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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937979/molecular-genomic-characterization-of-tick-and-human-derived-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-virus-isolates-from-south-korea
#1
Seok-Min Yun, Su-Jin Park, Sun-Whan Park, WooYoung Choi, Hye Won Jeong, Young-Ki Choi, Won-Ja Lee
BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne viral disease caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV) from Bunyaviridae that is endemic in East Asia. However, the genetic and evolutionary characteristics shared between tick- and human-derived Korean SFTSV strains are still limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we identify, for the first time, the genome sequence of a tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis)-derived Korean SFTSV strain (designated as KAGWT) and compare this virus with recent human SFTSV isolates to identify the genetic variations and relationships among SFTSV strains...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936471/analysis-of-hepatitis-c-virus-particle-heterogeneity-in-immunodeficient-human-liver-chimeric-fah-mice
#2
Ursula Andreo, Ype P de Jong, Margaret A Scull, Jing W Xiao, Koen Vercauteren, Corrine Quirk, Michiel C Mommersteeg, Sonia Bergaya, Arjun Menon, Edward A Fisher, Charles M Rice
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States. HCV particles in the blood of infected patients are characterized by heterogeneous buoyant densities, likely owing to HCV association with lipoproteins. However, clinical isolates are not infectious in vitro and the relative infectivity of the particles with respect to their buoyant density therefore cannot be determined, pointing to the need for better in vivo model systems...
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934386/expression-of-the-neuropathy-associated-mtmr2-gene-rescues-mtm1-associated-myopathy
#3
Matthieu A Raess, Belinda S Cowling, Dimitri L Bertazzi, Christine Kretz, Bruno Rinaldi, Jean-Marie Xuereb, Pascal Kessler, Norma B Romero, Bernard Payrastre, Sylvie Friant, Jocelyn Laporte
Myotubularins (MTMs) are active or dead phosphoinositides phosphatases defining a large protein family conserved through evolution and implicated in different neuromuscular diseases. Loss-of-function mutations in MTM1 cause the severe congenital myopathy called myotubular myopathy (or X-linked centronuclear myopathy) while mutations in the MTM1-related protein MTMR2 cause a recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth peripheral neuropathy. Here we aimed to determine the functional specificity and redundancy of MTM1 and MTMR2, and to assess their abilities to compensate for a potential therapeutic strategy...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934209/microbial-translocation-is-correlated-with-hiv-evolution-in-hiv-hcv-co-infected-patients
#4
Jean-Jacques Tudesq, Catherine Dunyach-Remy, Christophe Combescure, Régine Doncesco, Didier Laureillard, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Albert Sotto
Microbial translocation (MT) is characterized by bacterial products passing into the blood through the gut barrier and is a key phenomenon in the pathophysiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. MT is also associated with liver damage in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) patients. The aim of the study was to assess MT in plasma of HIV-HCV co-infected patients. 16S rDNA (16 S Ribosomal DNA subunit) marker and other markers of MT such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) were used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934148/tomato-leaf-curl-new-delhi-virus-an-emerging-virus-complex-threatening-vegetable-and-fiber-crops
#5
REVIEW
Enrique Moriones, Shelly Praveen, Supriya Chakraborty
The tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) represents an important constraint to tomato production, as it causes the most predominant and economically important disease affecting tomato in the Indian sub-continent. However, in recent years, ToLCNDV has been fast extending its host range and spreading to new geographical regions, including the Middle East and the western Mediterranean Basin. Extensive research on the genome structure, protein functions, molecular biology, and plant-virus interactions of ToLCNDV has been conducted in the last decade...
September 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931684/zika-virus-encoding-non-glycosylated-envelope-protein-is-attenuated-and-defective-in-neuroinvasion
#6
Arun S Annamalai, Aryamav Pattnaik, Bikash R Sahoo, Ezhumalai Muthukrishnan, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, David Steffen, Hiep L X Vu, Gustavo Delhon, Fernando A Osorio, Thomas M Petro, Shi-Hua Xiang, Asit K Pattnaik
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, responsible for sporadic outbreaks of mild and febrile illness in Africa and Asia, re-emerged in the last decade causing serious human diseases including microcephaly, congenital malformations, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Although genomic and phylogenetic analyses suggest that genetic evolution may have led to enhanced virulence of ZIKV, experimental evidence supporting the role of specific genetic changes in virulence is currently outstanding. One sequence motif, VNDT, containing an N-linked glycosylation site in the envelope (E) protein, is polymorphic, being absent in many of the African isolates while present in all isolates from the recent outbreaks...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931681/insights-into-the-impact-of-cd8-immune-modulation-on-hiv-evolutionary-dynamics-in-distinct-anatomical-compartments-using-siv-infected-macaque-models-of-aids-progression
#7
Brittany Rife Magalis, David J Nolan, Patrick Autissier, Tricia H Burdo, Kenneth C Williams, Marco Salemi
A thorough understanding of the role of HIV intra-host evolution in AIDS pathogenesis has been limited by the need for longitudinally sampled viral sequences from the vast target space within the host, which are often difficult to obtain from human subjects. CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) provide an increasingly utilized model of pathogenesis due to similar clinical manifestations as HIV-1 infection and AIDS progression, as well as characteristic rapid disease onset...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931680/molecular-evolution-of-herpes-simplex-virus-2-complete-genomes-comparison-between-primary-and-recurrent-infections
#8
Miguel A Minaya, Travis Jensen, Johannes Goll, Maria Korom, Sree H Datla, Robert B Belshe, Lynda A Morrison
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and -2 are large, double-stranded DNA viruses that cause lifelong persistent infections characterized by periods of quiescence and recurrent disease. How HSV evolves within an infected individual experiencing multiple episodes of reactivation over time is not known. We determined genome sequences of viruses isolated from two subjects in the Herpevac Trial for Women who experienced primary HSV-2 genital disease and compared them with sequences of viruses isolated from the subsequent fifth or sixth episode of recurrent disease in the same individuals...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931679/pathogenic-correlates-of-the-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv-associated-b-cell-dysfunction
#9
Egidio Brocca-Cofano, David Kuhrt, Basile Siewe, Cuiling Xu, George S Haret-Richter, Jodi Craigo, Celia Labranche, David C Montefiori, Alan Landay, Cristian Apetrei, Ivona Pandrea
We compared and contrasted pathogenic (pigtailed macaques-PTMs) and nonpathogenic (African green monkeys-AGMs) SIVsab infections to assess the significance of the B-cell dysfunction observed in SIV/HIV infection. We report that the loss of B cells is specifically associated with the pathogenic SIV infection, while in the nonpathogenic natural hosts B cells rapidly increase in both LNs and intestine. SIV-associated B-cell dysfunction associated to the pathogenic SIV infection is characterized by loss of naïve B cells; loss of resting memory B cells due to their redistribution to the gut; increases of the activated B cells and circulating tissue-like memory B cells and expansion of the B regulatory cells...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930520/molecular-evolution-of-hemagglutinin-gene-of-influenza-a-virus
#10
Antara De
In the history of human civilization, influenza is the second most catastrophic killer disease for mankind with plague ranking first in the medieval times. The 1918-1919 'Spanish flu' killed 20-50 million people worldwide. According to a report from WHO, there have been four pandemics, several epidemics and recurrent seasonal outbreaks of influenza in different parts of the world. The virus is a potential bioterrorism threat with biological 'Chernobyl-like disaster' that occurred in Soviet Russia in 1977. Here, the author reviews the biology of the surface exposed hemagglutinin of the influenza virus, a gene under constant positive selection pressure to evade host immunity and vaccination...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930164/liver-cancer-molecular-characterization-clonal-evolution-and-cancer-stem-cells
#11
REVIEW
Germana Castelli, Elvira Pelosi, Ugo Testa
Liver cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. The major forms of primary liver cancer are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). Both these tumors develop against a background of cirrhotic liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic liver damage and fibrosis. HCC is a heterogeneous disease which usually develops within liver cirrhosis related to various etiologies: hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (frequent in Asia and Africa), hepatitis C virus (HCV), chronic alcohol abuse, or metabolic syndrome (frequent in Western countries)...
September 20, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928737/env-specific-antibodies-in-chronic-infection-versus-in-vaccination
#12
REVIEW
Martina Soldemo, Gunilla B Karlsson Hedestam
Antibodies are central in vaccine-mediated protection. For HIV-1, a pathogen that displays extreme antigenic variability, B cell responses against conserved determinants of the envelope glycoproteins (Env) are likely required to achieve broadly protective vaccine-induced responses. To understand antibodies in chronic infection, where broad serum neutralizing activity is observed in a subset of individuals, monoclonal antibodies mediating this activity have been isolated. Studies of their maturation pathways reveal that years of co-evolution between the virus and the adaptive immune response are required for such responses to arise...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928377/viral-outbreaks-involve-destabilized-evolutionary-networks-evidence-from-ebola-influenza-and-zika
#13
Stéphane Aris-Brosou, Neke Ibeh, Jessica Noël
Recent history has provided us with one pandemic (Influenza A/H1N1) and two severe viral outbreaks (Ebola and Zika). In all three cases, post-hoc analyses have given us deep insights into what triggered these outbreaks, their timing, evolutionary dynamics, and phylogeography, but the genomic characteristics of outbreak viruses are still unclear. To address this outstanding question, we searched for a common denominator between these recent outbreaks, positing that the genome of outbreak viruses is in an unstable evolutionary state, while that of non-outbreak viruses is stabilized by a network of correlated substitutions...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927373/variation-in-loss-of-immunity-shapes-influenza-epidemics-and-the-impact-of-vaccination
#14
Rutger G Woolthuis, Jacco Wallinga, Michiel van Boven
BACKGROUND: Protective antibody immunity against the influenza A virus wanes in 2-7 years due to antigenic drift of the virus' surface proteins. The duration of immune protection is highly variable because antigenic evolution of the virus is irregular. Currently, the variable nature of the duration of immunity has had little attention in analyses of the impact of vaccination, including cost-effectiveness studies. METHODS: We developed a range of mathematical transmission models to investigate the effect of variable duration of immunity on the size of seasonal epidemics...
September 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925975/new-insights-into-the-genome-organization-of-yeast-killer-viruses-based-on-atypical-killer-strains-characterized-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#15
Manuel Ramírez, Rocío Velázquez, Antonio López-Piñeiro, Belén Naranjo, Francisco Roig, Carlos Llorens
Viral M-dsRNAs encoding yeast killer toxins share similar genomic organization, but no overall sequence identity. The dsRNA full-length sequences of several known M-viruses either have yet to be completed, or they were shorter than estimated by agarose gel electrophoresis. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze some M-dsRNAs previously sequenced by traditional techniques, and new dsRNAs from atypical killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii. All dsRNAs expected to be present in a given yeast strain were reliably detected and sequenced, and the previously-known sequences were confirmed...
September 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924489/identification-of-an-enterovirus-recombinant-with-a-torovirus-like-gene-insertion-during-a-diarrhea-outbreak-in-fattening-pigs
#16
Nádia Conceição-Neto, Sebastiaan Theuns, Tingting Cui, Mark Zeller, Claude Kwe Yinda, Isaura Christiaens, Elisabeth Heylen, Marc Van Ranst, Sebastien Carpentier, Hans J Nauwynck, Jelle Matthijnssens
Diarrhea outbreaks in pig farms have raised major concerns in Europe and USA, as they can lead to dramatic pig losses. During a suspected outbreak in Belgium of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), we performed viral metagenomics to assess other potential viral pathogens. Although PEDV was detected, its low abundance indicated that other viruses were involved in the outbreak. Interestingly, a porcine bocavirus and several enteroviruses were most abundant in the sample. We also observed the presence of a porcine enterovirus genome with a gene insertion, resembling a C28 peptidase gene found in toroviruses, which was confirmed using re-sequencing, bioinformatics, and proteomics approaches...
July 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924154/a-dna-aptamer-efficiently-inhibits-the-infectivity-of-bovine-herpesvirus-1-by-blocking-viral-entry
#17
Jian Xu, Xixi Zhang, Shuanghai Zhou, Junjun Shen, Dawei Yang, Jing Wu, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua E Sealy, Munir Iqbal, Yongqing Li
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is an important pathogen of domestic and wild cattle responsible for major economic losses in dairy and beef industries throughout the world. Inhibition of viral entry plays a crucial role in the control of BoHV-1 infection and aptamers have been reported to inhibit viral replication. In this study, nine DNA aptamers that target BoHV-1 were generated using systemic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. Of the nine candidates, aptamer IBRV-A4 exhibited the highest affinity and specificity for BoHV-1, which bound to BoHV-1 with a Kd value of 3...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923509/the-complete-genome-sequence-of-human-adenovirus-84-a-highly-recombinant-new-human-mastadenovirus-d-type-with-a-unique-fiber-gene
#18
Győző L Kaján, Adriana E Kajon, Alexis Castillo Pinto, Dániel Bartha, Niklas Arnberg
A novel human adenovirus was isolated from a pediatric case of acute respiratory disease in Panama City, Panama in 2011. The clinical isolate was initially identified as an intertypic recombinant based on hexon and fiber gene sequencing. Based on the analysis of its complete genome sequence, the novel complex recombinant Human mastadenovirus D (HAdV-D) strain was classified into a new HAdV type: HAdV-84, and it was designated Adenovirus D human/PAN/P309886/2011/84[P43H17F84]. HAdV-D types possess usually an ocular or gastrointestinal tropism, and respiratory association is scarcely reported...
September 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923071/characteristics-of-influenza-h13n8-subtype-virus-firstly-isolated-from-qinghai-lake-region-china
#19
Jie Dong, Hong Bo, Ye Zhang, Libo Dong, Shumei Zou, Weijuan Huang, Jia Liu, Dayan Wang, Yuelong Shu
BACKGROUND: Since the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza caused thousands of deaths of wild bird in this area in 2005, Qinghai Lake in China has become a hot spot for study of the influence of avian influenza to migratory wild birds. However, the ecology and evolution of low pathogenic avian influenza virus in this region are limited. This project-based avian influenza surveillance in Qinghai lake region was initiated in year 2012. METHOD: Samples of wild bird feces and lake surface water were collected in Qinghai Lake in year 2012...
September 18, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921955/characterization-of-site-specific-glycosylation-in-influenza-a-virus-hemagglutinin-produced-by-spodoptera-frugiperda-insect-cell-line
#20
Yanjun Liu, Shiaw-Lin Wu, Kerry Routenberg Love, William S Hancock
Influenza hemagglutinin is a surface glycoprotein related to virus invasion and host immune system response. Understanding site specific glycosylation of hemagglutinin will increase our knowledge about virus evolution and can improve the design and quality of vaccines. In our study, we used glycoproteomic analysis based on multienzyme digestion followed by LC tandem MS analysis to determine the glycosylation of Influenza hemagglutinin (H1/A/California/04/2009) using the following steps: PNGaseF treatment combined with trypsin or pepsin digestion were used to determine the glycosites and glycan occupancy...
September 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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