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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634011/immunomodulatory-properties-of-concholepas-concholepas-hemocyanin-against-francisellosis-in-a-zebrafish-model
#1
Leidy Lagos, Julia I Tandberg, María Inés Becker, Hanne C Winther-Larsen
The development of vaccines for aquaculture has been an important milestone in providing a continuous and sustainable production. Most of the vaccines currently on the market for aquaculture include oil as adjuvant. Nevertheless, several studies reported an occurrence of side effects after their use in farmed fish. As a result, there is a need for new and improved adjuvants that can stimulate the immune system while causing as few side-effects as possible. Hemocyanins are versatile macromolecules with strong immunogenic and immunomodulatory properties...
June 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633549/an-update-on-zika-vaccine-developments
#2
Anna Durbin, Annelies Wilder-Smith
The devastating consequences of congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection led to a global response directed toward a better understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of ZIKV and to efforts at vaccine development. As a result, there are currently 45 ZIKV vaccine candidates in development. Areas covered: Both traditional (purified inactivated, live attenuated, viral-vectored, recombinant sub-unit) and novel (DNA, self-replicating RNA, mRNA) vaccine platforms are being utilized. For emergency use, vaccines that are appropriate for women of child-bearing age (including pregnant women) are being developed...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623029/efficacy-of-plga-microparticle-encapsulated-formalin-killed-aeromonas-hydrophila-cells-as-a-single-shot-vaccine-against-a-hydrophila-infection
#3
Saekil Yun, Jin Woo Jun, Sib Sankar Giri, Hyoun Joong Kim, Cheng Chi, Sang Geun Kim, Sang Wha Kim, Se Chang Park
Control and prevention of disease is a high priority in aquaculture, and vaccination is important to prevent outbreaks. Here, poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles (MPs) approximately 36μm in diameter were used to encapsulate and deliver Aeromonas hydrophila formalin-killed cells (FKC) as an antigen, and the innate and adaptive immune responses of cyprinid loaches and common carp were assessed following vaccination. The antigen was confirmed to be well encapsulated by scanning electron microscopy analysis of PLGA MP sections...
June 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622369/comparative-sequence-analysis-reveals-regulation-of-genes-in-developing-schistosomula-of-schistosoma-mansoni-exposed-to-host-portal-serum
#4
Wander de Jesus Jeremias, Flávio Marcos Gomes Araújo, Fábio Ribeiro Queiroz, Fabiano Sviatopolk Mirsky Pais, Ana Carolina Alves de Mattos, Anna Christina de Matos Salim, Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho, Guilherme Correa Oliveira, John Robert Kusel, Renata Guerra-Sá, Roney Santos Coimbra, Élio Hideo Babá
Once inside a vertebrate host after infection, individual schistosomula of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni find a new and complex environment, which requires quick adjustments for survival, such as those that allow it to avoid the innate immune response of the host. Thus, it is very important for the parasite to remain within the skin after entering the host for a period of about 3 days, at which time it can then reach the venous system, migrate to the lungs and, by the end of eighth day post-infection, it reach the portal venous system, while undergoing minimal changes in morphology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600194/membrane-vesicles-from-piscirickettsia-salmonis-induce-protective-immunity-and-reduce-development-of-salmonid-rickettsial-septicemia-in-an-adult-zebrafish-model
#5
Julia Tandberg, Cristian Oliver, Leidy Lagos, Mona Gaarder, Alejandro J Yáñez, Erik Ropstad, Hanne C Winther-Larsen
Infections caused by the facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis remains an unsolved problem for the aquaculture as no efficient treatments have been developed. As a result, substantial amounts of antibiotic have been used to limit salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS) disease outbreaks. The antibiotic usage has not reduced the occurrence, but lead to an increase in resistant strains, underlining the need for new treatment strategies. P. salmonis produce membrane vesicles (MVs); small spherical structures know to contain a variety of bacterial components, including proteins, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), DNA and RNA...
June 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592543/mapping-of-transcription-termination-within-the-s-segment-of-sfts-phlebovirus-facilitated-the-generation-of-nss-deletant-viruses
#6
Benjamin Brennan, Veronica V Rezelj, Richard M Elliott
SFTS phlebovirus (severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus; SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne bunyavirus that was first reported in China in 2009. Here we report the generation of a recombinant SFTSV (rHB29NSsKO) that cannot express the viral non-structural protein (NSs) upon infection of cells in culture. We show that rHB29NSsKO replication kinetics are greater in interferon (IFN)-incompetent cells and that the virus is unable to suppress IFN induced in response to viral replication. The data confirm for the first time in the context of virus infection that NSs acts as a virally encoded IFN antagonist and that NSs is dispensable for virus replication...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573462/mast-cell-activator-compound-48-40-is-not-an-effective-adjuvant-for-uv-attenuated-toxoplasma-gondii-vaccine
#7
Xi Li, Shengjie Chen, Shiguang Huang, Fangli Lu
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii, Tg) is a globally distributed parasitic protozoan causing different forms of toxoplasmosis in humans. Mast cells (MCs) play a role during T. gondii infection. Several studies suggest that MC activator compound 48/80 (C48/80) may be an effective vaccine adjuvant resulting in a potent and protective antigen-specific immune response against bacteria or virus infections. The present study was performed to determine whether C48/80 had adjuvant activity for ultraviolet (UV)-attenuated T...
June 1, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545670/inhibitory-mechanism-of-five-natural-flavonoids-against-murine-norovirus
#8
Dong Joo Seo, Changsun Choi
BACKGROUND: Human noroviruses (HuNoV), which are responsible for acute gastroenteritis, are becoming a serious public health concern worldwide. Since no effective antiviral drug or vaccine for HuNoV has been developed yet, some natural extracts and their active components have been investigated for their ability to inhibit noroviruses. However, their exact antiviral mechanisms have not been investigated. PURPOSE: This study was performed to investigate the expression of interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-λ, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Mx, and zinc finger CCCH type antiviral protein 1 (ZAP), 2'-5' oligo (A) synthetase (OAS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in RAW 264...
July 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542251/transcriptome-microrna-analysis-of-sarcoptes-scabiei-and-host-immune-response
#9
Ran He, Xiaobin Gu, Weimin Lai, Xuerong Peng, Guangyou Yang
Scabies is a parasitic disease, caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, and is considered one of the top 50 epidemic diseases and one the most common human skin disease, worldwide. Allergic dermatitis, including an intense itch, is a common symptom, however diagnosis is difficult and there is currently no effective vaccine. The goal of this study was to examine the immune interaction mechanism of both S. scabiei and infected hosts. mRNA-seq and microRNA-seq were conducted on the S. scabiei mite and on infected and uninfected hosts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531943/recent-trends-in-zikv-research-a-step-away-from-cure
#10
REVIEW
Aftab Alam, Nikhat Imam, Anam Farooqui, Shahnawaz Ali, Md Zubbair Malik, Romana Ishrat
Zika virus (ZikV) is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family, genus Flavivirus has emerged as a potential threat to human health worldwide. Consequences of vertical infections includes microcephaly with brain and eye anomalies, and adult infections includes Guillain-Barrésyndrome (GBS), brain ischemia, myelitis and meningoencephalitis. To develop a better treatment, many efforts are being made, like drug-repurposing concept for FDA-approved drugs for antiviral activity are screened against ZikV infection and emerging as a promising alternative to expedite drug development and various vaccines like DNA, ZPIV, LAIV, mRNA and AGS-v vaccines have been designed and in under clinical trial phases...
July 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521031/expression-of-host-defense-peptides-in-the-intestine-of-eimeria-challenged-chickens
#11
S Su, D M Dwyer, K B Miska, R H Fetterer, M C Jenkins, E A Wong
Avian coccidiosis is caused by the intracellular protozoan Eimeria, which produces intestinal lesions leading to weight gain depression. Current control methods include vaccination and anticoccidial drugs. An alternative approach involves modulating the immune system. The objective of this study was to profile the expression of host defense peptides such as avian beta-defensins (AvBDs) and liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2), which are part of the innate immune system. The mRNA expression of AvBD family members 1, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, and 13 and LEAP2 was examined in chickens challenged with either E...
May 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511091/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-dngr-1-in-rhesus-macaques
#12
Wen-Rong Yao, Lei Yu, Dong Li, Gui-Bo Yang
DC, NK lectin group receptor-1 (DNGR-1), also known as C-type lectin domain family 9 member A (CLEC9A), is a promising target for immunological therapeutics and vaccination against tumors and viruses. However, little is known about its property in rhesus macaques. In this study, we cloned rhesus macaque DNGR-1 cDNA, and found that its coding region could encode a 241-amino acid polypeptide with 91.7% sequence identity and similar antigenicity to that of humans. Both free and cell surface rhesus macaque DNGR-1 expressed in vitro could bind to apoptotic/dead cells induced by serum deprivation or freeze-thaw, and to pyroptotic cells stimulated with PMA and LPS...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502165/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-inhibits-mucin-synthesis-and-viral-replication-by-suppression-of-ap-1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-via-p38-mapks-jnk-signaling-pathways-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infected-a549-cells
#13
Jin-Woo Lee, Young Il Kim, Chang-Nim Im, Sung Wan Kim, Su Jin Kim, Seoyeon Min, Yong Hoon Joo, Sung-Vin Yim, Namhyun Chung
Airway epithelial cells are often infected by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), one of the most common causes of asthma, bronchiolitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pneumonia. During the infection process, excessive mucins instigate airway inflammation. However, the mechanism underlying RSV-induced airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation is poorly understood. Furthermore, no reliable vaccines or drugs for antiviral therapy are available. In this study, the effect of the natural compound grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) on RSV-infected human airway epithelial cells A549 was evaluated...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495513/high-hydrostatic-pressure-affects-antigenic-pool-in-tumor-cells-implication-for-dendritic-cell-based-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
Linda Urbanova, Nada Hradilova, Irena Moserova, Sarka Vosahlikova, Lenka Sadilkova, Michal Hensler, Radek Spisek, Irena Adkins
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can be used to generate dendritic cell (DC)-based active immunotherapy for prostate, lung and ovarian cancer. We showed here that HHP treatment of selected human cancer cell lines leads to a degradation of tumor antigens which depends on the magnitude of HHP applied and on the cancer cell line origin. Whereas prostate or ovarian cell lines displayed little protein antigen degradation with HHP treatment up to 300MPa after 2h, tumor antigens are hardly detected in lung cancer cell line after treatment with HHP 250MPa at the same time...
May 8, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484452/integration-of-immune-cell-populations-mrna-seq-and-cpg-methylation-to-better-predict-humoral-immunity-to-influenza-vaccination-dependence-of-mrna-seq-cpg-methylation-on-immune-cell-populations
#15
Michael T Zimmermann, Richard B Kennedy, Diane E Grill, Ann L Oberg, Krista M Goergen, Inna G Ovsyannikova, Iana H Haralambieva, Gregory A Poland
The development of a humoral immune response to influenza vaccines occurs on a multisystems level. Due to the orchestration required for robust immune responses when multiple genes and their regulatory components across multiple cell types are involved, we examined an influenza vaccination cohort using multiple high-throughput technologies. In this study, we sought a more thorough understanding of how immune cell composition and gene expression relate to each other and contribute to interindividual variation in response to influenza vaccination...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475628/control-of-the-induction-of-type-i-interferon-by-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus
#16
Beatriz Sanz Bernardo, Stephen Goodbourn, Michael D Baron
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a morbillivirus that produces clinical disease in goats and sheep. We have studied the induction of interferon-β (IFN-β) following infection of cultured cells with wild-type and vaccine strains of PPRV, and the effects of such infection with PPRV on the induction of IFN-β through both MDA-5 and RIG-I mediated pathways. Using both reporter assays and direct measurement of IFN-β mRNA, we have found that PPRV infection induces IFN-β only weakly and transiently, and the virus can actively block the induction of IFN-β...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472506/transport-related-stress-and-its-resolution-in-turkey-pullets-activation-of-a-pro-inflammatory-response-in-peripheral-blood-leukocytes
#17
Yossi Wein, Zohar Geva, Enav Bar-Shira, Aharon Friedman
The transportation process is one of the most stressful practices in poultry and livestock management. Extensive knowledge is available on the impact of transport on stress and animal welfare; however, little is known on the impact of transport on the physiology of turkey pullets, their welfare and health, and even less on the process of homeostatic recovery in the post-transport new environment. The main focus of this manuscript was to focus on trauma, stress, and recovery following transport of turkey pullets from nurseries to pullet farms...
May 3, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468947/phase-i-trial-of-intratumoral-injection-of-ccl21-gene-modified-dendritic-cells-in-lung-cancer-elicits-tumor-specific-immune-responses-and-cd8-t-cell-infiltration
#18
Jay Moon M Lee, Mi-Heon Lee, Edward Garon, Jonathan W Goldman, Ramin Salehi-Rad, Felicita E Baratelli, Dorthe Schaue, Gerald Wang, Fran Rosen, Jane Yanagawa, Tonya C Walser, Ying Lin, Stacy J Park, Sharon Adams, Francesco M Marincola, Paul C Tumeh, Fereidoun Abtin, Robert Suh, Karen L Reckamp, Gina Lee, William D Wallace, Sarah Lee, Gang Zeng, David A Elashoff, Sherven Sharma, Steven M Dubinett
PURPOSE: A phase I study was conducted to determine safety, clinical efficacy, and anti-tumor immune responses in patients with advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) following intratumoral (IT) administration of autologous dendritic cells (DC) transduced with an adenoviral (Ad) vector expressing the CCL21 gene (Ad-CCL21-DC). We evaluated safety and tumor antigen-specific immune responses following in situ vaccination (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01574222). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Sixteen stage IIIB/IV NSCLC subjects received two vaccinations (1 x 106, 5 x 106, 1 x 107, or 3 x 107 dendritic cells/injection) by CT- or bronchoscopic-guided IT injections (days 0 and 7)...
May 3, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463648/a-functional-tollip-variant-is-associated-with-bcg-specific-immune-responses-and-tuberculosis
#19
Javeed A Shah, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Muki Shey, David J Horne, Richard D Wells, Glenna J Peterson, Jeffery S Cox, Michelle Daya, Eileen G Hoal, Lin Lin, Raphael Gottardo, Willem A Hanekom, Thomas J Scriba, Mark Hatherill, Thomas R Hawn
RATIONALE: The molecular mechanisms that regulate tuberculosis susceptibility and BCG-induced immunity are mostly unknown. However, induction of the adaptive immune response is a critical step in host control of M. tuberculosis. TOLLIP is a ubiquitin-binding protein that regulates innate immune responses, including TLR signaling, which initiate adaptive immunity. TOLLIP variation is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis, but the mechanism by which it regulates tuberculosis immunity is poorly understood...
May 2, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457665/preclinical-and-clinical-demonstration-of-immunogenicity-by-mrna-vaccines-against-h10n8-and-h7n9-influenza-viruses
#20
Kapil Bahl, Joe J Senn, Olga Yuzhakov, Alex Bulychev, Luis A Brito, Kimberly J Hassett, Michael E Laska, Mike Smith, Örn Almarsson, James Thompson, Amilcar Mick Ribeiro, Mike Watson, Tal Zaks, Giuseppe Ciaramella
Recently, the World Health Organization confirmed 120 new human cases of avian H7N9 influenza in China resulting in 37 deaths, highlighting the concern for a potential pandemic and the need for an effective, safe, and high-speed vaccine production platform. Production speed and scale of mRNA-based vaccines make them ideally suited to impede potential pandemic threats. Here we show that lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-formulated, modified mRNA vaccines, encoding hemagglutinin (HA) proteins of H10N8 (A/Jiangxi-Donghu/346/2013) or H7N9 (A/Anhui/1/2013), generated rapid and robust immune responses in mice, ferrets, and nonhuman primates, as measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) assays...
June 7, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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