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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101806/purification-and-characterization-of-glutamate-decarboxylase-from-enterococcus-raffinosus-tccc11660
#1
Chuanyou Chang, Jun Zhang, Shenxi Ma, Lin Wang, Depei Wang, Jian Zhang, Qiang Gao
Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is the sole enzyme that synthesizes γ-aminobutyric acid through the irreversible decarboxylation of L-glutamate. In this study, the purification and characterization of an unreported GAD from a novel strain of Enterococcus raffinosus TCCC11660 were investigated. The native GAD from E. raffinosus TCCC11660 was purified 32.3-fold with a recovery rate of 8.3%, using ultrafiltration and ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The apparent molecular weight of purified GAD, as determined by SDS-PAGE and size-exclusion chromatography was 55 and 110 kDa, respectively, suggesting that GAD exists as a dimer of identical subunits in solution...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099451/drawbacks-of-dialysis-procedures-for-removal-of-edta
#2
Andreia Mónico, Eva Martínez-Senra, F Javier Cañada, Silvia Zorrilla, Dolores Pérez-Sala
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent commonly used in protein purification, both to eliminate contaminating divalent cations and to inhibit protease activity. For a number of subsequent applications EDTA needs to be exhaustively removed. Most purification methods rely in extensive dialysis and/or gel filtration in order to exchange or remove protein buffer components, including metal chelators. We report here that dialysis protocols, even as extensive as those typically employed for protein refolding, may not effectively remove EDTA, which is reduced only by approximately two-fold and it also persists after spin-column gel filtration, as determined by NMR and by colorimetric methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097920/extending-the-life-cycle-of-reverse-osmosis-membranes-a-review
#3
Eduardo Coutinho de Paula, Míriam Cristina Santos Amaral
The reverse osmosis (RO) technology for desalination and demineralization serves the global water crisis context, both technically and economically, and its market is growing. However, RO membranes have a limited life-cycle and are often disposed of in landfills. The impacts caused by the disposal of thousands of tonnes per annum of RO membranes have grown dramatically around the world. Waste prevention should have a high priority and take effect before the end-of-life phase of a product is reached. In this review, a summary is presented of the main advances in the performance of the RO technology and the membrane lifespan...
January 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096442/kinetic-modeling-of-incremental-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis-exchanges
#4
Steven Guest, John K Leypoldt, Michelle E Cassin, Martin J Schreiber
♦ Background: Incremental peritoneal dialysis (PD), the gradual introduction of dialysate exchanges at less than full-dose therapy, has been infrequently described in clinical reports. One concern with less than full-dose dialysis is whether urea clearance targets are achievable with an incremental regimen. In this report, we used a large database of PD patients, across all membrane transport types, and performed urea kinetic modeling determinations of possible incremental regimens for an individual membrane type...
January 17, 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096440/tnf-signaling-in-peritoneal-mesothelial-cells-pivotal-role-of-cflipl
#5
Willie M Lüdemann, Danijela Heide, Lars Kihm, Martin Zeier, Peter Scheurich, Vedat Schwenger, Julia Ranzinger
♦ Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) coincides with high concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), in the peritoneal cavity. During treatment, chronic inflammatory processes lead to damage of the peritoneal membrane and a subsequent ultrafiltration failure. Human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) play a central role as mediators and targets of PD-related inflammatory changes. Although TNF Receptor 1 (TNFR1) is expressed in high numbers on the cells, TNF-induced apoptosis is inhibited...
January 17, 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094532/preclinical-comparison-of-albumin-binding-radiofolates-impact-of-linker-entities-on-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-properties
#6
Klaudia Siwowska, Stephanie Haller, Francesca Bortoli, Martina Benešová, Viola Groehn, Peter Bernhardt, Roger Schibli, Cristina Müller
Tumor targeting with folic acid radioconjugates has been proposed as a promising strategy for radionuclide therapy of folate receptor α (FR)-positive cancer. Recently, it was shown that modification of radiofolates with an albumin-binding entity increased the tumor-to-kidney ratios of accumulated radioactivity in mice. The goal of this study was to evaluate the lead compound cm10 and compare it with new albumin-binding folate conjugates. Compound cm12 was designed with a long spacer consisting of a PEG-11 entity, and compound cm13 contained a short alkane chain between the albumin-binding moiety and folic acid...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094156/removal-of-toxic-metals-during-biological-treatment-of-landfill-leachates
#7
T Robinson
Progressive implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has resulted in substantial changes in limits for discharges of heavy metals both to watercourses, and to sewer. The objective of this paper is to provide original, real, full-scale data obtained for removal of metals during aerobic biological leachate treatment, and also to report on studies carried out to look at further trace metal removal. Polishing technologies examined and investigated include; the incorporation of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes into biological treatment systems, the use of ion exchange, and of activated carbon polishing processes...
January 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092113/hemodialysis-treatment-time-as-important-as-it-seems
#8
John T Daugirdas
Hemodialysis treatment time and Kt/V can both be considered to be primary measures of hemodialysis adequacy, because when either goes to zero, mortality is certain in patients without residual kidney function. Treatment time is important, but it needs to be adjusted based on surface-area-normalized Kt/V, residual kidney function, and expected ultrafiltration rate. Rescaling dose of dialysis measured as Kt/V to body surface area prevents ultrashort dialysis in small patients, women, and children with minimal residual kidney function...
January 16, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090219/integrated-microfluidic-aptasensor-for-mass-spectrometric-detection-of-vasopressin-in-human-plasma-ultrafiltrate
#9
J Yang, J Zhu, R Pei, J A Oliver, D W Landry, M N Stojanovic, Q Lin
We present a microfluidic aptamer-based biosensor for detection of low-molecular-weight biomarkers in patient samples. Using a microfluidic device that integrates aptamer-based specific analyte extraction, isocratic elution, and detection by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, we demonstrate rapid, sensitive and label-free detection of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in human plasma ultrafiltrate. AVP molecules in complex matrices are specifically captured by an aptamer that is immobilized on microbeads via affinity binding in a microchamber...
July 14, 2016: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078887/electrospun-regenerated-cellulose-nanofiber-membranes-surface-grafted-with-water-insoluble-poly-hema-or-water-soluble-poly-aas-chains-via-the-atrp-method-for-ultrafiltration-of-water
#10
Zhao Wang, Caitlin Crandall, Vicki L Prautzsch, Rajesh Sahadevan, Todd J Menkhaus, Hao Fong
Electrospun nanofiber membranes (ENMs) have demonstrated promising applications for water purification primarily due to high water flux and low degree of fouling. However, the equivalent/apparent pore sizes of as-electrospun ENMs are in microns/submicrons; therefore, the ENMs can only be directly utilized for microfiltration applications. To make regenerated cellulose (RC) ENMs for ultrafiltration applications, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was studied to graft polymer chains onto the surface of RC nanofibers; specifically, monomers of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and sodium acrylate (AAS) were selected for surface-grafting water-insoluble and water-soluble polymer chains onto RC nanofibers, respectively...
January 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074318/boosted-large-scale-production-and-purification-of-a-thermostable-archaeal-phosphotriesterase-like-lactonase-for-organophosphate-decontamination
#11
Odile Francesca Restaino, Maria Giovanna Borzacchiello, Ilaria Scognamiglio, Elena Porzio, Giuseppe Manco, Luigi Fedele, Cinzia Donatiello, Mario De Rosa, Chiara Schiraldi
Thermostable phosphotriesterase-like lactonases (PLLs) from extremophile archaea, like SsoPox from Sulfolobus solfataricus, are attractive biotechnological tools with industrial applications as organophosphate decontaminants, but their manufacturing still remains an unresolved issue because of the high costs and the low production yields. In this paper, for the first time, an efficient biotechnological process for the production and purification of a recombinant, engineered PLL, SsoPox W263F, expressed in E...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073586/experimental-comparison-of-point-of-use-filters-for%C3%A2-drinking-water-ultrafiltration
#12
M Totaro, P Valentini, B Casini, M Miccoli, A L Costa, A Baggiani
BACKGROUND: Waterborne pathogens such as Pseudomonas spp. and Legionella spp. may persist in hospital water networks despite chemical disinfection. Point-of-use filtration represents a physical control measure that can be applied in high-risk areas to contain the exposure to such pathogens. New technologies have enabled an extension of filters' lifetimes and have made available faucet hollow-fibre filters for water ultrafiltration. AIM: To compare point-of-use filters applied to cold water within their period of validity...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066919/innovations-in-treatment-delivery-risk-of-peritonitis-and-patient-retention-on-peritoneal-dialysis
#13
Beth Piraino
Early innovations in the delivery of peritoneal dialysis (PD) markedly improved its acceptability and lowered peritonitis rates. The standard osmotic agent was, and continues to be dextrose, an agent that is not ideal as it is readily absorbed. The development of icodextrin-containing dialysis fluid has allowed a long dwell time to provide more effective ultrafiltration. The development of a smaller, more easily used automated cycler, led to an increase in the proportion of patients on the cycler as opposed to CAPD...
January 8, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061542/an-efficient-method-for-native-protein-purification-in-the-selected-range-from-prostate-cancer-tissue-digests
#14
Rumana Ahmad, Carrie D Nicora, Anil K Shukla, Richard D Smith, Wei-Jun Qian, Alvin Y Liu
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (CP) cells differ from their normal counterpart in gene expression. Genes encoding secreted or extracellular proteins with increased expression in CP may serve as potential biomarkers. For their detection and quantification, assays based on monoclonal antibodies are best suited for development in the clinical setting. One approach to obtain antibodies is to use recombinant proteins as immunogen. However, the synthesis of recombinant protein for each identified candidate is time-consuming and expensive...
December 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059841/insights-into-cardiorenal-interactions-in-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#15
Feras M Bader, Nizar Attallah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is one of the biggest challenges in the management of chronic heart failure. Despite the advances in medical and device therapy, high readmission and mortality rates continue to be a burden on healthcare systems worldwide. One of the strongest predictors of adverse outcomes in ADHF is renal dysfunction, referred to as cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) type 1. This review discusses some of the recently introduced findings related to the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of this disorder...
January 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057902/are-pulmonary-haemostasis-and-fibrinolysis-out-of-balance-in-equine-chronic-pneumopathies
#16
Ann Kristin Barton, Caroline Wirth, Angelika Bondzio, Ralf Einspanier, Heidrun Gehlen
Results of clinical examination, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology, acute phase proteins and markers of pulmonary haemostasisand fibrinolysis (fibrinogen, serum amyloid A, D-dimers) were compared between controls and horses affected by respiratory disease. Using a clinical scoring system, 58 horses were classified as free of respiratory disease (controls, n=15), recurrent airway obstruction (RAO, n=18), inflammatory airway disease (IAD, n=14) or chronic interstitial pneumopathy (CIP, n=11). No significant differences were found in fibrinogen concentration, but descriptive data analysis showed a trend towards lower values for controls (median 0...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049921/in-vitro-canine-platelet-aggregation-caused-by-dirofilaria-immitis-extract
#17
Yasuhiro Takashima, Isako Onoda, Shin-Pin Chiou, Katsuya Kitoh
Platelet function hyper-activity has been reported in Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm, HW)-infected dogs. Although the mechanism of increased platelet hyper-activity has not yet been elucidated, it is suggested to be mediated by unknown factors, which may be related to adult HW components. This study aims to determine whether adult male HW whole body extract induces canine platelet aggregation in vitro. The results indicate that HW extract caused an aggregation of canine platelets in a concentration-dependent manner...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043081/hemodialysis-ultrafiltration-rate-targets-should-be-scaled-to-body-surface-area-rather-than-to-body-weight
#18
EDITORIAL
John T Daugirdas, Daniel Schneditz
The association between higher ultrafiltration rates and poor outcomes in hemodialysis patients has received increased attention, to the point that various regulatory entities are considering adding ultrafiltration rate as a quality measure to be monitored and controlled. Most of the discussion to date has focused on ultrafiltration rate scaled to body weight, or more correctly, body mass (ml/hour per kg). One outcome study suggests that ultrafiltration rate might best be not scaled at all to body size, as modestly higher ultrafiltration rate in very small-size patients may be associated with some survival benefit, probably via increased dietary intake...
January 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042837/purification-and-characterization-of-antioxidant-peptides-of-pseudosciaena-crocea-protein-hydrolysates
#19
Ningning Zhang, Chong Zhang, Yuanyuan Chen, Baodong Zheng
Two peptides with antioxidant activity were isolated from Pseudosciaena crocea proteins. Pseudosciaena crocea muscle was hydrolyzed with neutral protease to obtain Pseudosciaena crocea protein hydrolysates (PCPH). After ultrafiltration through molecular weight cut-off membranes of 10, 5 and 3 kDa and assessment of free radical scavenging ability, the fraction (PCPH-IV) with the highest antioxidant activity was obtained. Several purification steps, i.e., ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, were applied to further purify PCPH-IV...
December 30, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035628/effects-of-histidine-and-sucrose-on-the-biophysical-properties-of-a-monoclonal-antibody
#20
Youngbin Baek, Nripen Singh, Abhiram Arunkumar, Andrew L Zydney
PURPOSE: Histidine is a commonly used buffer in formulation of monoclonal antibodies (mAb), often with excipients like sucrose. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of both histidine and sucrose on the biophysical characteristics of a mAb. METHODS: The hydrodynamic radius of the mAb was determined by dynamic light scattering and confirmed by size exclusion chromatography. Data were also obtained for the osmotic virial coefficients (from osmotic pressure measurements), the solution viscosity, and the mAb thermal stability (using differential scanning calorimetry) at selected conditions...
December 29, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
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