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Rebecca C Richmond, Gemma C Sharp, Georgia Herbert, Charlotte Atkinson, Caroline Taylor, Sohinee Bhattacharya, Doris Campbell, Marion Hall, Nabila Kazmi, Tom Gaunt, Wendy McArdle, Susan Ring, George Davey Smith, Andy Ness, Caroline L Relton
Background: It has been proposed that maternal folic-acid supplement use may alter the DNA-methylation patterns of the offspring during the in-utero period, which could influence development and later-life health outcomes. Evidence from human studies suggests a role for prenatal folate levels in influencing DNA methylation in early life, but this has not been extended to consider persistent effects into adulthood. Methods: To better elucidate the long-term impact of maternal folic acid in pregnancy on DNA methylation in offspring, we carried out an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) nested within the Aberdeen Folic Acid Supplementation Trial (AFAST-a trial of two different doses: 0...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Silvia Zingg, Patrick Dolle, Maarten Jeroen Voordouw, Maren Kern
BACKGROUND: Ticks and tick-borne pathogens are a global problem for the health of humans and their livestock. Wood ants are important ecosystem engineers in forests worldwide. Although both taxa are well studied, little is known about their interactions under natural conditions. The purpose of the present field study was to test whether European red wood ants (Formica polyctena) influence the abundance of Ixodes tick populations in temperate forests. METHODS: Data collection took place in 130 sampling plots located at 26 ant nest sites paired with 26 control sites in northwestern Switzerland...
March 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Stephanie M Topp, Chanda Mwamba, Anjali Sharma, Njekwa Mukamba, Laura K Beres, Elvin Geng, Charles B Holmes, Izukanji Sikazwe
BACKGROUND: Failure to keep people living with HIV engaged in life-long care and treatment has serious implications for individual and population-level health. Nested within a four-province study of HIV care and treatment outcomes, we explored the dynamic role of social and service-related factors influencing retention in HIV care in Zambia. METHODS: From a stratified random sample of 31 facilities, eight clinics were selected, one urban and one rural from each province...
2018: PloS One
Nina Wolinski, Nicholas R Cooper, Paul Sauseng, Vincenzo Romei
The speed of theta brain oscillatory activity is thought to play a key role in determining working memory (WM) capacity. Individual differences in the length of a theta cycle (ranging between 4 and 7 Hz) might determine how many gamma cycles (>30 Hz) can be nested into a theta wave. Gamma cycles are thought to represent single memory items; therefore, this interplay could determine individual memory capacity. We directly tested this hypothesis by means of parietal transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) set at slower (4 Hz) and faster (7 Hz) theta frequencies during a visuospatial WM paradigm...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Biology
Katharina Wiedemeyer, Antonio Guadagno, Jonathan Davey, Thomas Brenn
Spitz nevi on acral sites are rare and poorly documented. The combination of Spitzoid cytomorphology and atypical architectural features of the junctional component may lead to an erroneous diagnosis of melanoma. To study the clinicopthologic and immunohistochemical features, 50 Spitz nevi localized on the distal extremities were retrieved from departmental files. Clinical data and follow-up were obtained and the histologic features were analyzed. P16 and P21 immunohistochemical staining of the dermal component was compared with that of 10 acral lentiginous melanomas and 10 acral nevi...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Javier Gandasegui, Pedro Fernández-Soto, Antonio Muro, Constança Simões Barbosa, Fabio Lopes de Melo, Rodrigo Loyo, Elainne Christine de Souza Gomes
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health relevance, mainly in poor areas where Schistosoma mansoni is the only human species encountered and Biomphalaria straminea is one of the intermediate host snails. A nested-PCR based on a specific mitochondrial S. mansoni minisatellite DNA region has been successfully developed and applied as a reference method in Brazil for S. mansoni detection, mainly in host snails for epidemiological studies. The amplification efficiency of LAMP is known to be higher than PCR...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Andreagiovanni Reina, Thomas Bose, Vito Trianni, James A R Marshall
Through theoretical analysis, we show how a superorganism may react to stimulus variations according to psychophysical laws observed in humans and other animals. We investigate an empirically-motivated honeybee house-hunting model, which describes a value-sensitive decision process over potential nest-sites, at the level of the colony. In this study, we show how colony decision time increases with the number of available nests, in agreement with the Hick-Hyman law of psychophysics, and decreases with mean nest quality, in agreement with Piéron's law...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sibylle C Mellinghoff, Jörg Janne Vehreschild, Blasius J Liss, Oliver A Cornely
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the most common hospital acquired infections. While the incidence of SSI in certain indicator procedures is the subject of ongoing surveillance efforts in hospitals and health care systems around the world, SSI rates vary markedly within surgical categories and are poorly represented by routinely monitored indicator procedures (eg, mastectomy or hernia surgery). Therefore, relying on indicator procedures to estimate the burden of SSI is imprecise and introduces bias as hospitals may take special precautions to achieve lower SSI rates...
March 12, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Tryphena Adams, Nana Aba A Ennuson, Neils B Quashie, Godfred Futagbi, Sena Matrevi, Oheneba C K Hagan, Benjamin Abuaku, Kwadwo A Koram, Nancy O Duah
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum delayed clearance with the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACTs) has been reported in some African countries. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two genes, P. falciparum adaptor protein complex 2 mu subunit (pfap2mu) and ubiquitin specific protease 1 (pfubp1), have been linked to delayed clearance with ACT use in Kenya and recurrent imported malaria in Britain. With over 12 years of ACT use in Ghana, this study investigated the prevalence of SNPs in the pfap2mu and pfubp1 in Ghanaian clinical P...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Sara Fernandez, Miguel M Sandin, Paul G Beaulieu, Laura Clusa, Jose L Martinez, Alba Ardura, Eva García-Vázquez
Background: Many fish species have been introduced in wild ecosystems around the world to provide food or leisure, deliberately or from farm escapes. Some of those introductions have had large ecological effects. The north American native rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) is one of the most widely farmed fish species in the world. It was first introduced in Spain in the late 19th century for sport fishing (Elvira 1995) and nowadays is used there for both fishing and aquaculture...
2018: PeerJ
Nami Yamashita, Eriko Tokunaga, Makoto Iimori, Yuka Inoue, Kimihiro Tanaka, Hiroyuki Kitao, Hiroshi Saeki, Eiji Oki, Yoshihiko Maehara
BACKGROUND: E-cadherin and vimentin are regarded as major conventional canonical markers of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. It is commonly assumed that E-cadherin is uniformly lost during the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Breast tumor cells typically invade as a cohesive multicellular unit in a process called collective invasion. The aim of this study was to reveal the clinical importance of the expression pattern of E-cadherin and vimentin in breast cancer. METHODS: E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 176 invasive breast cancer samples...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
Christine M Custer, Thomas W Custer, Matthew A Etterson, Paul M Dummer, Diana Goldberg, J Christian Franson
During 2010-2014, tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) reproductive success was monitored at 68 sites across all 5 Great Lakes, including 58 sites located within Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) and 10 non-AOCs. Sample eggs were collected from tree swallow clutches and analyzed for contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and 34 other organic compounds. Contaminant data were available for 360 of the clutches monitored. Markov chain multistate modeling was used to assess the importance of 5 ecological variables and 11 of the dominant contaminants in explaining the pattern of egg and nestling failure rates...
March 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Sori Teshale, Dirk Geysen, Gobena Ameni, Pierre Dorny, Dirk Berkvens
BACKGROUND: As evidence of the infection of domestic animals by Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma sp. 'Omatjenne' is presently becoming available, understanding the epidemiological and ecological significance of infection is important to quantify the clinical and socio-economic impact of the diseases they cause. METHODS: The first aim of this study was to analyse the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum and Anaplasma sp. 'Omatjenne' in cattle samples collected from selected African countries using a polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism...
March 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Edmund R Hunt, Christopher Kendall, Emma Stanbury, Ana B Sendova-Franks, Nigel R Franks
Visual landmarks are important navigational aids to many animals, and when more than one is available their juxtaposition can convey valuable new information to a navigator about progress toward a goal, depending on the landmarks' comparative distinctiveness. We investigated the effect of presenting rock ant colonies (Temnothorax albipennis) with identical horizontal landmarks either side of their route, versus one horizontal landmark paired with a sloping landmark, as they navigated to a new nest site. Our findings suggest that ants can obtain more navigational information from a combination of dissimilar landmarks: the average tortuosity of the route taken between old and new nests was significantly lower when a horizontal landmark was paired with a monotonically downward sloping landmark (the paths were more direct)...
March 6, 2018: Behavioural Processes
M Kúdelová, M Slovák, P Kabát, T Derka, B Števove, M Bohuš, M Vrbová
Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is a natural pathogen that infects murid rodents which serve as hosts for Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus ticks. For the first time, MHV-68 was detected in immature I. ricinus ticks feeding on lizards trapped in Slovakia. Later on, MHV-68 infection was detected in D. reticulatus and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks collected on vegetation, which supported the idea that ticks can acquire the virus from feeding on infected hosts. Here, we report MHV-68 infection, which was detected by nested PCR, in D...
2018: Acta Virologica
Pei Hui, Stefan M Gysler, Mohamed Uduman, Taiwo A Togun, Daniel E Prado, Christine E Richter, Sunitha Nallur, Peter E Schwartz, Thomas J Rutherford, Alessandro D Santin, Joanne B Weidhaas, Elena S Ratner
Synchronous endometrial and ovarian malignancies occur in 5% of women presenting with endometrial cancer and 10% of patients presenting with ovarian malignancy. When a high-grade serous carcinoma concurrently involves both ovary and endometrium, pathological determination of whether they are synchronous primaries or metastatic tumors from one primary site can be challenging. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are 22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs that are aberrantly expressed in cancer cells and may inherit their cellular linage characteristics...
March 5, 2018: Human Pathology
Gretchen N Newberry, David L Swanson
Grasslands and riparian forests in southeastern South Dakota have been greatly reduced since historical times, primarily due to conversion to row-crop agriculture. Common Nighthawk ( Chordeiles minor ) nesting habitat includes grasslands, open woodlands and urban rooftops, but nesting sites in southeastern South Dakota are confined to rooftops, as natural nesting habitat is limited. Nighthawks nesting on exposed rooftop habitats may encounter thermal conditions that increase operative temperatures relative to vegetated land cover types...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Sanjeev Budhathoki, Akihisa Hidaka, Taiki Yamaji, Norie Sawada, Sachiko Tanaka-Mizuno, Aya Kuchiba, Hadrien Charvat, Atsushi Goto, Satoshi Kojima, Natsuki Sudo, Taichi Shimazu, Shizuka Sasazuki, Manami Inoue, Shoichiro Tsugane, Motoki Iwasaki
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration and the subsequent risk of overall and site specific cancer in a large cohort study. DESIGN: Nested case-cohort study within the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study cohort. SETTING: Nine public health centre areas across Japan. PARTICIPANTS: 3301 incident cases of cancer and 4044 randomly selected subcohort participants...
March 7, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Michael P Veve, Joshua B Greene, Amy M Williams, Susan L Davis, Nina Lu, Yelizaveta Shnayder, David X Li, Salem I Noureldine, Jeremy D Richmon, Lawrence O Lin, Matthew M Hanasono, Patrik Pipkorn, Ryan S Jackson, Joshua D Hornig, Tyler Light, Mark K Wax, Yin Yiu, James Bekeny, Matthew Old, David Hernandez, Urjeet A Patel, Tamer A Ghanem
Objective To characterize and identify risk factors for 30-day surgical site infections (SSIs) in patients with head and neck cancer who underwent microvascular reconstruction. Study Design Cross-sectional study with nested case-control design. Setting Nine American tertiary care centers. Subjects and Methods Hospitalized patients were included if they underwent head and neck cancer microvascular reconstruction from January 2003 to March 2016. Cases were defined as patients who developed 30-day SSI; controls were patients without SSI at 30 days...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Matthew R McLennan
With data accumulating from a growing pool of chimpanzee field studies, new behaviors as well as novel variants on common behaviors continue to be described. Nest construction is a universal behavior in wild great apes. Among chimpanzee populations, reported variation in nest building behavior mostly reflects environmental constraints. Despite the ubiquity of nest making by chimpanzees, only ground nesting has been recognized as a behavioral variant, potentially determined by both environmental and social factors...
March 6, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
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