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Growth preterm infants

Rashmin C Savani
Over 50 years after its first description, Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) remains a devastating pulmonary complication in preterm infants with respiratory failure and develops in 30-50% of infants less than 1000-gram birth weight. It is thought to involve ventilator- and oxygen-induced damage to an immature lung that results in an inflammatory response and ends in aberrant lung development with dysregulated angiogenesis and alveolarization. Significant morbidity and mortality are associated with this most common chronic lung disease of childhood...
October 2, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Lawrence S Prince
Lung diseases impact patients across the lifespan, from infants in the first minutes of life through the aged population. Congenital abnormalities of lung structure can cause lung disease at birth or make adults more susceptible to chronic disease. Continuous inhalation of atmospheric components also requires the lung to be resilient to cellular injury. Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) regulates multiple stages of structural lung morphogenesis, cellular differentiation, and the response to injury. As a driver of lung airway branching morphogenesis, FGF10 signaling defects during development lead to neonatal lung disease...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Jean-Baptiste Müller, Matthieu Hanf, Cyril Flamant, Marion Olivier, Valérie Rouger, Géraldine Gascoin, Hélène Basset, Jean-Christophe Rozé, Simon Nusinovici
Background: To investigate the relative contributions of prenatal complications, perinatal characteristics, neonatal morbidities and socio-economic conditions on the occurrence of motor, sensory, cognitive, language and psychological disorders in a large longitudinal preterm infant population during the first 7 years after birth. Methods: The study population comprised 4122 infants born at <35 weeks of gestation who were followed for an average of 74.0 months after birth...
November 13, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Julia Jaekel, Christian Sorg, Josef Baeuml, Peter Bartmann, Dieter Wolke
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of infant and toddler head growth on intelligence scores from early childhood to adulthood in very preterm (<32 weeks gestational age; VP) and/or very low birth weight (<1500 g; VLBW) and term born individuals. METHODS: 203 VP/VLBW and 198 term comparisons were studied from birth to adulthood as part of the prospective geographically defined Bavarian Longitudinal Study (BLS). Head circumference was assessed at birth; 5, 20 months; and 4 years of age...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Kay D Beharry, Charles L Cai, Faisal Siddiqui, Sara Chowdhury, Christina D'Agrosa, Gloria B Valencia, Jacob V Aranda
Neonatal intermittent hypoxia (IH) or apnea afflicts 70% to 90% of all preterm infants <28 weeks gestation, and is associated with severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We tested the hypotheses that coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) or omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( n -3 PUFAs) supplementation during neonatal IH reduces the severity of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Newborn rats were exposed to two IH paradigms: (1) 50% O₂ with brief hypoxia (12% O₂); or (2) 21% O₂ with brief hypoxia, until postnatal day 14 (P14), during which they received daily oral CoQ10 in olive oil, n -3 PUFAs in fish oil, or olive oil only and compared to room air (RA) treated groups...
November 9, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Maria L Gianni, Paola Roggero, Fabio Mosca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the current available evidence on the metabolic fate of human milk proteins and their potential clinical implications for growth and body composition development vs. those of formula proteins in preterm infants. RECENT FINDINGS: The decreased content of human milk protein in preterm mothers throughout lactation might contribute to the reduced growth reported in exclusively human milk-fed infants compared with that of formula-fed infants...
November 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Gerard Ngueta, Ruth Ndjaboue, Romuald Yepsi
Preterm birth (PB) and low birthweight (LBW) remain a leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. Persistent racial disparities in prevalence rates have been reported, with the highest values observed in Subsaharan Africa and South Asia. In United States, non-Hispanic Black women are more likely to have a premature or low-birth-weight baby. Beyond the speculative debate on factors explaining such racial disparity, the key-question remains about the path from race to birth outcomes. Several hypotheses emerged from the published literature to explain the racial difference in likelihood for PB and LBW...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Clair-Yves Boquien
Human milk is the best food for newborn nutrition. There is no ideal composition of human milk and also no easy way to control the complexity of its nutritional quality and the quantity received by breastfed infants. Pediatricians and nutritionists use charts of infant growth (weight, size, head circumference) and neurodevelopment criteria that reflect the food that these infants receive. These charts reflect first the infant physiology and likely reflect the composition of human milk when infants are breastfed...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Rory E Morty
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) continues to be one of the most common complications of preterm birth and is characterized histopathologically by impaired lung alveolarization. Extremely preterm born infants remain at high risk for the development of BPD, highlighting a pressing need for continued efforts to understand the pathomechanisms at play in affected infants. This brief review summarizes recent progress in our understanding of the how the development of the newborn lung is stunted, highlighting recent reports on roles for growth factor signaling, oxidative stress, inflammation, the extracellular matrix and proteolysis, non-coding RNA, and fibroblast and epithelial cell plasticity...
October 2, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Bonus Makanani, Jennifer E Balkus, Yuqing Jiao, Lisa M Noguchi, Thesla Palanee-Phillips, Yamikani Mbilizi, Jothi Moodley, Kenneth Kintu, Krishnaveni Reddy, Samuel Kabwigu, Nitesha Jeenariain, Ishana Harkoo, Nyaradzo Mgodi, Jeanna Piper, Helen Rees, Rachel Scheckter, Richard Beigi, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Monthly use of the dapivirine vaginal ring has been shown to be safe and effective for HIV-1 prevention in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. The impact of dapivirine on pregnancy outcomes and infant is not known. We compared pregnancy incidence and outcomes by study arm among HIV-1-uninfected women who became pregnant while participating in MTN-020/ASPIRE. METHODS: ASPIRE was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III safety and effectiveness study of the dapivirine ring for HIV-1 prevention...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Baby S Nayak, Leslie Edward Lewis, Binu Margaret, Ramesh Bhat Y, Joslin D'Almeida, Tenzin Phagdol
AIM: To describe a randomized controlled trial protocol designed to evaluate the effectiveness of mobile health based Preterm Home Care Program (mHealthPHCP) known as "NeoRaksha" mobile health application in improving parent-infant-interaction, growth and development of preterms. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial. The protocol is approved and funded by Department of Biotechnology, Government of India on 2 August 2016. METHODS: A total of 300 preterm-mother dyads admitted to neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital will be recruited and randomized to intervention and control group...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
A Thavamani, M J Mhanna, S Groh-Wargo, R Gulati, P S Shekhawat
OBJECTIVE: To analyze safety, tolerance and efficacy of enteral omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) in the resolution of Parenteral Nutrition Associated Cholestasis (PNAC) and postnatal growth among preterm neonates. STUDY DESIGN: This is a single center retrospective case-control study of all neonates born less than 32 weeks of gestation and developed PNAC (Direct bilirubin >2 mg/dl). Infants who received enteral omega-3 FAs supplementation (1 g/Kg/d) served as cases and were compared with gestational age, gender and direct bilirubin level matched controls that did not receive enteral omega-3 FAs supplementation...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Abhishek Somasekhara Aradhya, Kanya Mukhopadhyay, Shiv Sajan Saini, Venkataseshan Sundaram, Sourabh Dutta, Praveen Kumar
BACKGROUND: Feed intolerance is common in growth-restricted infants with antenatal AREDF (absent or reverse end-diastolic flow) and presumed to be more severe in those with reverse end diastolic flow (REDF). Natural history of feeding in REDF is rarely reported in the literature. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of feed intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates with antenatal REDF. DESIGN: Preterm inborn neonates with gestation <37 weeks with antenatal REDF diagnosed between January 2015 and September 2017 were included in this retrospective cohort study...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Martina A Steurer, Rebecca J Baer, Edmund Burke, Shabnam Peyvandi, Scott Oltman, Christina D Chambers, Mary E Norton, Larry Rand, Satish Rajagopal, Kelli K Ryckman, Sky K Feuer, Liang Liang, Randi A Paynter, Molly McCarthy, Anita J Moon-Grady, Roberta L Keller, Laura L Jelliffe-Pawlowski
Background Infants with critical congenital heart disease ( CCHD ) are more likely to be small for gestational age (GA). It is unclear how this affects mortality. The authors investigated the effect of birth weight Z score on 1-year mortality separately in preterm (GA <37 weeks), early-term (GA 37-38 weeks), and full-term (GA 39-42 weeks) infants with CCHD . Methods and Results Live-born infants with CCHD and GA 22 to 42 weeks born in California 2007-2012 were included in the analysis. The primary predictor was Z score for birth weight and the primary outcome was 1-year mortality...
September 4, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Peter M MacFarlane, Juliann M Di Fiore
Myo-inositol is a highly abundant stereoisomer of the inositol family of sugar alcohols and forms the structural basis for a variety of polyphosphate derivatives including second messengers and membrane phospholipids. These derivatives regulate numerous cell processes including gene transcription, membrane excitability, vesicular trafficking, intracellular calcium signaling, and neuronal growth and development. Myo-inositol can be formed endogenously from the breakdown of glucose, is found in a variety of foods including breastmilk and is commercially available as a nutritional supplement...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Pasqua Piemontese, Nadia Liotto, Domenica Mallardi, Paola Roggero, Valeria Puricelli, Maria Lorella Giannì, Daniela Morniroli, Chiara Tabasso, Michela Perrone, Camilla Menis, Anna Orsi, Orsola Amato, Fabio Mosca
Introduction: Human milk is the optimal nutrition for preterm infants. When the mother's own milk is unavailable, donor human milk is recommended as an alternative for preterm infants. The association among early nutrition, body composition and the future risk of disease has recently attracted much interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of human milk on the body composition of preterm infants. Materials and Methods: Very low birth weight infants (VLBW: birth weight <1,500 g) with a gestational age (GA) between 26 and 34 weeks were included...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Erik Wejryd, Magalí Martí, Giovanna Marchini, Anna Werme, Baldvin Jonsson, Eva Landberg, Thomas R Abrahamsson
Difference in human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) composition in breast milk may be one explanation why some preterm infants develop necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) despite being fed exclusively with breast milk. The aim of this study was to measure the concentration of 15 dominant HMOs in breast milk during the neonatal period and investigate how their levels correlated to NEC, sepsis, and growth in extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) infants who were exclusively fed with breast milk. Milk was collected from 91 mothers to 106 infants at 14 and 28 days and at postmenstrual week 36...
October 20, 2018: Nutrients
William W Hay
The goal of nutrition of the preterm infant is to "provide nutrients to approximate the rate of growth and composition of weight gain for a normal fetus of the same postmenstrual age and to maintain normal concentrations of blood and tissue nutrients" (American Academy of Pediatrics 2014). Failure to provide the necessary amounts of all of the essential nutrients to preterm infants has produced not only growth failure, but also increased morbidity and less than optimal neurodevelopment. This continues to be true despite many efforts to increase nutrition of the preterm infants...
October 2018: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Aaron Hamvas, Rui Feng, Yingtao Bi, Fan Wang, Soumyaroop Bhattacharya, Jared Mereness, Madhurima Kaushal, C Michael Cotten, Philip L Ballard, Thomas J Mariani
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified genetic variants associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely preterm infants. However, findings with genome-wide significance have been rare, and not replicated. We hypothesized that whole exome sequencing (WES) of premature subjects with extremely divergent phenotypic outcomes could facilitate the identification of genetic variants or gene networks contributing disease risk. RESULTS: The Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program (PROP) recruited a cohort of > 765 extremely preterm infants for the identification of markers of respiratory morbidity...
October 20, 2018: BMC Genetics
Mariana Muelbert, Jane E Harding, Frank H Bloomfield
Late preterm (LP) and early term (ET) infants can be considered the "great dissemblers": they resemble healthy full-term infants in appearance, but their immaturity places them at increased risk of poor short- and long-term outcomes. Nutritional requirements are greater than for full-term babies, but there are few good data on the nutritional requirements for LP and ET babies, leading to substantial variation in practice. Recent data indicate that rapid growth may be beneficial for neurocognitive function but not for body composition and later metabolic health...
October 12, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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