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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772211/synthesis-folding-structure-and-activity-of-a-predicted-peptide-from-the-sea-anemone-oulactis-sp-with-an-shkt-fold
#1
Bankala Krishnarjuna, Jessica Villegas-Moreno, Michela L Mitchell, Agota Csoti, Steve Peigneur, Carlos Amero, Michael W Pennington, Jan Tytgat, Gyorgy Panyi, Raymond S Norton
Sea anemone venom is rich in bioactive compounds, including peptides containing multiple disulfide bridges. In a transcriptomic study on Oulactis sp., we identified the putative 36-residue peptide, OspTx2b, which is an isoform of the KV channel blocker OspTx2a (Sunanda P et al. (2018) Identification, chemical synthesis, structure and function of a new KV 1 channel blocking peptide from Oulactis sp. Peptide Science, in press). As OspTx2b contains a ShK/BgK-like cysteine framework, with high amino acid sequence similarity to BgK, we were interested to investigate its structure and function...
May 14, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769704/effect-of-protocatechuic-acid-on-insulin-responsiveness-and-inflammation-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-from-obese-individuals-possible-role-for-ptp1b
#2
Paulina Ormazabal, Beatrice Scazzocchio, Rosaria Varì, Carmela Santangelo, Massimo D'Archivio, Gianfranco Silecchia, Annunziata Iacovelli, Claudio Giovannini, Roberta Masella
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The occurrence of chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in obese subjects precipitates the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Anthocyanins and their main metabolite protocatechuic acid (PCA) have been demonstrated to stimulate insulin signaling in human adipocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PCA is able to modulate insulin responsiveness and inflammation in VAT from obese (OB) and normal weight (NW) subjects...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768920/enzymatic-synthesis-of-the-ribosylated-glycyl-uridine-disaccharide-core-of-peptidyl-nucleoside-antibiotics
#3
Zheng Cui, Xiaodong Liu, Jonathan Overbay, Wenlong Cai, Xiachang Wang, Anke Lemke, Daniel Wiegmann, Giuliana Niro, Jon S Thorson, Christian Ducho, Steven G Van Lanen
Muraymycins belong to a family of nucleoside antibiotics that have a distinctive disaccharide core consisting of 5-amino-5-deoxyribofuranose (ADR) attached to 6'-N-alkyl-5'- C-glycyluridine (GlyU). Here we functionally assign and characterize six enzymes from the muraymycin biosynthetic pathway involved in the core assembly that starts from UMP. The biosynthesis is initiated by Mur16, a non-heme Fe(II)- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, followed by four transferase enzymes-Mur17, a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent transaldolase; Mur20, an aminotransferase; Mur26, a pyrimidine phosphorylase; and Mur18, a nucleotidylyltransferase...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767726/the-role-of-ethics-in-data-governance-of-large-neuro-ict-projects
#4
Bernd Carsten Stahl, Stephen Rainey, Emma Harris, B Tyr Fothergill
Objective: We describe current practices of ethics-related data governance in large neuro-ICT projects, identify gaps in current practice, and put forward recommendations on how to collaborate ethically in complex regulatory and normative contexts. Methods: We undertake a survey of published principles of data governance of large neuro-ICT projects. This grounds an approach to a normative analysis of current data governance approaches. Results: Several ethical issues are well covered in the data governance policies of neuro-ICT projects, notably data protection and attribution of work...
May 14, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767237/a-novel-anti%C3%A2-proliferative-pentapeptide-ilymp-isolated-from-cyclina-sinensis-protein-hydrolysate-induces-apoptosis-of-du%C3%A2-145-prostate-cancer-cells
#5
Fangmiao Yu, Yaru Zhang, Lei Ye, Yunping Tang, Guofang Ding, Xiaojun Zhang, Zuisu Yang
Prostate cancer is the main causes of cancer associated mortality in men worldwide, cancer patients often suffer serious side effects when treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, therefore novel drugs are in high demand to treat prostate cancer. In the present study, a pentapeptide (Ile‑Leu‑Tyr‑Met‑Pro; ILYMP) with a molecular weight of 635.71 Da was isolated from the protein hydrolysate of Cyclina sinensis via ultrafiltration and chromatographic methods, and subsequently named Cyclina sinensis pentapeptide (CSP)...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765448/overexpressed-ho-1-is-associated-with-reduced-stat3-activation-in-preeclampsia-placenta-and-inhibits-stat3-phosphorylation-in-placental-jeg-3-cells-under-hypoxia
#6
Hong-Mei Qu, Li-Ping Qu, Xiao-Yan Li, Xian-Zhen Pan
Introduction: Inadequate trophoblast invasion and placentation are widely believed to contribute to preeclampsia, and multiple lines of evidence indicate the involvement of hypoxia in preeclampsia. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the association of placental hypoxia with preeclampsia are not clear. Material and methods: The present study focused on the role in preeclampsia of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), which is an inducible isoform of HO in response to hypoxia, via examining the expression of HO-1 and the expression and phosphorylation (Tyr705) of Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 in preeclamptic placentas via the immunohistochemical method, western blotting assay and RT-qPCR method...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765106/the-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-oribatid-mite-paraleius-leontonychus-new-insights-into-trna-evolution-and-phylogenetic-relationships-in-acariform-mites
#7
Sylvia Schäffer, Stephan Koblmüller, Ingeborg Klymiuk, Gerhard G Thallinger
Bilaterian mitochondrial (mt) genomes are circular molecules that typically contain 37 genes. To date, only a single complete mitogenome sequence is available for the species-rich sarcoptiform mite order Oribatida. We sequenced the mitogenome of Paraleius leontonychus, another species of this suborder. It is 14,186 bp long and contains 35 genes, including only 20 tRNAs, lacking tRNA Gly and tRNA Tyr . Re-annotation of the mitogenome of Steganacarus magnus increased the number of mt tRNAs for this species to 12...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763590/a-novel-mir17-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-oc-epha4-regulatory-axis-of-osteoclast-activity
#8
REVIEW
Kin-Hing William Lau, Matilda H-C Sheng
Information about the molecular mechanisms leading to the activation of the osteoclast is relatively limited. While there is compelling evidence that the signaling mechanisms of Src and integrin β3 are essential for osteoclast activation, the regulation of these two signaling mechanisms is not fully understood. In this review, evidence supporting a novel regulatory axis of osteoclast activation that plays an upstream regulatory role in both the Src and integrin β3 signaling during osteoclast activation is discussed...
May 12, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762674/available-energy-and-amino-acid-digestibility-of-defatted-rice-bran-fed-to-growing-pigs
#9
B B Huang, C F Huang, Z Q Lyu, Y F Chen, P L Li, L Liu, C H Lai
This study was conducted to determine and compare available energy and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 9 samples of defatted rice bran (DFRB) fed to growing pigs and to generate prediction equations for DE and ME based on chemical analysis. In Exp. 1, sixty crossbred growing pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire; 40.7 ± 3.5 kg BW) were fed 1 of 10 diets in a completely randomized design to determine the available energy of DFRB. The diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 9 experimental diets formulated by replacing the corn and soybean meal with 29...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754473/actin-dysfunction-induces-cell-cycle-delay-at-g2-m-with-sustained-erk-and-rsk-activation-in-imr-90-normal-human-fibroblasts
#10
Deepmala Shrestha, Daeun Choi, Kiwon Song
The actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in the entry of mitosis as well as in cytokinesis. In a previous study, we showed that actin disruption delays mitotic entry at G2/M by sustained activation of extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in primary cells but not in transformed cancer cell lines. Here, we examined the mechanism of cell cycle delay at G2/M by actin dysfunction in IMR-90 normal human fibroblasts. We observed that de-polymerization of actin with cytochalasin D (CD) constitutively activated ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) and induced inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2 (Tyr 15) in IMR-90 cells...
May 4, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752763/cofactor-biogenesis-in-cysteamine-dioxygenase-c-f-bond-cleavage-with-genetically-incorporated-unnatural-tyrosine
#11
Yifan Wang, Wendell P Griffith, Jiasong Li, Teruaki Koto, Daniel J Wherritt, Elizabe Fritz, Aimin Liu
Cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO) is a thiol dioxygenase whose study has been stagnated by ambiguity as to whether or not it possesses an anticipated protein-derived cofactor. Herein, we report the discovery and elucidation of a Cys-Tyr cofactor in human ADO, crosslinked between Cys220 and Tyr222 through a thioether (C-S) bond. By genetically incorporating an unnatural amino acid 3,5-difluoro-tyrosine (F2-Tyr) specifically into Tyr222 of human ADO, we identified an autocatalytic oxidative carbon-fluorine bond activation and fluoride release by mass spectrometry and 19F NMR spectroscopy...
May 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751034/a-novel-jnk-is-involved-in-immune-response-by-regulating-il-expression-in-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#12
Jiejie Sun, Yinan Li, Meijia Li, Yu Liu, Chen Qu, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a member of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) highly conserved from yeast to mammals and participates in regulating many physiological and pathological processes. In the present study, a novel JNK was identified from oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated as CgJNK) and its biological functions were investigated in response against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. The CgJNK consists of 415 amino acids, which includes a serine/threonine protein kinase (S_TKc) domain with a conserved Thr-Pro-Tyr (TPY) motif...
May 8, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748677/effect-of-iron-doping-on-protein-molecular-conductance
#13
Nikolai Lebedev, Igor Griva, Anders Blom, Leonard M Tender
Protein molecular conductance has attracted attention from researchers for the possibility of constructing innovative flexible biocompatible nanoscale electronic devices and smart hybrid materials. Due to protein complexity, most evaluations of protein conductivity are based on the simple estimation of protein's molecular orbital energy levels and spatial distributions without analysing its protein interaction with electrodes and the calculation of the rates of electron transfer (ET). In the present work, we included in our density functional theory (DFT) analysis an approach based on the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) allowing for calculation from the first principles the molecular interaction with electrodes and thus the role of electrode materials, Fermi level, the thermal distribution of electronic energy levels, and the coupling efficiency between the molecule and the electrodes...
May 11, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742500/transcriptome-profile-analysis-of-mechanisms-of-black-and-white-plumage-determination-in-black-bone-chicken
#14
Shigang Yu, Gang Wang, Juan Liao, Mei Tang, Wenxing Sun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Melanin is a major and ubiquitous component of plumage colouration, and patterns of melanin pigmentation in birds are extremely varied. However, the molecular mechanism of pigmentation in avian plumage is still largely unknown. METHODS: To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of black and white plumage, this study takes advantage of high-throughput sequencing technology to compare differences in the transcriptome between black and white chicken feather bulbs...
May 4, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742453/effect-of-p-tyrosol-on-hemorheological-parameters-and-cerebral-capillary-network-in-young-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#15
Mark B Plotnikov, Oleg I Aliev, Anastasia V Sidekhmenova, Alexander Y Shamanaev, Anna M Anishchenko, Tatiana I Fomina, Tatiana M Plotnikova, Alexander M Arkhipov
BACKGROUND: Many pathological mechanisms are involved in the development of arterial hypertension; disturbance of the rheological properties of blood and microvascular rarefaction are among those mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: The effect of p-tyrosol (Tyr) on hemorheological parameters and microvascularization in the cerebral cortex of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) at the stage of blood pressure rising (5-11 weeks) was studied. METHODS: Blood viscosity (BV), plasma viscosity (PV), hematocrit, erythrocyte aggregation and deformability, the oxygen transport capacity index (OTCI), and the capillary network in the cerebral cortex after the course of treatment of Tyr (50 mg/kg daily i...
May 6, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740359/profiling-of-amino-acids-and-their-derivatives-biogenic-amines-before-and-after-antipsychotic-treatment-in-first-episode-psychosis
#16
Liisa Leppik, Kärt Kriisa, Kati Koido, Kadri Koch, Kärolin Kajalaid, Liina Haring, Eero Vasar, Mihkel Zilmer
Schizophrenia (SCH) is a heterogeneous disorder, deriving from a potential multitude of etiopathogenetic factors. During the past few years there has been an increasing interest in the role of circulating amino acids (AAs) and biogenic amines (BAs) in the pathophysiology of SCH. In the present study, we aimed to provide an insight into the potential role of alterations in levels of AAs and BAs as well as examine their more specific metabolic shifts in relation to early stage of SCH. We measured 21 AAs and 17 BAs in serum samples of patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) before and after 7-month antipsychotic treatment in comparison to control subjects (CSs)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739850/small-molecule-targeting-of-the-stat5-6-src-homology-2-sh2-domains-to-inhibit-allergic-airway-disease
#17
J Morgan Knight, Pijus Mandal, Pietro Morlacchi, Garbo Mak, Evan Li, Matthew Madison, Cameron Landers, Brandon Saxton, Ed Felix, Brian Gilbert, Joel Sederstrom, Atul Varadhachary, Melissa M Singh, Dev Chatterjee, David B Corry, John S McMurray
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs and airways and one of the most burdensome of all chronic maladies. Previous studies have established that expression of experimental and human asthma requires the IL-4/IL-13/IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα) signaling pathway, which activates the transcription factor STAT6. However, no small molecules targeting this important pathway are currently in clinical development. To this end, using a preclinical asthma model, we sought to develop and test a small-molecule inhibitor of the Src homology 2 domains in mouse and human STAT6...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738870/comparison-of-transitional-vs-surgical-menopause-on-monoamine-and-amino-acid-levels-in-the-rat-brain
#18
Tao Long, Jeffrey K Yao, Junyi Li, Ziv Z Kirshner, Doug Nelson, George G Dougherty, Robert B Gibbs
Loss of ovarian function has important effects on neurotransmitter production and release with corresponding effects on cognitive performance. To date, there has been little direct comparison of the effects of surgical and transitional menopause on neurotransmitter pathways in the brain. In this study, effects on monoamines, monoamine metabolites, and the amino acids tryptophan (TRP) and tyrosine (TYR) were evaluated in adult ovariectomized (OVX) rats and in rats that underwent selective and gradual ovarian follicle depletion by daily injection of 4-vinylcyclohexene-diepoxide (VCD)...
May 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738662/characterization-of-a-sulfated-anti-hiv-antibody-using-an-expanded-genetic-code
#19
Xiang Li, Justin Hitomi, Chang C Liu
Tyrosine sulfation is a crucial post-translational modification for certain anti-HIV antibodies that neutralize HIV. One of the most neutralizing sulfated anti-HIV antibodies, E51, contains a region in its VH CDR3 loop with five tyrosine (Tyr) residues, which are hypothesized to be partially or fully sulfated to bind to HIV's gp120 coat protein. However, the gp120-binding contribution of each sulfate or more complex sulfation patterns is unclearunknown. In addition, natural sulfation of Tyr-rich loops usually yields a mixture of multiply sulfated products, complicating attempts to dissect the function of individual E51 sulfoforms with unique sulfation patterns...
May 8, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736600/investigation-of-sequence-clipping-and-structural-heterogeneity-of-an-hiv-broadly-neutralizing-antibody-by-a-comprehensive-lc-ms-analysis
#20
Vera B Ivleva, Nicole A Schneck, Deepika Gollapudi, Frank Arnold, Jonathan W Cooper, Q Paula Lei
CAP256 is one of the highly potent, broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAb) designed for HIV-1 therapy. During the process development of one of the constructs, an unexpected product-related impurity was observed via microfluidics gel electrophoresis. A panel of complementary LC-MS analyses was applied for the comprehensive characterization of CAP256 which included the analysis of the intact and reduced protein, the middle-up approach, and a set of complementary peptide mapping techniques and verification of the disulfide bonds...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
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