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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649733/composition-of-the-root-mycorrhizal-community-associated-with-coffea-arabica-in-fifa-mountains-jazan-region-saudi-arabia
#1
Mosbah Mahdhi, Taieb Tounekti, Turki Ali Al-Turki, Habib Khemira
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) constitute a key functional group of soil biota that can greatly contribute to crop productivity and ecosystem sustainability. They improve nutrient uptake and enhance the ability of plants to cope with abiotic stresses. The presence of AMF in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plant roots have been reported in several locations but not in Saudi Arabia despite the fact that coffee has been in cultivation here since ancient times. The objective of the present study was to investigate the diversity of AMF communities colonizing the roots of coffee trees growing in two sites of Fifa Mountains (south-west Saudi Arabia): site 1 at 700 m altitude and site 2 at 1400 m...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649337/the-role-of-conservative-versus-innovative-nesting-behavior-on-the-25-year-population-expansion-of-an-avian-predator
#2
Andreia Dias, Luís Palma, Filipe Carvalho, Dora Neto, Joan Real, Pedro Beja
Species ranges often change in relation to multiple environmental and demographic factors. Innovative behaviors may affect these changes by facilitating the use of novel habitats, although this idea has been little explored. Here, we investigate the importance of behavior during range change, using a 25-year population expansion of Bonelli's eagle in southern Portugal. This unique population is almost exclusively tree nesting, while all other populations in western Europe are predominantly cliff nesting. During 1991-2014, we surveyed nest sites and estimated the year when each breeding territory was established...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648148/debt-counselling-for-depression-in-primary-care-an-adaptive-randomised-controlled-pilot-trial-decoder-study
#3
Mark B Gabbay, Adele Ring, Richard Byng, Pippa Anderson, Rod S Taylor, Caryn Matthews, Tirril Harris, Vashti Berry, Paula Byrne, Elliot Carter, Pam Clarke, Laura Cocking, Suzanne Edwards, Richard Emsley, Mauro Fornasiero, Lucy Frith, Shaun Harris, Peter Huxley, Siw Jones, Peter Kinderman, Michael King, Liv Kosnes, Daniel Marshall, Dave Mercer, Carl May, Debbie Nolan, Ceri Phillips, Tim Rawcliffe, Alexandra V Sardani, Elizabeth Shaw, Sam Thompson, Jane Vickery, Brian Wainman, Mark Warner
BACKGROUND: Depression and debt are common in the UK. Debt Counselling for Depression in Primary Care: an adaptive randomised controlled pilot trial (DeCoDer) aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the addition of a primary care debt counselling advice service to usual care for patients with depression and debt. However, the study was terminated early during the internal pilot trial phase because of recruitment delays. This report describes the rationale, methods and findings of the pilot study, and implications for future research...
June 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647296/multiple-stressors-including-contaminant-exposure-and-parasite-infection-predict-spleen-mass-and-energy-expenditure-in-breeding-ring-billed-gulls
#4
Sarah C Marteinson, David J Marcogliese, Jonathan Verreault
Daily energy expenditure (DEE) in animals is influenced by many factors although the impact of stressors remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine how multiple physiological stressors (parasite infection and contaminant exposure) and natural challenges (energy-demanding activities and weather conditions) may affect DEE in nesting ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) exposed to high concentrations of persistent organic contaminants (POPs). Physical activity, temperature, gastrointestinal parasitic worm abundance, relative spleen mass, plasma thyroid hormone levels and liver concentrations of POPs were determined; field metabolic rate (FMR) was used as a measure of DEE...
June 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639004/the-hair-in-the-sinus-sharp-ended-rootless-head-hair-fragments-can-be-found-in-large-amounts-in-pilonidal-sinus-nests
#5
Friederike Bosche, Markus M Luedi, Dominic van der Zypen, Philipp Moersdorf, Bjoern Krapohl, Dietrich Doll
PURPOSE: Hair has been identified as the causative agent of Pilonidal Sinus Disease (PSD). Stiffer, dark hair as well as hairiness has been postulated as causative factors. Astonishingly, despite the early clinical significance of this condition (Hodges in Boston Med Surg J 2:485-486, 1880), macroscopic and microscopic examinations of hair inside pilonidal sinus cavities have been scarce. The purpose of this study was to study the morphological aspects of the hair found in PSD in order to determine the origin of the hair...
June 21, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637837/physiological-thermal-limits-predict-differential-responses-of-bees-to-urban-heat-island-effects
#6
April L Hamblin, Elsa Youngsteadt, Margarita M López-Uribe, Steven D Frank
Changes in community composition are an important, but hard to predict, effect of climate change. Here, we use a wild-bee study system to test the ability of critical thermal maxima (CTmax, a measure of heat tolerance) to predict community responses to urban heat-island effects in Raleigh, NC, USA. Among 15 focal species, CTmax ranged from 44.6 to 51.3°C, and was strongly predictive of population responses to urban warming across 18 study sites (r(2) = 0.44). Species with low CTmax declined the most. After phylogenetic correction, solitary species and cavity-nesting species (bumblebees) had the lowest CTmax, suggesting that these groups may be most sensitive to climate change...
June 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634718/mite-communities-acari-mesostigmata-in-young-and-mature-coniferous-forests-after-surface-wildfire
#7
Jacek Kamczyc, Cezary Urbanowski, Emilia Pers-Kamczyc
Density, diversity and assemblage structure of Mesostigmata (cohorts Gamasina and Uropodina) were investigated in Scots pine forests differing in forest age (young: 9-40 years and mature: 83-101 years) in which wildfire occurred. This animal group belongs to the dominant acarine predators playing a crucial role in soil food webs and being important as biological control agents. In total, six forests (three within young and three within mature stands) were inspected in Puszcza Knyszyńska Forest Complex in May 2015...
June 20, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629684/united-states-medical-licensing-examination-and-american-board-of-pediatrics-certification-examination-results-does-the-residency-program-contribute-to-trainee-achievement
#8
Thomas R Welch, Brad G Olson, Elizabeth Nelsen, Gary L Beck Dallaghan, Gloria A Kennedy, Ann Botash
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether training site or prior examinee performance on the US Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 and step 2 might predict pass rates on the American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) certifying examination. STUDY DESIGN: Data from graduates of pediatric residency programs completing the ABP certifying examination between 2009 and 2013 were obtained. For each, results of the initial ABP certifying examination were obtained, as well as results on National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) step 1 and step 2 examinations...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628707/intensive-blood-pressure-reduction-and-spot-sign-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Andrea Morotti, H Bart Brouwers, Javier M Romero, Michael J Jessel, Anastasia Vashkevich, Kristin Schwab, Mohammad Rauf Afzal, Christy Cassarly, Steven M Greenberg, Renee Hebert Martin, Adnan I Qureshi, Jonathan Rosand, Joshua N Goldstein
Importance: The computed tomographic angiography (CTA) spot sign is associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) expansion and may mark those patients most likely to benefit from intensive blood pressure (BP) reduction. Objective: To investigate whether the spot sign is associated with ICH expansion across a wide range of centers and whether intensive BP reduction decreases hematoma expansion and improves outcome in patients with ICH and a spot sign. Design, Setting, and Participants: SCORE-IT (Spot Sign Score in Restricting ICH Growth) is a preplanned prospective observational study nested in the Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage II (ATACH-II) randomized clinical trial...
June 19, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623288/seabirds-supply-nitrogen-to-reef-building-corals-on-remote-pacific-islets
#10
Anne Lorrain, Fanny Houlbrèque, Francesca Benzoni, Lucie Barjon, Laura Tremblay-Boyer, Christophe Menkes, David P Gillikin, Claude Payri, Hervé Jourdan, Germain Boussarie, Anouk Verheyden, Eric Vidal
Seabirds concentrate nutrients from large marine areas on their nesting islands playing an important ecological role in nutrient transfer between marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here we investigate the role of guano on corals reefs across scales by analyzing the stable nitrogen isotopic (δ(15)N) values of the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis on fringing reefs around two Pacific remote islets with large seabird colonies. Marine stations closest to the seabird colonies had higher nitrate + nitrite concentrations compared to more distant stations...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621028/climate-change-and-temperature-linked-hatchling-mortality-at-a-globally-important-sea-turtle-nesting-site
#11
Jacques-Olivier Laloë, Jacquie Cozens, Berta Renom, Albert Taxonera, Graeme C Hays
The study of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) in vertebrates has attracted major scientific interest. Recently, concerns for species with TSD in a warming world have increased because imbalanced sex ratios could potentially threaten population viability. In contrast, relatively little attention has been given to the direct effects of increased temperatures on successful embryonic development. Using 6603 days of sand temperature data recorded across 6 years at a globally important loggerhead sea turtle rookery-the Cape Verde Islands-we show the effects of warming incubation temperatures on the survival of hatchlings in nests...
June 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618584/model-of-the-best-of-n-nest-site-selection-process-in-honeybees
#12
Andreagiovanni Reina, James A R Marshall, Vito Trianni, Thomas Bose
The ability of a honeybee swarm to select the best nest site plays a fundamental role in determining the future colony's fitness. To date, the nest-site selection process has mostly been modeled and theoretically analyzed for the case of binary decisions. However, when the number of alternative nests is larger than two, the decision-process dynamics qualitatively change. In this work, we extend previous analyses of a value-sensitive decision-making mechanism to a decision process among N nests. First, we present the decision-making dynamics in the symmetric case of N equal-quality nests...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615488/hotter-nests-produce-hatchling-lizards-with-lower-thermal-tolerance
#13
Buddhi Dayananda, Brad R Murray, Jonathan K Webb
In many regions, the frequency and duration of summer heatwaves is predicted to increase in future. Hotter summers could result in higher temperatures inside lizard nests, potentially exposing embryos to thermally stressful conditions during development. Potentially, developmentally plastic shifts in thermal tolerance could allow lizards to adapt to climate warming. To determine how higher nest temperatures affect the thermal tolerance of hatchling geckos, we incubated eggs of the rock-dwelling velvet gecko, Amalosia lesueurii, at two fluctuating temperature regimes to mimic current nest temperatures (mean 23...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614414/species-specific-variation-in-nesting-and-postfledging-resource-selection-for-two-forest-breeding-migrant-songbirds
#14
Julianna M A Jenkins, Frank R Thompson, John Faaborg
Habitat selection is a fundamental component of community ecology, population ecology, and evolutionary biology and can be especially important to species with complex annual habitat requirements, such as migratory birds. Resource preferences on the breeding grounds may change during the postfledging period for migrant songbirds, however, the degree to which selection changes, timing of change, and whether all or only a few species alter their resource use is unclear. We compared resource selection for nest sites and resource selection by postfledging juvenile ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) and Acadian flycatchers (Empidonax virescens) followed with radio telemetry in Missouri mature forest fragments from 2012-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611505/development-and-optimization-of-a-reverse-transcription-hemi-nested-pcr-primer-for-the-detection-of-potato-mop-top-virus-at-quarantine-inspection-sites-in-korea
#15
S Lee, J Y Lee, H Kim, J H Kim, J Y Rho
Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) is classified as a plant quarantine virus in Korea. It is tested at import inspection sites. In this study, two sets of reverse transcription-hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction primers were developed to diagnose PMTV. In addition, modified- positive control plasmid was developed for the identification of false positive results in plant quarantine. The assay is expected to be useful for improving the detection and diagnosis of PMTV.
June 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606645/detection-of-causative-agents-of-tick-borne-rickettsioses-in-western-siberia-russia-identification-of-rickettsia-raoultii-and-rickettsia-sibirica-dna-in-clinical-samples
#16
Igolkina Yana, Krasnova Elena, Rar Vera, Savelieva Mariya, Epikhina Tamara, Tikunov Artem, Khokhlova Natalya, Provorova Veronika, Tikunova Nina
OBJECTIVES: The main causative agent of tick-borne rickettsioses in Siberia is considered to be Rickettsia sibirica; however, only a few cases have been genetically confirmed. Other pathogenic species of Rickettsia have also been detected in ixodid ticks in Western Siberia. The aim of this study was to detect the etiologic agents of tick-borne rickettsioses in Western Siberia and compare their clinical manifestations. METHODS: A total of 273 blood and 44 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 273 patients hospitalized owing to tick-transmitted infection in 2016, April-September, were examined for the presence of Rickettsia spp...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601036/light-pollution-affects-nesting-behavior-of-loggerhead-turtles-and-predation-risk-of-nests-and-hatchlings
#17
Elton Silva, Adolfo Marco, Jesemine da Graça, Héctor Pérez, Elena Abella, Juan Patino-Martinez, Samir Martins, Corrine Almeida
The introduction of artificial light into wildlife habitats is a rapidly expanding aspect of global change, which has many negative impacts on a wide range of taxa. In this experimental study, which took place on a beach located on the island of Boa Vista (Cabo Verde), three types of artificial light were tested on nesting loggerhead sea turtles as well as on ghost crabs, which intensively predate on nests and hatchlings, to determine the effects they would produce on the behavior of both species. Over the course of 36days, female loggerheads and ghost crabs were studied under yellow, orange and red lights, with observations also being made on dark nights that served as a control treatment...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599621/the-comparative-effectiveness-and-efficiency-of-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-and-generic-counselling-in-the-treatment-of-depression-evidence-from-the-2-nd-uk-national-audit-of-psychological-therapies
#18
Jo Pybis, David Saxon, Andy Hill, Michael Barkham
BACKGROUND: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is the front-line psychological intervention for step 3 within UK psychological therapy services. Counselling is recommended only when other interventions have failed and its effectiveness has been questioned. METHOD: A secondary data analysis was conducted of data collected from 33,243 patients across 103 Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services as part of the second round of the National Audit of Psychological Therapies (NAPT)...
June 9, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599367/integrative-assessment-of-river-damming-impacts-on-aquatic-fauna-in-a-portuguese-reservoir
#19
R M B Santos, L F Sanches Fernandes, R M V Cortes, S G P Varandas, J J B Jesus, F A L Pacheco
The impacts of river damming on aquatic fauna are assessed and then integrated across hierarchical scales, portrayed as nested circles. The outer circles characterize the studied site for habitat disturbance and hydrologic regime during the construction and filling phases. The inner circles characterize the construction and filling phase zones for water quality parameters and aquatic fauna. The procedure for integrating the impacts comprises two consecutive stages: in the task stage, inner circles are characterized through field and laboratory work involving sampling and analyses of water aliquots and aquatic fauna; in the impact assessment stage, circle data are processed in ecological and statistical algorithms, which allow identification of changes in abundance and composition of aquatic fauna communities and their integration with changes in water quality parameters across the construction and filling phase zones...
June 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591079/genetic-analyses-of-hiv-env-associated-with-uveitis-in-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals
#20
Corey A Williams-Wietzikoski, Isaac D So, Marta E Bull, Tanawan Samleerat, Kessara Pathanapitoon, Paradee Kunavisarut, Natedao Kongyai, Nicole Ngo-Giang-Huong, Lisa M Frenkel, Wasna Sirirungsi
OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) env sequences from the eye to those from the blood of individuals with uveitis attributed to HIV with the goal of gaining insight into the pathogenesis of HIV-associated eye disease. DESIGN: A prospective case series of five HIV-infected antiretroviral (ARV)-naïve individuals with uveitis negative for other pathogens. METHODS: RNA from blood plasma and ocular aqueous humor was reverse transcribed using random hexamers...
June 6, 2017: AIDS
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