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aureus and gpa

Justyna Fijołek, Elzbieta Wiatr, Violetta Petroniec, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopec, Michal Bednarek, Dariusz Gawryluk, Magdalena Maria Martusewicz-Boros, Katarzyna Modrzewska, Elzbieta Radzikowska, Kazimerz Roszkowski-Sliz
OBJECTIVES: Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and its superantigens (SAg) seem to be a risk factor disease exacerbation in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). We investigated the association between the presence of SAg in nasal swabs and activity of disease in GPA patients also taking into account correlation with an antimicrobial treatment. METHODS: In a prospective study of a total of 150 GPA patients hospitalised in the period 2009-2016, nasal swabs were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and SAg...
May 4, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Melanie Schoppet, Julien Tailhades, Ketav Kulkarni, Max J Cryle
Natural products such as the glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs, including vancomycin and teicoplanin) are of great pharmaceutical importance due to their use against Gram-positive bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. GPAs are assembled in a complex process based on nonribosomal peptide synthesis and late-stage, multistep cross-linking of the linear heptapeptide performed by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. These P450 enzymes demonstrate varying degrees of substrate selectivity toward the linear peptide precursor, with limited information available about their tolerance regarding modifications to amino acid residues within the essential antibiotic core of the GPA...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Jan Willem Cohen Tervaert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis (AAV), the treatment of choice is either Rituximab or cyclophosphamide in combination with steroids. In less extended forms of AAV, however, less toxic regimens are being used.In the current review, we will focus on the role of one of these less toxic regimens, that is trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole monotherapy as induction treatment or as maintenance therapy in AAV. RECENT FINDINGS: A substantial portion of patients with active granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) limited to the upper airways can be initially controlled with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (2 × 960 mg/day) monotherapy...
April 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
David B G Oliveira
The small vessel vasculitides granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis are associated with autoantibodies to neutrophil cytoplasm antigens (ANCA), principally proteinase-3 (PR3) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). There is an association between GPA and nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. The recent finding that S. aureus produces proteins that bind tightly to and block the function of both PR3 and MPO suggests a mechanism for ANCA formation. The bacterial protein-autoantigen conjugate is recognised by B cells with ANCA specificity, internalised, and the bacterial protein processed and presented to T cells with specificity for bacterial peptides...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Corinna Glasner, Marcus C de Goffau, Mirjan M van Timmeren, Mirja L Schulze, Benita Jansen, Mehri Tavakol, Willem J B van Wamel, Coen A Stegeman, Cees G M Kallenberg, Jan P Arends, John W Rossen, Peter Heeringa, Jan Maarten van Dijl
The proteinase 3 (PR3)-positive anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) has been associated with chronic nasal S. aureus carriage, which is a risk factor for disease relapse. The present study was aimed at comparing the genetic make-up of S. aureus isolates from PR3-ANCA-positive GPA patients with that of isolates from patients suffering from myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA-positive AAV, and isolates from healthy controls. Based on a DNA microarray-based approach, we show that not only PR3-ANCA-positive GPA patients, but also MPO-ANCA-positive AAV patients mainly carried S...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jolanta Dadonienė, Gintarė Kumžaitė, Rimvydė Mačiulytė, Dalia Miltinienė
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to describe long-term patient survival and possible prognostic factors of a group of patients diagnosed with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) hospitalized at the tertiary Rheumatology Centre in Vilnius. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 27 patients hospitalized at the Rheumatology Centre of Santaros klinikos of Vilnius University Hospital from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2015 with diagnoses of GPA and MPA were carried out...
2017: Acta Medica Lituanica
Alexandre Wagner Silva de Souza, Mirjan van Timmeren, Jan-Stephan Sanders, Coen Stegeman, Peter Heeringa, Cees G M Kallenberg, Johanna Westra
BACKGROUND: Macrophages may present two distinct phenotypes indicated as M1 and M2 under different stimuli. M1 and M2 macrophages have divergent functions that range from enhancement of inflammation for M1 to tissue repair and remodeling for M2 macrophages. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes in biopsies from the airways of patients with active granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and to analyze their associations with T and B cells in those biopsies, and with nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, disease parameters and therapy...
May 18, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Anna Salmela, Niels Rasmussen, Jan Willem Cohen Tervaert, David R W Jayne, Agneta Ekstrand
Objective.: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether chronic nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is related to relapses in patients with newly diagnosed ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Methods.: In two clinical trials (n = 200), for early systemic (n = 83) and generalized (n = 117) AAV, nasal swabs were obtained monthly and at the time of a relapse. Chronic nasal SA carriage (CNSAC) was defined as ⩾ 75% of cultures being SA positive, with non-carriers being SA negative in all cultures and remaining patients being intermittent carriers...
June 1, 2017: Rheumatology
Emilio Besada, Wenche Koldingsnes, Johannes C Nossent
Objective. Chronic nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) increases the risk of relapse while Rituximab (RTX) is an effective agent for inducing and maintaining remission in patients with Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). We investigated whether B cell depletion and hypogammaglobulinemia that occur during RTX treatment increase the risk of chronic SA nasal carriage and subsequent disease flares, in GPA patients on long-term RTX maintenance therapy. Methods. Retrospective cohort study from a disease registry involving 29 GPA patients receiving RTX maintenance (median RTX dose of 9 g) during a median period of 49 months...
2015: PeerJ
Andreas Kronbichler, Julia Kerschbaum, Gert Mayer
A better understanding of the pathophysiology of autoimmune disorders is desired to allow tailored interventions. Despite increased scientific interest a direct pathogenic factor in autoimmune renal disease has been described only in a minority like membranous nephropathy or ANCA-associated vasculitis. Nonetheless the initial step leading to the formation of these antibodies is still obscure. In this review we will focus on the possible role of microbial factors in this context. Staphylococcus aureus may be a direct pathogenetic factor in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA)...
2015: Journal of Immunology Research
Ryan D Boehm, Justin Daniels, Shane Stafslien, Adnan Nasir, Joe Lefebvre, Roger J Narayan
In this study, the authors examined use of piezoelectric inkjet printing to apply an antifungal agent, voriconazole, to the surfaces of biodegradable polyglycolic acid microneedles. Polyglycolic acid microneedles with sharp tips (average tip radius = 25 ± 3 μm) were prepared using a combination of injection molding and drawing lithography. The elastic modulus (9.9 ± 0.3 GPa) and hardness (588.2 ± 33.8 MPa) values of the polyglycolic acid material were determined using nanoindentation and were found to be suitable for use in transdermal drug delivery devices...
2015: Biointerphases
Corinna Glasner, Mirjan M van Timmeren, Tim Stobernack, Till F Omansen, Erwin C Raangs, John W Rossen, Marcus C de Goffau, Jan P Arends, Greetje A Kampinga, Denny G A M Koedijk, Jolanda Neef, Girbe Buist, Mehri Tavakol, Willem J B van Wamel, Abraham Rutgers, Coen A Stegeman, Cees G M Kallenberg, Peter Heeringa, Jan Maarten van Dijl
Chronic nasal carriage of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus in patients with the autoimmune disease granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a risk factor for disease relapse. To date, it was neither known whether GPA patients show similar humoral immune responses to S. aureus as healthy carriers, nor whether specific S. aureus types are associated with GPA. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing humoral immune responses of GPA patients against S. aureus antigens in relation to the genetic diversity of their nasal S...
February 2, 2015: Scientific Reports
Mirjan M van Timmeren, Peter Heeringa, Cees G M Kallenberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infections have been suggested to contribute to disease induction and reactivation in many of the idiopathic vasculitides. This review describes and evaluates the evidence that microbes are involved in the etiopathogenesis of these diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-vessel vasculitis has recently been associated with two specific bacteria. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is thought to have an inducing role in Takayasu arteritis and a Burkholderia bacterium might be involved in giant cell arteritis...
July 2014: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Susan Azizi, Mansor Bin Ahmad, Mohd Zobir Hussein, Nor Azowa Ibrahim, Farideh Namvar
A series of novel bionanocomposites were cast using different contents of zinc oxide-silver nanoparticles (ZnO-AgNPs) stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) as multifunctional nanosized fillers in poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan (PVA/Cs) matrices. The morphological structure, mechanical properties, ultraviolet-visible absorption, and antimicrobial properties of the prepared films were investigated as a function of their CNC/ZnO-AgNP content and compared with PVA/chitosan/CNC bionanocomposite films. X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopic analyses showed that the CNC/ZnO-AgNPs were homogeneously dispersed in the PVA/Cs matrix and the crystallinity increased with increasing nanosized filler content...
2014: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Pamela M K Lutalo, David P D'Cruz
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly known as Wegener's Granulomatosis) is an autoimmune small vessel vasculitis which is highly associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). The hallmarks of this condition are systemic necrotising vasculitis, necrotising granulomatous inflammation, and necrotising glomerulonephritis. The aetiology of granulomatosis with polyangiitis is linked to environmental and infectious triggers inciting onset of disease in genetically predisposed individuals...
February 2014: Journal of Autoimmunity
Cees G M Kallenberg, Coen A Stegeman, Wayel H Abdulahad, Peter Heeringa
The antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAVs) comprise granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), primarily associated with antibodies to proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA); microscopic polyangiitis (MPA); and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), both principally associated with antibodies to myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA). Genetic and environmental factors are involved in their etiopathogenesis, with a possible role for silica exposure in AAVs and Staphylococcus aureus infection in GPA...
December 2013: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
C Makarov, I Berdicevsky, A Raz-Pasteur, I Gotman
Release of antimicrobial agents from bone healing devices can dramatically reduce the risk of implant-associated infection. Here we report the fabrication and antimicrobial activity of a multifunctional load-bearing bioresorbable material that can provide mechanical support to the healing bone all while slowly releasing an antibiotic drug. Dense beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)-40 vol% polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite containing 1 wt% vancomycin (VH) was high pressure consolidated at 2.5 GPa, at room temperature, or at 120 °C...
March 2013: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Janet Wohlers, Katrin Breucker, Rainer Podschun, Jürgen Hedderich, Peter Lamprecht, Petra Ambrosch, Martin Laudien
INTRODUCTION: In granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), a complex autoimmune small-vessel vasculitis frequently associated with chronic necrotizing inflammation of the nasal mucosa, elevated nasal Staphylococcus (S.) aureus carrier rates are a risk factor for relapse. As cytokines are primarily involved in the regulation of defense against potentially pathogenic microorganisms, the aim of this study was to compare healthy individuals and GPA patients with respect to their baseline cytokine expression of nasal epithelial cells (NEC), which form the first barrier against such triggers...
2012: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Naresh Saha, Kahraman Keskinbora, Ender Suvaci, Bikramjit Basu
The implant associated infection is widely considered as a major concern in the field of biomedical applications and this has been the driving force for developing HAp-based biomaterials with antibacterial additives for possible use in prosthetic devices. In our present work, we sintered Hydroxyapatite (HAp) with different concentrations of zinc oxide microrods (ZnO) at 1250°C to produce HAp-ZnO biocomposites. In vitro antimicrobial studies were carried out to understand how ZnO addition (up to 30 wt %) to HAp leads to the improvement in bacteria static/bactericidal property and thereby, can reduce bacterial infection on implant surface...
November 2010: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
W C Liu, C T Wong, M K Fong, W S Cheung, R Y T Kao, K D K Luk, W W Lu
Modified strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) bone cement was loaded with gentamicin sulfate to generate an efficient bioactive antibiotic drug delivery system for treatment of bone defects. Gentamicin release and its antibacterial property were determined by fluorometric method and inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) growth. Gentamicin was released from Sr-HA bone cement during the entire period of study and reached around 38% (w/w) cumulatively after 30 days. Antibacterial activity of the gentamicin loaded in the cements is clearly confirmed by the growth inhibition of S...
November 2010: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
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