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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920676/changes-in-amino-acid-profile-in-roots-of-glyphosate-resistant-and-susceptible-soybean-glycine-max-induced-by-foliar-glyphosate-application
#1
Carlos Alberto Moldes, Miguel Angel Cantarelli, José Manuel Camiña, Siu Mui Tsai, Ricardo A Azevedo
Amino acid profiles are useful to analyze the responses to glyphosate in susceptible and resistant soybean lines. Comparisons of profiles for 10 amino acids (Asp, Asn, Glu, Gln, Ser, His, Gly, Thr, Tyr, Leu) by HPLC in soybean roots were performed in two near isogenic pairs (four varieties). Foliar application of glyphosate was applied in soybean plants after 5 weeks of seeding. Roots of four varieties were collected at 0 and 72 h after glyphosate application (AGA) for amino acids analysis by HPLC. Univariate analysis showed a significant increasing of several amino acids in susceptible as well as resistant soybean lines; however, amino acids from carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism, such as Asp, Asn, Glu and Gln, and Ser, increased significantly in susceptible varieties at 72 h AGA...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919486/resveratrol-inhibits-proliferation-promotes-differentiation-and-melanogenesis-in-ht-144-melanoma-cells-through-inhibition-of-mek-erk-kinase-pathway
#2
Ming-Jun Lei, Yao Dong, Chun-Xia Sun, Xiang-Hong Zhang
The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of resveratrol on the viability of HT-144 melanoma cells and formation of melanin. MTT assay was used for analysis of cell viability and western blot for determination of phospho-Mek 1/2, phospho-Erk 1/2 (Tyr-204), Mitf, PBG-D and p-CREB-1 expression. MTT assay results showed that treatment of HT-144 cells with various doses of resveratrol led to a concentration dependent inhibition of proliferation. The antiproliferative activity was significant at 15 μM concentration of resveratrol after 24 h...
September 14, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919041/a-split-abl-kinase-for-direct-activation-in-cells
#3
Juan E Diaz, Charles W Morgan, Catherine E Minogue, Alexander S Hebert, Joshua J Coon, James A Wells
To dissect the cellular roles of individual kinases, it is useful to design tools for their selective activation. We describe the engineering of a split-cAbl kinase (sKin-Abl) that is rapidly activated in cells with rapamycin and allows temporal, dose, and compartmentalization control. Our design strategy involves an empirical screen in mammalian cells and identification of split site in the N lobe. This split site leads to complete loss of activity, which can be restored upon small-molecule-induced dimerization in cells...
August 24, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918391/genetic-polymorphisms-associated-with-the-risk-of-concussion-in-1056-college-athletes-a-multicentre-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Thomas Roland Terrell, Ruth Abramson, Jeffery T Barth, Ellen Bennett, Robert C Cantu, Richard Sloane, Daniel T Laskowitz, David M Erlanger, Douglas McKeag, Gregory Nichols, Verle Valentine, Leslie Galloway
BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate the association of genetic polymorphisms APOE, APOE G-219T promoter, microtubule associated protein(MAPT)/tau exon 6 Ser(53)Pro, MAPT/tau Hist(47)Tyr, IL-6572 G/C and IL-6R(Asp)358(Ala) with the risk of concussion in college athletes. METHODS: A 23-centre prospective cohort study of 1056 college athletes with genotyping was completed between August 2003 and December 2012. All athletes completed baseline medical and concussion questionnaires, and post-concussion data were collected for athletes with a documented concussion...
September 16, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917639/protein-oxidation-involved-in-cys-tyr-post-translational-modification
#5
Susan E Hromada, Adam M Hilbrands, Elysa M Wolf, Jackson L Ross, Taylor R Hegg, Andrew G Roth, Matthew T Hollowell, Carolyn E Anderson, David E Benson
Some post-translationally modified tyrosines can perform reversible redox chemistry similar to metal cofactors. The most studied of these tyrosine modifications is the intramolecular thioether-crosslinked 3'-(S-cysteinyl)-tyrosine (Cys-Tyr) in galactose oxidase. This Cu-mediated tyrosine modification in galactose oxidase involves direct electron transfer (inner-sphere) to the coordinated tyrosine. Mammalian cysteine dioxygenase enzymes also contain a Cys-Tyr that is formed, presumably, through outer-sphere electron transfer from a non-heme iron center ~6Å away from the parent residues...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913898/structural-basis-for-binding-and-transfer-of-heme-in-bacterial-heme-acquisition-systems
#6
Youichi Naoe, Nozomi Nakamura, Md Mahfuzur Rahman, Takehiko Tosha, Satoru Nagatoishi, Kouhei Tsumoto, Yoshitsugu Shiro, Hiroshi Sugimoto
Periplasmic heme-binding proteins (PBPs) in Gram-negative bacteria are components of the heme acquisition system. These proteins shuttle heme across the periplasmic space from outer membrane receptors to ATP-binding cassette (ABC) heme importers located in the inner-membrane. In the present study, we characterized the structures of PBPs found in the pathogen Burkholderia cenocepacia (BhuT) and in the thermophile Roseiflexus sp. RS-1 (RhuT) in the heme-free and heme-bound forms. The conserved motif, in which a well-conserved Tyr interacts with the nearby Arg coordinates on heme iron, was observed in both PBPs...
September 14, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910976/isochlorogenic-acid-a-promotes-melanin-synthesis-in-b16-cell-through-the-%C3%AE-catenin-signal-pathway
#7
Nuramina Mamat, Jun Dou, Xueying Lu, Aiden Eblimit, Aisa Haji Akber
Isochlorogenic acid A, also called 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-diCQA), is a widespread phenolic compound in the plant. Recent studies have shown that it has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by solar ultraviolet radiation is a very significant reason for skin depigmentation. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effect of 3,5-diCQA on B16 cells and explored its molecular mechanism. Results showed that 3,5-diCQA upregulated intracellular melanin production in a time- and dose-dependent manner...
September 1, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903766/fluoxetine-enhanced-autophagy-ameliorates-early-brain-injury-via-inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-following-subrachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#8
Jian-Ru Li, Hang-Zhe Xu, Sheng Nie, Yu-Cong Peng, Lin-Feng Fan, Zhi-Jiang Wang, Cheng Wu, Feng Yan, Jing-Yin Chen, Chi Gu, Chun Wang, Jing-Sen Chen, Lin Wang, Gao Chen
BACKGROUND: The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that regulates the innate immune inflammatory response by activating caspase-1 and subsequent IL-1β and IL-18. Fluoxetine has been shown to have the anti-inflammatory properties in many disease models. However, the effects and mechanisms of these effects of fluoxetine in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have not been defined. METHODS: The SAH model was induced by an endovascular perforation in adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing 300-320 g...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902505/activation-mechanism-of-the-streptomyces-tyrosinase-assisted-by-the-caddie-protein
#9
Yasuyuki Matoba, Shogo Kihara, Yoshimi Muraki, Naohiko Bando, Hironari Yoshitsu, Teruo Kuroda, Miyuki Sakaguchi, Kure'e Kayama, Hulin Tai, Shun Hirota, Takashi Ogura, Masanori Sugiyama
Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1), which possesses two copper ions at the active center, catalyzes a rate-limiting reaction of melanogenesis: that is, the conversion of a phenol to the corresponding ortho-quinone. The enzyme from the genus Streptomyces is generated as a complex with a "caddie" protein that assists the transport of two copper ions into the active center. In this complex, the Tyr(98) residue in the caddie protein was found to be accommodated in the pocket of the active center of tyrosinase, probably in a manner similar to that of L-tyrosine as a genuine substrate of tyrosinase...
September 13, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901827/retrograde-nuclear-transport-from-the-cytoplasm-is-required-for-trna-tyr-maturation-in-t-brucei
#10
Alan C Kessler, Sneha S Kulkarni, Mellie J Paulines, Mary Anne T Rubio, Patrick A Limbach, Zdeněk Paris, Juan D Alfonzo
Retrograde transport of tRNAs from the cytoplasm to the nucleus was first described in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and most recently in mammalian systems. Although the function of retrograde transport is not completely clear, it plays a role in the cellular response to changes in nutrient availability. Under low nutrient conditions tRNAs are sent from the cytoplasm to nucleus and presumably remain in storage there until nutrient levels improve. However, in S. cerevisiae tRNA retrograde transport is constitutive and occurs even when nutrient levels are adequate...
September 13, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901516/two-novel-peptides-derived-from-sinonovacula%C3%A2-constricta-inhibit-the-proliferation-and-induce-apoptosis-of-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#11
Fangfang Huang, Guofang Ding, Zuisu Yang, Fangmiao Yu
In China, the incidence of prostate cancer has been increasing. Toxicity, drug resistance and limited transient benefits in patients are the main problems associated with standard chemotherapeutic regimens, and new drugs are therefore required to treat prostate cancer. SCH‑P9 and SCH‑P10 proteins were obtained from Sinonovacula constricta hydrolysates. The amino acid sequences of SCH‑P9 and SCH‑P10 were identified as Leu‑Pro‑Gly‑Pro and Asp‑Tyr‑Val‑Pro, with molecular weights of 382.46 Da and 492...
August 31, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899725/nitric-oxide-donor-ru-terpy-bdq-no-3-induces-uncoupling-and-phosphorylation-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-promoting-oxidant-production
#12
Simone R Potje, Zhenlong Chen, Suellen D'Arc S Oliveira, Lusiane M Bendhack, Roberto S da Silva, Marcelo G Bonini, Cristina Antoniali, Richard D Minshall
[Ru(terpy)(bdq)NO](3+) (TERPY) is a nitric oxide (NO) donor that promotes relaxation of the mesenteric artery and aorta in rats. We sought to investigate whether it acts as both an NO donor and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activator, as shown previously for nitroglycerin. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with empty vector (HEK) or eNOS cDNA (HEK-eNOS) were treated with TERPY (1µM) for different lengths of time. eNOS expression, dimerization, and Ser(1177) phosphorylation, caveolin-1 (Cav-1) oligomerization, Cav-1 Tyr(14) phosphorylation were evaluated by Western blotting...
September 9, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891677/genetic-variation-in-the-mitf-promoter-affects-skin-color-and-transcriptional-activity-in-black-boned-chickens
#13
G Wang, J Liao, M Tang, S Yu
1. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) plays a pivotal role in melanocyte development by regulating the transcription of major pigmentation enzymes (e.g., TYR, TYRP1, and DCT). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), c.-638T>C, was identified in the MITF promoter and genotyping of a population (n=426) revealed that SNP c.-638T>C was associated with skin colour in black-boned chickens. 2. Individuals with genotypes CC and TC exhibited greater MTIF expression than those with genotype TT...
September 11, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890133/expanding-the-kinome-world-a-new-protein-kinase-family-widely-conserved-in-bacteria
#14
Hien-Anh Nguyen, Takla El Khoury, Sébastien Guiral, Maria-Halima Laaberki, Marie-Pierre Candusso, Frédéric Galisson, Anne-Emmanuelle Foucher, Salsabil Kesraoui, Lionel Ballut, Sylvain Vallet, Cédric Orelle, Laure Zucchini, Juliette Martin, Adeline Page, Jihad Attieh, Nushin Aghajari, Christophe Grangeasse, Jean-Michel Jault
Fine-tuning of signaling pathways is essential for cells to cope with sudden environmental variations. This delicate balance is maintained in particular by protein kinases that control the activity of target proteins by reversible phosphorylation. In addition to homologous eukaryotic enzymes, bacteria have evolved some specific Ser/Thr/Tyr protein kinases without any structural resemblance to their eukaryotic counterparts. Here, we show that a previously identified family of ATPases, broadly conserved among bacteria, is in fact a new family of protein kinases with a Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase activity...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887533/creation-and-initial-characterization-of-isogenic-helicobacter-pylori-caga-epiya-variants-reveals-differential-activation-of-host-cell-signaling-pathways
#15
Dacie R Bridge, Faith C Blum, Sungil Jang, Jinmoon Kim, Jeong-Heon Cha, D Scott Merrell
The polymorphic CagA toxin is associated with Helicobacter pylori-induced disease. Previous data generated using non-isogenic strains and transfection models suggest that variation surrounding the C-terminal Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) motifs as well as the number of EPIYA motifs influence disease outcome. To investigate potential CagA-mediated effects on host cell signaling, we constructed and characterized a large panel of isogenic H. pylori strains that differ primarily in the CagA EPIYA region. The number of EPIYA-C motifs or the presence of an EPIYA-D motif impacted early changes in host cell elongation; however, the degree of elongation was comparable across all strains at later time points...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887406/maize-npf6-proteins-are-homologs-of-arabidopsis-chl1-that-are-selective-for-both-nitrate-and-chloride
#16
Zhengyu Wen, Stephen Tyerman, Julie Dechorgnat, Evgenia Ovchinnikova, Kanwarpal Dhugga, Brent N Kaiser
Nitrate uptake by plant cells requires both high and low-affinity transport activities. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana, At) nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family (NPF) 6.3 is a dual-affinity plasma membrane transport protein that has both high and low-affinity functions. At-NPF6.3 imports and senses nitrate and is regulated by phosphorylation at Thr-101 (T101). A detailed functional analysis of two maize (Zea mays, Zm) homologs of At-NPF6.3 (Zm-NPF6.6 and Zm-NPF6.4) showed that Zm-NPF6.6 was a pH dependent non-biphasic high-affinity nitrate-specific transport protein...
September 8, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887189/fluorescence-spectroscopic-analysis-of-the-interaction-of-papain-and-bromelain-with-l-ascorbic-acid-%C3%AE-tocopherol-%C3%AE-carotene-and-astaxanthin
#17
Xiangrong Li, Zhenhua Yang, Yulin Bai
In this study, the interaction between four classic dietary antioxidants (including L-ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and astaxanthin) and papain/bromelain was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The results show that the quenching mechanisms are all static quenching at lower concentrations of antioxidants, but at higher concentrations of antioxidants, predominantly by the "sphere of action" quenching mechanisms. The binding processes of the four antioxidants to papain/bromelain are all synergistically driven by enthalpy and entropy, and the major driving forces are electrostatic effect and hydrophobic interactions...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887153/the-eya-phosphatase-its-unique-role-in-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Hengbo Zhou, Lingdi Zhang, Rebecca L Vartuli, Heide L Ford, Rui Zhao
The Eya proteins were originally identified as essential transcriptional co-activators of the Six family of homeoproteins. Subsequently, the highly conserved C-terminal domains of the Eya proteins were discovered to act as a Mg(2+)-dependent Tyr phosphatases, making Eyas the first transcriptional activators to harbor intrinsic phosphatase activity. Only two direct targets of the Eya Tyr phosphatase have been identified: H2AX, whose dephosphorylation directs cells to the DNA repair instead of the apoptotic pathway upon DNA damage, and ERβ, whose dephosphorylation inhibits its anti-tumor transcriptional activity...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885022/effect-of-storage-on-lactase-treated-%C3%AE-casein-and-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-with-respect-to-bitter-peptide-formation-and-subsequent-in-vitro-digestibility
#19
Di Zhao, Thao T Le, Søren Drud Nielsen, Lotte Bach Larsen
Using active lactose to hydrolyze lactose during storage is a common process to produce lactose-hydrolyzed (LH) milk. Proteolysis induced by residual proteases in commercial lactase was studied in a system using purified β-casein or β-lactoglobulin during a 60-day storage period at 22 or 38 °C. The proteolysis of β-casein by residual proteases occurred more extensively than that of β-lactoglobulin. Peptidomic analysis by LC-ESI-MS/MS revealed that Ile, Leu, Tyr, and Phe residues near the C-terminus of β-casein were the main sites of cleavage by the residual proteases, generating assumed bitter peptides...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882441/generation-of-a-novel-live-rabies-vaccine-strain-with-a-high-level-of-safety-by-introducing-attenuating-mutations-in-the-nucleoprotein-and-glycoprotein
#20
Keisuke Nakagawa, Kento Nakagawa, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yukie Katayama, Mami Oba, Hiromichi Mitake, Kazuma Okada, Satoko Yamaoka, Yasuhiro Takashima, Tatsunori Masatani, Kota Okadera, Naoto Ito, Tetsuya Mizutani, Makoto Sugiyama
The current live rabies vaccine SAG2 is attenuated by only one mutation (Arg-to-Glu) at position 333 in the glycoprotein (G333). This fact generates a potential risk of the emergence of a pathogenic revertant by a back mutation at this position during viral propagation in the body. To circumvent this risk, it is desirable to generate a live vaccine strain highly and stably attenuated by multiple mutations. However, the information on attenuating mutations other than that at G333 is very limited. We previously reported that amino acids at positions 273 and 394 in the nucleoprotein (N273/394) (Leu and His, respectively) of fixed rabies virus Ni-CE are responsible for the attenuated phenotype by enhancing interferon (IFN)/chemokine gene expressions in infected neural cells...
September 4, 2017: Vaccine
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