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Zhaohui Cui, Dan Song, Meng Qi, Sumei Zhang, Rongjun Wang, Fuchun Jian, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp. are protozoans that cause diarrheal illness in humans and animals, including birds, worldwide. The present study was aimed to revisit the infectivity and pathogenicity of C. avium, recently considered to be a valid avian-infecting species of Cryptosporidium, and foster further understanding of its biological characteristics. RESULTS: Results showed that no Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in the feces of experimentally inoculated BALB/c mice, Mongolian gerbils, quail or budgerigars within 30 days post-infection (dpi)...
September 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Keina Nagahisa, Korenori Arai, Shunsuke Baba
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to use patient-reported outcome to explore patient characteristics that influence the oral health-related quality of life of post-implant patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study design was a nested case-control study. The target population was patients who had undergone implant treatment at the Department of Oral Implantology, Osaka Dental University, with a superstructure fitted ≥ 3 months previously. The survey period was from April 2014 to the end of October 2016...
September 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Alex J Warr, Jillian Pintye, John Kinuthia, Alison L Drake, Jennifer A Unger, R Scott McClelland, Daniel Matemo, Lusi Osborn, Grace John-Stewart
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the relationship of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital infections during pregnancy and subsequent risk for infant mortality and stillbirth. METHODS: This was a nested longitudinal analysis using data from a study of peripartum HIV acquisition in Kenya. In the parent study, HIV-uninfected women were enrolled during pregnancy and followed until 9 months postpartum. For this analysis, women who tested positive for HIV at any point, had a non-singleton pregnancy or a spontaneous abortion <20 weeks were excluded...
September 18, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Pei-Jing Yang, Ming-Feng Hou, Eing-Mei Tsai, Shih-Shin Liang, Chien-Chih Chiu, Fu Ou-Yang, Jung-Yu Kan, Chiung-Yu Peng, Tsu-Nai Wang
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 33 (ADAM33) gene is a transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates changes in cell adhesion and plays an important role in cancer progression. Since bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are epigenetically toxic, the purpose of this study was to examine whether BPA and phthalate metabolites, including monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono‑n‑butyl phthalate (MBP), mono‑isobutyl phthalate (MIBP), mono(2‑ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2‑ethyl‑5‑hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2‑ethyl‑5‑carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), and mono(2‑ethyl‑5‑oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), have an epigenetic impact on ADAM33 and the incidence of breast cancer...
November 2018: Oncology Reports
Kathryn Dovel, Frackson Shaba, Mike Nyirenda, O Agatha Offorjebe, Kelvin Balakasi, Khumbo Phiri, Brooke Nichols, Chi-Hong Tseng, Ashley Bardon, Khumbo Ngona, Risa Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Throughout sub-Saharan Africa HIV-testing rates remain low. Barriers to testing, such as inconvenient service hours and long wait times, lack of privacy, and fear of unwanted disclosure, continue to impede service utilization. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is one strategy that addresses these barriers and has been shown to increase use of HIV-testing when distributed through community-based settings. However, the scalability of HIVST is limited because it has yet to be fully integrated into existing health systems and routine care...
September 17, 2018: Trials
Yumiko Miyamoto, Yoshie Terashima, Kazuhide Nara
Species with narrow niche breadths are assumed to be more susceptible to environmental changes than those with wide niche breadths. Although information on niche properties is necessary for predicting biological responses to environmental changes, such information is largely missing for soil microbes. In this study, we present the temperature niche positions and breadths of a functionally important group of eukaryotic soil microbes, ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. We compiled high quality EM fungal sequence data from 26 forested sites in Japan (with mean annual temperatures ranging from 1...
September 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
Yongshuai Peng, Kunlun Wang, Shanshan Zhao, Yaqun Yan, Haiyan Wang, Jichun Jing, Fuchun Jian, Rongjun Wang, Longxian Zhang, Changshen Ning
Anaplasma capra is an emerging pathogen, which can infect ruminants and humans. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of A. capra in the blood samples of sheep and goats in China. Using nested polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) targeting the gltA gene and conventional PCR targeting the heat shock protein ( groEL ) gene and the major surface protein4 gene ( msp4 ), A. capra was detected in 129 (8.9%) of 1453 sheep and goat blood samples. The positive rate was higher in goats (9.4%, 89/943) than in sheep (7...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Dylan M Poorboy, E Keith Bowers, Scott K Sakaluk, Charles F Thompson
Parental and territory quality are often correlated in territorial birds, and both factors influence the resources allocated to offspring. Surprisingly, the relative contribution of these two components of variation in parental investment remains obscure. We experimentally decoupled the normal covariation between parental quality and territory quality to test the hypothesis that territory quality influences female prenatal and postnatal reproductive allocation. Territories were categorized into low-, intermediate-, and high-quality based on fledging success of nests over the previous 6 years (nesting sites are fixed in space)...
September 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
Cristian A Martínez-Adriano, Cecilia Díaz-Castelazo, Armando Aguirre-Jaimes
Background: Interspecific interactions play an important role in determining species richness and persistence in a given locality. However at some sites, the studies, especially for interaction networks on adult butterflies are scarce. The present study aimed the following objectives: (1) determine butterfly species richness and diversity that visit flowering plants, (2) compare species richness and diversity in butterfly-plant interactions among six different vegetation types and (3) analyze the structure of butterfly-flowering plant interaction networks mediated by flowers...
2018: PeerJ
Mark Chatting, David Smyth, Ibrahim Al-Maslamani, Jeffrey Obbard, Mehsin Al-Ansi, Shafeeq Hamza, Salman Fahad Al-Mohanady, Ali Jassim Al-Kuwari, Christopher D Marshall
Relatively few details of hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting ecology exist within the Arabian Gulf. Moreover, little is known about how their nesting dynamics compare to nesting populations throughout the rest of the world. Due to the extreme environmental setting, nesting ecology of hawksbills in the Arabian Gulf is of significant interest to researchers and conservationists. The current research reports on a long-term tagging and monitoring program undertaken at Fuwairit beach, Qatar. To investigate nesting behavior, site surveys and tagging were employed from 2010 to 2016...
2018: PloS One
Kathryn E Bradbury, Paul N Appleby, Sarah J Tipper, Ruth C Travis, Naomi E Allen, Marina Kvaskoff, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Jytte Halkjaer, Iris Cevenka, Yahya Mahamat-Saleh, Fabrice Bonnet, Rudolf Kaaks, Renée Turzanski Fortner, Heiner Boeing, Antonia Trichopoulou, Carlo La Vecchia, Alexander J Stratigos, Domenico Palli, Sara Grioni, Giuseppe Matullo, Salvatore Panico, Rosario Tumino, Petra H Peeters, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Reza Ghiasvand, Marit B Veierød, Elisabete Weiderpass, Catalina Bonet, Elena Molina, José María Huerta, Nerea Larrañaga, Aurelio Barricarte, Susana Merino, Karolin Isaksson, Tanja Stocks, Ingrid Ljuslinder, Oskar Hemmingsson, Nick Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Marc J Gunter, Sabina Rinaldi, Konstantinos K Tsilidis, Dagfinn Aune, Elio Riboli, Timothy J Key
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis, and is thought to play a role in tumour development. Previous prospective studies have shown that higher circulating concentrations of IGF-I are associated with a higher risk of cancers at specific sites, including breast and prostate. No prospective study has examined the association between circulating IGF-I concentrations and melanoma risk. A nested case-control study of 1221 melanoma cases and 1221 controls was performed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, a prospective cohort of 520,000 participants recruited from 10 European countries...
September 7, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
David Duneau, Haina Sun, Jonathan Revah, Keri San Miguel, Henry D Kunerth, Ian V Caldas, Philipp W Messer, Jeffrey G Scott, Nicolas Buchon
Resistance to insecticides has evolved in multiple insect species, leading to increased application rates and even control failures. Understanding the genetic basis of insecticide resistance is fundamental for mitigating its impact on crop production and disease control. We performed a GWAS approach with the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to identify the mutations involved in resistance to two widely used classes of insecticides: organophosphates (OPs, parathion) and pyrethroids (deltamethrin). Most variation in parathion resistance was associated with mutations in the target gene Ace , while most variation in deltamethrin resistance was associated with mutations in Cyp6a23 , a gene encoding a detoxification enzyme never previously associated with resistance...
September 6, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Natalie Vasey, Monica Mogilewsky, George E Schatz
Very few primate species give birth to litters and build nests in which to care for them. Those that do are small-bodied, nocturnal, and solitary. Variegated lemurs are exceptional in that they bear litters in arboreal nests, yet are relatively large-bodied, day-active, and gregarious. Furthermore, they raise their young cooperatively and practice absentee parenting; non-clinging young are transported orally and periodically stashed in arboreal spots that are supportive, sheltered, and usually concealed. Following birth, infant nest and stash trees were mapped, measured, and taxonomically identified in a population of red variegated lemurs in Masoala National Park...
September 6, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Andrew S P Lim, Chris Gaiteri, Lei Yu, Shahmir Sohail, Walter Swardfager, Shinya Tasaki, Julie A Schneider, Claire Paquet, Donald T Stuss, Mario Masellis, Sandra E Black, Jacques Hugon, Aron S Buchman, Lisa L Barnes, David A Bennett, Philip L De Jager
BACKGROUND: There are few data concerning the association between season and cognition and its neurobiological correlates in older persons-effects with important translational and therapeutic implications for the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD). We aimed to measure these effects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed data from 3,353 participants from 3 observational community-based cohort studies of older persons (the Rush Memory and Aging Project [MAP], the Religious Orders Study [ROS], and the Minority Aging Research Study [MARS]) and 2 observational memory-clinic-based cohort studies (Centre de Neurologie Cognitive [CNC] study at Lariboisière Hospital and the Sunnybrook Dementia Study [SDS])...
September 2018: PLoS Medicine
Cora A Johnston, Daniel S Gruner
Climate-driven global change is shifting the distribution and abundance of foundation species that form the base of ecosystems. The corresponding responses of inhabitant species to shifts in habitat-forming species are poorly understood, however we expect community responses to depend on how species perceive habitat patches and sort among them, particularly along range edges. We used the poleward shift of a mangrove-marsh ecotone to evaluate sorting of marine macrofauna (small fish and decapod crustaceans) among vegetation patches at a series of nested scales...
August 31, 2018: Ecology
Nina N Sanford, Ruoyu Miao, Haotong Wang, Saveli Goldberg, Alex Jacobson, Andrew M Brunner, Gregory M Cote, Torunn I Yock, David H Ebb, Yi-Bin Chen, Kyung-Wook Jee, Francis Hornicek, Thomas F DeLaney, Edwin Choy, Yen-Lin Chen
BACKGROUND: Long-term survivors of Ewing sarcoma (ES) and osteosarcoma may be at risk for therapy-related acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (t-AL/MDS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathologic characteristics of 1,071 patients with osteosarcoma (n=757) and ES (n=314) treated between 1985 and 2014. Multivariable competing risk analysis was used to analyze predictors of t-AL/MDS including a radiation dose (>55.8 Gy vs. <55...
August 27, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Marco Valgimigli, Enrico Frigoli, Sergio Leonardi, Pascal Vranckx, Martina Rothenbühler, Matteo Tebaldi, Ferdinando Varbella, Paolo Calabrò, Stefano Garducci, Paolo Rubartelli, Carlo Briguori, Giuseppe Andó, Maurizio Ferrario, Ugo Limbruno, Roberto Garbo, Paolo Sganzerla, Filippo Russo, Marco Nazzaro, Alessandro Lupi, Bernardo Cortese, Arturo Ausiello, Salvatore Ierna, Giovanni Esposito, Giuseppe Ferrante, Andrea Santarelli, Gennaro Sardella, Nicoletta de Cesare, Paolo Tosi, Arnoud van 't Hof, Elmir Omerovic, Salvatore Brugaletta, Stephan Windecker, Dik Heg, Peter Jüni
BACKGROUND: The Minimizing Adverse Haemorrhagic Events by Transradial Access Site and Systemic Implementation of Angiox (MATRIX) programme was designed to assess the comparative safety and effectiveness of radial versus femoral access and of bivalirudin versus unfractionated heparin with optional glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients with the whole spectrum of acute coronary syndrome undergoing invasive management. Here we describe the prespecified final 1-year outcomes of the entire programme...
September 8, 2018: Lancet
Randy L Coryell, Kira E Turnham, Evelyn G de Jesus Ayson, Celia Lavilla-Pltogo, Angel C Alcala, Filippina Sotto, Benjamin Gonzales, Michele K Nishiguchi
Marine microbes encounter a myriad of biotic and abiotic factors that can impact fitness by limiting their range and capacity to move between habitats. This is especially true for environmentally transmitted bacteria that cycle between their hosts and the surrounding habitat. As geologic history, biogeography, and other factors such as water temperature, salinity, and physical barriers can inhibit bacterial movement to novel environments, we chose to examine the genetic architecture of Euprymna albatrossae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) and their Vibrio fischeri symbionts in the Philippine archipelago using a combined phylogeographic approach...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Hannah J White, W Ian Montgomery, Lenka Storchová, David Hořák, Jack J Lennon
Environmental change has reshuffled communities often causing taxonomic homogenization rather than differentiation. Some studies suggest that this increasing similarity of species composition between communities is accompanied by an increase in similarity of trait composition-functional homogenization-although different methodologies have failed to come to any consistent conclusions. Functional homogenization could have a large effect on ecosystem functioning and stability. Here, we use the general definition of homogenization as "reduced spatial turnover over time" to compare changes in Simpson's beta diversity (taxonomic turnover) with changes in Rao's quadratic entropy beta diversity (functional turnover) in British breeding birds at three spatial scales...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
William O Cooper, William Martinez, Henry J Domenico, S Todd Callahan, Brian P Kirkby, Alistair J R Finlayson, Jody J Foster, Theodore M Johnson, Frank M Longo, Douglas G Merrill, Monica L Jacobs, James W Pichert, Thomas F Catron, Ilene N Moore, Lynn E Webb, Jan Karrass, Gerald B Hickson
OBJECTIVES: Determine whether words contained in unsolicited patient complaints differentiate physicians with and without neurocognitive disorders (NCD). METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using data from 144 healthcare organizations that participate in the Patient Advocacy Reporting System program. Cases (physicians with probable or possible NCD) and two comparison groups of 60 physicians each (matched for age/sex and site/number of unsolicited patient complaints) were identified from 33,814 physicians practicing at study sites...
September 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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