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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718801/from-variation-of-influenza-viral-proteins-to-vaccine-development
#1
REVIEW
Wandi Zhu, Chao Wang, Bao-Zhong Wang
Recurrent influenza epidemics and occasional pandemics are one of the most important global public health concerns and are major causes of human morbidity and mortality. Influenza viruses can evolve through antigen drift and shift to overcome the barriers of human immunity, leading to host adaption and transmission. Mechanisms underlying this viral evolution are gradually being elucidated. Vaccination is an effective method for the prevention of influenza virus infection. However, the emergence of novel viruses, including the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1), the avian influenza A virus (H7N9), and the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAI H5N1), that have infected human populations frequently in recent years reveals the tremendous challenges to the current influenza vaccine strategy...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716906/virus-found-in-a-boreal-lake-links-ssdna-and-dsdna-viruses
#2
Elina Laanto, Sari Mäntynen, Luigi De Colibus, Jenni Marjakangas, Ashley Gillum, David I Stuart, Janne J Ravantti, Juha T Huiskonen, Lotta-Riina Sundberg
Viruses have impacted the biosphere in numerous ways since the dawn of life. However, the evolution, genetic, structural, and taxonomic diversity of viruses remain poorly understood, in part because sparse sampling of the virosphere has concentrated mostly on exploring the abundance and diversity of dsDNA viruses. Furthermore, viral genomes are highly diverse, and using only the current sequence-based methods for classifying viruses and studying their phylogeny is complicated. Here we describe a virus, FLiP (Flavobacterium-infecting, lipid-containing phage), with a circular ssDNA genome and an internal lipid membrane enclosed in the icosahedral capsid...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716118/evolutionary-and-genetic-analysis-of-the-vp2-gene-of-canine-parvovirus
#3
Gairu Li, Senlin Ji, Xiaofeng Zhai, Yuxiang Zhang, Jie Liu, Mengyan Zhu, Jiyong Zhou, Shuo Su
BACKGROUND: Canine parvovirus (CPV) type 2 emerged in 1978 in the USA and quickly spread among dog populations all over the world with high morbidity. Although CPV is a DNA virus, its genomic substitution rate is similar to some RNA viruses. Therefore, it is important to trace the evolution of CPV to monitor the appearance of mutations that might affect vaccine effectiveness. RESULTS: Our analysis shows that the VP2 genes of CPV isolated from 1979 to 2016 are divided into six groups: GI, GII, GIII, GIV, GV, and GVI...
July 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713857/a-new-clade-of-insect-specific-flaviviruses-from-australian-anopheles-mosquitoes-displays-species-specific-host-restriction
#4
Agathe M G Colmant, Jody Hobson-Peters, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Andrew F van den Hurk, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Weng Kong Chow, Cheryl A Johansen, Jelke Fros, Peter Simmonds, Daniel Watterson, Chris Cazier, Kayvan Etebari, Sassan Asgari, Benjamin L Schulz, Nigel Beebe, Laura J Vet, Thisun B H Piyasena, Hong-Duyen Nguyen, Ross T Barnard, Roy A Hall
Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses found worldwide and are responsible for significant human and veterinary diseases, including dengue, Zika, and West Nile fever. Some flaviviruses are insect specific and replicate only in mosquitoes. We report a genetically divergent group of insect-specific flaviviruses from Anopheles mosquitoes that do not replicate in arthropod cell lines or heterologous Anopheles species, exhibiting unprecedented specialization for their host species. Determination of the complete sequences of the RNA genomes of three of these viruses, Karumba virus (KRBV), Haslams Creek virus, and Mac Peak virus (McPV), that are found in high prevalence in some Anopheles mosquito populations and detection of virus-specific proteins, replicative double-stranded RNA, and small interfering RNA responses in the host mosquito species provided strong evidence of a functional replicating virus in the mosquito midgut...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713014/a-recombinant-type-2-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-between-nadc30-like-and-a-mlv-like-genetic-characterization-and-pathogenicity-for-piglets
#5
Ting Bian, Yingfeng Sun, Meng Hao, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Xin Guo, Jun Han, Hanchun Yang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically important pathogen for swine industry worldwide. The recombination occurring among PRRSV strains has been recognized as one of important molecular mechanisms for the evolution of PRRSV. Current prevalence of PRRSV NADC30-like causing clinical disease outbreaks is highly concerned in China. In the present study, the genetic characterization of a recombinant type 2 PRRSV (designated TJnh1501) was analyzed and its pathogenicity for piglets was examined...
July 13, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712937/returning-ex-patriot-chinese-to-guangdong-china-increase-the-risk-for-local-transmission-of-zika-virus
#6
Jiufeng Sun, de Wu, Haojie Zhong, Dawei Guan, Huan Zhang, Qiqi Tan, Huiqiong Zhou, Meng Zhang, Dan Ning, Baohuan Zhang, Changwen Ke, Tie Song, Jinyan Lin, Yonghui Zhang, Marion Koopmans, George F Gao
OBJECTIVES: Rapid transmission and linkage to microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome have made Zika virus (ZIKV) infection become a serious threat to global public health. The epidemiology, virological characteristics and genetic evolution of introduced ZIKV to Guangdong, China, were investigated. METHODS: Analyses of the epidemiological characteristics and genetic diversity of ZIKV isolates were performed. RESULTS: Nineteen confirmed ZIKV infection cases were imported from Venezuela and Samoa...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710393/emergence-of-on1-genotype-of-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-subgroup-a-in-china-between-2011-and-2015
#7
Jinhua Song, Yan Zhang, Huiling Wang, Jing Shi, Liwei Sun, Xiaojie Zhang, Zifeng Yang, Wenda Guan, Hong Zhang, Pengbo Yu, Zhengde Xie, Aili Cui, Teresa I Ng, Wenbo Xu
A molecular epidemiological study of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) was conducted to examine the distribution of its subgroups and genotypes, as well as to identify its transmission pattern in China. A total of 705 samples collected from 9 provinces in China between January 2008 and February 2015 were identified as HRSV-positive and were subsequently sequenced. Of these, 336 samples were HRSV subgroup A (HRSVA), 368 samples were HRSV subgroup B (HRSVB), and 1 sample contained both HRSVA and HRSVB...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709006/compartmental-hbv-evolution-and-replication-in-liver-and-extrahepatic-sites-after-nucleos-tide-analogue-therapy-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-carriers
#8
Shan Gao, Zhong-Ping Duan, Yu Chen, Frank van der Meer, Samuel S Lee, Carla Osiowy, Guido van Marle, Carla S Coffin
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants are associated with nucleos/tide analogue (NA) response and liver disease but it is unknown whether NA influences extrahepatic HBV persistence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate HBV replication and genetic evolution in hepatic and extrahepatic sites of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) before and after NA therapy. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 13 paired plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), were collected from chronic HBV carriers at baseline and after a median 53 weeks NA therapy as well as liver biopsy (N=7 baseline, N=5 follow-up)...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708860/charged-amino-acid-variability-related-to-n-glyco-sylation-and-epitopes-in-a-h3n2-influenza-hem-agglutinin-and-neuraminidase
#9
Zhong-Zhou Huang, Liang Yu, Ping Huang, Li-Jun Liang, Qing Guo
BACKGROUND: The A/H3N2 influenza viruses circulated in humans have been shown to undergo antigenic drift, a process in which amino acid mutations result from nucleotide substitutions. There are few reports regarding the charged amino acid mutations. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relations between charged amino acids, N-glycosylation and epitopes in hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). METHODS: A total of 700 HA genes (691 NA genes) of A/H3N2 viruses were chronologically analyzed for the mutational variants in amino acid features, N-glycosylation sites and epitopes since its emergence in 1968...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707785/equine-hepacivirus-persistent-infection-in-a-horse-with-chronic-wasting
#10
G Elia, G Lanave, E Lorusso, A Parisi, A Trotta, R Buono, V Martella, N Decaro, C Buonavoglia
Equine hepacivirus is the closest homologue of hepatitis C virus. Limited data on the clinical features of this infection are available. We report the identification of a horse with high-titre viremia by equine hepacivirus. Over a 15-month follow-up, the clinical signs and the viremic status persisted, suggesting a chronic evolution.
July 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706037/opportunities-and-challenges-in-modeling-emerging-infectious-diseases
#11
REVIEW
C Jessica E Metcalf, Justin Lessler
The term "pathogen emergence" encompasses everything from previously unidentified viruses entering the human population to established pathogens invading new populations and the evolution of drug resistance. Mathematical models of emergent pathogens allow forecasts of case numbers, investigation of transmission mechanisms, and evaluation of control options. Yet, there are numerous limitations and pitfalls to their use, often driven by data scarcity. Growing availability of data on pathogen genetics and human ecology, coupled with computational and methodological innovations, is amplifying the power of models to inform the public health response to emergence events...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705717/whole-genome-characterization-of-uruguayan-strains-of-avian-infectious-bronchitis-virus-reveals-extensive-recombination-between-the-two-major-south-american-lineages
#12
Ana Marandino, Gonzalo Tomás, Yanina Panzera, Gonzalo Greif, Adriana Parodi-Talice, Martín Hernández, Claudia Techera, Diego Hernández, Ruben Pérez
Infectious bronchitis virus (Gammacoronavirus, Coronaviridae) is a genetically variable RNA virus that causes one of the most persistent respiratory diseases in poultry. The virus is classified in genotypes and lineages with different epidemiological relevance. Two lineages of the GI genotype (11 and 16) have been widely circulating for decades in South America. GI-11 is an exclusive South American lineage while the GI-16 lineage is distributed in Asia, Europe and South America. Here, we obtained the whole genome of two Uruguayan strains of the GI-11 and GI-16 lineages using Illumina high-throughput sequencing...
July 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696188/evolution-of-cross-neutralizing-antibodies-and-mapping-epitope-specificity-in-plasma-of-chronic-hiv-1-infected-antiretroviral-therapy-na%C3%A3-ve-children-from-india
#13
Muzamil A Makhdoomi, Lubina Khan, Sanjeev Kumar, Heena Aggarwal, Ravinder Singh, Rakesh Lodha, Mohit Singla, Bimal K Das, Sushil K Kabra, Kalpana Luthra
Delineating the factors leading to the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) during natural HIV-1 infection and dissecting their epitope specificities generates useful information for vaccine design. This is the first longitudinal study to assess the plasma-neutralizing antibody response and neutralizing determinants in HIV-1-infected children from India. We enrolled 26 and followed up 20 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve, asymptomatic, chronic HIV-1-infected children. Five (19.2 %) baseline and 10 (50 %) follow-up plasma samples neutralized ≥50 % of subtypes A, B and C tier 2 viruses at an ID50 titre ≥150...
July 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695208/population-genomics-of-picophytoplankton-unveils-novel-chromosome-hypervariability
#14
Romain Blanc-Mathieu, Marc Krasovec, Maxime Hebrard, Sheree Yau, Elodie Desgranges, Joel Martin, Wendy Schackwitz, Alan Kuo, Gerald Salin, Cecile Donnadieu, Yves Desdevises, Sophie Sanchez-Ferandin, Hervé Moreau, Eric Rivals, Igor V Grigoriev, Nigel Grimsley, Adam Eyre-Walker, Gwenael Piganeau
Tiny photosynthetic microorganisms that form the picoplankton (between 0.3 and 3 μm in diameter) are at the base of the food web in many marine ecosystems, and their adaptability to environmental change hinges on standing genetic variation. Although the genomic and phenotypic diversity of the bacterial component of the oceans has been intensively studied, little is known about the genomic and phenotypic diversity within each of the diverse eukaryotic species present. We report the level of genomic diversity in a natural population of Ostreococcus tauri (Chlorophyta, Mamiellophyceae), the smallest photosynthetic eukaryote...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694798/dynamic-co-evolution-and-interaction-of-avian-leukosis-virus-genetic-variants-and-host-immune-responses
#15
Xuan Dong, Fanfeng Meng, Tao Hu, Sidi Ju, Yang Li, Peng Sun, Yixin Wang, Wenqing Chen, Fushou Zhang, Hongqin Su, Sifei Li, He Cui, Junxia Chen, Shuzhen Xu, Lichun Fang, Huaibiao Luan, Zhenjie Zhang, Shuang Chang, Jianliang Li, Lei Wang, Peng Zhao, Weifeng Shi, Zhizhong Cui
Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J), a typical retrovirus, is characterized of existence of a cloud of diverse variants and considerable genetic diversity. Previous studies describing the evolutionary dynamics of ALV-J genetic variants mainly focused on the early infection period or few randomly selected clones. Here, we inoculated 30 specific-pathogen-free chickens with the same founder ALV-J stock of known genetic background. Six (three antibody positive and three antibody negative) chickens were selected among 15 chickens with viremia...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694514/within-host-evolution-of-segments-ratio-for-the-tripartite-genome-of-alfalfa-mosaic-virus
#16
Beilei Wu, Mark P Zwart, Jesús A Sánchez-Navarro, Santiago F Elena
The existence of multipartite viruses is an intriguing mystery in evolutionary virology. Several hypotheses suggest benefits that should outweigh the costs of a reduced transmission efficiency and of segregation of coadapted genes associated with encapsidating each segment into a different particle. Advantages range from increasing genome size despite high mutation rates, faster replication, more efficient selection resulting from reassortment during mixed infections, better regulation of gene expression, or enhanced virion stability and cell-to-cell movement...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692701/molecular-features-of-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-prevalent-in-mexico-during-winter-seasons-2012-2014
#17
Rocío Arellano-Llamas, Luis Alfaro-Ruiz, Cristian Arriaga Canon, Ivan Imaz Rosshandler, Alfredo Cruz-Lagunas, Joaquín Zúñiga, Rosa Rebollar Vega, Christopher W Wong, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh, Sandra Romero Córdoba, Edison T Liu, Alfredo Hidalgo-Miranda, Joel A Vázquez-Pérez
Since the emergence of the pandemic H1N1pdm09 virus in Mexico and California, biannual increases in the number of cases have been detected in Mexico. As observed in previous seasons, pandemic A/H1N1 09 virus was detected in severe cases during the 2011-2012 winter season and finally, during the 2013-2014 winter season it became the most prevalent influenza virus. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the whole viral genome are necessary to determine the antigenic and pathogenic characteristics of influenza viruses that cause severe outcomes of the disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692316/h7n9-avian-influenza-a-virus-in-china-a-short-report-on-its-circulation-drug-resistant-mutants-and-novel-antiviral-drugs
#18
Juergen A Richt, Li Zejun, Bao Danqi, Liu Qinfang
The first human H7N9 avian influenza virus case was reported in Shanghai in 2013. Shortly thereafter, this virus spread to other regions in China. Molecular analysis indicated that the H7N9 virus is a reassortant virus containing internal genes from the H9N2 virus and previously described mammalian adaption markers, which could allow the virus to adapt efficiently to a mammalian host. Fortunately, there is no evidence of sustained person-to-person spread. Most of the human H7N9 cases have a history of exposure to live poultry markets (LPMs)...
July 10, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690608/phylogenetic-tracings-of-proteome-size-support-the-gradual-accretion-of-protein-structural-domains-and-the-early-origin-of-viruses-from-primordial-cells
#19
Arshan Nasir, Kyung Mo Kim, Gustavo Caetano-Anollés
Untangling the origin and evolution of viruses remains a challenging proposition. We recently studied the global distribution of protein domain structures in thousands of completely sequenced viral and cellular proteomes with comparative genomics, phylogenomics, and multidimensional scaling methods. A tree of life describing the evolution of proteomes revealed viruses emerging from the base of the tree as a fourth supergroup of life. A tree of domains indicated an early origin of modern viral lineages from ancient cells that co-existed with the cellular ancestors...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690288/genetic-characterization-of-an-h2n2-influenza-virus-isolated-from-a-muskrat-in-western-siberia
#20
Marina Gulyaeva, Kirill Sharshov, Mizuho Suzuki, Ivan Sobolev, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Alexander Alekseev, Mariya Sivay, Lidia Shestopalova, Michael Shchelkanov, Alexander Shestopalov
Thirty-two muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) were captured for surveillance of avian influenza virus in wild waterfowl and mammals near Lake Chany, Western Siberia, Russia. A/muskrat/Russia/63/2014 (H2N2) was isolated from an apparently healthy muskrat using chicken embryos. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of this isolate were classified into the Eurasian avian-like influenza virus clade and closely related to low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) isolated from wild water birds in Italy and Sweden, respectively...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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