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Ultrafiltration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721617/effect-of-membrane-property-and-feed-water-organic-matter-quality-on-long-term-performance-of-the-gravity-driven-membrane-filtration-process
#1
Dongwhi Lee, Yuri Lee, Shin Sik Choi, Sang-Ho Lee, Kyoung-Woong Kim, Yunho Lee
This study investigated the influence of membrane property and feed water organic matter quality on the permeate flux and water quality during gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration. GDM filtration was continuously carried out over 500 days at hydrostatic pressure of 65 mbar in dead-end mode without any back-flushing or membrane cleaning. Three ultrafiltration (UF) membranes (PES-100 kDa, PVDF-120 kDa, and PVDF-100 kDa) and one microfiltration (MF) membrane (PTFE-0.3 μm) were tested for treating lake water with varied organic matter qualities due to algal growth...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720947/reduction-of-whey-protein-concentrate-antigenicity-by-using-a-combined-enzymatic-digestion-and-ultrafiltration-approach
#2
Laura Quintieri, Linda Monaci, Federico Baruzzi, Maria Gabriella Giuffrida, Silvia de Candia, Leonardo Caputo
The global interest in saving food resources is leading to recycle wasted-food materials to extract useful nutrients. In dairy industry, the recycling of whey proteins determines their utilization in the healthy-addressed foods, which, however, can cause immunological responses in allergic subjects. In this work, a whey protein concentrate (WPC) was alternatively hydrolyzed with pepsin, papain, trypsin and rennin in order to attenuate or abolish the β-lactoglobulin (BLG) antigenicity. The electrophoretic profiles of both pepsin and papain WPC hydrolysates proved the disappearance of the BLG band, even though a slight antigenicity was still found by ELISA...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720832/deep-ocean-dissolved-organic-matter-reactivity-along-the-mediterranean-sea-does-size-matter
#3
Alba María Martínez-Pérez, Xosé Antón Álvarez-Salgado, Javier Arístegui, Mar Nieto-Cid
Despite of the major role ascribed to marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the global carbon cycle, the reactivity of this pool in the dark ocean is still poorly understood. Present hypotheses, posed within the size-reactivity continuum (SRC) and the microbial carbon pump (MCP) conceptual frameworks, need further empirical support. Here, we provide field evidence of the soundness of the SRC model. We sampled the high salinity core-of-flow of the Levantine Intermediate Water along its westward route through the entire Mediterranean Sea...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717421/isolation-of-membrane-vesicles-from-prokaryotes-a-technical-and-biological-comparison-reveals-heterogeneity
#4
Priscila Dauros Singorenko, Vanessa Chang, Alana Whitcombe, Denis Simonov, Jiwon Hong, Anthony Phillips, Simon Swift, Cherie Blenkiron
Prokaryotes release membrane vesicles (MVs) with direct roles in disease pathogenesis. MVs are heterogeneous when isolated from bacterial cultures so Density Gradient Centrifugation (DGC) is valuable for separation of MV subgroups from contaminating material. Here we report the technical variability and natural biological heterogeneity seen between DGC preparations of MVs for Mycobacterium smegmatis and Escherichia coli and compare these DGC data with size exclusion chromatography (SEC) columns. Crude preparations of MVs, isolated from cultures by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation were separated by DGC with fractions manually collected as guided by visible bands...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716046/blood-volume-monitored-regulation-of-ultrafiltration-to-decrease-the-dry-weight-in-fluid-overloaded-hemodialysis-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Marlies Antlanger, Peter Josten, Michael Kammer, Isabella Exner, Katharina Lorenz-Turnheim, Manfred Eigner, Gernot Paul, Renate Klauser-Braun, Gere Sunder-Plassmann, Marcus D Säemann, Manfred Hecking
BACKGROUND: Because chronic fluid volume overload is associated with higher mortality, we tested whether blood-volume monitored regulation of ultrafiltration and dialysate conductivity (UCR) and/or regulation of ultrafiltration and temperature (UTR) would facilitate dry weight reduction, in comparison to conventional dialysis (CONV). METHODS: We carried out a multicenter, 4-week, randomized controlled trial in hemodialysis patients ≥15% above normal extracellular fluid volume (ECV), per bioimpedance spectroscopy, who were randomized 1:1:1...
July 17, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711732/high-level-expression-and-purification-of-a-mollusca-endoglucanase-from-ampullaria-crossean-in-pichia-pastoris
#6
Xiuping Su, Xinwei Geng, Meixian Fu, Yeqing Wu, Longfei Yin, Fukun Zhao, Wei Chen
EG27I is an endogenous glucanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family (GHF) 45 from the Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean. In this study, the EG27I mature peptide gene fused to HFBII secretion signal of Trichoderma reesei was expressed under GAP promoter of Pichia pastoris in SMD1163 strain. Bioactive EG27I with a molecular weight of 27 kDa was successfully expressed and secreted into the culture medium. When high cell density fermentation of the recombinant Pichia pastoris was performed by a fed-batch strategy for totally 132 h in a 7...
July 12, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711270/evaluation-of-the-yield-molar-mass-of-exopolysaccharides-and-rheological-properties-of-gels-formed-during-fermentation-of-milk-by-streptococcus-thermophilus-strains-st-143-and-st-10255y
#7
Som N Khanal, John A Lucey
The yield and chemical structures of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by many strains of Streptococcus thermophilus have been characterized. However, the kinetics (or production profile) for EPS during milk fermentation is not clear. In this study, we investigated whether any differences existed in the yield and molar mass of EPS when milk was fermented at the same acidification rate by 2 strains of S. thermophilus (St-143 and ST-10255y). The type of EPS produced by these 2 strains is different. Milk samples were analyzed for EPS concentration every 30 min during a fermentation period of 270 min (final pH 4...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710535/pharmacological-inhibition-of-heparin-binding-egf-like-growth-factor-promotes-peritoneal-angiogenesis-in-a-peritoneal-dialysis-rat-model
#8
Zhenyuan Li, Hao Yan, Jiangzi Yuan, Liou Cao, Aiwu Lin, Huili Dai, Zhaohui Ni, Jiaqi Qian, Wei Fang
BACKGROUND: Molecular mechanisms of peritoneal dialysis (PD) ultrafiltration failure, peritoneal neo-angiogenesis, and fibrosis remain to be determined. We aimed to determine the role of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) inhibition on angiogenesis of peritoneal membrane in a PD rat model. METHODS: 32 male Wistar rats were assigned into (1) control group; (2) uremic non-PD group: subtotal nephrectomy-induced uremic rats without PD; (3) uremic rats subjected to PD: uremic rats that were dialyzed with Dianeal(®) for 4 weeks; (4) CRM 197 group: dialyzed uremic rats were supplemented with CRM197, a specific HB-EGF inhibitor...
July 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708615/treatment-of-poultry-slaughterhouse-wastewater-using-a-static-granular-bed-reactor-sgbr-coupled-with-ultrafiltration-uf-membrane-system
#9
M Basitere, Z Rinquest, M Njoya, M S Sheldon, S K O Ntwampe
The South African poultry industry has grown exponentially in recent years due to an increased demand for their products. As a result, poultry plants consume large volumes of high quality water to ensure that hygienically safe poultry products are produced. Furthermore, poultry industries generate high strength wastewater, which can be treated successfully at low cost using anaerobic digesters. In this study, the performance of a bench-scale mesophilic static granular bed reactor (SGBR) containing fully anaerobic granules coupled with an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system, as a post-treatment system, was investigated...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707727/in-vitro-renin-angiotensin-system-inhibition-and-in-vivo-antihypertensive-activity-of-peptide-fractions-from-lima-bean-phaseolus-lunatus-l
#10
Norma A Ciau-Solís, Juan J Acevedo-Fernández, David Betancur-Ancona
BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin system is key in the physiopathology of arterial hypertension because it converts angiotensin I, via angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), into angiotensin II. In vitro analyses were done of the ACE-inhibitory and renin-inhibitory activities of peptide fractions isolated by enzymatic hydrolysis of Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) protein. Antihypertensive activity was confirmed in vivo using a rat model. RESULTS: Lima bean protein was hydrolyzed with one of two sequential enzymatic systems (pepsin-pancreatin or Alcalase®-Flavourzyme®)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707302/dialysate-sodium-and-intradialytic-hypotension
#11
Wael F Hussein, Brigitte Schiller
Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a common complication in hemodialysis, particularly with the time and frequency constraints of standard session delivery in contemporary practice. High intradialytic weight gain (IDWG), high ultrafiltration rates (UFR), and frequent IDH are highly interlinked, and separately or together contribute to the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality observed in the hemodialysis population. Using a lower concentration of sodium in the dialysate (D-Na) reduces sodium delivery to the patient during dialysis, and several studies reported the beneficial effect in controlling IDWG, UFR, and hypertension...
July 13, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700449/development-of-a-simple-and-rapid-method-to-measure-free-fraction-of-valproic-acid-in-plasma-using-ultrafiltration-and-uhplc-ms-application-to-therapeutic-drug-monitoring
#12
Shansen Xu, Yanan Chen, Mingming Zhao, Limei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is widely used as an antiepileptic drug in children, and it is usually co-administered with other antiepileptic drugs. Due to its narrow therapeutic range and large variations in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic behavior in different individuals, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of the trough total VPA concentration is commonly used to guide dosing. However, as only the free fraction of VPA that exerts pharmacological and toxic effects, it may be more meaningful to determine the unbound VPA concentration in plasma...
July 8, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698252/peritoneal-equilibration-test-reference-values-using-a-3-86-glucose-solution-during-the-first-year-of-peritoneal-dialysis-results-of-a-multicenter-study-of-a-large-patient-population
#13
Vincenzo La Milia, Gianfranca Cabiddu, Giovanbattista Virga, Valerio Vizzardi, Anna Giuliani, Viviana Finato, Mariano Feriani, Armando Filippini, Loris Neri, Lucia Lisi
BACKGROUND: The original peritoneal equilibration test (PET) was used to classify peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients using a 2.27% glucose solution. It has since been suggested that a 3.86% glucose solution be used because this provides better information about ultrafiltration (UF) capacity and the sodium (Na) sieving of the peritoneal membrane. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine reference values for a PET using a 3.86% glucose solution (PET-3.86%)...
July 11, 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698250/clinical-relevance-of-intraperitoneal-pressure-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#14
Loreley A Betancourt
INTRODUCTION: Intraperitoneal pressure (IPP) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) increases in sitting and upright positions and is related to some individual characteristics. Adverse effects can appear with IPP > 20 cm H2O. Few studies about peritoneal transport or abdominal wall problems have directly measured IPP. We measured IPP in our prevalent PD patients to identify the clinical factors related to its variability and its possible association with peritoneal transport and abdominal wall complications...
July 11, 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695403/hybrid-coagulation-uf-processes-for-spent-filter-backwash-water-treatment-a-comparison-studies-for-pafcl-and-fecl3-as-a-pre-treatment
#15
Afshin Ebrahimi, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Hamidreza Pourzamani, Yaghoub Hajizadeh, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Mokhtar Mahdavi, Mohammad Hassan Rabie Rad
In this study, the reclamation of clean water from spent filter backwash water (SFBW) was investigated through pilot-scale experiments. The pilot plant consisted of pre-sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation, clarification, and ultrafiltration (UF). Two coagulants of PAFCl and FeCl3 were investigated with respect to their performance on treated SFBW quality and UF membrane fouling. At the optimum dose of PAFCl and FeCl3 turbidity removal of 99.6 and 99.4% was attained, respectively. PAFCl resulted in an optimum UV254, TOC, and DOC removal of 80, 83...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695353/cardioprotection-by-the-transfer-of-coronary-effluent-from-ischaemic-preconditioned-rat-hearts-identification-of-cardioprotective-humoral-factors
#16
Leonardo Maciel, Dahienne F de Oliveira, Giovani C Verissimo da Costa, Paulo M Bisch, Jose Hamilton Matheus Nascimento
Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) provides myocardial resistance to ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries. The protection afforded by IPC is not limited to the target tissue but extends to remote tissues, suggesting a mechanism mediated by humoral factors. The aim of the present study was to identify the humoral factors that are responsible for the cardioprotection induced by the coronary effluent transferred from IPC to naïve hearts. Isolated rat hearts were submitted to IPC (three cycles of 5 min I/R) before 30-min global ischaemia and 60-min reperfusion...
September 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693320/performance-and-mechanisms-of-ultrafiltration-membrane-fouling-mitigation-by-coupling-coagulation-and-applied-electric-field-in-a-novel-electrocoagulation-membrane-reactor
#17
Jingqiu Sun, Chengzhi Hu, Tiezheng Tong, Kai Zhao, Jiuhui Qu, Huijuan Liu, Menachem Elimelech
A novel electrocoagulation membrane reactor (ECMR) was developed, in which ultrafiltration (UF) membrane modules are placed between electrodes to improve effluent water quality and reduce membrane fouling. Experiments with feed water containing clays (kaolinite) and natural organic matter (humic acid) revealed that the combined effect of coagulation and electric field mitigated membrane fouling in the ECMR, resulting in higher water flux than the conventional combination of electrocoagulation and UF in separate units (EC-UF)...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691590/removal-of-diclofenac-from-water-by-in-out-pac-uf-hybrid-process
#18
Ivana Ivančev-Tumbas, Grit Hoffmann, Ralph Hobby, Đurđa Kerkez, Aleksandra Tubić, Spomenka Babić-Nanić, Stefan Panglisch
Results from a lab-scale investigation of a combined in/out ultrafiltration and powdered activated carbon adsorption (PAC/UF) for removal of diclofenac (c0=5 mg/L) are presented. The efficiency of the process was compared for single pulse and continuous carbon dosing (PAC dose 5 mg/L) in dechlorinated tap water under fluxes of 87 and 135 L/(m(2)·h). For higher flux conditions it was observed that single pulse dosing has an advantage over continuous dosing procedure when comparing cycle average removal efficiency...
July 10, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685358/asymmetric-triacetate-membrane-keeps-high-water-flux-during-ultrafiltration-in-vitro-study
#19
Yoshihiro Tange, Shingo Takesawa, Shigenori Yoshitake
Membrane fouling is a primary challenge encountered during the administration of hemodialysis (HD) and hemodiafiltration (HDF). A high-flux membrane is suitable for dialyzer reuse, since it is used repeatedly. Water flux is a benchmark used to assess the effectiveness of the dialysis membrane during treatment and it is usually evaluated to determine whether membrane fouling has occurred. Polysulfone (PS) membrane has good biocompatibility and solute permeability; however, polyethersulfone (PES) is often used as a hemodiafilter membrane because of better hydrophilicity compared to PS...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682031/-the-peritoneal-ultrafiltration-in-patients-with-cardio-renal-disease
#20
Roberto Corciulo, Simone Corciulo
In Italy, the congestive heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization and despite advances in therapy, the long-term prognosis is poor. Congestive heart failure is associated with advanced varying degrees of chronic renal disease that identify the cardio-renal syndrome type 2. High-dose diuretic therapy often fail to solve the water overload that is frequently the cause of death. The resistance to diuretics aggravates the state of the patient's edema and consequently morbidity and mortality. In the acute stage, the extracorporeal ultrafiltration unable to repair over hydration but needs frequent access weekly or midweek at the dialysis center...
March 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
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