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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512730/examining-the-role-of-transmission-of-chelonid-alphaherpesvirus-5
#1
Andrea Chaves, A Alonso Aguirre, Kinndle Blanco-Peña, Andrés Moreira-Soto, Otto Monge, Ana M Torres, José L Soto-Rivas, Yuanan Lu, Didiher Chacón, Luis Fonseca, Mauricio Jiménez, Gustavo Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Michael Lierz
Marine turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a devastating neoplastic disease characterized by single or multiple cutaneous and visceral fibrovascular tumors. Chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) has been identified as the most likely etiologic agent. From 2010 to 2013, the presence of ChHV5 DNA was determined in apparently normal skin, tumors and swab samples (ocular, nasal and cloacal) collected from 114 olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) and 101 green (Chelonia mydas) turtles, with and without FP tumors, on the Pacific coasts of Costa Rica and Nicaragua...
May 16, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505200/using-edna-to-detect-the-distribution-and-density-of-invasive-crayfish-in-the-honghe-hani-rice-terrace-world-heritage-site
#2
Wang Cai, Zhuxin Ma, Chunyan Yang, Lin Wang, Wenzhi Wang, Guigang Zhao, Yupeng Geng, Douglas W Yu
The Honghe-Hani landscape in China is a UNESCO World Natural Heritage site due to the beauty of its thousands of rice terraces, but these structures are in danger from the invasive crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Crayfish dig nest holes, which collapse terrace walls and destroy rice production. Under the current control strategy, farmers self-report crayfish and are issued pesticide, but this strategy is not expected to eradicate the crayfish nor to prevent their spread since farmers are not able to detect small numbers of crayfish...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505009/a-novel-grading-system-based-on-tumor-budding-and-cell-nest-size-is-a-strong-predictor-of-patient-outcome-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#3
Moritz Jesinghaus, Melanie Boxberg, Björn Konukiewitz, Julia Slotta-Huspenina, Anna M Schlitter, Katja Steiger, Katja Specht, Kathrin Wieczorek, Arne Warth, Thomas Schmidt, Arndt Hartmann, Ihsan E Demir, Markus Feith, Katja Ott, Wilko Weichert
The determination of prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is primarily based on staging according to the TNM-classification, whereas conventional grading is of minor clinical importance because of its deficiencies in prognostic patient stratification. Recently, a novel, highly prognostic grading scheme based on budding activity and cell nest size has been proposed for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of both pulmonary as well as oral origin. In order to investigate the utility and transferability of this approach to ESCC, we evaluated budding activity and cell nest size, as well as other histomorphologic characteristics, in a cohort of 135 primarily resected tumors and correlated the results with clinicopathologic and outcome parameters...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486386/fluid-overload-and-cumulative-thoracostomy-output-are-associated-with-surgical-site-infection-after-pediatric-cardiothoracic-surgery
#4
Anthony A Sochet, Aoibhinn Nyhan, Michael C Spaeder, Alexander M Cartron, Xiaoyan Song, Darren Klugman, Anna T Brown
OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of cumulative, postoperative thoracostomy output, amount of bolus IV fluids and peak fluid overload on the incidence and odds of developing a deep surgical site infection following pediatric cardiothoracic surgery. DESIGN: A single-center, nested, retrospective, matched case-control study. SETTING: A 26-bed cardiac ICU in a 303-bed tertiary care pediatric hospital. PATIENTS: Cases with deep surgical site infection following cardiothoracic surgery were identified retrospectively from January 2010 through December 2013 and individually matched to controls at a ratio of 1:2 by age, gender, Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery score, Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery category, primary cardiac diagnosis, and procedure...
May 8, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485252/interspecific-interactions-in-solitary-aculeata-is-the-presence-of-heterospecifics-important-for-females-establishing-nests
#5
J Kierat, K Miler, W Celary, M Woyciechowski
There are several possible causes of aggregated nesting in solitary Aculeata, one being joint defense against parasites. We tested whether females prefer nesting in aggregations, even if they consist of heterospecifics. We compared the colonization and nesting parasitism of trap-nests with and without a red mason bee aggregation. The results did not support our hypothesis that females prefer nesting in aggregations. The numbers of wild Aculeata nests did not differ between trap-nests with and without an aggregation...
May 9, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484599/to-migrate-stay-put-or-wander-varied-movement-strategies-in-bald-eagles-haliaeetus-leucocephalus
#6
Rachel E Wheat, Stephen B Lewis, Yiwei Wang, Taal Levi, Christopher C Wilmers
BACKGROUND: Quantifying individual variability in movement behavior is critical to understanding population-level patterns in animals. Here, we explore intraspecific variation in movement strategies of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the north Pacific, where there is high spatiotemporal resource variability. We tracked 28 bald eagles (five immature, 23 adult) using GPS transmitters between May 2010 and January 2016. RESULTS: We found evidence of four movement strategies among bald eagles in southeastern Alaska and western Canada: breeding individuals that were largely sedentary and remained near nest sites year-round, non-breeding migratory individuals that made regular seasonal travel between northern summer and southern winter ranges, non-breeding localized individuals that displayed fidelity to foraging sites, and non-breeding nomadic individuals with irregular movement...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483869/no-phenotypic-plasticity-in-nest-site-selection-in-response-to-extreme-flooding-events
#7
Liam D Bailey, Bruno J Ens, Christiaan Both, Dik Heg, Kees Oosterbeek, Martijn van de Pol
Phenotypic plasticity is a crucial mechanism for responding to changes in climatic means, yet we know little about its role in responding to extreme climatic events (ECEs). ECEs may lack the reliable cues necessary for phenotypic plasticity to evolve; however, this has not been empirically tested. We investigated whether behavioural plasticity in nest-site selection allows a long-lived shorebird (Haematopus ostralegus) to respond to flooding. We collected longitudinal nest elevation data on individuals over two decades, during which time flooding events have become increasingly frequent...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470467/beta-diversity-of-ectoparasites-at-two-spatial-scales-nested-hierarchy-geography-and-habitat-type
#8
Elizabeth M Warburton, Luther van der Mescht, Michal Stanko, Maxim V Vinarski, Natalia P Korallo-Vinarskaya, Irina S Khokhlova, Boris R Krasnov
Beta-diversity of biological communities can be decomposed into (a) dissimilarity of communities among units of finer scale within units of broader scale and (b) dissimilarity of communities among units of broader scale. We investigated compositional, phylogenetic/taxonomic and functional beta-diversity of compound communities of fleas and gamasid mites parasitic on small Palearctic mammals in a nested hierarchy at two spatial scales: (a) continental scale (across the Palearctic) and (b) regional scale (across sites within Slovakia)...
May 3, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466036/frequency-of-nucleotide-sequence-variations-in-the-internal-ribosome-entry-site-region-of-hepatitis-c-virus-rna-isolated-from-responding-and-non-responding-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-3-infection
#9
Anzar Ashraf, Anita Chakravarti, Priyamvada Roy, Premashish Kar, Oves Siddiqui
Located within 5' untranslated region of HCV RNA is internal ribosome entry site (IRES) which directs cap-independent translation of viral polyprotein. Mutations in IRES sequence have been shown to cause changes in efficiency of protein translation in vitro in few instances. No study has been done to investigate association between frequency of nucleotide sequence variations in IRES region of HCV-3 RNA and response to pegylated interferon-α plus ribavirin therapy. Hence, this study was planned to analyze relationship between frequency of nucleotide sequence variations of HCV-3 IRES region and response to therapy...
September 2016: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465542/the-importance-of-illumination-in-nest-site-choice-and-nest-characteristics-of-cavity-nesting-birds
#10
Paweł Podkowa, Adrian Surmacki
Light has a significant impact on many aspects of avian biology, physiology and behaviour. An increasing number of studies show that illumination may positively influences birds' offspring fitness by e.g. acceleration of embryo development, stimulation of skeleton growth or regulation of circadian rhythm. Because nest cavities have especially low illumination, suitable light levels may be especially important for species which nest there. We may therefore expect that birds breeding in relatively dim conditions should prefer brighter nest sites and/or evolve behavioral mechanisms to secure sufficient light levels in the nest...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463961/herpes-zoster-risk-after-21-specific-cancers-population-based-case-control-study
#11
Erik Hansson, Harriet J Forbes, Sinéad M Langan, Liam Smeeth, Krishnan Bhaskaran
BACKGROUND: Some malignancies are known to be associated with increased risk of herpes zoster, but little is known about how associations between cancer and subsequent zoster risk vary by cancer site, by time since cancer diagnosis, and by age. METHODS: An age-, sex-, calendar time-, and practice-matched case-control study, nested in the broadly UK representative Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) primary care database, was analysed using conditional logistic regression to estimate the association between 21 of the most common specific malignancies and subsequent zoster risk...
May 2, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462019/the-importance-of-scale-dependent-ravine-characteristics-on-breeding-site-selection-by-the-burrowing-parrot-cyanoliseus-patagonus
#12
Myriam Ramirez-Herranz, Rodrigo S Rios, Renzo Vargas-Rodriguez, Jose-Enrique Novoa-Jerez, Francisco A Squeo
In birds, the environmental variables and intrinsic characteristics of the nest have important fitness consequences through its influence on the selection of nesting sites. However, the extent to which these variables interact with variables that operate at the landscape scale, and whether there is a hierarchy among the different scales that influences nest-site selection, is unknown. This interaction could be crucial in burrowing birds, which depend heavily on the availability of suitable nesting locations...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460323/doing-more-with-less-removing-trees-in-a-prairie-system-improves-value-of-grasslands-for-obligate-bird-species
#13
Jason D Tack, Frank R Quamen, Kyle Kelsey, David E Naugle
Grassland birds endemic to the Northern Great Plains have declined faster and more severely than any other avian guild on the continent. Remaining prairie fragments that sustain breeding populations are continually converted to a disturbed state, or degraded by fragmentation. Planted tree rows (shelterbelts) in prairie landscapes are a prominent feature and have been implicated in propagating negative edge effects on breeding birds, perhaps through harboring a diverse suite of nest predators. We experimentally removed shelterbelts on areas in the northern tallgrass prairie in North and South Dakota USA while conducting avian surveys to evaluate hypotheses about grassland bird response to the removal of a woodland edge...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460008/the-spectrum-and-burden-of-influenza-associated-neurological-disease-in-children-combined-encephalitis-and-influenza-sentinel-site-surveillance-from-australia-2013-2015
#14
P N Britton, C C Blyth, K Macartney, R C Dale, J Li-Kim-Moy, G Khandaker, N Crawford, H Marshall, J Clark, E Elliott, R Booy, A C Cheng, C A Jones
Background.: There are few longitudinal studies of seasonal influenza associated neurological disease (IAND) and none from the Southern hemisphere. Methods.: We extracted prospectively acquired Australian surveillance data from two studies nested within the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) study and the Australian Childhood Encephalitis (ACE) study between 2013 and 2015. We described the clinical features and severity of IAND in children, including influenza associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAE)...
April 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455820/a-review-of-source-tracking-techniques-for-fine-sediment-within-a-catchment
#15
REVIEW
Zhuo Guan, Xiang-Yu Tang, Jae E Yang, Yong Sik Ok, Zhihong Xu, Taku Nishimura, Brian J Reid
Excessive transport of fine sediment, and its associated pollutants, can cause detrimental impacts in aquatic environments. It is therefore important to perform accurate sediment source apportionment to identify hot spots of soil erosion. Various tracers have been adopted, often in combination, to identify sediment source type and its spatial origin; these include fallout radionuclides, geochemical tracers, mineral magnetic properties and bulk and compound-specific stable isotopes. In this review, the applicability of these techniques to particular settings and their advantages and limitations are reviewed...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447200/skyline-retention-and-retroactive-interference-in-the-navigating-australian-desert-ant-melophorus-bagoti
#16
Cody A Freas, Christopher Whyte, Ken Cheng
Visual cues commonly aid solitary foraging ants. Specifically, foragers can use the skyline where terrestrial landmarks meet the sky. Foraging ants show a remarkable affinity to retain these terrestrial cues, developing lifelong memories of the nest site panorama. Here we explore foragers' ability to retain skyline cues of resource locations at some distance from the nest through experiments with artificial skylines erected around a resource location. We also tested the foragers' memories of one skyline at several time points after the skyline was replaced by a different one...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446701/wind-and-rain-are-the-primary-climate-factors-driving-changing-phenology-of-an-aerial-insectivore
#17
Rachel D Irons, April Harding Scurr, Alexandra P Rose, Julie C Hagelin, Tricia Blake, Daniel F Doak
While the ecological effects of climate change have been widely observed, most efforts to document these impacts in terrestrial systems have concentrated on the impacts of temperature. We used tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nest observations from two widely separated sites in central Alaska to examine the aspects of climate affecting breeding phenology at the northern extent of this species' range. We found that two measures of breeding phenology, annual lay and hatch dates, are more strongly predicted by windiness and precipitation than by temperature...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446699/polydomy-enhances-foraging-performance-in-ant-colonies
#18
N Stroeymeyt, P Joye, L Keller
Collective foraging confers benefits in terms of reduced predation risk and access to social information, but it heightens local competition when resources are limited. In social insects, resource limitation has been suggested as a possible cause for the typical decrease in per capita productivity observed with increasing colony size, a phenomenon known as Michener's paradox. Polydomy (distribution of a colony's brood and workers across multiple nests) is believed to help circumvent this paradox through its positive effect on foraging efficiency, but there is still little supporting evidence for this hypothesis...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444516/trap-nesting-hymenoptera-and-their-network-with-parasites-in-recovered-riparian-forests-brazil
#19
G J Araujo, R Fagundes, Y Antonini
Different aspects of human activities can cause environmental change that endanger species persistence, alter species distributions, and lead to changes in antagonistic and mutualistic interactions, whereas deforestation and flooding of riparian forest results in landscapes consisting of patchily distributed riparian forest fragments in a matrix of pastures, plantations, and urban areas. Therefore, we assessed the richness, abundance, and trophic interactions of trap-nesting Hymenoptera and their parasites at four patches of restored riparian forest and at one reference natural fragment, of different sizes and ages, located at the Volta Grande Reservoir, in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states to answer the following questions: (1) Does the richness and abundance of cavity-nesting bees and wasps differ in riparian forest fragments according to the seasonal periods? (2) Does the composition of cavity-nesting bees and wasps vary among restoration and reference sites and between climate seasons (wet and dry)? (3) How do the degrees of specialization of the parasites vary among the patches of forest? We recorded 12 species of wasps, eight of bees, and nine species of parasites...
April 25, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444386/coevolution-with-pollinating-resin-midges-led-to-resin-filled-nurseries-in-the-androecia-gynoecia-and-tepals-of-kadsura-schisandraceae
#20
Shi-Xiao Luo, Ting-Ting Liu, Fei Cui, Zi-Yin Yang, Xiao-Ying Hu, Susanne S Renner
Background and Aims: Resin is a defence against herbivores and a floral reward in a few African and South American species whose bee pollinators collect it for nest construction. Here we describe a new role for floral resin from the Asian genus Kadsura (Schisandraceae). Kadsura tepals tightly cover a globe formed by carpels (in females) or near-fused stamens with fleshy connectives (in male flowers of most, but not all species). Methods: We carried out field observations at four sites in China and used pollinator behavioural assays, chemical analyses and time-calibrated insect and plant phylogenies to investigate the specificity of the interactions and their relationship to floral structure...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
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