usually turns fatal in turkeys while it is less severe in chickens. Vaccination using in vitro attenuated Histomonas meleagridis has been experimentally shown to confer protection against histomonosis. The protective mechanisms that underpin the vaccine-induced immune response are not resolved so far. Therefore, the actual study aimed to evaluate the location and quantitative distribution patterns of signature cytokines of type 1 [interferon gamma (IFN-γ)] or type 2 [interleukin (IL)-13] immune responses in vaccinated or infected hosts...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
J Magarian Blander, Gaetan Barbet
Live attenuated vaccines elicit stronger protective immunity than dead vaccines. Distinct PAMPs designated as vita-PAMPs signify microbial viability to innate immune cells. Two vita-PAMPs have been characterized: cyclic-di-adenosine-monophosphate (c-di-AMP) and prokaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA). c-di-AMP produced by live Gram-positive bacteria elicits augmented production of STING-dependent type-I interferon, whereas prokaryotic mRNA from live bacteria is detected by TLR8 enabling discrimination of live from dead bacteria...
June 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Ling Yang, Zhichao Liu, Jianbin Li, Kaili He, Lingna Kong, Runqing Guo, Wenjiao Liu, Yundong Gao, Jifeng Zhong
High immune response (HIR) cows have a balanced and robust host defense and lower disease incidence, and immune response is more important to consider for selecting young sires than for selecting cows. The protective immune response against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus infection is T-cell-independent in an animal experimental model. However, there is no convenient method to select young sires with a HIR to FMD virus. In this study, 39 healthy Holstein young sires were vaccinated with the trivalent (A, O and Asia 1) FMD vaccine, and T-lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were detected using flow cytometric analysis before and after vaccination...
May 25, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
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