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Growth preterm infants

Elizabeth L Stockley, Joseph Y Ting, John Kingdom, Sarah D McDonald, Jon Barrett, Anne Synnes, Luis Monterrosa, Prakesh S Shah
BACKGROUND: Intrapartum magnesium sulphate administration is recommended for fetal neuroprotection in women with imminent very preterm birth. However, previous studies have not included or separately analyzed the outcomes of pregnancies with fetal growth restriction that were treated with intrapartum magnesium sulphate. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the neonatal and neurodevelopmental outcomes of growth restricted fetuses born before 29 weeks' gestation and exposed to maternal intrapartum magnesium sulphate...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Caroline Steele
The importance of human milk for the preterm infant is well established (1-3). However, the feeding of human milk to preterm infants is typically much more complicated than the mere act of breastfeeding (3, 4). The limited oral feeding skills of many preterm infants often results in human milk being administered via an enteral feeding tube (4). In addition, fortification is commonly required to promote optimal growth and development-particularly in the smallest of preterm infants (2, 4, 5). Consequently, a mother's own milk must be pumped, labeled, transported to the hospital, stored, tracked for appropriate expiration dates and times, thawed (if previously frozen), fortified, and administered to the infant with care taken at each step of the process to avoid microbial contamination, misadministration (the wrong milk for the wrong patient), fortification errors, and waste (1-5)...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Atul Malhotra, Margie Castillo-Melendez, Beth J Allison, Amy Elizabeth Sutherland, Ilias Nitsos, Yen Pham, Anna Alves de Alencar Rocha, Michael C Fahey, Graeme R Polglase, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne Lee Miller
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and prematurity are associated with risk of brain injury and long-term neurological deficits. FGR infants born preterm are commonly exposed to mechanical ventilation, but it is not known whether ventilation differentially induces brain pathology in FGR infants, compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. We investigated markers of neuropathology in preterm FGR lambs, compared with AGA lambs, delivered by caesarean birth and ventilated under standard neonatal conditions for 24 hours...
September 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Norberto Perico, David Askenazi, Monica Cortinovis, Giuseppe Remuzzi
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and life-threatening complication in critically ill neonates. Gestational risk factors for AKI include premature birth, intrauterine growth restriction and low birthweight, which are associated with poor nephron development and are often the consequence of pre-gestational and gestational factors, such as poor nutritional status. Our understanding of how to best optimize renal development and prevent AKI is in its infancy; however, the identification of pre-gestational and gestational factors that increase the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes and the implementation of interventions, such as improving nutritional status early in pregnancy, have the potential to optimize fetal growth and reduce the risk of preterm birth, thereby improving kidney health...
September 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Karan Arora, Sorabh Goel, Swati Manerkar, Nimisha Konde, Harshad Panchal, Deeparaj Hegde, Jayashree Mondkar
OBJECTIVE: To determine effect of Premature Infant Oral Motor Intervention program on oro-motor function and time to full independent wati spoon feeds in preterm infants. METHODS: 30 preterm infants between 28-32 weeks of gestation on full gavage feeds of 150 mL/kg/day were randomized to receive either pre-feed oro-motor stimulation using Premature Infant Oral Motor Intervention (structured stimulation) or sham intervention (unstructured stimulation). RESULTS: Improvement in mean (SD) Neonatal Oro-Motor Assessment Scale (NOMAS) over 7 days from baseline was significantly higher in the study group infants as compared to control group (9...
August 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
Richard J Schanler, Sharon L Groh-Wargo, Bridget Barrett-Reis, Robert D White, Kaashif A Ahmad, Jeffery Oliver, Geraldine Baggs, Larry Williams, David Adamkin
OBJECTIVE: To compare growth, feeding tolerance, and clinical and biochemical evaluations in human milk-fed preterm infants randomized to receive either an acidified or a nonacidified liquid human milk fortifier. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective, controlled, parallel, multicenter growth and tolerance study included 164 preterm infants (≤32 weeks of gestation, birth weight 700-1500 g) who were randomized to acidified or nonacidified liquid human milk fortifier from study day 1, the first day of fortification, through study day 29 or until hospital discharge...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Preeti Dohare, Ali Kidwai, Japneet Kaur, Pranav Singla, Sachi Krishna, Damon Klebe, Xinmu Zhang, Robert Hevner, Praveen Ballabh
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common complication of prematurity in infants born at 23-28 weeks of gestation. Survivors exhibit impaired growth of the cerebral cortex and neurodevelopmental sequeale, but the underlying mechanism(s) are obscure. Previously, we have shown that neocortical neurogenesis continues until at least 28 gestational weeks. This renders the prematurely born infants vulnerable to impaired neurogenesis. Here, we hypothesized that neurogenesis is impaired by IVH, and that signaling through GSK3β, a critical intracellular kinase regulated by Wnt and other pathways, mediates this effect...
September 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Amna Widad A Nasuf, Shalini Ojha, Jon Dorling
BACKGROUND: Placing a small volume of colostrum directly onto the buccal mucosa of preterm infants during the early neonatal period may provide immunological and growth factors that stimulate the immune system and enhance intestinal growth. These benefits could potentially reduce the risk of infection and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and improve survival and long-term outcome. OBJECTIVES: To determine if early (within the first 48 hours of life) oropharyngeal administration of mother's own fresh or frozen/thawed colostrum can reduce rates of NEC, late-onset invasive infection, and/or mortality in preterm infants compared with controls...
September 7, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Katie M Pfister, Lei Zhang, Neely C Miller, Ellen C Ingolfsland, Ellen W Demerath, Sara E Ramel
BACKGROUND: Very preterm (VPT) infants are at-risk for altered growth, slower speed of processing (SOP), and hypertension. This study assesses the relationship between postnatal body composition (BC), neurodevelopment (indexed by SOP), and blood pressure (BP) in VPT infants. METHODS: Thirty-four VPT infants underwent weekly measurements and BC testing until discharge and post-discharge at 4 mos CGA and 4 yrs. At post-discharge visits, SOP was assessed using visual evoked potentials and the NIH Toolbox; BP was also measured...
August 21, 2018: Pediatric Research
Fengchun Gao, Xiaojuan Jiang, Qirong Li, Kefeng Fan
Changes of micro-ribonucleic acid-182 (miR-182) level in cases of intrauterine infection were investigated to explore the association between miR-182 level change and brain injury in premature infants. A total of 257 preterm infants born in obstetrics department of Jinan Maternity and Child Care Hospital from February 2015 to February 2017 were enrolled in this study. These preterm infants were divided into infected group (n=113) and uninfected group (n=144) based on pathological diagnosis results. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was employed to detect miR-182 level in amniotic fluid...
September 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Zeynep Canan Özdemir, Mehmet Arif Akşit
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of ghrelin, leptin, and insulin levels in the umbilical cord blood of preterm and term infants with anthropometric measurements and glucose metabolism. METHODS: Sixty-nine infants who were born between November 2004 and June 2005 were included in the study. Pregnancy ages, birth weights, heights, head circumferences, and Ponderal Indexes (PI) were identified. Ghrelin, leptin, insulin, and glucose levels in the umbilical cord blood were studied...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Do-Hyun Kim, Seung Han Shin, Ee-Kyung Kim, Han-Suk Kim
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the levels of angiogenic factors in cord blood are associated with the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants with maternal preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study included 199 singleton infants (gestational age < 32 weeks), including the preeclampsia group (59 infants) with severe/moderate BPD (24 infants) or no/mild BPD (35 infants) and the no preeclampsia group (140 infants)...
July 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Shadab Khan, Lana Vasung, Bahram Marami, Caitlin K Rollins, Onur Afacan, Cynthia M Ortinau, Edward Yang, Simon K Warfield, Ali Gholipour
Altered structural fetal brain development has been linked to neuro-developmental disorders. These structural alterations can be potentially detected in utero using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). However, acquisition and reconstruction of in utero fetal brain DTI remains challenging. Until now, motion-robust DTI methods have been employed for reconstruction of in utero fetal DTIs. However, due to the unconstrained fetal motion and permissible in utero acquisition times, these methods yielded limited success and have typically resulted in noisy DTIs...
August 30, 2018: NeuroImage
Sarah C MacDonald, Thomas F McElrath, Sonia Hernández-Díaz
Few studies have assessed the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with multiple sclerosis (MS). We used two large United States administrative databases (2011-2015 Truven Health Marketscan® Database; 2007-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample) to identify delivery cohorts. MS and pregnancy outcomes (infections, Cesarean section, preterm delivery, poor fetal growth, preeclampsia, chorioamnionitis, postpartum hemorrhage, stillbirth, infant malformations) were identified during pregnancy and at delivery. We calculated adjusted risk ratios by MS status and relapses in the year before delivery...
August 28, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Pi-Lien Hung, Mei-Hsin Hsu, Hong-Ren Yu, Kay L H Wu, Feng-Sheng Wang
BACKGROUND: Periventricular white-matter (WM) injury is a prominent feature of brain injury in preterm infants. Thyroxin (T4) treatment reduces the severity of hypoxic-ischemic (HI)-mediated WM injury in the immature brain. This study aimed to delineate molecular events underlying T4 protection following periventricular WM injury in HI rats. METHODS: Right common-carotid-artery ligation, followed by hypoxia, was performed on seven-day-old rat pups. The HI pups were injected with saline, or 0...
August 29, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nutkridta Pongsakul, Pasinee Kanaprach, Wararat Chiangjong, Sarayut Supapannachart, Pracha Nuntnarumit, Somchai Chutipongtanate
BACKGROUND: Infant formulas are produced to resemble human milk (HM) and to provide adequate energy and appropriate nutritional components for suitability of infant growth and development, some of which are customized for specific medical conditions. However, it has remained unclear whether formulas contain any biofunctionality equivalent to HM, particularly fetal intestinal cell growth promotion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biofunctionality in HM and various formulas by using an in vitro fetal intestinal cell growth assay...
September 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Yong Song, MarJanna Dahl, Wendy Leavitt, Jeremy Alvord, Calan Y Bradford, Kurt H Albertine, J Jane Pillow
Background: Preterm infants are deficient in vitamin A, which is essential for growth and development of the diaphragm. Preterm infants often require mechanical ventilation (MV) for respiratory distress. In adults, MV is associated with the development of ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction and difficulty weaning from the ventilator. We assessed the impact of MV on the preterm diaphragm and the protective effect of vitamin A during MV. Methods: Preterm lambs delivered operatively at ∼131 days gestation (full gestation: 150 days) received respiratory support by synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation for 3 days...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Qi Meng, Kosuke Inoue, Beate Ritz, Jørn Olsen, Zeyan Liew
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widespread industrial pollutants that are extremely persistent in the environment. A previous study in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) found prenatal perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) exposure was associated with decreased birth weight, but had insufficient statistical power to evaluate adverse birth outcomes. Here, we conducted additional analyses in three samples originating from the DNBC for 3535 mothers and infant pairs to evaluate associations between prenatal PFASs exposures and low birth weight and preterm birth...
August 24, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hannah R Schlotterer, Maryanne T Perrin
BACKGROUND: Pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) is the recommended feeding alternative for preterm infants when mother's own milk is not available. Use of PDHM in United States neonatal hospitals is increasing, although guidelines for the refrigerated and frozen storage are limited. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to review the current evidence for the storage of Holder PDHM (HPDHM) under refrigerated and frozen storage conditions. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted for studies published between 1985 and May 2018...
September 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Mei Ying Quan, Zheng Hong Li, Dan Hua Wang, Kurt Schibler, Li Yang, Jie Liu, Xuan Guang Qin, Xin Zhang, Tong Yan Han, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current enteral feeding practices in hospitalized late preterm infants in the Beijing area of China. METHODS: A multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted. Infants born after 34 weeks and before 37 weeks of gestation were enrolled from 25 hospitals in the Beijing area of China from October 2015 to October 2017. Data on enteral feeding practices were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1,463 late preterm infants were enrolled, with a mean gestational age (GA) of 35...
July 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
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