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Wei Zhou, Weifeng Hu, Guofeng Han, Huiling Wang, Jinyuan Zhang, Changlin Mei
BACKGROUND: Residual renal function (RRF) is a crucial factor that plays an important role in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, but whether RRF influences the quality of life (QOL) of PD patients is still controversial. The aims of this study were to explore the effects of RRF on QOL in patients with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and analyze the related factors that might affect patients' QOL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All 120 adult patients in this study received regular CAPD treatment for at least 3 months...
June 22, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
N G Gumanova, M V Klimushina, V A Metel'skaya
We propose an optimized single-step assay of total nitrite and nitrate concentrations based on serum deproteinization by ultrafiltration. After deproteinization, the residual protein concentration was 0.0800±0.0007 mg/ml, which secured necessary transparency of the specimens in contrast to methanol deproteinization. The optimized assay for serum nitrite and nitrate ions is characterized by high reproducibility and accuracy (variation coefficient <7%) and can be recommended for routine use in clinical practice...
June 21, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Mary C Mallappallil, Steven Fishbane, Rimda Wanchoo, Edgar Lerma, Andrea Roche-Recinos, Moro Salifu
BACKGROUND: There are no guidelines for transitioning patients from chronic kidney disease stage 5 to hemodialysis. We conducted this study to determine if there are uniform patterns in how nephrologists transition patients to dialysis. METHODS: We designed an electronic survey with 39 questions and sent it to a database of practicing nephrologists at the National Kidney Foundation. Factors that were important for transitioning a patient to hemodialysis were evaluated, including medication changes on dialysis initiation, dry weight and dialysis prescription...
June 22, 2018: BMC Nephrology
John Hoslett, Theoni Maria Massara, Simos Malamis, Darem Ahmad, Inge van den Boogaert, Evina Katsou, Balsam Ahmad, Heba Ghazal, Stefaan Simons, Luiz Wrobel, Hussam Jouhara
Significant growth of the human population is expected in the future. Hence, the pressure on the already scarce natural water resources is continuously increasing. This work is an overview of membrane and filtration methods for the removal of pollutants such as bacteria, viruses and heavy metals from surface water. Microfiltration/Ultrafiltration (MF/UF) can be highly effective in eliminating bacteria and/or act as pre-treatment before Nanofiltration/Reverse Osmosis (NF/RO) to reduce the possibility of fouling...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Youbing Zhu, Shuili Yu, Bing Zhang, Jianfeng Li, Dongsheng Zhao, Zhengyang Gu, Chao Gong, Guicai Liu
Alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP) flooding wastewater is highly caustic, and membrane fouling is the main obstacle during ASP ultrafiltration (UF) treatment. To maintain favorable filtration performance, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes were implemented here, and their antifouling properties and mechanisms were investigated based on the threshold flux theory. Compared with the PVDF membranes, the PTFE membranes exhibited superior antifouling properties with lower reductions in flux and smaller hydraulic resistance, and they presented a nearly identical pseudo-stable fouling rate at a later time point...
June 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shinya Kimata, Daichi Mochizuki, Junichi Satoh, Ken Kitano, Yu Kanesaki, Kouji Takeda, Akira Abe, Shinji Kawasaki, Youichi Niimura
Amphibacillus xylanus is a recently identified bacterium which grows well under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and may prove useful for biomass utilization. Amphibacillus xylanus, despite lacking a respiratory chain, consumes oxygen at a similar rate to Escherichia coli (130-140 μmol oxygen·min-1 ·g-1 dry cells at 37 °C), suggesting that it has an alternative system that uses a large amount of oxygen. Amphibacillus xylanus NADH oxidase (Nox) was previously reported to rapidly reduce molecular oxygen content in the presence of exogenously added free flavin...
June 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Hon Yan Kelvin Yip, Chin Wee Tan, Yumiko Hirokawa, Antony Wilks Burgess
Although small intestinal epithelial stem cells form crypts when using intestinal culture conditions, colon stem cells usually form colonospheres. Colon mesenchymal cell feeder layers can stimulate colon crypts to form organoids and produce crypts. We have investigated whether conditioned medium from colon mesenchymal cells can also stimulate colonosphere and organoid cryptogenesis. We prepared conditioned medium (CM) from WEHI-YH2 cells (mouse colon myofibroblasts); the CM stimulated both colonosphere formation and organoid cryptogenesis in vitro...
2018: PloS One
Fabienne Thomas, Gareth J Veal, Souleiman El Balkhi, Thierry Lafont, Nicolas Picard, Laurence Brugières, Etienne Chatelut, Christophe Piguet
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy dosing in neonates represents a major clinical challenge because of a lack of clinical pharmacology information in this patient population. In this study, we investigate the use of cisplatin dose adaptation based on therapeutic drug monitoring in a 2-week-old neonate with localized hepatoblastoma. METHODS: Cisplatin concentrations were determined in plasma and ultrafiltrate samples collected on each of six cycles of a monotherapy regimen, beginning with a dose of 1...
June 19, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Pedram Madadkar, Rahul Sadavarte, Raja Ghosh
Enrichment and immobilization of analytes by chemical bonding or physical adsorption is typically the first step in many commonly used analytical techniques. In this paper, we discuss a permeation drag based technique as an alternative approach for carrying out location-specific immobilization of macromolecular analytes. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled macromolecules and their complexes were enriched near the surface of ultrafiltration membranes and detected by direct visual observation and fluorescence imaging...
June 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
Pengying Liao, Xiongdiao Lan, Dankui Liao, LiXia Sun, Liqin Zhou, Jianhua Sun, Zhangfa Tong
Carapax Trionycis (the shell of the turtle Pelodiscus sinensis) was hydrolyzed by six different commercial proteases. The hydrolysate prepared from papain showed stronger inhibitory activity against angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) than other extracts. Two noncompetitive ACE inhibitory peptides were purified successively by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography, ion exchange column chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The amino acid sequences of them were identified as KRER and LHMFK, with IC50 values of 324...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hui Min Tham, Susilo Japip, Dan Hua, Tai-Shung Chung
Ultrafiltration-level polyacrylonitrile (PAN) flat sheet membranes were chemically modified via cross-linking and hydrolysis to provide a suitable surface for the growth of a selective layer composed of Zn-benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (Zn(BDC)) metal-organic framework (MOF). Unlike typical membrane modification methods or conventional MOF synthesis procedures, deionized (DI) water was the only solvent used for each of the modification steps involved. To better understand the layer-by-layer MOF growth, several MOF growth conditions were also studied, including the effects of solution concentration, growth temperature, membrane immersion time and the number of layers...
June 14, 2018: ChemSusChem
Dengmiao Cheng, Xinhui Liu, Jinpeng Li, Yao Feng, Juan Wang, Zhaojun Li
Understanding the effect of natural colloidal particles (NCPs) on the photochemistry of organic pollutants is crucial to predict the environmental persistence and fate of them in surface waters, and it is, yet, scarcely elucidated. In this study, the pre-filtered surface water (through a 1 μm capsule filter) from Baiyangdian Lake was further separated into four different size NCPs: F1 (0.65-1.0 μm), F2 (100 kD-0.65 μm), F3 (10-100 kD) and F4 (1-10 kD) by cross-flow ultrafiltration (CFUF), and the photochemical kinetics and mechanisms of ofloxacin (OFL) and enrofloxacin (ENR) were investigated in the presence of those particles under simulated sunlight...
June 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yanni Liu, Zhi Wang, Mengqi Shi, Nan Li, Song Zhao, Jixiao Wang
A carbonic anhydrase inspired material was developed by incorporating Zn(ii) ion exchanged zeolite β into poly(N-vinylimidazole) solution. The hydrophobic zeolite channels were designed to imitate the function of the hydrophobic pocket in carbonic anhydrase. The composite membrane prepared by casting the material on a polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane showed a high CO2 permeance of 4620 GPU with a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 224.
June 14, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Frederik H Verbrugge
Diuretic resistance is a powerful predictor of adverse outcome in acute heart failure (AHF), irrespectively of underlying glomerular filtration rate. Metrics of diuretic efficacy such as natriuresis, urine output, weight loss, net fluid balance, or fractional sodium excretion, differ in their risk for measurement error, convenience, and biological plausibility, which should be taken into account when interpreting their results. Loop diuretic resistance in AHF has multiple causes including altered drug pharmacokinetics, impaired renal perfusion and effective circulatory volume, neurohumoral activation, post-diuretic sodium retention, the braking phenomenon and functional as well as structural adaptations in the nephron...
June 2018: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
Yongjiu Lv, Haisheng He, Jianping Qi, Yi Lu, Weili Zhao, Xiaochun Dong, Wei Wu
Entrapment efficiency (EE) is a crucial parameter for the evaluation of nanocarriers. The accurate measurement of EE demands clear separation of nanocarriers from free drugs, which so far has not been clearly validated due to a lack of functional tools to identify nanocarriers. Herein, an environment-responsive water-quenching fluorophore was employed to label and identify model nanocarriers, polycaprolactone nanoparticles (PN), methoxy polyethylene glycol-poly(d,l-lactic acid) polymeric micelles (PM) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN)...
June 9, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Susmit Ajabrao Ilame, Satya Vir Singh
Kinnow fruit juice was clarified with ultrafiltration hollow fiber membrane module with cross flow. The surface modified polysulfone based membrane having MWCO 10, 30 and 44 kDa (three cartridges) were used in these studies. The transmembrane pressure drop, cross flow rate and operating condition effects on the quality of the juice have been analyzed. The quality of clarified kinnow fruit juice were evaluated in terms of pH, viscosity, vitamin C, conductivity, total sugar, titratable acidity, TSS, protein, polyphenol, naringin, pectin, pulp content and organoleptic test...
June 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Joshua S Brzozowski, Danielle R Bond, Helen Jankowski, Belinda J Goldie, Rachel Burchell, Crystal Naudin, Nathan D Smith, Christopher J Scarlett, Martin R Larsen, Matthew D Dun, Kathryn A Skelding, Judith Weidenhofer
To facilitate intercellular communication, cells release nano-sized, extracellular vesicles (EVs) to transfer biological cargo to both local and distant sites. EVs are enriched in tetraspanins, two of which (CD9 and CD151) have altered expression patterns in many solid tumours, including prostate cancer, as they advance toward metastasis. We aimed to determine whether EVs from prostate cells with altered CD9 and CD151 expression could influence cellular behaviour and increase the metastatic capabilities of non-tumourigenic prostate cells...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Weiwei Huang, Xiao Qin, Bingzhi Dong, Wenzong Zhou, Weiguang Lv
Iron is an important trace element in algal growth and water eutrophication. This study focused on the ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling mechanism by the intracellular organic matter (IOM) of Microcystis aeruginosa under different iron treatments. The results indicated that the membranes experienced faster flux decline and worse fouling reversibility when the IOM formed under low iron concentrations. In contrast, less IOM membrane fouling was found under normal and high iron concentrations. The mass balances of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content implied that the IOM in the low-iron treatment was associated with higher IOM retention and a higher capacity of reversibly deposited organics, whereas more IOM in the high-iron treatment passed through the UF membrane...
May 30, 2018: Chemosphere
Anna Lorenzin, Mauro Neri, Andrea Lupi, Martina Todesco, Monica Santimaria, Alberta Alghisi, Alessandra Brendolan, Claudio Ronco
BACKGROUND: Inadequate removal of molecules between 5 and 50 KDa may cause long-term complication in chronic hemodialysis. Medium cut-off (MCO) is a new class of membranes with enhanced sieving properties and negligible albumin loss. MCO membrane makes it possible to perform expanded hemodialysis (HDx), a technique based on high internal filtration (IF).The present study is designed to quantify IF in 2 MCO dialyzers (Theranova 400 and 500, Baxter, Deerfield, USA) using a nuclear imaging technique previously validated...
June 8, 2018: Blood Purification
Yelena Slinin, Megha Babu, Areef Ishani
BACKGROUND: Ultrafiltration rate (UFR) has attracted attention as a modifiable aspect of volume management. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to summarize the evidence that links UFR to patient outcomes and discuss UFR cut-offs proposed, and discuss possible consequences of adapting UFR as a quality metric. RESULTS: Higher UFRs has been associated with younger age, longer dialysis vintage, greater prevalence of comorbidities, higher Kt/V, lower weight, greater interdialytic weight gain, lower residual renal function, and shorter treatment times...
June 8, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
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