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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668024/nutrition-considerations-after-nicu-discharge
#1
Taylor Peters, Cecelia Pompeii-Wolfe
Preterm infants are at high nutrition risk during neonatal intensive care and well after discharge. Nutrition care should be individualized and provided by a multidisciplinary team including a dietitian. Breast milk, the gold standard for feeding, may not meet the increased needs of preterm infants and may require fortification or supplementation. Decisions regarding formula choice and calorie concentration can also be challenging and require individualization based on growth, intake, and individual need. Developmental milestones should be considered during the initation of complementary food...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666203/efficacy-and-safety-of-pulmonary-application-of-corticosteroids-in-preterm-infants-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Mahin Delara, Bhupendrasinh F Chauhan, Mê-Linh Le, Ahmed M Abou-Setta, Ryan Zarychanski, Geert W 'tJong
BACKGROUND: Systemic corticosteroids as the frontline treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants are associated with adverse effects on growth and neurodevelopmental outcome, but the pulmonary administration of steroids may help prevent the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) without these side effects. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pulmonary application of corticosteroids in preterm infants with RDS. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666202/nutritional-role-of-amniotic-fluid-clues-from-infants-with-congenital-obstruction-of-the-digestive-tract
#3
Nigel J Hall, Melanie Drewett, David Burge
AIMS: To investigate the role played by amniotic fluid in late fetal nutrition by analysis of infants born with digestive tract atresia. METHODS: Birth weight (BW), gestational age and gender of infants born with oesophageal (OA), duodenal (DA), jejunal (JA) and ileal atresia (IA) were recorded and BW Z-scores compared. Infants with incomplete obstruction (stenosis), chromosomal or syndromic conditions and multiple congenital malformations were excluded. Term infants admitted with suspected postnatal intestinal obstruction in whom no congenital malformation was found were used as a control group...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664498/-hypophosphatemia-in-preterm-infants-a-bimodal-disorder
#4
María Paz Cubillos Celis, Patricia Mena Nannig
New nutritional approaches to treat extreme premature babies have demonstrated relevant eviden ce of metabolic disturbances with early hypophosphatemia, especially in patients with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). They have shown late hypophosphatemia, as well, which is characteristic in the metabolic bone disease. A sytematic search of literature describing metabolic disturbances of phosphorus in preterm newborns is presented, related to the use of early parenteral nutrition and also in the context of metabolic bone disease...
February 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663112/extramucosal-pyriplasty-without-stenting-for-management-of-pyriform-aperture-stenosis
#5
Remon Bazak, Ahmed Aly Ibrahim, Wael K A Hussein, Mustafa Mohamed Abdelnaby, Samy Elwany
PURPOSE: The current management options of congenital pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS) are either conservative measures awaiting further growth of the bony nasal framework or surgical intervention that focuses on bone removal from the margin of the pyriform aperture (PA) without exposure of the nasolacrimal duct (NLD) followed by stenting. Recently, CT measurements of the nasal cavity in CNPAS have shed light that the site of maximal bony obstruction corresponds to the bony buttress encasing the NLD rather than the margin of the PA as initially thought...
April 16, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660514/early-life-predictors-of-brain-development-at-term-equivalent-age-in-infants-born-across-the-gestational-age-spectrum
#6
REVIEW
Deanne K Thompson, Claire E Kelly, Jian Chen, Richard Beare, Bonnie Alexander, Marc L Seal, Katherine Lee, Lillian G Matthews, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle, Alicia J Spittle, Jeanie L Y Cheong
BACKGROUND: It is well established that preterm infants have altered brain development compared with full-term (FT; ≥37 weeks' gestational age [GA]) infants, however the perinatal factors associated with brain development in preterm infants have not been fully elucidated. In particular, perinatal predictors of brain development may differ between very preterm infants (VP; <32 weeks' GA) and infants born moderate (MP; 32-33 weeks' GA) and late (LP; 34-36 weeks' GA) preterm, but this has not been studied...
April 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656825/parenteral-nutrition-for-preterm-infants-issues-and-strategy
#7
D Darmaun, A Lapillonne, U Simeoni, J-C Picaud, J-C Rozé, E Saliba, A Bocquet, J-P Chouraqui, C Dupont, F Feillet, M-L Frelut, J-P Girardet, D Turck, A Briend
Due to transient gut immaturity, most very preterm infants receive parenteral nutrition (PN) in the first few weeks of life. Yet providing enough protein and energy to sustain optimal growth in such infants remains a challenge. Extrauterine growth restriction is frequently observed in very preterm infants at the time of discharge from hospital, and has been found to be associated with later impaired neurodevelopment. A few recent randomized trials suggest that intensified PN can improve early growth; whether or not such early PN improves long-term neurological outcome is still unclear...
April 12, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650428/-extrauterine-growth-restriction-among-neonates-with-a-birthweight-less-than-1-500grams
#8
Alejandro Avila-Alvarez, Alfonso Solar Boga, Carmen Bermúdez-Hormigo, Jesús Fuentes Carballal
INTRODUCTION: Growth restriction in preterm infants has been related to a poor neurodevelopment outcome. OBJECTIVES: To define the incidence of postnatal growth restriction in premature babies ≤1,500 grams and to detect related clinical or biochemical markers. METHODS: Retrospective longitudinal observational study. Multivariate linear regression models were used to determine variables that can predict the change in weight z-score during admission...
April 9, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649108/postnatal-growth-disadvantage-of-the-small-for-gestational-age-preterm-twins
#9
Iris Morag, Orly Stern Levkovitz, Maya Siman-Tov, Mor Frisch, Orit Pinhas-Hamiel, Tzipi Strauss
In this study, we examined early growth characteristics among small-for-gestational-age (SGA) preterm twins compared to their appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) counterparts. A retrospective study evaluated all consecutive twins born between 2008 and 2015 at a tertiary referral center whose gestational age ranged from 30.0 to 34.86 weeks. Included were twins in which one twin was AGA and the other SGA at birth. Changes of ≥2, 1-1.99, and 0-0.99 in z-score between births and 36 weeks post menstrual age (PMA) were respectively defined as severe, moderate, and mild postnatal growth failure (PNGF) in weight or head circumference (HC)...
April 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644893/activation-of-the-nfkb-pathway-alters-the-phenotype-of-mscs-in-the-tracheal-aspirates-of-preterm-infants-with-severe-bpd
#10
Tobias Reicherzer, Susanne Häffner, Tayyab Shahzad, Judith Gronbach, Josef Mysliwietz, Christoph Huebener, Uwe Hasbargen, Jan Gertheiss, Andreas Schulze, Saverio Bellusci, Rory E Morty, Anne Hilgendorff, Harald Ehrhardt
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are released into the airways of preterm infants following lung injury. These cells display a pro-inflammatory phenotype and are associated with development of severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We aimed to characterize the functional properties of MSCs obtained from tracheal aspirates of 50 preterm infants who required invasive ventilation. Samples were separated by disease severity. The increased proliferative capacity of MSCs was associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation and higher severity of BPD...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628967/augmentation-of-respiratory-muscle-activities-in-preterm-infants-with-feeding-desaturation
#11
Dong Rak Kwon, Gi Young Park, Ji Eun Jeong, Woo Taek Kim, Eun Joo Lee
Purpose: Frequent desaturation due to immature incoordination of suck-swallow-breathing in preterm infants can influence multiple organs such as the heart, lungs, and brain, which can then affect growth and development. Most notably in preterm infants, feeding desaturation may even affect pulmonary function during gavage feeding. Because respiratory muscle activities may reflect the work required during respiration, we evaluated the differences in these activities between full-term and preterm infants with feeding desaturation, and investigated the correlations with clinical variables...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620597/early-serum-gut-hormone-concentrations-associated-with-time-to-full-enteral-feedings-in-preterm-infants
#12
Kristen H Shanahan, Xinting Yu, Laura G Miller, Steven D Freedman, Camilia R Martin
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate early postnatal serum gut hormone concentrations in preterm infants as predictors of time to full enteral feedings. The secondary objective was to identify infant characteristics and nutritional factors that modulate serum gut hormone concentrations and time to full enteral feedings. METHODS: Sixty-four preterm infants less than 30 weeks of gestation were included in this retrospective cohort study...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615691/effects-of-intestinal-microbiota-on-brain-development-in-humanized-gnotobiotic-mice
#13
Jing Lu, Lei Lu, Yueyue Yu, Joanne Cluette-Brown, Camilia R Martin, Erika C Claud
Poor growth in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit is associated with an increased risk for poor neurodevelopmental outcomes for preterm infants, however the mechanism is unclear. The microbiome has increasingly been recognized as a modifiable environmental factor to influence host development. Here we explore the hypothesis that the microbiome influences both growth phenotype and brain development. A germ free mouse transfaunation model was used to examine the effects of preterm infant microbiotas known to induce either high growth or low growth phenotypes on postnatal brain development...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613844/normal-cerebellar-growth-by-using-three-dimensional-us-in-the-preterm-infant-from-birth-to-term-corrected-age
#14
Isabel Benavente-Fernández, Enrique Rodríguez-Zafra, Jesús León-Martínez, Gema Jiménez-Gómez, Estefanía Ruiz-González, Rosalía Campuzano Fernández-Colina, Alfonso M Lechuga-Sancho, Simón P Lubián-López
Purpose To establish cross-sectional and longitudinal reference values for cerebellar size in preterm infants with normal neuroimaging findings and normal 2-year neurodevelopmental outcome by using cranial ultrasonography (US). Materials and Methods This prospective study consecutively enrolled preterm infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit from June 2011 to June 2014 with a birth weight of less than or equal to 1500 g and/or gestational age (GA) of less than or equal to 32 weeks. They underwent weekly cranial US from birth to term-equivalent age and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at term-equivalent age...
April 3, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583110/vitamin-a-supplementation-by-endotracheal-application-of-a-nano-encapsulated-preparation-is-feasible-in-ventilated-preterm-lambs
#15
Holger B Wahl, Matthias C Hütten, Dominik Monz, Erol Tutdibi, Daan Ophelders, Maria Nikiforou, Thomas Tschernig, Ludwig Gortner, Donatus Nohr, Hans K Biesalski, Boris W Kramer
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A (VA) is crucial for lung growth and development. In premature infants, inadequate VA levels are associated with an increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Intramuscular VA supplementation has been shown to decrease the incidence of BPD, but is not widely used in the clinical setting due to concerns about feasibility and pain. We studied VA kinetics, distribution, and the induction of early genetic expression of retinoid homeostatic genes in the lung after endotracheal and intravenous application in a preterm lamb model...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579496/effects-of-bathing-interval-on-skin-condition-and-axillary-bacterial-colonization-in-preterm-infants
#16
Jong Cheul Lee, Yaelim Lee, Ho Ran Park
AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of preterm infant bathing periods on skin condition and axillary skin colonization. BACKGROUND: Reducing the frequency of bathing in preterm infants is beneficial in reducing the risk of hypothermia and exposure to stress from frequent nursing contacts. METHODS: The subjects of this study were observed at The V hospital at the C University in South Korea between December 2012 and August 2013...
April 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574536/does-maternal-exposure-to-secondhand-tobacco-smoke-during-pregnancy-increase-the-risk-for-preterm-or-small-for-gestational-age-birth
#17
Adrienne T Hoyt, Mark A Canfield, Paul A Romitti, Lorenzo D Botto, Marlene T Anderka, Sergey V Krikov, Marcia L Feldkamp
Introduction While associations between active smoking and various adverse birth outcomes (ABOs) have been reported in the literature, less is known about the impact of secondhand smoke (SHS) on many pregnancy outcomes. Methods We examined the relationship between maternal exposure to SHS during pregnancy and preterm (< 37 weeks gestation) and small-for-gestational age (SGA; assessed using sex-, race/ethnic-, and parity-specific growth curves) singleton births using non-smoking controls from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2011)...
March 24, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571821/care-of-the-growth-restricted-newborn
#18
REVIEW
Bianca Carducci, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
With the first 1,000 days of life proving to be a critical window of opportunity for physical and cognitive growth and development, an optimal intrauterine environment is vital. If fetus needs are compromised prenatally, there is an increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and infants being born premature, low birth weight (LBW), or small-for-gestational age (SGA). Specialized care of these high-risk infants is necessary in terms of preconception interventions, resuscitation, thermoregulation, nutritional support and kangaroo mother care...
February 26, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570915/ischemia-modified-albumin-in-preterm-infants-born-to-mothers-with-preeclampsia
#19
Özmert M A Özdemir, Emine Özdemir, Yaşar Enli, Özer Öztekin, Hacer Ergin
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is at increased risk for maternal and/or fetal mortality or serious morbidity. PE is associated with ischemia and increased oxidative stress in placenta, which may lead to modification of plasma albumin to ischemia-modified-albumin (IMA). We aimed to investigate of IMA and hematological parameters in premature infants born to mothers with normal pregnancy and preeclampsia, and also in their mothers. METHODS: Twentyfive pregnants with PE and their premature newborns as PE-group, and 25 normotensive pregnants and their premature newborns as control-group were included the study...
March 23, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567656/cerebellar-growth-impairment-characterizes-school-aged-children-born-preterm-without-perinatal-brain-lesions
#20
K Pieterman, T J White, G E van den Bosch, W J Niessen, I K M Reiss, D Tibboel, F E Hoebeek, J Dudink
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Infants born preterm are commonly diagnosed with structural brain lesions known to affect long-term neurodevelopment negatively. Yet, the effects of preterm birth on brain development in the absence of intracranial lesions remain to be studied in detail. In this study, we aim to quantify long term consequences of preterm birth on brain development in this specific group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Neonatal cranial sonography and follow-up T1-weighted MR imaging and DTI were performed to evaluate whether the anatomic characteristics of the cerebrum and cerebellum in a cohort of school-aged children (6-12 years of age) were related to gestational age at birth in children free of brain lesions in the perinatal period...
March 22, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
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