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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432932/surveillance-of-vittaforma-corneae-in-hot-springs-by-a-small-volume-procedure
#1
Jung-Sheng Chen, Tsui-Kang Hsu, Bing-Mu Hsu, Tung-Yi Huang, Yu-Li Huang, Men-Fang Shaio, Dar-Der Ji
Vittaforma corneae is an obligate intracellular fungus and can cause human ocular microsporidiosis. Although accumulating reports of V. corneae causing keratoconjunctivitis in both healthy and immunocompromised persons have been published, little is known about the organism's occurrence in aquatic environments. Limitations in detection sensitivity have meant a large sampling volume is required to detect the pathogen up to now, which is problematic. A recent study in Taiwan has shown that some individuals suffering from microsporidial keratitis (MK) were infected after exposure to the pathogen at a hot spring...
April 19, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431049/nest-use-and-patterns-of-egg-laying-and-damage-by-4-strains-of-laying-hens-in-an-aviary-system1
#2
S Villanueva, A B A Ali, D L M Campbell, J M Siegford
Laying hens are strongly motivated to use nests for egg laying, and alternative production systems (e.g., aviaries) provide artificial sites to meet this need and ensure efficient collection of clean, undamaged eggs. However, nests are typically not provided to allow simultaneous use by all hens; therefore, competition or mislaid eggs can result. To understand the influence of strain on laying eggs outside nests and damage to eggs, we compared daily patterns of nests use and egg laying among 4 laying hen strains (Hy-Line Brown (HB), Bovans Brown (BB), DeKalb White (DW), and Hy-Line W36 (W36))...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428856/forage-plants-of-an-arctic-nesting-herbivore-show-larger-warming-response-in-breeding-than-wintering-grounds-potentially-disrupting-migration-phenology
#3
Thomas K Lameris, Femke Jochems, Alexandra J van der Graaf, Mattias Andersson, Juul Limpens, Bart A Nolet
During spring migration, herbivorous waterfowl breeding in the Arctic depend on peaks in the supply of nitrogen-rich forage plants, following a "green wave" of grass growth along their flyway to fuel migration and reproduction. The effects of climate warming on forage plant growth are expected to be larger at the Arctic breeding grounds than in temperate wintering grounds, potentially disrupting this green wave and causing waterfowl to mistime their arrival on the breeding grounds. We studied the potential effect of climate warming on timing of food peaks along the migratory flyway of the Russian population of barnacle geese using a warming experiment with open-top chambers...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428165/a-framework-for-the-study-of-complex-mhealth-interventions-in-diverse-cultural-settings
#4
Marion A Maar, Karen Yeates, Nancy Perkins, Lisa Boesch, Diane Hua-Stewart, Peter Liu, Jessica Sleeth, Sheldon W Tobe
BACKGROUND: To facilitate decision-making capacity between options of care under real-life service conditions, clinical trials must be pragmatic to evaluate mobile health (mHealth) interventions under the variable conditions of health care settings with a wide range of participants. The mHealth interventions require changes in the behavior of patients and providers, creating considerable complexity and ambiguity related to causal chains. Process evaluations of the implementation are necessary to shed light on the range of unanticipated effects an intervention may have, what the active ingredients in everyday practice are, how they exert their effect, and how these may vary among recipients or between sites...
April 20, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425395/comparing-phlebotomy-by-tail-tip-amputation-facial-vein-puncture-and-tail-vein-incision-in-c57bl-6-mice-by-using-physiologic-and-behavioral-metrics-of-pain-and-distress
#5
Elizabeth S Moore Thomas A Cleland Wendy O Williams Christine M Peterson Bhupinder Singh Teresa L Southard Bret Pasch Rachael N Labitt And Erin K Daugherity
Tail tip amputation with minimal restraint is not widely used for mouse phlebotomy. In part, this infrequency may reflectpolicies influenced by tail tip amputation procedures for genotyping, which involve greater handling and tissue removal. Toassess tail tip amputation with minimal restraint as a phlebotomy technique, we compared it with 2 more common methods:scruffing with facial vein puncture and lateral tail vein incision with minimal restraint. Blood glucose levels, audible and ultrasonic vocalizations, postphlebotomy activity and grooming behavior, open field and elevated plus maze behaviors,nest-building scores, and histologic changes at the phlebotomy site were evaluated...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416691/neurophysiological-dynamics-of-phrase-structure-building-during-sentence-processing
#6
Matthew J Nelson, Imen El Karoui, Kristof Giber, Xiaofang Yang, Laurent Cohen, Hilda Koopman, Sydney S Cash, Lionel Naccache, John T Hale, Christophe Pallier, Stanislas Dehaene
Although sentences unfold sequentially, one word at a time, most linguistic theories propose that their underlying syntactic structure involves a tree of nested phrases rather than a linear sequence of words. Whether and how the brain builds such structures, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we used human intracranial recordings and visual word-by-word presentation of sentences and word lists to investigate how left-hemispheric brain activity varies during the formation of phrase structures. In a broad set of language-related areas, comprising multiple superior temporal and inferior frontal sites, high-gamma power increased with each successive word in a sentence but decreased suddenly whenever words could be merged into a phrase...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406981/human-exploitation-assisting-a-threatened-species-the-case-of-muttonbirders-and-buller-s-albatross
#7
Susan M Waugh, Timothée A Poupart, Colin M Miskelly, Jean-Claude Stahl, John P Y Arnould
Albatrosses are flexible and adaptable predators, relying on live prey as well as carrion. Use of predictable food sources and reliance on human-produced resources are well-known trait in long-range feeders like albatrosses and petrels. Breeding Buller's albatrosses studied at Solander I. (Hautere), New Zealand fed their chicks the remains of sooty shearwater juveniles (tītī in Māori), which are harvested from nearby muttonbirding sites. Evidence of this food type was found at over 10% of nests examined, and 17-40% birds that were fitted with GPS loggers visited muttonbirding sites in this and previous studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405284/role-of-breeding-and-natal-movements-in-lifetime-dispersal-of-a-forest-dwelling-rodent
#8
Vesa Selonen, Ralf Wistbacka
The lifetime movements of an individual determine the gene flow and invasion potential of the species. However, sex dependence of dispersal and selective pressures driving dispersal have gained much more attention than dispersal at different life and age stages. Natal dispersal is more common than dispersal between breeding attempts, but breeding dispersal may be promoted by resource availability and competition. Here, we utilize mark-recapture data on the nest-box population of Siberian flying squirrels to analyze lifetime dispersal patterns...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404774/changes-in-the-location-of-biodiversity-ecosystem-function-hot-spots-across-the-seafloor-landscape-with-increasing-sediment-nutrient-loading
#9
Simon F Thrush, Judi E Hewitt, Casper Kraan, A M Lohrer, Conrad A Pilditch, Emily Douglas
Declining biodiversity and loss of ecosystem function threatens the ability of habitats to contribute ecosystem services. However, the form of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function (BEF) and how relationships change with environmental change is poorly understood. This limits our ability to predict the consequences of biodiversity loss on ecosystem function, particularly in real-world marine ecosystems that are species rich, and where multiple ecosystem functions are represented by multiple indicators...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399515/healthcare-professionals-views-of-the-use-and-administration-of-two-salvage-therapy-drugs-for-acute-ulcerative-colitis-a-nested-qualitative-study-within-the-construct-trial
#10
Clare Clement, Frances Rapport, Anne Seagrove, Laith Alrubaiy, John Williams
OBJECTIVES: Insight into healthcare professionals' views and experiences of the use of ciclosporin and infliximab as salvage therapies for acute ulcerative colitis (UC) and how this may affect participation in a comparison trial is lacking. The study aimed to capture views and opinions of healthcare professionals about the two drugs within the CONSTRUCT trial. DESIGN: An interview-based qualitative study using Framework Analysis embedded within an open-label, pragmatic randomised trial...
February 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391588/exploring-multilevel-factors-for-family-engagement-in-home-visiting-across-two-national-models
#11
Amanda D Latimore, Lori Burrell, Sarah Crowne, Kristen Ojo, Fallon Cluxton-Keller, Sunday Gustin, Lakota Kruse, Daniela Hellman, Lenore Scott, Annette Riordan, Anne Duggan
The associations of family, home visitor and site characteristics with family engagement within the first 6 months were examined. The variation in family engagement was also explored. Home visiting program participants were drawn from 21 Healthy Families America sites (1707 families) and 9 Nurse-Family Partnership sites (650 families) in New Jersey. Three-level nested generalized linear mixed models assessed the associations of family, home visitor and site characteristics with family receipt of a high dose of services in the first 6 months of enrollment...
April 8, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379959/unraveling-chagas-disease-transmission-through-the-oral-route-gateways-to-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-and-target-tissues
#12
Danielle Silva-Dos-Santos, Juliana Barreto-de-Albuquerque, Bárbara Guerra, Otacilio C Moreira, Luiz Ricardo Berbert, Mariana Tavares Ramos, Barbara Angelica S Mascarenhas, Constança Britto, Alexandre Morrot, Déa M Serra Villa-Verde, Luciana Ribeiro Garzoni, Wilson Savino, Vinícius Cotta-de-Almeida, Juliana de Meis
Oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is the most important route of infection in Brazilian Amazon and Venezuela. Other South American countries have also reported outbreaks associated with food consumption. A recent study showed the importance of parasite contact with oral cavity to induce a highly severe acute disease in mice. However, it remains uncertain the primary site of parasite entry and multiplication due to an oral infection. Here, we evaluated the presence of T...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378973/tawny-owl-strix-aluco-as-a-potential-transmitter-of-enterobacteriaceae-epidemiologically-relevant-for-forest-service-workers-nature-protection-service-and-ornithologists
#13
Grzegorz Grzywaczewski, Danuta Kowalczyk-Pecka, Szymon Cios, Wiktor Bojar, Andrzej Jankuszew, Hubert Bojar, Marcin Kolejko
Established taxa within the Enterobacteriaceae wereisolated from cloacal swabs of Strix aluco chicks in nest boxes located at five research sites. ChromID ESBL medium (bioMerieux) was used to select a pool of Enterobacteriaceae strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Drug sensitivity of the chosen strains was determined from the full pool of Enterobacteriaceae to 6 chemotherapeutics of different mechanisms of action. The study evaluated the sensitivity of ESBL-synthesizing isolates to substances belonging to penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins, clavams, carbapenems and monobactams...
March 31, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378359/the-causes-of-dispersal-and-the-cost-of-carryover-effects-for-an-endangered-bird-in-a-dynamic-wetland-landscape
#14
Ellen P Robertson, Robert J Fletcher, James D Austin
1.The decision to disperse or remain philopatric between breeding seasons has important implications for both ecology and evolution, including the potential for carryover effects, where an individual's previous history affects their current performance. Carryover effects are increasingly documented although underlying mechanisms remain unclear. 2.Here we test for potential carryover effects and their mechanisms by uniting hypotheses for the causes and consequences of habitat selection and dispersal across space and time...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373258/european-prospective-cohort-study-on-enterobacteriaceae-showing-resistance-to-carbapenems-eureca-a-protocol-of-a-european-multicentre-observational-study
#15
Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Jesús Sojo-Dorado, José Bravo-Ferrer, Nienke Cuperus, Marlieke de Kraker, Tomislav Kostyanev, Lul Raka, George Daikos, Jan Feifel, Laura Folgori, Alvaro Pascual, Herman Goossens, Seamus O'Brien, Marc J M Bonten, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
INTRODUCTION: The rapid worldwide spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) constitutes a major challenge. The aim of the EUropean prospective cohort study on Enterobacteriaceae showing REsistance to CArbapenems (EURECA), which is part of the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking (IMI JU) funded COMBACTE-CARE project, is to investigate risk factors for and outcome determinants of CRE infections to inform randomised clinical trial designs and to provide a historical cohort that could eventually be used for future comparisons with new drugs targeting CRE...
April 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369906/the-effects-of-ant-nests-on-soil-fertility-and-plant-performance-a-meta-analysis
#16
Alejandro G Farji-Brener, Victoria Werenkraut
Ants are recognized as one of the major sources of soil disturbance worldwide. However, this view is largely based on isolated studies and qualitative reviews. Here, for the first time, we quantitatively determined whether ant nests affect soil fertility and plant performance, and identified the possible sources of variation of these effects. Using Bayesian mixed-models meta-analysis we tested the hypotheses that ant effects on soil fertility and plant performance depend on the substrate sampled, ant feeding type, latitude, habitat and the plant response variable measured...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367380/the-adaptive-value-of-habitat-preferences-from-a-multi-scale-spatial-perspective-insights-from-marsh-nesting-avian-species
#17
Jan Jedlikowski, Mattia Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Habitat selection and its adaptive outcomes are crucial features for animal life-history strategies. Nevertheless, congruence between habitat preferences and breeding success has been rarely demonstrated, which may result from the single-scale evaluation of animal choices. As habitat selection is a complex multi-scale process in many groups of animal species, investigating adaptiveness of habitat selection in a multi-scale framework is crucial. In this study, we explore whether habitat preferences acting at different spatial scales enhance the fitness of bird species, and check the appropriateness of single vs...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364429/patient-reported-usability-of-positive-airway-pressure-equipment-is-associated-with-adherence-in-older-adults
#18
Constance H Fung, Jennifer L Martin, Ron D Hays, Emily S Patterson, Ravi Aysola, Nananda Col, Michael N Mitchell, Cindy Truong, Joseph M Dzierzewski, Stella Jouldjian, Yeonsu Song, Juan Carlos Rodriguez, Karen Josephson, Cathy Alessi
Study objectives: To examine the usability of positive airway pressure (PAP) devices and its association with PAP adherence among older adults with sleep-disordered breathing. Methods: We mailed questionnaires to patients aged ≥65 years prescribed PAP therapy during the prior 36 months from two large healthcare systems. Survey participants completed the Usability of Sleep Apnea Equipment-Positive Airway Pressure (USE-PAP) questionnaire, which assessed the usability of their PAP device...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360132/dose-dependent-transduction-of-hedgehog-relies-on-phosphorylation-based-feedback-between-the-gpcr-smoothened-and-the-kinase-fused
#19
Matthieu Sanial, Isabelle Bécam, Line Hofmann, Julien Behague, Camilla Argüelles, Vanessa Gourhand, Lucia Bruzzone, Robert A Holmgren, Anne Plessis
Smoothened (SMO) is a GPCR-related protein required for the transduction of Hedgehog (HH). The HH gradient leads to graded phosphorylation of SMO, mainly by the PKA and CKI kinases. How thresholds in HH morphogen regulate SMO to promote switch-like transcriptional responses is a central unsolved issue. Using the wing imaginal disc model in Drosophila, we identified novel SMO phosphosites that enhance the effects of the PKA/CKI kinases on SMO accumulation, its localization at the plasma membrane and its activity...
March 30, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358871/post-licensure-safety-evaluation-of-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-in-the-three-major-ecological-zones-across-ghana
#20
Abraham R Oduro, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Margaret Gyapong, Isaac Osei, Alex Adjei, Abena Yawson, Edward Sobe, Rita Baiden, Martin Adjuik, Fred Binka
BACKGROUND: Uncommon and rare adverse events (AEs), with delayed onset may not be detected before new drugs are licensed and deployed. The present study examined the post licensure safety of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHP) as an additional treatment for malaria in Ghana. The relationship between the incidence of AEs, treatment completion rate, participant characteristics and concomitant medications are reported. METHODS: A study conducted from September 2013 to June 2014 in Navrongo, Kintampo and Dodowa health research centres in Ghana is presented...
2017: PloS One
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