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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729899/evolutionary-loss-of-melanogenesis-in-the-tunicate-molgula-occulta
#1
Claudia Racioppi, Maria Carmen Valoroso, Ugo Coppola, Elijah K Lowe, C Titus Brown, Billie J Swalla, Lionel Christiaen, Alberto Stolfi, Filomena Ristoratore
BACKGROUND: Analyzing close species with diverse developmental modes is instrumental for investigating the evolutionary significance of physiological, anatomical and behavioral features at a molecular level. Many examples of trait loss are known in metazoan populations living in dark environments. Tunicates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates and typically present a lifecycle with distinct motile larval and sessile adult stages. The nervous system of the motile larva contains melanized cells associated with geotactic and light-sensing organs...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729389/severe-energy-deficit-up-regulates-leptin-receptors-leptin-signaling-and-ptp1b-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#2
Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jesus Gustavo Ponce-Gonzalez, Jaime de La Calle-Herrero, Jose Losa-Reyna, Marcos Martin-Rincon, David Morales-Alamo, Alfredo Santana, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Jose A L Calbet
In obesity, leptin receptors (OBR) and leptin signaling in skeletal muscle are down-regulated. To determine whether OBR and leptin signaling are up-regulated with a severe energy deficit fifteen overweight men were assessed before (PRE), after 4 days of caloric restriction (3.2 Kcal/kg BW/day) in combination with prolonged exercise (CRE) (8h walking + 45min single-arm cranking/day) to induce an energy deficit of ~5500 Kcal/d, and following 3 days of control diet (isoenergetic) and reduced exercise (CD). During CRE, the diet consisted solely of whey protein (n=8) or sucrose (n=7) (0...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727110/calibration-and-validation-of-a-carbon-oxidation-system-and-determination-of-the-bicarbonate-retention-factor-and-the-dietary-phenylalanine-requirement-in-the-presence-of-excess-tyrosine-of-adult-female-mixed-breed-dogs
#3
A K Shoveller, J J Danelon, J L Atkinson, G M Davenport, R O Ball, P B Pencharz
Carbon oxidation methods have been used as rapid and sensitive methods to determine whole-body AA requirements in multiple species. The objectives of the current studies were to validate complete CO recovery, determine the bicarbonate retention factor, and estimate the Phe requirement, in the presence of excess Tyr, in adult dogs using the direct oxidation technique. In this series of studies, 2 oxidation chambers were constructed and calibrated to ensure accurate collection of breath CO. First, 104.6 ± 7...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726954/the-interaction-of-amino-acids-with-macrocyclic-ph-probes-of-pseudopeptidic-nature
#4
M Angeles Izquierdo, Prashant D Wadhavane, Laura Vigara, M Isabel Burguete, Francisco Galindo, Santiago V Luis
The fluorescence quenching, by a series of amino acids, of pseudopeptidic compounds acting as probes for cellular acidity has been investigated. It has been found that amino acids containing electron-rich aromatic side chains like Trp or Tyr, as well as Met quench the emission of the probes mainly via a collisional mechanism, with Stern-Volmer constants in the 7-43 M(-1) range, while other amino acids such as His, Val or Phe did not cause deactivation of the fluorescence. Only a minor contribution of a static quenching due to the formation of ground-state complexes has been found for Trp and Tyr, with association constants in the 9-24 M(-1) range...
July 20, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726638/understanding-inhibitor-resistance-in-mps1-kinase-through-novel-biophysical-assays-and-structures
#5
Yoshitaka Hiruma, Andre Koch, Nazila Hazraty, Foteini Tsakou, Rene H Medema, Robbie P Joosten, Anastassis Perrakis
Monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1/TTK) is a protein kinase essential in mitotic checkpoint signalling, preventing anaphase until all chromosomes are properly attached to spindle microtubules. Mps1 has emerged as a potential target for cancer therapy, and a variety of compounds have been developed to inhibit its kinase activity. Mutations in the catalytic domain of Mps1 that give rise to inhibitor resistance, but retain catalytic activity and do not display cross-resistance to other Mps1 inhibitors, have been described...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724394/development-of-newborn-screening-connect-nbs-connect-a-self-reported-patient-registry-and-its-role-in-improvement-of-care-for-patients-with-inherited-metabolic-disorders
#6
Yetsa Osara, Kathryn Coakley, Aishwarya Devarajan, Rani H Singh
BACKGROUND: Newborn Screening Connect (NBS Connect) is a web-based self-reported patient registry and resource for individuals and families affected by disorders included in the newborn screening panel. NBS Connect was launched in 2012 by Emory University after years of planning and grassroots work by professionals, consumers, and industry. Individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU), maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) or tyrosinemia (TYR) have been recruited through distribution of outreach materials, presentations at parent organization meetings and direct recruitment at clinic appointments...
July 19, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723153/understanding-the-reactivity-of-co3-%C3%A2-and-no2-%C3%A2-radicals-towards-s-containing-and-aromatic-amino-acids
#7
Sharmistha Karmakar, Ayan Datta
The reactivity of CO3-(.) and NO2(.) radicals towards six amino acid side chains namely, cysteine (Cys), methionine (Met), phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), histidine (His) and tryptophan (Trp), has been explored using state-of-art density functional theory (DFT) and transition state theory (TST). Three reaction mechanisms, namely hydrogen atom abstraction (HAT), radical adduct formation (RAF) and single electron transfer (SET) have been considered for detailed study. While CO3-(.) radical is highly reactive towards majority of amino acids, the reactivity of NO2(...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721586/homology-modeling-and-prediction-of-the-amino-acid-residues-participating-in-the-transfer-of-acetyl-coa-to-arylalkylamine-by-the-n-acetyltransferase-from-chryseobacterium-sp
#8
Shinji Takenaka, Takahiro Ozeki, Kosei Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Yoshida
OBJECTIVES: To predict the amino acid residues playing important roles in acetyl-CoA and substrate binding and to study the acetyl group transfer mechanism of Chryseobacterium sp. 5-3B N-acetyltransferase (5-3B NatA). RESULTS: A 3-dimensional homology model of 5-3B NatA was constructed to compare the theoretical structure of this compound with the structures of previously reported proteins belonging to the bacterial GCN5 N-acetyltransferase family. Homology modeling of the 5-3B NatA structure and a characterization of the enzyme's kinetic parameters identified the essential amino acid residues involved in binding and acetyl-group transfer...
July 18, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720148/multifocal-gastric-adenocarcinoma-in-a-patient-with-lrba-deficiency
#9
Nina Bratanič, Jernej Kovač, Katka Pohar, Katarina Trebušak Podkrajšek, Alojz Ihan, Tadej Battelino, Magdalena Avbelj Stefanija
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide-responsive, beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency is characterized by primary immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. Cancer may present another feature of LRBA deficiency. We describe a case history of a young adult with LRBA deficiency and two independent malignancies. METHODS: Family-trio whole exome sequencing with unbiased phenotype ontology approach was used for identification of causative mutations of a primary immune deficiency disorder...
July 18, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717004/two-tyrosine-residues-tyr-108-and-tyr-503-are-responsible-for-the-deprotonation-of-phenolic-substrates-in-vanillyl-alcohol-oxidase
#10
Tom A Ewing, Quoc-Thai Nguyen, Robert C Allan, Gudrun Gygli, Elvira Romero, Claudia Binda, Marco W Fraaije, Andrea Mattevi, Willem J H van Berkel
A number of oxidoreductases from the VAO/PCMH flavoprotein family catalyze the oxidation of para-substituted phenols. One of the best-studied is vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) from the fungus Penicillium simplicissimum For oxidation of phenols by VAO to occur, they must first be bound in the enzyme's active site in their phenolate anion form. The crystal structure of VAO reveals that two tyrosine residues, Tyr-108 and Tyr-503, are positioned so as to facilitate this deprotonation. To investigate their role in catalysis, we created three VAO variants, Y108F, Y503F, and Y108F/Y503F, and studied their biochemical properties...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716934/sigma-1-receptors-control-immune-driven-peripheral-opioid-analgesia-during-inflammation-in-mice
#11
Miguel A Tejada, Angeles Montilla-García, Shane J Cronin, Domagoj Cikes, Cristina Sánchez-Fernández, Rafael González-Cano, M Carmen Ruiz-Cantero, Josef M Penninger, José M Vela, José M Baeyens, Enrique J Cobos
Sigma-1 antagonism potentiates the antinociceptive effects of opioid drugs, so sigma-1 receptors constitute a biological brake to opioid drug-induced analgesia. The pathophysiological role of this process is unknown. We aimed to investigate whether sigma-1 antagonism reduces inflammatory pain through the disinhibition of the endogenous opioidergic system in mice. The selective sigma-1 antagonists BD-1063 and S1RA abolished mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in mice with carrageenan-induced acute (3 h) inflammation...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715215/manipulating-the-energetics-and-rates-of-electron-transfer-in-rhodobacter-capsulatus-reaction-centers-with-asymmetric-pigment-content
#12
Kaitlyn M Faries, Nicholas P Dylla, Deborah K Hanson, Dewey Holten, Philip D Laible, Christine Kirmaier
Seemingly redundant parallel pathways for electron transfer (ET), composed of identical sets of cofactors, are a cornerstone feature of photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) involved in light-energy conversion. In native bacterial RCs, both A and B branches house one bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) and one bacteriopheophytin (BPh), but the A branch is used exclusively. Described herein are the results obtained for two Rhodobacter capsulatus RCs with an unnaturally high degree of cofactor asymmetry, two BPh on the RC's B side and two BChl on the A side...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715211/alternating-sequence-controlled-copolymer-synthesis-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-acids-via-syndioselective-ring-opening-polymerization-of-o-carboxyanhydrides-using-zirconium-hafnium-alkoxide-initiators
#13
Yangyang Sun, Zhaowei Jia, Changjuan Chen, Yong Cong, Xiaoyang Mao, Jincai Wu
The ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of O-carboxyanhydrides (OCAs) can give diverse poly(α-hydroxy acid)s (PAHAs) with different functional groups because of easy modification of the side group of OCAs, which can extend applications of PAHAs widely. The stereoselective polymerization of O-carboxyanhydrides and further sequence controlled alternating copolymerization of OCAs were still big challenges until now for lack of suitable catalysts/initiators. In this work, a highly syndioselective ROP of OCAs system as the first stereoselective example in this area is reported using zirconium/hafnium alkoxides as initiators with the highest Pr- value up to 0...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712540/aqueous-humor-tyrosinase-activity-is-indicative-of-iris-melanocyte-toxicity
#14
Sarmistha Mahanty, Ankush A Kawali, Shruthi Shirur Dakappa, Padmamalini Mahendradas, Mathew Kurian, Varun Kharbanda, Rohit Shetty, Subba Rao Gangi Setty
Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones (FQLs) are commonly used to treat ocular infections but are also known to cause dermal melanocyte toxicity. The release of dispersed pigments from the iris into the aqueous humor has been considered a possible ocular side effect of the systemic administration of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin, and this condition is known as bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT). Bilateral acute depigmentation of iris (BADI) is a similar condition, with iris pigment released into the aqueous, but it has not been reported as a side effect of FQL...
July 13, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711790/six-phenylalanine-ammonia-lyases-from-camellia-sinensis-evolution-expression-and-kinetics
#15
Yingling Wu, Wenzhao Wang, Yanzhi Li, Xinlong Dai, Guoliang Ma, Dawei Xing, Mengqing Zhu, Liping Gao, Tao Xia
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the branch point enzyme controlling the flow of primary metabolism into second metabolism, converts the L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) to yield cinnamic acid. Based on the sequencing data available from eight transcriptome projects, six PAL genes have been screened out, cloned, and designated as CsPALa-CsPALf. The phylogenetic tree showed that CsPALs were divided into three subgroups, PALa and PALb, PALc and PALd, and PALe and PALf. All six CsPALs exhibited indiscriminate cytosolic locations in epidermis cells and mesophyll cells...
June 29, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697600/peptide-appended-permethylated-%C3%AE-cyclodextrins-with-hydrophilic-and-hydrophobic-spacers
#16
Abbas H K Al Temimi, Thomas J Boltje, Daniel Zollinger, Floris P J T Rutjes, Martin C Feiters
A novel synthetic methodology, employing a combination of the strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition and maleimide-thiol reactions, for the preparation of permethylated β-cyclodextrin-linker-peptidyl conjugates is reported. Two different bifunctional maleimide crosslinking probes, the polyethyleneglycol containing hydrophilic linker bicyclo[6.1.0] nonyne-maleimide and the hydrophobic 5'-dibenzoazacyclooctyne-maleimide were attached to azide-appended permethylated β-cyclodextrin. The successfully introduced maleimide function was exploited to covalently graft a cysteine containing peptide (Ac-Tyr-Arg-Cys-Amide) to produce the target conjugates...
July 11, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692892/photochemical-behavior-of-dissolved-and-colloidal-organic-matter-in-estuarine-and-oceanic-waters
#17
Wen-Zhuo Zhu, Gui-Peng Yang, Hong-Hai Zhang
Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), carbohydrates, and amino acids were analyzed to investigate the photochemistry of total dissolved (<0.22μm) organic matter (DOM), high-molecular-weight (HMW, 1kDa-0.22μm) DOM and low-molecular-weight (LMW, <1kDa) DOM at stations in the Yangtze River and its coastal area, and in the Western Pacific Ocean. Results revealed that the humic-like and tryptophan-like CDOM fluorescent components in riverine, coastal, and oceanic surface waters were photodegraded during irradiation...
July 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688145/therapeutic-concentrations-of-digitoxin-inhibit-endothelial-focal-adhesion-kinase-and-angiogenesis-induced-by-diverse-growth-factors
#18
Annalisa Trenti, Elisabetta Zulato, Lorenza Pasqualini, Stefano Indraccolo, Chiara Bolego, Lucia Trevisi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cardiac glycosides are Na(+) /K(+) -ATPases inhibitors used to treat congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. Epidemiological studies indicate that patients on digitalis therapy are more protected from cancer. Evidence of a selective cytotoxicity against cancer cells has suggested their potential use as anticancer drugs. The effect on angiogenesis of clinically used cardiac glycosides has not been extensively explored. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We studied the effect of digoxin, digitoxin and ouabain on early events of the angiogenic process in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)...
July 8, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687985/a-method-for-in-vitro-measurement-of-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-in-blood-using-its-antibody-fluorescence-labeled-heptapeptide-and-polyethylene-glycol
#19
Akira Sato, Yoji Yamazaki, Keiichi Ebina
Two oxidized forms of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), oxidized (Ox-LDL) and minimally modified (MM-LDL), and the immune complexes (LDL-ICs) that they form with their corresponding antibodies, play a major role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Recently, we reported that the heptapeptide KP6 (Lys-Trp-Tyr-Lys-Asp-Gly-Asp) coupled through its ε-amino group present on the N-terminal Lys to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)- (FITC)KP6- binds specifically to Ox-LDL and MM-LDL, but not to native LDL. Here, to develop a novel method for measuring the levels of oxidatively modified LDL in blood, using (FITC)KP6, we analyzed the latter's binding with MM-LDL-IC and Ox-LDL-IC...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685506/update-on-modern-management-of-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma
#20
REVIEW
Jacques W M Lenders, Graeme Eisenhofer
Despite all technical progress in modern diagnostic methods and treatment modalities of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, early consideration of the presence of these tumors remains the pivotal link towards the best possible outcome for patients. A timely diagnosis and proper treatment can prevent the wide variety of potentially catastrophic cardiovascular complications. Modern biochemical testing should include tests that offer the best available diagnostic performance, measurements of metanephrines and 3-methoxytyramine in plasma or urine...
June 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism
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