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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30210330/the-mcgill-transgenic-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-displays-cognitive-and-motor-impairments-changes-in-anxiety-and-social-behavior-and-altered-circadian-activity
#1
Tomas Petrasek, Iveta Vojtechova, Veronika Lobellova, Anna Popelikova, Martina Janikova, Hana Brozka, Pavel Houdek, Martin Sladek, Alena Sumova, Zdenka Kristofikova, Karel Vales, Ales Stuchlík
The McGill-R-Thy1-APP transgenic rat is an animal model of the familial form of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This model mirrors several neuropathological hallmarks of the disease, including the accumulation of beta-amyloid and the formation of amyloid plaques (in homozygous animals only), neuroinflammation and the gradual deterioration of cognitive functions even prior to plaque formation, although it lacks the tauopathy observed in human victims of AD. The goal of the present study was a thorough characterization of the homozygous model with emphasis on its face validity in several domains of behavior known to be affected in AD patients, including cognitive functions, motor coordination, emotionality, sociability, and circadian activity patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30182854/crosstalk-between-gut-microbiota-and-the-central-nervous-system-a-focus-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Vilma Maria Junges, Vera Elizabeth Closs, Guilherme Marcos Nogueira, Maria Gabriela Valle Gottlieb
The role of diet and gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, has recently come under intense investigation. Studies suggest that human gut microbiota may contribute to the modulation of several neurochemical and neurometabolic pathways, through complex systems that interact and interconnect with the central nervous system. The brain and intestine form a bidirectional communication axis, or vice versa, they form an axis through bi-directional communication between endocrine and complex immune systems, involving neurotransmitters and hormones...
September 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30179121/the-mechanism-of-exosomes-function-in-neurological-diseases-a-progressive-review
#3
Mengchen Yuan, Nan Liu, Xiaofeng Wang, Chao Tian, Xiaomeng Ren, Hanlai Zhang, Xinye Li, Haiyan Zhu, Lingqun Zhu, Hongcai Shang, Yanwei Xing, Yonghong Gao
Exosomes are extracellular microparticles (≈30-100 nm in diameter) secreted from nearly all types of cells, containing a whole set of biological information including proteins, ribonucleic acid (RNA) and lipids. Latest studies show that exosomes contribute to cell-cell communication and are considered closely related with the modulation of angiogenesis and neurogenesis in many neurological diseases. In past decade, numerous researchers were devoted to exosomes study, but the mechanism of exosomes function and delivery is uncertain...
September 2, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172947/commentary-on-the-2018-named-series-on-blood-brain-interfaces-roles-of-neuroimmunomodulation-in-health-and-disease
#4
Michelle A Erickson, Joseph A Nicolazzo, William A Banks
This year's 2018 Named Series on blood-brain interfaces highlights the importance of brain barriers as mediators of neuroimmune communication and regulators of neurological function. The term "brain interfaces" reflects our growing understanding that brain barriers such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB) are not only gatekeepers, but facilitators of bidirectional communication between the brain and periphery. There is also an emerging appreciation that CNS sites that are exposed to blood-borne immune molecules and cells, such as the leptomeninges and circumventricular organs, may also be considered brain interfaces with important homeostatic and pathological functions...
August 30, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151279/ocular-manifestations-of-alzheimer-s-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases-the-prospect-of-the-eye-as-a-tool-for-the-early-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Pade Colligris, Maria Jesus Perez de Lara, Basilio Colligris, Jesus Pintor
Dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a major disorder, leading to several ocular manifestations amongst the elderly population. These visual disorders may be due to retinal nerve degenerative changes, including nerve fibre layer thinning, degeneration of retinal ganglion cells, and changes to vascular parameters. There is no cure for Alzheimer's, but medicines can slow down the development of many of the classic symptoms, such as loss of memory and communication skills, mood swings, and depression...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30141703/caregiver-burden-and-family-functioning-in-different-neurological-diseases
#6
Francesco Tramonti, Luca Bonfiglio, Paolo Bongioanni, Cristina Belviso, Chiara Fanciullacci, Bruno Rossi, Carmelo Chisari, Maria Chiara Carboncini
Aim of this study is to examine caregiver burden and family functioning in different neurological conditions. Forty-two primary caregivers of patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's Disease and other dementia (AD), Parkinson's Disease (PD), Acquired Brain Injuries (ABI) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) were administered scales for the evaluation of caregiver burden (CBI) and family functioning (FACES IV). Caregiver burden was overall high, with caregivers of patients with ALS and ABI having exceeded the CBI cut-off score for possible burn-out...
August 24, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114473/unhealthy-gut-unhealthy-brain-the-role-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Lindsay Joy Spielman, Deanna Lynn Gibson, Andis Klegeris
The number of bacterial cells living within the human body is approximately equal to, or greater than, the total number of human cells. This dynamic population of microorganisms, termed the human microbiota, resides mainly within the gastrointestinal tract. It is widely accepted that highly diverse and stable microbiota promote overall human health. Colonization of the gut with maladaptive and pathogenic microbiota, a state also known as dysbiosis, is associated with a variety of peripheral diseases ranging from type 2 diabetes mellitus to cardiovascular and inflammatory bowel disease...
August 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103314/connected-speech-features-from-picture-description-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#8
Antoine Slegers, Renée-Pier Filiou, Maxime Montembeault, Simona Maria Brambati
The language changes that occur over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) can impact communication abilities and have profound functional consequences. Picture description tasks can be used to approximate everyday communication abilities of AD patients. As various methods and variables have been studied over the years, current knowledge about the most affected features of AD discourse in the context of picture descriptions is difficult to summarize. This systematic review aims to provide researchers with an overview of the most common areas of impairment in AD discourse as they appear in picture description tasks...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094630/alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathology-may-not-predict-functional-impairment-in-hiv-a-report-of-two-individuals
#9
Susan Morgello, Michelle Jacobs, Jacinta Murray, Desiree Byrd, Eric Neibart, Letty Mintz, Gregory Meloni, Christina Chon, John Crary
With aging of HIV populations, there is concern that Alzheimer's disease (AD) may become prevalent and difficult to distinguish from HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. To date, there are no reports documenting histologically verified Alzheimer's neuropathology in individuals with HIV and dementia. Herein, we report two antiretroviral-treated, virally suppressed, HIV-infected individuals autopsied by the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank. Subject A presented to study at 52 years, already dependent in instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs), with severe cognitive impairment inclusive of learning and memory dysfunction...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088252/-a-pilot-study-into-person-centred-use-of-photo-s-in-the-communication-with-people-with-dementia
#10
Sanne Theijsmeijer, Gerly M de Boo, Rose-Marie Dröes
Social contact is important for the wellbeing of people. Dementia can complicate social interaction. In two randomized controlled pilot studies, it was investigated whether viewing different types of images together affects the mood and social interaction of people with moderately severe to severe Alzheimer's dementia residing in nursing homes. At the first intervention participants in the experimental group (n = 10) were shown portraits with positive facial expressions, and the participants in the control group (n = 10) were shown portraits with a neutral facial expression...
September 2018: Tijdschrift Voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065645/pericyte-structural-remodeling-in-cerebrovascular-health-and-homeostasis
#11
Andrée-Anne Berthiaume, David A Hartmann, Mark W Majesky, Narayan R Bhat, Andy Y Shih
The biology of brain microvascular pericytes is an active area of research and discovery, as their interaction with the endothelium is critical for multiple aspects of cerebrovascular function. There is growing evidence that pericyte loss or dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, ischemic stroke and brain injury. However, strategies to mitigate or compensate for this loss remain limited. In this review, we highlight a novel finding that pericytes in the adult brain are structurally dynamic in vivo , and actively compensate for loss of endothelial coverage by extending their far-reaching processes to maintain contact with regions of exposed endothelium...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30061826/fasudil-in-combination-with-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-bmscs-attenuates-alzheimer-s-disease-related-changes-through-the-regulation-of-the-peripheral-immune-system
#12
Jiezhong Yu, Yuqing Yan, Qingfang Gu, Gajendra Kumar, Hongqiang Yu, Yijin Zhao, Chunyun Liu, Ye Gao, Zhi Chai, Jasleen Chumber, Bao-Guo Xiao, Guang-Xian Zhang, Han-Ting Zhang, Yuqiang Jiang, Cun-Gen Ma
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease. Its mechanism is still not clear. Majority of research focused on the central nervous system (CNS) changes, while few studies emphasize on peripheral immune system modulation. Our study aimed to investigate the regulation of the peripheral immune system and its relationship to the severity of the disease after treatment in an AD model of APPswe/PSEN1dE9 transgenic (APP/PS1 Tg) mice. APP/PS1 Tg mice (8 months old) were treated with the ROCK-II inhibitor 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-homo-piperazine (Fasudil) (intraperitoneal (i...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045755/retained-capacity-for-perceptual-learning-of-degraded-speech-in-primary-progressive-aphasia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Chris J D Hardy, Charles R Marshall, Rebecca L Bond, Lucy L Russell, Katrina Dick, Cono Ariti, David L Thomas, Sonya J Ross, Jennifer L Agustus, Sebastian J Crutch, Jonathan D Rohrer, Doris-Eva Bamiou, Jason D Warren
BACKGROUND: Processing of degraded speech is a promising model for understanding communication under challenging listening conditions, core auditory deficits and residual capacity for perceptual learning and cerebral plasticity in major dementias. METHODS: We compared the processing of sine-wave-degraded speech in 26 patients with primary progressive aphasia (non-fluent, semantic, and logopenic variants), 10 patients with typical Alzheimer's disease and 17 healthy control subjects...
July 25, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30040731/anti-tau-monoclonal-antibodies-derived-from-soluble-and-filamentous-tau-show-diverse-functional-properties-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Marc Vandermeeren, Marianne Borgers, Kristof Van Kolen, Clara Theunis, Bruno Vasconcelos, Astrid Bottelbergs, Cindy Wintmolders, Guy Daneels, Roland Willems, Koen Dockx, Lore Delbroek, André Marreiro, Luc Ver Donck, Cristiano Sousa, Rupesh Nanjunda, Eilyn Lacy, Tom Van De Casteele, Debby Van Dam, Peter Paul De Deyn, John A Kemp, Thomas J Malia, Marc H Mercken
The tau spreading hypothesis provides rationale for passive immunization with an anti-tau monoclonal antibody to block seeding by extracellular tau aggregates as a disease-modifying strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and potentially other tauopathies. As the biochemical and biophysical properties of the tau species responsible for the spatio-temporal sequences of seeding events are poorly defined, it is not yet clear which epitope is preferred for obtaining optimal therapeutic efficacy. Our internal tau antibody collection has been generated by immunizations with different tau species: aggregated- and non-aggregated tau and human postmortem AD brain-derived tau fibrils...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30039398/molecular-dynamics-simulations-on-the-bioactive-molecule-of-hiapp22-29-nfgailss-and-rational-drug-design
#15
Panagiotis Lagarias, Youness Elkhou, Jayson Vedad, Athina Konstantinidi, Adam A Profit, Tahsin F Kellici, Antonios Kolocouris, Ruel Z B Desamero, Thomas Mavromoustakos
This chapter includes information about the structure in equilibrium of the bioactive molecule hIAPP22-29 (NFGAILSS). The experimental structure was derived using X-ray and its 2D NOESY NMR experiments in d 6 -DMSO and d-HFIP solvents. This molecule contains eight of the ten amino acids of the 20-29 region of the human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) often referred as the "amyloidogenic core." Amyloid deposits are well-known to cause as many as 20 pathological neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, Huntington, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30037695/the-burden-of-disease-in-spain-results-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-2016
#16
Joan B Soriano, David Rojas-Rueda, Jordi Alonso, Josep M Antó, Pere-Joan Cardona, Esteve Fernández, Alberto L Garcia-Basteiro, Fernando G Benavides, Scott D Glenn, Varsha Krish, Jeffrey V Lazarus, José Martínez-Raga, Maria F Masana, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Alberto Ortiz, Maria Dolores Sánchez-Niño, Antoni Serrano-Blanco, Miguel Tortajada-Girbés, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Josep Maria Haro, Mohsen Naghavi, Christopher J L Murray
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The global burden of disease (GBD) project measures the health of populations worldwide on an annual basis, and results are available by country. We used the estimates of the GBD to summarise the state of health in Spain in 2016 and report trends in mortality and morbidity from 1990 to 2016. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GBD 2016 estimated disease burden due to 333 diseases and injuries, and 84 risk factors. The GBD list of causes is hierarchical and includes 3 top level categories, namely: 1) communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases; 2) non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and 3) injuries...
September 14, 2018: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027378/linguistic-abilities-in-major-vascular-cognitive-impairment-a-comparative-study-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Maria Isabel D'Avila Freitas, Claudia S Porto, Maira O Oliveira, Sonia M D Brucki, Leticia L Mansur, Ricardo Nitrini, Marcia Radanovic
We assessed the linguistic abilities of multi-infarct (cortical) dementia and subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (VaD) patients and compared the linguistic performance of VaD and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients. A total of 23 VaD patients, 20 mild AD patients, and 31 controls participated in the study. All were evaluated using the Arizona Battery for Communication Disorders of Dementia (ABCD). Neuropsychological testing was performed to ascertain that VaD and AD patients had comparable cognitive performance...
September 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026680/contribution-of-tau-pathology-to-mitochondrial-impairment-in-neurodegeneration
#18
REVIEW
María J Pérez, Claudia Jara, Rodrigo A Quintanilla
Tau is an essential protein that physiologically promotes the assembly and stabilization of microtubules, and participates in neuronal development, axonal transport, and neuronal polarity. However, in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), tau undergoes pathological modifications in which soluble tau assembles into insoluble filaments, leading to synaptic failure and neurodegeneration. Mitochondria are responsible for energy supply, detoxification, and communication in brain cells, and important evidence suggests that mitochondrial failure could have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30026307/planar-cell-polarity-gene-fuz-triggers-apoptosis-in-neurodegenerative-disease-models
#19
Zhefan Stephen Chen, Li Li, Shaohong Peng, Francis M Chen, Qian Zhang, Ying An, Xiao Lin, Wen Li, Alex Chun Koon, Ting-Fung Chan, Kwok-Fai Lau, Jacky Chi Ki Ngo, Wing Tak Wong, Kin Ming Kwan, Ho Yin Edwin Chan
Planar cell polarity (PCP) describes a cell-cell communication process through which individual cells coordinate and align within the plane of a tissue. In this study, we show that overexpression of Fuz , a PCP gene, triggers neuronal apoptosis via the dishevelled/Rac1 GTPase/MEKK1/JNK/caspase signalling axis. Consistent with this finding, endogenous Fuz expression is upregulated in models of polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases and in fibroblasts from spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) patients. The disruption of this upregulation mitigates polyQ-induced neurodegeneration in Drosophila We show that the transcriptional regulator Yin Yang 1 (YY1) associates with the Fuz promoter...
September 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020833/integrated-communications-between-cyclooxygenase-2-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Pei-Pei Guan, Pu Wang
Elevated levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandins (PGs) are involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) and tau hyperphosphorylation. However, the gaps in our knowledge of the roles of COX-2 and PGs in AD have not been filled. Here, we summarized the literature showing that COX-2 dysregulation obviously influences abnormal cleavage of β-amyloid precursor protein, aggregation and deposition of Aβ in β-amyloid plaques and the inclusion of phosphorylated tau in neurofibrillary tangles...
July 18, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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