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Ultrafiltration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330208/purification-and-characterization-of-%C3%AE-mannanase-from-aspergillus-terreus-and-its-applicability-in-depolymerization-of-mannans-and-saccharification-of-lignocellulosic-biomass
#1
Hemant Soni, Hemant Kumar Rawat, Brett I Pletschke, Naveen Kango
Aspergillus terreus FBCC 1369 was grown in solid-state culture under statistically optimized conditions. β-Mannanase was purified to apparent homogeneity by ultrafiltration, anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. A purification factor of 10.3-fold was achieved, with the purified enzyme exhibiting specific activity of 53 U/mg protein. The purified β-mannanase was optimally active at pH 7.0 and 70 °C and displayed stability over a broad pH range of 4.0-8.0 and a 30 min half-life at 80 °C. The molecular weight of β-mannanase was calculated as ~49 kDa by SDS-PAGE...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328279/characterization-of-residual-organic-compounds-of-aerobic-degradation-of-landfill-leachate
#2
Míriam C S Amaral, Wagner G Moravia, Liséte C Lange
The purpose of this article is to characterize and compare the residual COD of raw landfill leachate and its low and high molecular weight fractions before and after aerobic degradation process. The low and high molecular weight fractions (<10 kDa and >10 kDa, respectively) were obtained by the use of an ultrafiltration cell. Samples of the fractions with molecular weights 10 kDa, as well as the raw leachate, were characterized in terms of COD, protein, carbohydrate and lipid concentration and by biodegradability test...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324709/improvement-of-virus-removal-using-ultrafiltration-membranes-modified-with-grafted-zwitterionic-polymer-hydrogels
#3
Ruiqing Lu, Chang Zhang, Maria Piatkovsky, Mathias Ulbricht, Moshe Herzberg, Thanh H Nguyen
Potable water reuse has been adopted by cities suffering water scarcity in recent years. The microbial safety in water reuse, especially with respect to pathogenic viruses, is still a concern for water consumers. Membrane filtration can achieve sufficient removal of pathogenic viruses without disinfection byproducts, but the required energy is intensive. In this study, we graft-polymerized zwitterionic SPP ([3-(methacryloylamino) propyl] dimethyl (3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide) on a 150 kDa ultrafiltration polyethersulfone membrane to achieve a significantly higher virus removal...
March 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317135/free-mycophenolic-acid-determination-in-human-plasma-ultrafiltrate-by-a-validated-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method
#4
Paulina Łuszczyńska, Tomasz Pawiński, Paweł K Kunicki, Katarzyna Sikorska, Ryszard Marszałek
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop and fully validate LC-MS/MS method for free mycophenolic acid (MPA) concentration measurements in plasma ultrafiltrate that will be reliable and simple in preparation with deuterated MPA (MPA-d3) chosen as an internal standard. METHODS: The chromatographic separation was made with Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column (4.6x150 mm) using a gradient of two solutions as a mobile phase: A) water and B) methanol, each containing 0...
March 20, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316472/peptide-analysis-and-the-bioactivity-of-whey-protein-hydrolysates-from-cheese-whey-with-several-enzymes
#5
Renda Kankanamge Chaturika Jeewanthi, Myeong Hee Kim, Na-Kyoung Lee, Yoh Chang Yoon, Hyun-Dong Paik
The aim of this study was identifying a suitable food grade enzymes to hydrolyze whey protein concentrates (WPCs), to give the highest bioactivity. WPCs from ultrafiltration retentate were adjusted to 35% protein (WPC-35) and hydrolyzed by enzymes, alcalase, α-chymotrypsin, pepsin, protease M, protease S, and trypsin at different hydrolysis times (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h). These 36 types of hydrolysates were analyzed for their prominent peptides β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and α-lactalbumin (α-La), to identify the proteolytic activity of each enzyme...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315879/heart-rate-variability-predicts-major-adverse-cardiovascular-events-and-hospitalization-in-maintenance-hemodialysis-patients
#6
Jiun-Chi Huang, I-Ching Kuo, Yi-Chun Tsai, Jia-Jung Lee, Lee-Moay Lim, Szu-Chia Chen, Yi-Wen Chiu, Jer-Ming Chang, Hung-Hun Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Heart rate variability (HRV) has been linked to mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients, but it is less clear whether HRV is associated with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and hospitalization. METHODS: This study enrolled 179 maintenance HD patients. HRV was measured to assess its prognostic significance in relation to MACEs and hospitalization. RESULTS: During the follow-up period of 33.3 ± 6.7 months, 36 (20...
March 17, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314883/stone-former-urine-proteome-demonstrates-a-cationic-shift-in-protein-distribution-compared-to-normal
#7
Ann M Kolbach-Mandel, Neil S Mandel, Brian R Hoffmann, Jack G Kleinman, Jeffrey A Wesson
Many urine proteins are found in calcium oxalate stones, yet decades of research have failed to define the role of urine proteins in stone formation. This urine proteomic study compares the relative amounts of abundant urine proteins between idiopathic calcium oxalate stone forming and non-stone forming (normal) cohorts to identify differences that might correlate with disease. Random mid-morning urine samples were collected following informed consent from 25 stone formers and 14 normal individuals. Proteins were isolated from urine using ultrafiltration...
March 17, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297057/dialysis-access-issues-related-to-conversion-from-peritoneal-dialysis-to-hemodialysis-and-vice-versa
#8
Maurizio Gallieni, Antonino Giordano, Anna Ricchiuto, Davide Gobatti, Maurizio Cariati
ABSTRACTHemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) represent two complementary modalities of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease patients. Conversion between the two modalities is frequent and more likely to happen from PD to HD. Every year, 10% of PD patients convert to HD, suggesting the need for recommendations on how to proceed with the creation of a vascular access in these patients. Criteria for selecting patients who would likely fail PD, and therefore take advantage of a backup access, are undefined...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296033/predictors-of-post-hospitalization-recovery-of-renal-function-among-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury-requiring-dialysis
#9
Russell Pajewski, Patrick Gipson, Michael Heung
INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring dialysis complicates 1% of all hospital admissions, and up to 30% of survivors will still require dialysis at hospital discharge. There is a paucity of data to describe the postdischarge outcomes or to guide evidence-based dialysis management of this vulnerable population. METHODS: Single-center, retrospective analysis of 100 consecutive patients with AKI who survived to hospital discharge and required outpatient dialysis...
March 13, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294621/quantification-of-metabolites-by-nmr-spectroscopy-in-the-presence-of-protein
#10
Jens Wallmeier, Claudia Samol, Lisa Ellmann, Helena Ursula Zacharias, Franziska C Vogl, Muriel Garcia, Katja Dettmer, Peter J Oefner, Wolfram Gronwald
The high reliability of NMR spectroscopy makes it an ideal tool for large-scale metabolomic studies. However, the complexity of biofluids and, in particular, the presence of macromolecules poses a significant challenge. Ultrafiltration and protein precipitation are established means of deproteinization and recovery of free or total metabolite content, but neither is ever complete. In addition, aside from cost and labor, all deproteinization methods constitute an additional source of experimental variation. The Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) echo-train acquisition of NMR spectra obviates the need for prior deproteinization by attenuating signals from macromolecules, but concentration values of metabolites measured in blood plasma will not necessarily reflect total or free metabolite content...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291661/evaluation-of-a-novel-system-for-analyzing-hydrophilic-blood-metabolites
#11
Shin Nishiumi, Keisuke Shima, Takeshi Azuma, Masaru Yoshida
Metabolomics has recently been developed, and there have been a considerable number of metabolomics-based biomarker studies in the medical research field. Therefore, as a first step toward the practical use of metabolite biomarkers, a simple and quick sample preparation method involving metabolite extraction, metabolite measurement, and data analysis needs to be developed. In this study, we evaluated whether the use of simpler metabolite extraction methods would facilitate the stable analysis of hydrophilic blood metabolites during liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/QqQMS)-based metabolome analysis...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290324/lipid-droplets-coated-with-milk-fat-globule-membrane-fragments-microstructure-and-functional-properties-as-a-function-of-ph
#12
Christelle Lopez, Chantal Cauty, Florence Rousseau, Marielle Blot, Antinéa Margolis, Marie-Hélène Famelart
Processed lipid droplets coated by milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) material are of primary interest to mimic the specific functions provided by the fat globules in milk and dairy products. The objectives were to investigate, as a function of pH, the properties and microstructure of MFGM-coated lipid droplets prepared with an ingredient rich in MFGM containing polar lipids and proteins. The samples were prepared in water and in milk ultrafiltrate. The combination of microscopy techniques, zeta potential and particle size measurements, and rheological determinations was used...
January 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285238/operation-of-passive-membrane-systems-for-drinking-water-treatment
#13
P A Oka, N Khadem, P R Bérubé
The widespread adoption of submerged hollow fibre ultrafiltration (UF) for drinking water treatment is currently hindered by the complexity and cost of these membrane systems, especially in small/remote communities. Most of the complexity is associated with auxiliary fouling control measures, which include backwashing, air sparging and chemical cleaning. Recent studies have demonstrated that sustained operation without fouling control measures is possible, but little is known regarding the conditions under which extended operation can be sustained with minimal to no fouling control measures...
February 28, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284426/influence-of-ultrafiltration-membrane-on-ophiopogonins-and-homoisoflavonoids-in-ophiopogon-japonicus-as-measured-by-ultra-fast-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-ion-trap-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#14
Chun-Hua Liu, Jin Qi, Da-Zheng Zhou, Ai-Chun Ju, Bo-Yang Yu
Ultrafiltration is one of the most fascinating technologies, which makes it possible to improve the quality of traditional medicines for application in the pharmaceutical industry. However, researchers have paid little attention to the effect of ultrafiltration membrane on traditional medicines chemical constituents. In this work, Ophiopogon japonicus (L.f) Ker-Gawl. was used as an example to illuminate the influence of ultrafiltration with different material and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membrane on natural chemical constituents as measured by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-IT-TOF/MS)...
February 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279938/efficient-control-of-membrane-fouling-in-mf-by-removal-of-biopolymers-comparison-of-various-pretreatments
#15
Katsuki Kimura, Yasumitsu Oki
In recent studies on membrane fouling in microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) for drinking water production, hydrophilic macromolecular organics referred to as biopolymers have been shown to be major players in the fouling. In this study, various pretreatments were compared to maximize removal of biopolymers and to control membrane fouling efficiently. Multiple water samples were collected from different drinking water sources and were used in this study. Coagulation using polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was carried out under conditions of different dosages and different pHs and was also carried out in combination with the use of powdered activated carbon (PAC) or magnetic ion exchange (MIEX(®)) resin...
February 20, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279608/influence-of-fertilizer-draw-solution-properties-on-the-process-performance-and-microbial-community-structure-in-a-side-stream-anaerobic-fertilizer-drawn-forward-osmosis-ultrafiltration-bioreactor
#16
Youngjin Kim, Sheng Li, Laura Chekli, Sherub Phuntsho, Noreddine Ghaffour, TorOve Leiknes, Ho Kyong Shon
In this study, a side-stream anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membrane bioreactor (MBR) hybrid system was proposed and operated for 55days. The FDFO performance was first investigated in terms of flux decline with various fertilizers draw solution. Flux decline was very severe with all fertilizers due to the absence of aeration and the sticky property of sludge. Flux recovery by physical cleaning varied significantly amongst tested fertilizers which seriously affected biofouling in FDFO via reverse salt flux (RSF)...
February 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279188/comparison-of-exosomes-secreted-by-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-synovial-membrane-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-the-treatment-of-osteoarthritis
#17
Yu Zhu, Yuchen Wang, Bizeng Zhao, Xin Niu, Bin Hu, Qing Li, Juntao Zhang, Jian Ding, Yunfeng Chen, Yang Wang
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. In the past decade, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used widely for the treatment of OA. A potential mechanism of MSC-based therapies has been attributed to the paracrine secretion of trophic factors, in which exosomes may play a major role. In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of exosomes secreted by synovial membrane MSCs (SMMSC-Exos) and exosomes secreted by induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (iMSC-Exos) on the treatment of OA...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278100/the-effect-of-contaminated-particle-sphericity-and-size-on-membrane-fouling-in-cross-flow-ultrafiltration
#18
Amira Abdelrasoul, Huu Doan, Ali Lohi, Chil-Hung Cheng
The goal of the current research was to critically examine the role of the shape and the size of contaminated particles for an accurate prediction of membrane fouling phenomenon. Polycarbonate flat membranes (PC) with uniform pore sizes of 0.05 µm and 0.1 µm, in addition to Polysulfone membranes (PS) with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 60,000 kDa, were used under a constant feed flow rate and a cross-flow mode in ultrafiltration of a latex paint solution featuring a wide range of particle size distribution...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272776/iatrogenic-hypernatremia-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-result-erroneous-online-conductivity-monitor-and-conductivity-meter-reading
#19
Chamberlain I Obialo, Smitha John, Khalid Bashir
Hyponatremia is common in chronic kidney disease and in end stage kidney disease (ESKD) but hypernatremia is infrequent in ESKD. The incidence of hypernatremia is higher in ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) than in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In PD patients it is often a result of excessive ultrafiltration but in HD it is often a result of dialysate composition errors. Dialysate composition errors can inadvertently cause either hyponatremia or hypernatremia. We present two cases of symptomatic hypernatremia which manifested as increased thirst, excessive weight gain and worsening hypertension in HD patients...
March 8, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272049/a-new-reactor-for-denitrification-and-micro-particle-removal-in-recirculated-aquaculture-systems
#20
A Boley, G Korshun, S Boley, V Jung-Schroers, M Adamek, D Steinhagen, S Richter
A 'membrane-denitrification' reactor (MDR) was developed and tested in a semi-technical recirculation aquaculture system in comparison to a double - without MDR - as reference system. The MDR consisted of a reactor with an ultrafiltration membrane unit for removal of micro-particles (e.g. sludge flocs, bacteria and parasites). Specific carrier material provided surfaces for biofilm growth in a fluidized bed reactor with ethanol as carbon source for denitrification. The continuous motion of these carriers cleaned the membrane surface...
March 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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