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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448611/insights-into-intercontinental-spread-of-zika-virus
#1
Dachao Liang, Ross Ka Kit Leung, Shui Shan Lee, Kai Man Kam
The epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in South America has led to World Health Organization's declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. To further inform effective public health policy, an understanding of ZIKV's transmission mechanisms is crucial. To characterize the intercontinental transmission of ZIKV, we compiled and analyzed more than 250 gene sequences together with their sequence-related geographic and temporal information, sampled across 27 countries spanning from 1947 to 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448491/relevant-units-of-analysis-for-applied-and-basic-research-dealing-with-neglected-transmissible-diseases-the-predominant-clonal-evolution-model-of-pathogenic-microorganisms
#2
REVIEW
Michel Tibayrenc, Francisco J Ayala
The predominant clonal evolution (PCE) model seeks to formulate a common population genetics framework for all micropathogens (namely, parasitic protozoa, fungi and yeasts, bacteria, and viruses). It relies on a definition of clonality that is only based on population structure features (namely, strongly restrained genetic recombination). Its clear-cut properties make it of strong interest for applied and basic research, since it permits the definition of stable, clearly delimited units of analysis below the species level: clonal genotypes and discrete genetic subdivisions ("near-clades")...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446675/comparative-genomics-of-chrysochromulina-ericina-virus-cev-and-other-microalgae-infecting-large-dna-viruses-highlight-their-intricate-evolutionary-relationship-with-the-established-mimiviridae-family
#3
Lucie Gallot-Lavallee, Guillaume Blanc, Jean-Michel Claverie
Chrysochromulina Ericina Virus CeV-01B (CeV) was isolated from Norwegian coastal waters in 1998. Its icosahedral particle is 160 nm in diameter and encloses a 474-kb dsDNA genome. This virus, although infecting a microalgae (the haptophyceae Haptolina ericina, formerly Chrysochromulina ericina), is phylogenetically related to members of the Mimiviridae family, initially established with the acanthamoeba-infecting Mimivirus and Megavirus as prototypes. This family was latter split into two genera (Mimivirus and Cafetariavirus) following the characterization of a virus infecting the heterotrophic stramenopile Cafeteria roenbergensis (CroV)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445881/absence-of-decline-of-kidney-function-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-under-routine-clinical-management
#4
Julie Boucquemont, Sylvie Lawson-Ayayi, Claire Rigothier, Fabrice Bonnet, Cécile Proust-Lima, Didier Neau, Carine Greib, Ghada Miremont-Salamé, François Dabis, Michel Dupon, Frédéric-Antoine Dauchy
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have a drastically improved prognosis but at the same time they are also more affected by non-HIV related complications, such as chronic kidney disease. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of proteinuria and tenofovir (TDF)-containing ART regimens on the temporal evolution of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: Between April 2008 and October 2012, we enrolled 395 patients with a complete renal evaluation among patients from the ANRS C03 Aquitaine cohort, a prospective hospital-based cohort of HIV-1-infected patients under routine clinical management in southwestern France...
April 26, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442915/efficacy-and-safety-outcomes-of-sofosbuvir-based-treatment-regimens-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patients-with-or-without-cirrhosis-from-phase-iii-clinical-trials
#5
REVIEW
Young-Mo Yang, Eun Joo Choi
BACKGROUND: With the appearance of oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), the field of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment has been dramatically changed. This evolution makes possible for all oral treatments to be available for the treatment of HCV-infected patients. The aims of this review were to report the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir (SOF)-based regimens for the treatment of patients with chronic HCV infection and to provide our clinical perspectives on these regimens. METHODS: A literature search of clinical studies published in PubMed and posted on ClinicalTrials...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442794/innate-and-adaptive-immunity-shape-circulating-hcv-strains
#6
Silvana Gaudieri, Michaela Lucas
An unbiased genome-to-genome analysis in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection confirms the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system as drivers of viral evolution. Viral adaptation has a critical role in the interaction between host and pathogen and has important clinical implications for infection outcome.
April 26, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437703/antiviral-treatment-strategies-based-on-gene-silencing-and-genome-editing
#7
REVIEW
Roger Badia, Ester Ballana, José A Esté, Eva Riveira-Muñoz
The ability of some viruses to establish latently infected chronic reservoirs that escape to immune control becomes a major roadblock that impedes the cure of these infections. Therefore, new alternatives are needed to pursuit the eradication of viral persistent infections. Gene silencing technologies are in constant evolution and provide an outstanding sequence specificity that allows targeting any coding sequence of interest. Here we provide an overview of the development of gene silencing technologies ranging from initially RNA interference to the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 and their potential as new antiviral strategies focusing on the eradication of HIV...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435199/genetic-characterization-of-the-non-structural-protein-3-gene-of-bluetongue-virus-serotype-2-isolate-from-india
#8
Raghavendra Sumanth Pudupakam, Shobana Raghunath, Meghanath Pudupakam, Sreenivasulu Daggupati
AIM: Sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies based on non-structural protein-3 (NS3) gene are important in understanding the evolution and epidemiology of bluetongue virus (BTV). This study was aimed at characterizing the NS3 gene sequence of Indian BTV serotype-2 (BTV2) to elucidate its genetic relationship to global BTV isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The NS3 gene of BTV2 was amplified from infected BHK-21 cell cultures, cloned and subjected to sequence analysis...
March 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434906/the-evolution-of-parasitic-and-mutualistic-plant-virus-symbioses-through-transmission-virulence-trade-offs
#9
Frédéric M Hamelin, Frank M Hilker, T Anthony Sun, Michael J Jeger, M Reza Hajimorad, Linda J S Allen, Holly R Prendeville
Virus-plant interactions range from parasitism to mutualism. Viruses have been shown to increase fecundity of infected plants in comparison with uninfected plants under certain environmental conditions. Increased fecundity of infected plants may benefit both the plant and the virus as seed transmission is one of the main virus transmission pathways, in addition to vector transmission. Trade-offs between vertical (seed) and horizontal (vector) transmission pathways may involve virulence, defined here as decreased fecundity in infected plants...
April 20, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433855/the-electrophysiology-of-neurohiv-a-systematic-review-of-eeg-and-meg-studies-in-people-with-hiv-infection-since-the-advent-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Ana Lucia Fernández-Cruz, Lesley K Fellows
OBJECTIVE: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has an impact on the brain, even when the infection is well-controlled with modern highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). While dementia is rare in those on HAART, milder cognitive impairment is common. The causes, patterns, and evolution of brain dysfunction in people living with HIV remain uncertain. We evaluate whether electrophysiological methods provide informative measures of brain dysfunction in this population. METHODS: A systematic literature search identified studies that used EEG or MEG to evaluate persons living with HIV published between 1996 (when HAART became available) and 2016...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433051/insect-specific-viruses-a-historical-overview-and-recent-developments
#11
Christopher M Roundy, Sasha R Azar, Shannan L Rossi, Scott C Weaver, Nikos Vasilakis
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have in recent years become a tremendous global health concern resulting in substantial human morbidity and mortality. With the widespread utilization of molecular technologies such as next-generation sequencing and the advancement of bioinformatics tools, a new age of viral discovery has commenced. Many of the novel agents being discovered in recent years have been isolated from mosquitoes and exhibit a highly restricted host range. Strikingly, these insect-specific viruses have been found to be members of viral families traditionally associated with human arboviral pathogens, including but not limited to the families Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Reoviridae, and Bunyaviridae...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431281/dengue-virus-replicates-and-accumulates-in-aedes-aegypti-salivary-glands
#12
Vincent Raquin, Louis Lambrechts
Dengue virus (DENV) is an RNA virus transmitted among humans by mosquito vectors, mainly Aedes aegypti. DENV transmission requires viral dissemination from the mosquito midgut to the salivary glands. During this process the virus undergoes several population bottlenecks, which are stochastic reductions in population size that restrict intra-host viral genetic diversity and limit the efficiency of natural selection. Despite the implications for virus transmission and evolution, DENV replication in salivary glands has not been directly demonstrated...
April 18, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430166/-french-phage-network-second-meeting-report
#13
Clara Torres-Barceló, Oliver Kaltz, Rémy Froissart, Sylvain Gandon, Nicolas Ginet, Mireille Ansaldi
The study of bacteriophages (viruses of bacteria) includes a variety of approaches, such as structural biology, genetics, ecology, and evolution, with increasingly important implications for therapeutic and industrial uses. Researchers working with phages in France have recently established a network to facilitate the exchange on complementary approaches, but also to engage new collaborations. Here, we provide a summary of the topics presented during the second meeting of the French Phage Network that took place in Marseille in November 2016...
April 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430160/subverting-host-cell-p21-activated-kinase-a-case-of-convergent-evolution-across-pathogens
#14
REVIEW
Simona John Von Freyend, Terry Kwok-Schuelein, Hans Netter, Gholamreza Haqshenas, Jean-Philippe Semblat, Christian Doerig
Intracellular pathogens have evolved a wide range of strategies to not only escape from the immune systems of their hosts, but also to directly exploit a variety of host factors to facilitate the infection process. One such strategy is to subvert host cell signalling pathways to the advantage of the pathogen. Recent research has highlighted that the human serine/threonine kinase PAK, or p21-activated kinase, is a central component of host-pathogen interactions in many infection systems involving viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotic pathogens...
April 21, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430100/discovery-of-african-bat-polyomaviruses-and-infrequent-recombination-in-the-large-t-antigen-in-the-polyomaviridae
#15
Michael Carr, Gabriel Gonzalez, Michihito Sasaki, Kimihito Ito, Akihiro Ishii, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Aaron S Mweene, Yasuko Orba, Hirofumi Sawa
Bat species represent natural reservoirs for a number of high-consequence human pathogens. The present study investigated the diversity of polyomaviruses (PyVs) in Zambian insectivorous and fruit bat species. We describe the complete genomes from four newly proposed African bat PyV species employing the recently recommended criteria provided by the Polyomaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. A comprehensive phylogenetic and recombination analysis was performed to determine genetic relationships and the distribution of recombination events in PyV from mammalian and avian species...
April 22, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429720/noumeavirus-replication-relies-on-a-transient-remote-control-of-the-host-nucleus
#16
Elisabeth Fabre, Sandra Jeudy, Sébastien Santini, Matthieu Legendre, Mathieu Trauchessec, Yohann Couté, Jean-Michel Claverie, Chantal Abergel
Acanthamoeba are infected by a remarkable diversity of large dsDNA viruses, the infectious cycles of which have been characterized using genomics, transcriptomics and electron microscopy. Given their gene content and the persistence of the host nucleus throughout their infectious cycle, the Marseilleviridae were initially assumed to fully replicate in the cytoplasm. Unexpectedly, we find that their virions do not incorporate the virus-encoded transcription machinery, making their replication nucleus-dependent...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426155/insect-transmission-of-plant-viruses-multilayered-interactions-optimize-viral-propagation
#17
Beatriz Dáder, Christiane Then, Edwige Berthelot, Marie Ducousso, James C K Ng, Martin Drucker
By serving as vectors of transmission, insects play a key role in the infection cycle of many plant viruses. Viruses use sophisticated transmission strategies to overcome the spatial barrier separating plants and the impediment imposed by the plant cell wall. Interactions among insect vectors, viruses and host plants mediate transmission by integrating all organizational levels, from molecules to populations. Best-examined on the molecular scale are two basic transmission modes wherein virus-vector interactions have been well characterized...
April 20, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425927/hepatitis-e-virus-genotypes-and-evolution-emergence-of-camel-hepatitis-e-variants
#18
REVIEW
Siddharth Sridhar, Jade L L Teng, Tsz-Ho Chiu, Susanna K P Lau, Patrick C Y Woo
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis globally. Zoonotic HEV is an important cause of chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. The rapid identification of novel HEV variants and accumulating sequence information has prompted significant changes in taxonomy of the family Hepeviridae. This family includes two genera: Orthohepevirus, which infects terrestrial vertebrates, and Piscihepevirus, which infects fish. Within Orthohepevirus, there are four species, A-D, with widely differing host range...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425174/costs-and-benefits-of-sub-lethal-drosophila-c-virus-infection
#19
Vanika Gupta, Charlotte Stewart, Samuel S C Rund, Katy Monteith, Pedro F Vale
Viruses are major evolutionary drivers of insect immune systems. Much of our knowledge of insect immune responses derives from experimental infections using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Most experiments, however, employ lethal pathogen doses through septic injury, frequently overwhelming host physiology. While this approach has revealed several immune mechanisms, it is less informative about the fitness costs hosts may experience during infection in the wild. Using both systemic and oral infection routes we find that even apparently benign, sub-lethal infections with the horizontally transmitted Drosophila C Virus (DCV) can cause significant physiological and behavioral morbidity that is relevant for host fitness...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422868/meta-analysis-of-possible-role-of-cadherin-gene-methylation-in-evolution-and-prognosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-a-prisma-guideline
#20
Chunxiao Zhu, Xuefeng Feng, Guoliang Ye, Tao Huang
BACKGROUND: Cadherins (CDHs) have been reported to be associated with cancer. However, the clinical significance of CDH gene methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. METHODS: Based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement criteria, available studies were identified from online electronic database. The overall odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated and analyzed...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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