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Growth preterm infants

Qian-Qian Li, Qian Liu, Jun-Mei Yan, Xian Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the growth and development of very low birth weight (VLBW)/extremely low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants within the corrected age of 6 months and the effect of different feeding patterns on growth and development. METHODS: A total of 109 VLBW/ELBW preterm infants who were discharged from January 2016 to April 2017 and who had completed regular follow-up were enrolled, and their growth and development within the corrected age of 6 months were monitored...
July 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Bethany G Everett, Michelle A Kominiarek, Stefanie Mollborn, Daniel E Adkins, Tonda L Hughes
Objectives Little is known about maternal and infant health among sexual minority women (SMW), despite the large body of research documenting their multiple preconception risk factors. This study used data from the 2006-2015 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) to investigate sexual orientation inequities in pregnancy and birth outcomes, including miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, and birth weight. Methods Women reported 19,955 study eligible pregnancies and 15,996 singleton live births. Sexual orientation was measured using self-reported identity and histories of same-sex sexual experiences (heterosexual-WSM [women who only report sex with men]; heterosexual-WSW [women who report sex with women]; bisexual, and lesbian)...
July 17, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
James G Huang, Shi Hua Chan, Le Ye Lee
INTRODUCTION: We studied the effects of ethnicity on early infant growth patterns in exclusively breast-fed (EBF) infants from a Singaporean multiethnic population. This was a prospective cohort study conducted in National University Hospital, Singapore. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy, EBF infants born at-term completing 37 weeks and above, and whose birthweight was appropriate for gestational age (>10th centile, <90th centile) were recruited. Infants were required to be EBF at least until the minimum age of weaning...
June 2018: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Elizabeth A Reznikov, Sarah S Comstock, Jennifer L Hoeflinger, Mei Wang, Michael J Miller, Sharon M Donovan
Background: Bovine lactoferrin (bLf) reduces Staphylococcus aureus infection in premature infants and promotes the growth of Bifidobacterium infantis , a predominant infant gut species. We hypothesized that bLf in combination with B. infantis would reduce the severity of systemic S. aureus infection. Objective: The aim was to determine the effects of oral administration of bLf and B. infantis on the course of systemic S. aureus infection. Methods: Colostrum-deprived piglets were fed formulas containing 4 g whey/L (CON group) or bLf (LF group)...
April 2018: Current developments in nutrition
Bonnie Alexander, Claire E Kelly, Chris Adamson, Richard Beare, Diana Zannino, Jian Chen, Andrea L Murray, Wai Yen Loh, Lillian G Matthews, Simon K Warfield, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle, Marc L Seal, Alicia J Spittle, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Deanne K Thompson
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is associated with altered brain development, with younger gestational age (GA) at birth often associated with greater brain volume reduction. Such volume alterations at term equivalent age (TEA) have been found with differing magnitude across different brain regions, although this has mostly been investigated with regards to whole tissue volumes and large-scale subdivisions. In addition to degree of prematurity, many other perinatal factors have been found to influence brain structure and development in infants born preterm...
July 14, 2018: NeuroImage
Line Hedegaard Toftlund, Susanne Halken, Lone Agertoft, Gitte Zachariassen
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding promotes healthy growth in very-preterm-born infants (VPI), but extra nutritional supply is needed to ensure catch-up growth and brain development. OBJECTIVES: To investigate how different types of post-discharge nutrition affect growth until 6 years of age in children born VPI. METHODS: This was a 6-year follow-up study of 281 VPI. Median gestational age (GA) was 30 + 0 weeks (range 24-32 weeks). When breastfed at discharge, they were randomized to unfortified human milk (UHM) or fortified human milk (FHM)...
July 16, 2018: Neonatology
Steffen Kunzmann, Barbara Ottensmeier, Christian P Speer, Markus Fehrholz
The effect of endogenous progesterone and/or exogenous pre- or postnatal progesterone application on lung function of preterm infants is poorly defined. While prenatal progesterone substitution may prevent preterm birth, in vitro and in vivo data suggest a benefit of postnatal progesterone replacement on the incidence and severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for progesterone's effects are undefined. Numerous factors are involved in lung development, airway inflammation, and airway remodeling: the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad) signaling pathway and TGF-β-regulated genes, such as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), transgelin (TAGLN), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)...
2018: PloS One
Renee Heffron, Nelly Mugo, Ting Hong, Connie Celum, Mark A Marzinke, Kenneth Ngure, Stephen Asiimwe, Elly Katabira, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Josephine Odoyo, Edna Tindimwebwa, Nulu Bulya, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Global guidelines recommend preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use by women at risk for HIV, including during pregnancy, a period with heightened HIV risk. However, data to support safety of PrEP use during pregnancy are limited, particularly from women using PrEP throughout pregnancy. METHODS: In an open-label delivery study of PrEP integrated with ART for high-risk HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda (the Partners Demonstration Project), women who became pregnant while using PrEP were offered the option to continue PrEP throughout pregnancy...
July 2018: AIDS
Anna Parra-Llorca, María Gormaz, Cristina Alcántara, María Cernada, Antonio Nuñez-Ramiro, Máximo Vento, Maria C Collado
Preterm microbial colonization is affected by gestational age, antibiotic treatment, type of birth, but also by type of feeding. Breast milk has been acknowledged as the gold standard for human nutrition. In preterm infants breast milk has been associated with improved growth and cognitive development and a reduced risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late onset sepsis. In the absence of their mother's own milk (MOM), pasteurized donor human milk (DHM) could be the best available alternative due to its similarity to the former...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marta Cabrera Lafuente, M Teresa Montes Bueno, Natividad Pastrana, Cristina Segovia, Rosario Madero Jarabo, Camilia R Martin, Felix Omeñaca Teres, Miguel Sáenz de Pipaón Marcos
BACKGROUND: Mothers of preterm (PT) infants have difficulty providing adequate quantities of human milk (HM) for their babies during their hospital stay. The macronutrient content in HM changes over time, varying across and within individual mothers. Research aim: To describe the intake of mothers' own milk (MOM) and its composition according to gestational (GA) and postnatal age (PNA) in infants born <32 weeks' GA and to correlate them with neonatal weight, length and morbidities...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Luiza Tavares Carneiro Santiago, José Donizeti de Meira Júnior, Natália Alves de Freitas, Cilmery Suemi Kurokawa, Lígia Maria Suppo de Souza Rugolo
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether fat content and energy value change in colostrum according to gestational age and fetal growth. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with mothers of preterm and term infants born in a tertiary center in 2015-2016. INCLUSION CRITERIA: single pregnancy, absence of diabetes, chorioamnionitis and mastitis, no use of illicit drugs or alcohol, without fetal congenital malformation or infection. Four groups were formed according to gestational age and fetal growth: preterm infants small for gestational age (PT-SGA; n=33) and appropriate for gestational age (PT-AGA; n=60), term infants small for gestational age (T-SGA; n=59) and appropriate for gestational age (T-AGA; control, n=73)...
July 10, 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Jing Sun, Yanqi Li, Xiaoyu Pan, Duc Ninh Nguyen, Anders Brunse, Anders M Bojesen, Silvia Rudloff, Martin S Mortensen, Douglas G Burrin, Per T Sangild
BACKGROUND: Fortification of donor human milk (DHM) is required for optimal growth of very preterm infants, but there are concerns of more gut dysfunction and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) when using formula-based fortifiers (FFs), especially soon after birth. Intact bovine colostrum (BC) is rich in nutrients and bioactive factors, and protects against NEC in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that fortification of DHM with BC is superior to FFs to prevent gut dysfunction and infections when provided shortly after preterm birth...
July 10, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Deborah S Levy, Erika Osborn, Kathryn A Hasenstab, Saira Nawaz, Sudarshan R Jadcherla
BACKGROUND: A common osmolality threshold for feedings is to stay <450 mOsm/kg for normal infants. Preterm formulas are frequently modified to improve growth, modify nutrition, and manage gastroesophageal reflux (GER) or dysphagia. Relationships between osmolality and additives to ready-to-feed preterm formulas are unclear. Our aims were to evaluate and compare the effects of caloric density, thickening agent recipes, and supplements to ready-to-feed preterm formula on osmolality...
July 10, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Hyo-Jeong Jang, Jae Hyun Park, Chun Soo Kim, Sang Lak Lee, Won Mok Lee
Purpose: We investigated fecal calprotectin (FC) levels in preterm infants with and without feeding intolerance (FI), and compared the FC levels according to the type of feeding. Methods: The medical records of 67 premature infants were reviewed retrospectively. The fully enteral-fed infants were classified into two groups; the FI group (29 infants) and the control group (31 infants). Seven infants with necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and perinatal asphyxia were excluded...
July 2018: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Frank H Bloomfield, Jane E Harding, Michael P Meyer, Jane M Alsweiler, Yannan Jiang, Clare R Wall, Tanith Alexander
BACKGROUND: Babies born at moderate-late preterm gestations account for > 80% of all preterm births. Although survival is excellent, these babies are at increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. They also are at increased risk of adverse long-term health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. There is little evidence guiding optimal nutritional practices in these babies; practice, therefore, varies widely. This factorial design clinical trial will address the role of parenteral nutrition, milk supplementation and exposure of the preterm infant to taste and smell with each feed on time to tolerance of full feeds, adiposity, and neurodevelopment at 2 years...
July 7, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Kobi Best, Fiona Bogossian, Karen New
BACKGROUND: Elevated sound levels and low language exposures of preterm infants (< 37 weeks) cared for in the neonatal unit contribute to poorer growth, cognition, language and motor outcomes. These delays can have lasting effects on childhood development and continue throughout adult life. Whilst recommendations have been established for appropriate sound exposure levels in neonatal units, very little is known about the optimal level of language exposure. OBJECTIVES: To examine the evidence regarding language exposure, both measured (observational) and prescribed (interventional), in preterm infants (< 37 weeks) cared for in neonatal units and to identify optimal exposure levels to promote neurodevelopment...
July 4, 2018: Neonatology
Jun Luo, Suzanne Shepard, Kathleen Nilan, Audrey Wood, Heather M Monk, Erik A Jensen, Ann T Harrington, Kathryn Maschhoff, Haresh Kirpalani, Zhichun Feng, Huayan Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To examine growth, sedation needs, and participation in developmental activities before and after tracheostomy among infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of infants born at <32 weeks' gestation or birth weights <1500 g with severe BPD who underwent tracheostomy placement between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2016 in a quaternary referral newborn and infant intensive care unit. Changes in growth parameters and frequency/type of participation in physical therapy sessions performed during the 4-weeks before tracheostomy and 4-weeks after the first tracheostomy tube change were compared...
July 3, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Xiao-Yan Gao, Lin Feng, Jing Xu, Xin-Nian Pan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the catch-up growth of preterm infants within a corrected age of 6 months and the risk factors for extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR). METHODS: A total of 321 preterm infants who were discharged after treatment in the neonatal intensive care unit and had regular follow-up documents with complete follow-up records were enrolled. According to the Prenatal Health Care Norms in 2015, these infants were divided into low-risk group with 69 infants and high-risk group with 252 infants...
June 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Corinna Gebauer, Daniel Klotz, Skadi Springer
Over the last decades the immense benefit of human milk on the nutrition of preterm infants has become increasingly evident. Research has confirmed that human milk has significant advantages for the preterm infant in terms of host defense, gastrointestinal development and maturation, neurological development, reduction of necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity and chronic lung disease as well as mental and physical benefits for the mother. Computing these factors into a health-cost-benefit equation, positive economic consequences for a national public health system were demonstrated...
July 3, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Meijia Wang, Judith S Mercer, James F Padbury
We evaluated a subset of infants with suspected intrauterine growth restriction or birth weights small for gestational age enrolled in a study of delayed cord clamping for preterm infants. Compared with immediate clamping, delayed cord clamping was associated with no apparent harm and less suspected necrotizing enterocolitis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00818220 and NCT01426698.
June 25, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
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