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aureus and gpa

Emilio Besada, Wenche Koldingsnes, Johannes C Nossent
Objective. Chronic nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) increases the risk of relapse while Rituximab (RTX) is an effective agent for inducing and maintaining remission in patients with Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). We investigated whether B cell depletion and hypogammaglobulinemia that occur during RTX treatment increase the risk of chronic SA nasal carriage and subsequent disease flares, in GPA patients on long-term RTX maintenance therapy. Methods. Retrospective cohort study from a disease registry involving 29 GPA patients receiving RTX maintenance (median RTX dose of 9 g) during a median period of 49 months...
2015: PeerJ
Andreas Kronbichler, Julia Kerschbaum, Gert Mayer
A better understanding of the pathophysiology of autoimmune disorders is desired to allow tailored interventions. Despite increased scientific interest a direct pathogenic factor in autoimmune renal disease has been described only in a minority like membranous nephropathy or ANCA-associated vasculitis. Nonetheless the initial step leading to the formation of these antibodies is still obscure. In this review we will focus on the possible role of microbial factors in this context. Staphylococcus aureus may be a direct pathogenetic factor in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA)...
2015: Journal of Immunology Research
Ryan D Boehm, Justin Daniels, Shane Stafslien, Adnan Nasir, Joe Lefebvre, Roger J Narayan
In this study, the authors examined use of piezoelectric inkjet printing to apply an antifungal agent, voriconazole, to the surfaces of biodegradable polyglycolic acid microneedles. Polyglycolic acid microneedles with sharp tips (average tip radius = 25 ± 3 μm) were prepared using a combination of injection molding and drawing lithography. The elastic modulus (9.9 ± 0.3 GPa) and hardness (588.2 ± 33.8 MPa) values of the polyglycolic acid material were determined using nanoindentation and were found to be suitable for use in transdermal drug delivery devices...
2015: Biointerphases
Corinna Glasner, Mirjan M van Timmeren, Tim Stobernack, Till F Omansen, Erwin C Raangs, John W Rossen, Marcus C de Goffau, Jan P Arends, Greetje A Kampinga, Denny G A M Koedijk, Jolanda Neef, Girbe Buist, Mehri Tavakol, Willem J B van Wamel, Abraham Rutgers, Coen A Stegeman, Cees G M Kallenberg, Peter Heeringa, Jan Maarten van Dijl
Chronic nasal carriage of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus in patients with the autoimmune disease granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a risk factor for disease relapse. To date, it was neither known whether GPA patients show similar humoral immune responses to S. aureus as healthy carriers, nor whether specific S. aureus types are associated with GPA. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing humoral immune responses of GPA patients against S. aureus antigens in relation to the genetic diversity of their nasal S...
2015: Scientific Reports
Mirjan M van Timmeren, Peter Heeringa, Cees G M Kallenberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infections have been suggested to contribute to disease induction and reactivation in many of the idiopathic vasculitides. This review describes and evaluates the evidence that microbes are involved in the etiopathogenesis of these diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-vessel vasculitis has recently been associated with two specific bacteria. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is thought to have an inducing role in Takayasu arteritis and a Burkholderia bacterium might be involved in giant cell arteritis...
July 2014: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Susan Azizi, Mansor Bin Ahmad, Mohd Zobir Hussein, Nor Azowa Ibrahim, Farideh Namvar
A series of novel bionanocomposites were cast using different contents of zinc oxide-silver nanoparticles (ZnO-AgNPs) stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) as multifunctional nanosized fillers in poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan (PVA/Cs) matrices. The morphological structure, mechanical properties, ultraviolet-visible absorption, and antimicrobial properties of the prepared films were investigated as a function of their CNC/ZnO-AgNP content and compared with PVA/chitosan/CNC bionanocomposite films. X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopic analyses showed that the CNC/ZnO-AgNPs were homogeneously dispersed in the PVA/Cs matrix and the crystallinity increased with increasing nanosized filler content...
2014: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Pamela M K Lutalo, David P D'Cruz
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly known as Wegener's Granulomatosis) is an autoimmune small vessel vasculitis which is highly associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). The hallmarks of this condition are systemic necrotising vasculitis, necrotising granulomatous inflammation, and necrotising glomerulonephritis. The aetiology of granulomatosis with polyangiitis is linked to environmental and infectious triggers inciting onset of disease in genetically predisposed individuals...
February 2014: Journal of Autoimmunity
Cees G M Kallenberg, Coen A Stegeman, Wayel H Abdulahad, Peter Heeringa
The antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAVs) comprise granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), primarily associated with antibodies to proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA); microscopic polyangiitis (MPA); and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), both principally associated with antibodies to myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA). Genetic and environmental factors are involved in their etiopathogenesis, with a possible role for silica exposure in AAVs and Staphylococcus aureus infection in GPA...
December 2013: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
C Makarov, I Berdicevsky, A Raz-Pasteur, I Gotman
Release of antimicrobial agents from bone healing devices can dramatically reduce the risk of implant-associated infection. Here we report the fabrication and antimicrobial activity of a multifunctional load-bearing bioresorbable material that can provide mechanical support to the healing bone all while slowly releasing an antibiotic drug. Dense beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)-40 vol% polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite containing 1 wt% vancomycin (VH) was high pressure consolidated at 2.5 GPa, at room temperature, or at 120 °C...
March 2013: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Janet Wohlers, Katrin Breucker, Rainer Podschun, Jürgen Hedderich, Peter Lamprecht, Petra Ambrosch, Martin Laudien
INTRODUCTION: In granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), a complex autoimmune small-vessel vasculitis frequently associated with chronic necrotizing inflammation of the nasal mucosa, elevated nasal Staphylococcus (S.) aureus carrier rates are a risk factor for relapse. As cytokines are primarily involved in the regulation of defense against potentially pathogenic microorganisms, the aim of this study was to compare healthy individuals and GPA patients with respect to their baseline cytokine expression of nasal epithelial cells (NEC), which form the first barrier against such triggers...
2012: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Naresh Saha, Kahraman Keskinbora, Ender Suvaci, Bikramjit Basu
The implant associated infection is widely considered as a major concern in the field of biomedical applications and this has been the driving force for developing HAp-based biomaterials with antibacterial additives for possible use in prosthetic devices. In our present work, we sintered Hydroxyapatite (HAp) with different concentrations of zinc oxide microrods (ZnO) at 1250°C to produce HAp-ZnO biocomposites. In vitro antimicrobial studies were carried out to understand how ZnO addition (up to 30 wt %) to HAp leads to the improvement in bacteria static/bactericidal property and thereby, can reduce bacterial infection on implant surface...
November 2010: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
W C Liu, C T Wong, M K Fong, W S Cheung, R Y T Kao, K D K Luk, W W Lu
Modified strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) bone cement was loaded with gentamicin sulfate to generate an efficient bioactive antibiotic drug delivery system for treatment of bone defects. Gentamicin release and its antibacterial property were determined by fluorometric method and inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) growth. Gentamicin was released from Sr-HA bone cement during the entire period of study and reached around 38% (w/w) cumulatively after 30 days. Antibacterial activity of the gentamicin loaded in the cements is clearly confirmed by the growth inhibition of S...
November 2010: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Rong Shi, Sherry S Lamb, Bijan Zakeri, Ariane Proteau, Qizhi Cui, Traian Sulea, Allan Matte, Gerard D Wright, Miroslaw Cygler
There is a considerable interest in the modification of existing antibiotics to generate new antimicrobials. Glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs) are effective against serious Gram-positive bacterial pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. However, resistance to these antibiotics is becoming a serious problem requiring new strategies. We show that the Amycolatopsis orientalis (S)-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase MtfA, from the vancomycin-class GPA chloroeremomycin biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes in vivo and in vitro methyl transfer to generate methylated GPA derivatives of the teicoplanin class...
April 24, 2009: Chemistry & Biology
M K Sandel, Y-F G Wu, J L McKillip
AIMS: To determine whether sublethally-injured (acid- or heat-shocked) Staphylococcus aureus cells are recoverable using selective agar overlays. METHODS AND RESULTS: Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) Agar overlaid with either Baird-Parker Agar (BPA) or Gram-Positive Agar (GPA) was compared in the ability to resuscitate heat- and acid-shocked enterotoxigenic Staph. aureus. BHI/BPA overlays allowed for greater recovery of both heat- and acid-shocked cells than BHI/GPA, although the former was not selective and allowed growth of bacteria other than Staph...
2003: Journal of Applied Microbiology
P A Banks, S G Gerzof, R E Langevin, S G Silverman, G T Sica, M D Hughes
We have performed CT-guided percutaneous needle aspiration in 104 patients with severe pancreatitis strongly suspected of harboring pancreatic infection on the basis of systemic toxicity and CT findings (Balthazar CT grade D or E). Of these 104 patients, 51 (49%) were documented with pancreatic infection. Gram stain was positive in 54 of 58 infected aspirates, and culture was positive in all 58. Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequent organisms. Eighty-six percent of infected processes contained only one organism...
December 1995: International Journal of Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology
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