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Harry Teagle, Pippa J Moore, Helen Jenkins, Dan A Smale
Kelp species are ecologically-important habitat-formers in coastal marine ecosystems, where they alter environmental conditions and promote local biodiversity by providing complex biogenic habitat for an array of associated organisms. While it is widely accepted that kelps harbour significant biodiversity, our current understanding of spatiotemporal variability in kelp-associated assemblages and the key environmental drivers of variability patterns remains limited. Here we examined the influence of ocean temperature and wave exposure on the structure of faunal assemblages associated with the holdfasts of Laminaria hyperborea, the dominant habitat-forming kelp in the northeast Atlantic...
2018: PloS One
Kumaran Vadivel, Ramamurthy Mageshbabu, Sathish Sankar, Amita Jain, Vivekanandan Perumal, Padma Srikanth, Ghosh Asit Ranjan, Aravindan Nair, Eric A F Simoes, Balaji Nandagopal, Gopalan Sridharan
Background & objectives: Human parvovirus B19V (B19V) is known to be associated with erythema infectiosum commonly in children, aplastic crisis, especially in persons with underlying haemolytic disorders, hydrops fetalis in pregnancies and arthritis. This cross-sectional study was aimed to determine the presence of B19V infection in childhood febrile illnesses, association of B19V with arthropathies and in adult patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis. The genetic diversity among the sequences was also analysed...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Giselle Maria Rachid Viana, Luciana Silva-Flannery, Danielle Regina Lima Barbosa, Naomi Lucchi, Suiane Costa Negreiros do Valle, Samela Farias, Nayara Barbalho, Paola Marchesini, Juliana Chedid Nogaredi Rossi, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Marinete Marins Póvoa, Alexandre Macedo de Oliveira
Conventional molecular methods, such as nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are very sensitive for detection of malaria parasites, but require advanced laboratory equipment and trained personnel. Real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp), a loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based molecular tool (LAMP), facilitates rapid target amplification at a single temperature setting, reducing the need for sophisticated equipment. We evaluated the performance of a field-adapted RealAmp assay for malaria diagnosis in Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre State, Brazil, a remote area in Brazil with limited laboratory capabilities...
2018: PloS One
Fiona A Stewart, Alexander K Piel, Jurgi C Azkarate, Jill D Pruetz
OBJECTIVES: Great ape nests are hypothesized to aid safe, secure sleep via providing thermoregulation or protection from predators and vectors. We aimed to describe and investigate variation in chimpanzee nest architecture across two populations in response to local weather conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We experimentally tested whether nests provide insulation by measuring heat loss within and outside nests, and took detailed measurements of the number, size, and type of materials used in nest building across two dry-habitat research sites (Fongoli, Senegal, and Issa, Tanzania)...
July 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Magdalena S Svensson, K A I Nekaris, Simon K Bearder, Caroline M Bettridge, Thomas M Butynski, Susan M Cheyne, Nabajit Das, Yvonne A de Jong, Averee M Luhrs, Lydia V Luncz, Simon T Maddock, Andrew Perkin, Elizabeth Pimley, Stephanie A Poindexter, Kathleen D Reinhardt, Denise Spaan, Danica J Stark, Carly R Starr, Vincent Nijman
OBJECTIVES: Synthesize information on sleep patterns, sleep site use, and daytime predation at sleep sites in lorisiforms of Asia and Africa (10 genera, 36 species), and infer patterns of evolution of sleep site selection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted fieldwork in 12 African and six Asian countries, collecting data on sleep sites, timing of sleep and predation during daytime. We obtained additional information from literature and through correspondence. Using a phylogenetic approach, we established ancestral states of sleep site selection in lorisiforms and traced their evolution...
July 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Ralph E T Vanstreels, Michael J Yabsley, Liandrie Swanepoel, Kim L Stevens, Tegan Carpenter-Kling, Peter G Ryan, Pierre A Pistorius
The Prince Edward Islands are Subantarctic islands in the southwest Indian Ocean that are of global importance as seabird nesting sites, and are breeding grounds for five species of albatrosses (Procellariiformes: Diomedeidae). In March-April 2016 numerous chicks of one of these species, the grey-headed albatross ( Thalassarche chrysostoma ), were found dead at colonies on Marion Island (46°57'S 37°42'E), the larger of the two Prince Edward Islands. Affected chicks were weak, prostrated, apathetic, had drooping wings, and many eventually died while sitting on the nest...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Vineet Joag, Aida Sivro, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Hajra Imam, Natasha Samsunder, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim Abdool Karim, Lyle McKinnon, Rupert Kaul
BACKGROUND: A blood-based assay that could quantify HIV susceptibility would be very valuable for HIV prevention research. Previously, we developed and validated an ex vivo, flow-based, HIV entry assay to assess genital HIV susceptibility in endocervical CD4+ T cells. METHODS: Here we assessed whether this tool could be used to predict HIV risk using blood-derived CD4+ T cells in a rigorously-blinded, nested case-control study using blood samples collected from high-risk, HIV-uninfected South African women enrolled in the CAPRISA 004 clinical trial...
2018: PloS One
M L C Rocha, P F Cristaldo, J S Cruz, J J M Sacramento, D V Ferreira, A P A Araújo
Symbiosis between plants and ants include examples in which the plant provides shelter and/or food for ants that, in turn, act in the defense or in the dispersion of seeds from the host plant. Although traditionally referred as mutualistic, the results of these interactions may vary with the ecological context in which patterns are involved. A range of species have facultative association with Turnera subulata (Turneraceae). Here, using behavioral bioassays, we investigated the effects of the most frequent ant species associated with T...
July 7, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Adam L Cronin
Complex systems are modular entities which can collectively generate sophisticated emergent solutions through interactions based on simple, local rules. In this study, I use an agent-based model to elucidate how numerous individual-level components contribute to the collective decision process during house-hunting in a mass-recruiting ant species. Myrmecina nipponica combines the use of pheromone trails with a quorum decision rule in collective decisions among nest sites when searching for a new home. The model employed only individual-level rules but accurately emulated group-level properties observed in empirical studies...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Mueen Alam Khan, Fei Tong, Wubin Wang, Jianbo He, Tuanjie Zhao, Junyi Gai
RTM-GWAS identified 111 DT QTLs, 262 alleles with high proportion of QEI and genetic variation accounting for 88.55-95.92% PV in NAM, from which QTL-allele matrices were established and candidate genes annotated. Drought tolerance (DT) is one of the major challenges for world soybean production. A nested association mapping (NAM) population with 403 lines comprising two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations: M8206 × TongShan and ZhengYang × M8206 was tested for DT using polyethylene-glycol (PEG) treatment under spring and summer environments...
July 6, 2018: Planta
Sarah E Diamond, Lacy D Chick, Abe Perez, Stephanie A Strickler, Crystal Zhao
Because cities contain high levels of impervious surfaces and diminished buffering effects of vegetation cover, urbanized environments can warm faster over the day and exhibit more rapid warming over space due to greater thermal heterogeneity in these environments. Whether organismal physiologies can adapt to these more rapid spatio-temporal changes in temperature rise within cities is unknown, and exploring these responses can inform not only how plastic and evolutionary mechanisms shape organismal physiologies, but also the potential for organisms to cope with urban development...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Rangappa Rajanna, Pamalapati Mahadevareddy Thimmareddy, Pinaki Prasad Sengupta, Susan Jacob Siju, Gotakanapura Sanjeevamurthy Mamatha
Fasciolosis in ruminants in India is caused by the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica. Radix (Lymnaea) spp. are known to carry the infective stages of this parasite. Understanding the seasonal prevalence of F. gigantica infection in the intermediate host is of extreme importance in order to elucidate the transmission dynamics of the parasite. So the present study was designed to determine the bioclimatic distribution of larval stages of F. gigantica in Radix spp. snails as well as to explore the genetic diversity of F...
September 25, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
Cody A Freas, Ken Cheng
Mobile animals need to reliably find goal locations and animal navigators acquire and use multiple cue sets within their environment designating direction and distance estimates of these locations. Foraging ants use multiple navigational tools including path integration and the learning of the landmark panorama. During landmark-based navigation, foragers first acquire the landmark cues around the nest through preforaging learning walks, and then learn non-nest site cues along their foraging routes. Here, we explore both foragers' ability to extrapolate views from around the nest to local displacement sites and landmark learning during the first foraging trips away from the nest area...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
Milind C Mutnale, Sachin Anand, Lilly M Eluvathingal, Jayanta K Roy, Gundlapally S Reddy, Karthikeyan Vasudevan
Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) are a major threat to wildlife and a key player in the declining amphibian populations worldwide. One such EID is chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a fungal pathogen. Aetiology of Bd infection is poorly known from tropical frogs in Asian biodiversity hotspots. Surveys were carried out in four biodiversity hotspots to ascertain the status of Bd fungus. We collected a total of 1870 swab samples from frogs representing 32 genera and 111 species...
July 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yan Zhao, Jie Zeng, Yonghong Zhao, Qingyang Liu, Yang He, Jiaqi Zhang, Zhaoqing Yang, Qi Fan, Qinghui Wang, Liwang Cui, Yaming Cao
BACKGROUND: Border malaria, a shared phenomenon in the Greater Mekong Sub-region of Southeast Asia, is a major obstacle for regional malaria elimination. Along the China-Myanmar border, an additional problem arose as a result of the settlement of internally displaced people (IDP) in the border region. Since asymptomatic malaria significantly impacts transmission dynamics, assessment of the prevalence, dynamics and risk factors of asymptomatic malaria infections is necessary. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 3 seasons (March and April, July and November) and 2 sites (villages and IDP camps) in 2015...
July 4, 2018: Malaria Journal
Molly Thompson, Brittney H Coe, Robin M Andrews, Daniel A Cristol, Dane A Crossley, William A Hopkins
The rate of anthropogenic habitat conversion often exceeds the rate of natural ecological and evolutionary processes, which sometimes creates mismatches between environmental cues and adaptive behaviors. In numerous species of aquatic turtles, nest site selection is primarily based on cues related to high solar exposure, which leads females to select sites where humans have disturbed habitat. These disturbed sites are often contaminated by pollutants, such as mercury. Despite the fact that anthropogenic disturbances often co-occur, few studies have examined the interactive influence of major global changes on animal development...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Lucy Cunnama, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer, Averie Gachuhi, Ndumiso Dlamini, Thabo Hlophe, Joshua Kikuvi, Nontokozo Langwenya, Simangele Mthethwa, Dennis Mudonhi, Bonisile Nhlabatsi, Harriet Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Velephi Okello, Ruben Sahabo, Allison Zerbe, Edina Sinanovic
OBJECTIVES: To assess the costs and cost-effectiveness of transitioning from antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation based on CD4 cell count and WHO clinical staging ("Option A") to universal ART ("Option B+") for all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women in Swaziland. METHODS: We measured the total costs of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) service delivery at public sector facilities with empirical cost data collected at three points in time: once under Option A and again twice after transition to the Option B+ approach...
June 29, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Hanne Søberg Finbråten, Bodil Wilde-Larsson, Gun Nordström, Kjell Sverre Pettersen, Anne Trollvik, Øystein Guttersrud
BACKGROUND: The European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47) is widely used in assessing health literacy (HL). There has been some controversy whether the comprehensive HLS-EU-Q47 data, reflecting a conceptual model of four cognitive domains across three health domains (i.e. 12 subscales), fit unidimensional Rasch models. Still, the HLS-EU-Q47 raw score is commonly interpreted as a sufficient statistic. Combining Rasch modelling and confirmatory factor analysis, we reduced the 47 item scale to a parsimonious 12 item scale that meets the assumptions and requirements of objective measurement while offering a clinically feasible HL screening tool...
June 28, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Benjamin E R Snyder, Pieter Vanelderen, Robert A Schoonheydt, Bert F Sels, Edward I Solomon
Two [Cu2 O]2+ cores have been identified as the active sites of low temperature methane hydroxylation in the zeolite Cu-MOR. These cores have similar geometric and electronic structures, yet different reactivity with CH4 : one reacts with a much lower activation enthalpy. In the present study, we couple experimental reactivity studies to DFT to arrive at structural models of the Cu-MOR active sites. We find that the more reactive core is located in a constricted region of the zeolite lattice. This leads to close van der Waals contact between the substrate and the zeolite lattice in the vicinity of the active site...
June 28, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
J Allen, M David, J L Veerman
Background: Surgical-site infections (SSIs) increase the length of hospital admission and costs. SSI prevention guidelines include preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. This review assessed the reporting quality and cost-effectiveness of preoperative antibiotics used to prevent SSI. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Index of Economic Articles (EconLit), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effect (including the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database) and Cochrane Central databases were searched systematically from 1970 to 2017 for articles that included costs, preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis and SSI...
June 2018: BJS open
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