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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913453/movement-patterns-of-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus-in-farmlands-in-botswana
#1
L K Van der Weyde, T Y Hubel, J Horgan, J Shotton, R McKenna, A M Wilson
Botswana has the second highest population of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with most living outside protected areas. As a result, many cheetahs are found in farming areas, bringing them into conflict with people. This study aimed to look at movement patterns of cheetahs in farming environments to determine whether cheetahs have adapted their movements in these human-dominated landscapes. We fitted high-time resolution GPS collars to cheetahs in the Ghanzi farmlands of Botswana. GPS locations were used to calculate home range sizes as well as number and duration of visits to landscape features using a time-based local convex hull method...
December 2, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905596/spectral-pointillism-of-enhanced-raman-scattering-for-accessing-structural-and-conformational-information-on-single-protein
#2
Jean-Emmanuel Clément, Aymeric Leray, Alexandre Bouhelier, Eric Finot
In this contribution, we provide new insights on the temporal fluctuations of surface enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of large single molecules such as proteins. Because they can only fit partly into small active volume, SERS analysis is referred to spectral pointillism where only protein subdomains are shined and the whole protein landscape is built from the dynamics of successive individual spectra. By applying our approach on bovine serum albumin, we show that single protein subdomains are mostly comprised of three distinct amino acids...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903052/assessing-spatial-inequalities-in-accessing-community-pharmacies-a-mixed-geographically-weighted-approach
#3
Alexander Domnich, Lucia Arata, Daniela Amicizia, Alessio Signori, Roberto Gasparini, Donatella Panatto
Geographical accessibility is an important determinant for the utilisation of community pharmacies. The present study explored patterns of spatial accessibility with respect to pharmacies in Liguria, Italy, a region with particular geographical and demographic features. Municipal density of pharmacies was proxied as the number of pharmacies per capita and per km2, and spatial autocorrelation analysis was performed to identify spatial clusters. Both non-spatial and spatial models were constructed to predict the study outcome...
November 16, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896027/assessing-pollinators-use-of-floral-resource-subsidies-in-agri-environment-schemes-an-illustration-using-phacelia-tanacetifolia-and-honeybees
#4
Rowan Sprague, Stéphane Boyer, Georgia M Stevenson, Steve D Wratten
BACKGROUND: Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) are frequently used in agriculture for pollination services because of their abundance, generalist floral preferences, ease of management and hive transport. However, their populations are declining in many countries. Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) are being implemented in agricultural systems to combat the decline in populations of pollinators and other insects. Despite AES being increasingly embedded in policy and budgets, scientific assessments of many of these schemes still are lacking, and only a few studies have examined the extent to which insect pollinators use the floral enhancements that are part of AES and on which floral components they feed (i...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891219/environmental-selection-is-a-main-driver-of-divergence-in-house-sparrows-passer-domesticus-in-romania-and-bulgaria
#5
Julia C Geue, Csongor I Vágási, Mona Schweizer, Péter L Pap, Henri A Thomassen
Both neutral and adaptive evolutionary processes can cause population divergence, but their relative contributions remain unclear. We investigated the roles of these processes in population divergence in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) from Romania and Bulgaria, regions characterized by high landscape heterogeneity compared to Western Europe. We asked whether morphological divergence, complemented with genetic data in this human commensal species, was best explained by environmental variation, geographic distance, or landscape resistance-the effort it takes for an individual to disperse from one location to the other-caused by either natural or anthropogenic barriers...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890965/beescout-a-model-of-bee-scouting-behaviour-and-a-software-tool-for-characterizing-nectar-pollen-landscapes-for-beehave
#6
M A Becher, V Grimm, J Knapp, J Horn, G Twiston-Davies, J L Osborne
Social bees are central place foragers collecting floral resources from the surrounding landscape, but little is known about the probability of a scouting bee finding a particular flower patch. We therefore developed a software tool, BEESCOUT, to theoretically examine how bees might explore a landscape and distribute their scouting activities over time and space. An image file can be imported, which is interpreted by the model as a "forage map" with certain colours representing certain crops or habitat types as specified by the user...
November 24, 2016: Ecological Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886568/deep-sequencing-methods-for-protein-engineering-and-design
#7
REVIEW
Emily E Wrenbeck, Matthew S Faber, Timothy A Whitehead
The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized protein science, and the development of complementary methods enabling NGS-driven protein engineering have followed. In general, these experiments address the functional consequences of thousands of protein variants in a massively parallel manner using genotype-phenotype linked high-throughput functional screens followed by DNA counting via deep sequencing. We highlight the use of information rich datasets to engineer protein molecular recognition...
November 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886273/improving-landscape-inference-by-integrating-heterogeneous-data-in-the-inverse-ising-problem
#8
Pierre Barrat-Charlaix, Matteo Figliuzzi, Martin Weigt
The inverse Ising problem and its generalizations to Potts and continuous spin models have recently attracted much attention thanks to their successful applications in the statistical modeling of biological data. In the standard setting, the parameters of an Ising model (couplings and fields) are inferred using a sample of equilibrium configurations drawn from the Boltzmann distribution. However, in the context of biological applications, quantitative information for a limited number of microscopic spins configurations has recently become available...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881750/experimental-evidence-that-honeybees-depress-wild-insect-densities-in-a-flowering-crop
#9
Sandra A M Lindström, Lina Herbertsson, Maj Rundlöf, Riccardo Bommarco, Henrik G Smith
While addition of managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) improves pollination of many entomophilous crops, it is unknown if it simultaneously suppresses the densities of wild insects through competition. To investigate this, we added 624 honeybee hives to 23 fields of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) over 2 years and made sure that the areas around 21 other fields were free from honeybee hives. We demonstrate that honeybee addition depresses the densities of wild insects (bumblebees, solitary bees, hoverflies, marchflies, other flies, and other flying and flower-visiting insects) even in a massive flower resource such as oilseed rape...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881471/selection-limits-to-adaptive-walks-on-correlated-landscapes
#10
Jorge Pérez Heredia, Barbora Trubenová, Dirk Sudholt, Tiago Paixão
Adaptation depends critically on the effects of new mutations and their dependency on the genetic background they occur in. These two factors can be summarized by the fitness landscape. However, it would require testing all mutations in all backgrounds, making the definition and analysis of fitness landscapes mostly inaccessible. Instead of postulating a particular fitness landscape, we address this problem by considering general classes of landscapes and calculating an upper limit for the time it takes for a population to reach a fitness peak, circumventing the need to have full knowledge about the fitness landscape...
November 23, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878092/putting-the-behavior-into-animal-movement-modeling-improved-activity-budgets-from-use-of-ancillary-tag-information
#11
Sophie Bestley, Ian Jonsen, Robert G Harcourt, Mark A Hindell, Nicholas J Gales
Animal movement research relies on biotelemetry, and telemetry-based locations are increasingly augmented with ancillary information. This presents an underutilized opportunity to enhance movement process models. Given tags designed to record specific behaviors, efforts are increasing to update movement models beyond reliance solely upon horizontal movement information to improve inference of space use and activity budgets. We present two state-space models adapted to incorporate ancillary data to inform three discrete movement states: directed, resident, and an activity state...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875334/thin-film-growth-studies-using-time-resolved-x-ray-scattering
#12
Stefan Kowarik
Thin-film growth is important for novel functional materials and new generations of devices. The non-equilibrium growth physics involved is very challenging, because the energy landscape for atomic scale processes is determined by many parameters, such as the diffusion and Ehrlich-Schwoebel barriers. We review the in situ real-time techniques of x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray growth oscillations and diffuse x-ray scattering (GISAXS) for the determination of structure and morphology on length scales from Å to µm...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873369/the-genetic-architecture-of-novel-trophic-specialists-higher-effect-sizes-are-associated-with-exceptional-oral-jaw-diversification-in-a-pupfish-adaptive-radiation
#13
Christopher H Martin, Priscilla A Erickson, Craig T Miller
The genetic architecture of adaptation is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms and constraints governing diversification. However, most case studies focus on loss of complex traits or parallel speciation in similar environments. It is still unclear how the genetic architecture of these local adaptive processes compares to the architecture of evolutionary transitions contributing to morphological and ecological novelty. Here we identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) between two trophic specialists in an excellent case study for examining the origins of ecological novelty: a sympatric radiation of pupfishes endemic to San Salvador Island, Bahamas containing a large-jawed scale-eater and a short-jawed molluscivore with a skeletal nasal protrusion...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870991/potts-hamiltonian-models-of-protein-co-variation-free-energy-landscapes-and-evolutionary-fitness
#14
REVIEW
Ronald M Levy, Allan Haldane, William F Flynn
Potts Hamiltonian models of protein sequence co-variation are statistical models constructed from the pair correlations observed in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) of a protein family. These models are powerful because they capture higher order correlations induced by mutations evolving under constraints and help quantify the connections between protein sequence, structure, and function maintained through evolution. We review recent work with Potts models to predict protein structure and sequence-dependent conformational free energy landscapes, to survey protein fitness landscapes and to explore the effects of epistasis on fitness...
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870010/context-dependent-landscape-of-fear-algal-density-elicits-risky-herbivory-in-a-coral-reef
#15
Michael A Gil, Julie Zill, José M Ponciano
Foraging theory posits that isolation from refuge habitat within a landscape increases perceived predation risk and, thus, suppresses the foraging behavior of prey species. However, these effects may depend fundamentally on resource availability, which could affect prey boldness and can change considerably through bottom-up processes. We conducted a field survey and experiment in a coral reef to test the effects of isolation from refuge habitat (i.e., reef structure) on herbivory by reef fishes and whether these effects depend on resource density...
November 21, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870008/phenotypic-plasticity-of-nest-timing-in-a-post-glacial-landscape-how-do-reptiles-adapt-to-seasonal-time-constraints
#16
Christopher Edge, Njal Rollinson, Ronald Brooks, Justin Congdon, John Iverson, Fred Janzen, Jacqueline Litzgus
Life-histories evolve in response to constraints on the time available for growth and development. Nesting date and its plasticity in response to spring temperature may therefore be important components of fitness in oviparous ectotherms near their northern range limit, as reproducing early provides more time for embryos to complete development before winter. We used data collected over several decades to compare air temperature - nest date plasticity in populations of painted turtles and snapping turtles from a relatively warm environment (southeastern Michigan) near the southern extent of the last glacial maximum, to a relatively cool environment (central Ontario) near the northern extent of post-glacial recolonization...
November 21, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869745/many-activities-one-structure-functional-plasticity-of-ribozyme-folds
#17
REVIEW
Matthew W L Lau, Adrian R Ferré-D'Amaré
Catalytic RNAs, or ribozymes, are involved in a number of essential biological processes, such as replication of RNA genomes and mobile genetic elements, RNA splicing, translation, and RNA degradation. The function of ribozymes requires the formation of active sites decorated with RNA functional groups within defined three-dimensional (3D) structures. The genotype (sequence) of RNAs ultimately determines what 3D structures they adopt (as a function of their environmental conditions). These 3D structures, in turn, give rise to biochemical activity, which can further elaborate them by catalytic rearrangements or association with other molecules...
November 18, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864645/factors-influencing-and-consequences-of-breeding-dispersal-and-habitat-choice-in-female-grey-seals-halichoerus-grypus-on-sable-island-nova-scotia
#18
Jenny Weitzman, Cornelia den Heyer, Don W Bowen
Selection of breeding location can influence reproductive success and fitness. Breeding dispersal links habitat use and reproduction. This study investigated factors affecting breeding dispersal and its reproductive consequences in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) on Sable Island, Nova Scotia. Breeding dispersal distance was determined in 692 individually marked, known-age female grey seals observed from 2004 to 2014. We used generalized linear mixed-effects models to test hypotheses concerning environmental and demographic factors influencing breeding dispersal distance and the consequences of dispersal distance on offspring weaning mass...
November 19, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864516/on-the-un-predictability-of-a-large-intragenic-fitness-landscape
#19
Claudia Bank, Sebastian Matuszewski, Ryan T Hietpas, Jeffrey D Jensen
The study of fitness landscapes, which aims at mapping genotypes to fitness, is receiving ever-increasing attention. Novel experimental approaches combined with next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods enable accurate and extensive studies of the fitness effects of mutations, allowing us to test theoretical predictions and improve our understanding of the shape of the true underlying fitness landscape and its implications for the predictability and repeatability of evolution. Here, we present a uniquely large multiallelic fitness landscape comprising 640 engineered mutants that represent all possible combinations of 13 amino acid-changing mutations at 6 sites in the heat-shock protein Hsp90 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under elevated salinity...
November 18, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857276/community-based-exercise-programs-for-cancer-survivors
#20
Rita Musanti, Brittany Murley
BACKGROUND: Cancer exercise programming in the community has been emerging in response to the increasing numbers of cancer survivors and social factors favoring movement away from a sedentary lifestyle. OBJECTIVES: This article examines several community-based exercise programs for cancer survivors as exemplars of successful programs. METHODS: The article investigates where the research is leading as technological advances and cloud-based technologies change the fitness landscape...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
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