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Brainstem implantation

Davide Brotto, Irene Avato, Elisa Lovo, Eva Muraro, Roberto Bovo, Patrizia Trevisi, Alessandro Martini, Renzo Manara
Importance: Common cavity deformity is a rare congenital inner ear malformation associated with profound hearing loss and attributed to an early developmental arrest of the cochlear-vestibular structures. This narrative review highlights the need to identify reliable indicators of hearing rehabilitation outcome. Observations: Despite its relatively simple definition, common cavity deformity varies widely in morphologic features, presence of cochlear nerve fibers and remnants of Corti organ, and outcome after cochlear or brainstem implant...
November 8, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Matthew Shew, Helena Wichova, James Lin, Luke N Ledbetter, Hinrich Staecker
OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to evaluate the safety in patients with cochlear implants (CIs) and auditory brainstem implants (ABI) undergoing 1.5 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Secondly, we want to raise awareness on CI and MRI safety, and advocate for continued improvement and advancement to minimize morbidity for our CI patients. METHODS: Retrospective case series from 2006 to 2018 at a single tertiary academic center. Data was collected on patients with CI or auditory brainstem implants undergoing MRI...
November 9, 2018: Laryngoscope
Makoto Hosoya, Shujiro B Minami, Chieko Enomoto, Tatsuo Matsunaga, Kimitaka Kaga
Objectives: We sought to determine how the pathology altered electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (EABRs) in patients with hearing loss by evaluating EABRs in auditory neuropathy patients with OTOF mutations comparing with various types of congenital deafness. Methods: We included 15 patients with congenital hearing loss, grouped according to pathology: OTOF mutations (n = 4), GJB2 mutations (n = 4), SLC26A4 mutations (n = 4), or cytomegalovirus infections (n = 3)...
October 2018: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
Charis Khoo, A H NurHafiizhoh, Angela Tan, Tracy Tan, Hwan Ing Hee
BACKGROUND: The Auditory brainstem implant (ABI) is a new surgical option for hearing impaired children. Intraoperative neurophysiology monitoring includes brainstem mapping of cranial nerve (CN) IX, X, XI, XII and their motor nuclei, and corticobulbar tract motor-evoked potential. These require laryngeal electrodes and intra-oral pins, posing a challenge to airway management especially in the pediatric airway, where specialized electromyogram (EMG) tracheal tubes are not available. Challenges include determining the optimum position on the endotracheal tube (ETT) in which to place laryngeal electrode, and the increase in external diameter of ETT contributed by the wrapping the electrode around the shaft of ETT; this may necessitate downsizing of the tracheal tube...
November 7, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Yingyue Xu, Nan Xia, Michelle Lim, Xiaodong Tan, Minh Ha Tran, Erin Boulger, Fei Peng, Hunter Young, Christoph Rau, Alexander Rack, Claus-Peter Richter
An emerging method in the field of neural stimulation is the use of photons to activate neurons. The possible advantage of optical stimulation over electrical is attributable to its spatially selective activation of small neuron populations, which is promising in generating superior spatial resolution in neural interfaces. Two principal methods are explored for cochlear prostheses: direct stimulation of nerves with infrared light and optogenetics. This paper discusses basic requirements for developing a light delivery system (LDS) for the cochlea and provides examples for building such devices...
October 2018: Neurophotonics
Daniel Keppeler, Ricardo Martins Merino, David Lopez de la Morena, Burak Bali, Antoine Tarquin Huet, Anna Gehrt, Christian Wrobel, Swati Subramanian, Tobias Dombrowski, Fred Wolf, Vladan Rankovic, Andreas Neef, Tobias Moser
Optogenetic tools, providing non-invasive control over selected cells, have the potential to revolutionize sensory prostheses for humans. Optogenetic stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in the ear provides a future alternative to electrical stimulation used in cochlear implants. However, most channelrhodopsins do not support the high temporal fidelity pertinent to auditory coding because they require milliseconds to close after light-off. Here, we biophysically characterized the fast channelrhodopsin Chronos and revealed a deactivation time constant of less than a millisecond at body temperature...
November 5, 2018: EMBO Journal
David R Friedmann, Leena Asfour, William H Shapiro, J Thomas Roland, Susan B Waltzman
OBJECTIVE: To assess bimodal auditory performance in children with a cochlear implant (CI) and contralateral auditory brainstem implant (ABI). METHODS: This is a retrospective case review performed at a tertiary referral center. Four patients with cochlear nerve deficiency initially underwent cochlear implantation but were not benefiting from their devices and underwent ABI in the contralateral ear. The main outcome measures included age-appropriate speech perception and production assessments...
November 2, 2018: Audiology & Neuro-otology
Rita Yu, Hae-Jeong Park, Hojin Cho, Ara Ko, Chongwon Pae, Maeng-Keun Oh, Hoon-Chul Kang, Heung Dong Kim, Eun-Kyung Park, Kyu-Won Shim, Dong Suk Kim, Joon Soo Lee
OBJECTIVE: With the recognition of epilepsy as a network disease that disrupts the organizing ability of resting-state brain networks, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may control epileptic seizures through modulation of functional connectivity. We evaluated preoperative 2-deoxy-2[18 F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in VNS-implanted pediatric patients with refractory epilepsy to analyze the metabolic connectivity of patients and its prognostic role in seizure control...
October 28, 2018: Epilepsia
Thomas Pomberger, Steffen R Hage
BACKGROUND: Chronic recordings with multi-electrode arrays are widely used to study neural networks underlying complex primate behaviors. Most of these systems are designed for studying neural activity in the cortical hemispheres resulting in a lack of devices being capable of simultaneously recording from ensembles of neurons in deep brainstem structures. However, to fully understand complex behavior, it is fundamental to also decipher the intrinsic mechanisms of the underlying motor pattern generating circuits in the brainstem...
October 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
I P Tang, B H Kevin Ng, N Prepageran, S L Donald Ngian, H W Albert Sii
Auditory brainstem implantation (ABI) is the only solution to restore hearing when cochlear nerves are disrupted together with the pathologies where bilateral cochleae do not provide a suitable location for cochlear implantation. We reported first two successful auditory brainstem implantation cases in patients with neurofibromatosis Type II (NF2) with bilateral acoustic neuroma causing bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss in Malaysia. A good candidate selection, dedicated surgeons and rehabilitation team as well as strong family support are the crucial factors in achieving the best possible surgical, audiological and speech outcomes...
October 2018: Medical Journal of Malaysia
S Nospes, M A Brockmann, A Läßig
BACKGROUND: More than 100,000 patients with cochlear implants live in Germany. In addition, numerous patients have auditory bone conducted, middle-ear conducted or brainstem conducted implants equipped with implanted magnets. At the same time, the number of patients being examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasing. Therefore, MRI compatibility of these implants is an essential quality feature. METHODS: This article provides information about technical innovations and new auditory devices since November 2013 that have medical-technical certification in the European Union and the USA...
October 22, 2018: Der Radiologe
Noelia Muñoz Fernández, Carlos de Paula Vernetta, Laura Cavallé Garrido, Miguel Díaz Gómez, Constantino Morera Pérez
OBJECTIVES: Auditory brainstem potentials can be elicited by electrical stimulation of the round window (RW). In this technique, extracochlear stimulation is objectively used in the selection of cochlear implant (CI) candidates to avoid cochlear damage. However, until now, its use is limited due to the large artifacts generated by electrical stimulation. Our objective was to obtain reliable and reproducible electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (eEABRs) using a new method of stimulation...
October 13, 2018: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Kulam Najmudeen Magdoom, Francisco Delgado, Ana C Bohórquez, Alec C Brown, Paul R Carney, Carlos Rinaldi, Thomas H Mareci, James R Ewing, Malisa Sarntinoranont
BACKGROUND: Brainstem gliomas are aggressive and difficult to treat. Growth of these tumors may be characterized with MRI methods. PURPOSE: To visualize longitudinal changes in tumor volume, vascular leakiness, and tissue microstructure in an animal model of brainstem glioma. STUDY TYPE: Prospective animal model. ANIMAL MODEL: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 9) were imaged with 9L gliosarcoma cells infused into the pontine reticular formation of the brainstem...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Milan Stoiljkovic, Craig Kelley, Tamas L Horvath, Mihály Hajós
BACKGROUND: Translational research in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology provides evidence that accumulation of amyloid-β and hyperphosphorylated tau, neuropathological hallmarks of AD, is associated with complex disturbances in synaptic and neuronal function leading to oscillatory abnormalities in the neuronal networks that support memory and cognition. Accordingly, our recent study on transgenic TgF344-AD rats modeling AD showed an age-dependent reduction of stimulation-induced oscillations in the hippocampus, and disrupted long-range connectivity together with enhanced neuronal excitability in the cortex, reflected in greatly increased expression of high-voltage spindles, an epileptic absence seizure-like activity...
October 10, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
S Raghunandhan, K Madhav, A Senthilvadivu, K Natarajan, M Kameswaran
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric Auditory Brainstem Implantation (ABI) is indicated for children with congenital cochlear aplasia, absent/hypoplastic vestibulocochlear nerve, for whom cochlear implantation is not possible. Knowledge of the anatomical landmarks and variants in anatomy of the brainstem is vital for ABI surgery. METHOD: Study was done at Auditory implant centre in Madras ENT research foundation, which includes 24 children who had undergone ABI surgery and are being followed up for 1 year, post operatively...
October 4, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
M Polak, L Colletti, V Colletti
OBJECTIVES: To develop a reliable and objective fitting method for use with young children with an auditory brainstem implant (ABI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were 17 young children implanted with an ABI with the mean age 2 years and 4 months (8-64 months). Evoked auditory brainstem response (eABR) measurements were performed intraoperatively and at activation in order to record the auditory response and non-auditory side effects. Each child was tested to observe any subjective responses to the electric stimuli and non-auditory side effects...
October 3, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
John Ka Keung Sung, Betty Pui Ki Luk, Terence Ka Cheong Wong, Jiun Fong Thong, Hoi Tung Wong, Michael Chi Fai Tong
OBJECTIVE: This is a retrospective review of the impact of an Auditory Brainstem Implant (ABI) on the audiological rehabilitation and tonal language development of pediatric patients with prelingual profound deafness in Hong Kong. RESULTS: From January 2009 to February 2015, 11 pediatric patients with profound prelingual deafness received an ABI in Hong Kong (age range 1.67-3.75 years). Etiologies included Cochlear Nerve Deficiency in 7, Severe Cochlear Malformations in 2, and Retrocochlear Deafness in 2...
2018: Audiology & Neuro-otology
Yadollah Zahed Pasha, Mohammad Zamani, Ali Hashemi Fard, Ermia Zahed Pasha
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the results of hearing screening in all newborn infants, and their follow-up in Babol, northern Iran. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2014, all healthy neonates delivered in 3 hospitals were included in this cross-sectional study. Newborns were screened using the transient evoked otoacoustic emissions test before discharge. Those who failed to pass the examination were tested for auditory brainstem response (ABR) by the age of one month...
September 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Hanne Deprez, Robin Gransier, Michael Hofmann, Jan Wouters, Nicolas Verhaert
Acoustic hearing implants, such as direct acoustic cochlear implants (DACIs), can be used to treat profound mixed hearing loss. Electrophysiological responses in DACI subjects are of interest to confirm auditory processing intra-operatively, and to assist DACI fitting postoperatively. We present two related studies, focusing on DACI artifacts and electrophysiological measurements in DACI subjects, respectively. In the first study we aimed to characterize DACI artifacts, to study the feasibility of measuring frequency-specific electrophysiological responses in DACI subjects...
August 28, 2018: Hearing Research
M L Yang, H M Zhao, J J Li, D G Yang, Q Wang, L J Gao, W P Deng, L J Du, H M Gong, L Chen, Y M Wang, Y M Jian, J Li
Objective: To report the use of implantable diaphragm pacer (IDP) in a patient with high cervical spinal cord injury(HCSCI). Methods: A 14-year-old male patient, who suffered from a HCSCI at C2 neurological level and had been on a ventilator for 2 years, received IDP in August 2017 at China Rehabilitation Research Center. A systematic literature review was performed on IDP in patients with HCSCI in Pubmed, CNKI, and Wanfang databases, using the keywords: phrenic nerve and electrical stimulation and spinal cord injury; IDP and spinal cord injury; breathing pacemaker system and spinal cord injury...
September 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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