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Sam Eldabe, Ashish Gulve, Simon Thomson, Ganesan Baranidharan, Rui Duarte, Susan Jowett, Harbinder Sandhu, Raymond Chadwick, Morag Brookes, Anisah Tariq, Jenny Earle, Jill Bell, Anu Kansal, Shelley Rhodes, Rod S Taylor
BACKGROUND: The TRIAL-STIM Study aims to assess the diagnostic performance, clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a screening trial prior to full implantation of a spinal cord stimulation (SCS) device. METHODS/DESIGN: The TRIAL-STIM Study is a superiority, parallel-group, three-centre, randomised controlled trial in patients with chronic neuropathic pain with a nested qualitative study and economic evaluation. The study will take place in three UK centres: South Tees Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (The James Cook University Hospital); Basildon and Thurrock University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust; and Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust...
November 16, 2018: Trials
Miguel R Varela, Ana R Patrício, Karen Anderson, Annette C Broderick, Leon DeBell, Lucy A Hawkes, Dominic Tilley, Robin T E Snape, Matthew J Westoby, Brendan J Godley
Climate change associated sea level rise (SLR) is expected to have profound impacts on coastal areas, affecting many species including sea turtles which depend on these habitats for egg incubation. Being able to accurately model beach topography using digital terrain models (DTMs) is therefore crucial to project SLR impacts and develop effective conservation strategies. Traditional survey methods are typically low-cost with low accuracy or high-cost with high accuracy. We present a novel combination of drone-based photogrammetry and a low-cost and portable real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS to create DTMs which are highly accurate (<10 cm error) and visually realistic...
November 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
Torkjel Manning Sandanger, Therese Haugdahl Nøst, Florence Guida, Charlotta Rylander, Gianluca Campanella, David C Muller, Jenny van Dongen, Dorret I Boomsma, Mattias Johansson, Paolo Vineis, Roel Vermeulen, Eiliv Lund, Marc Chadeau-Hyam
The majority of lung cancer is caused by tobacco smoking, and lung cancer-relevant epigenetic markers have been identified in relation to smoking exposure. Still, smoking-related markers appear to mediate little of the effect of smoking on lung cancer. Thus in order to identify disease-relevant markers and enhance our understanding of pathways, a wide search is warranted. Through an epigenome-wide search within a case-control study (131 cases, 129 controls) nested in a Norwegian prospective cohort of women, we found 25 CpG sites associated with lung cancer...
November 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Valentina Sangiorgio, Lorenzo Daniele, Teresa Gallo, Rodolfo Rocca, Cristina Fava, Paola Campisi, Giovanni De Rosa
Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are rare mesenchymal tumors that can affect any part of the body. They can be sporadic or arise in the setting of tuberous sclerosis (TSC). In this article, we report a series of three hepatic and two pancreatic PEComas diagnosed preoperatively with ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA). All patients were female (age range 28-70), had no personal history of TSC and presented with a single, localized painless mass. Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of cytologic samples was performed for all cases to evaluate for cellular content and adequacy of specimens...
November 12, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
J I Ikechebelu, G U Eleje, N N Joe-Ikechebelu, C D Okafor, A O Akintobi
Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and patterns of adhesions in infertile women with prior open myomectomy compared with women without prior pelvic-abdominal surgery. Methods: A nested case-control study of infertile women who had diagnostic laparoscopy after open myomectomy between January 2008 and June 2015 in Life Institute for Endoscopy Limited, Nnewi Nigeria, was conducted. At diagnostic laparoscopy, the presence, site, and quality (density) of adhesions was noted and recorded...
November 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Brian J Spiesman, Ashley Bennett, Rufus Isaacs, Claudio Gratton
Conversion of annual crops to native perennial grasslands for bioenergy production may help conserve wild bees by enhancing nest and food resources. However, bee response to the disturbance of biomass harvesting may depend on their nesting location, thus their vulnerability to nest destruction, and the response of the forb community on which they forage. Moreover, because bees have long foraging ranges, effects of local harvesting may depend on the amount of natural habitat in the surrounding landscape. We performed a large-scale one- and two-year experiment in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA, respectively, to examine how grassland harvesting, landscape context, and study year affect the forb community, above- and belowground-nesting bee species richness, community composition, trap nest emergence, and visitation rate...
November 9, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
A S Alagl, M Abdelsalam, M El Tantawi, M Madi, R Aljindan, A Alsayyah, J Alhumaid, A M Hussameddin, R M Alsulaiman, A AlQurain
BACKGROUND: There is inconsistent evidence about the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and dental diseases with possible effect of environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: The aims of the study were to assess (1) the association between gastric and oral H. pylori colonization and (2) the association between oral colonization of H. pylori and dental diseases. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in King Fahad University hospital in Khobar, Eastern Saudi Arabia in 2017...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Teresa M Pegan, David P Craig, Eric R Gulson-Castillo, Richard M Gabrielson, Wayne Bezner Kerr, Robert MacCurdy, Steven P Powell, David W Winkler
The availability of small, lightweight tracking devices enhances our ability to study birds during mobile phases of their lives. Tree Swallows Tachycineta bicolor, a model species of wild songbird, are well-studied during their breeding season; but our understanding of their biology at other times of the year, when they are not tied to the fixed location of a nest, is more limited. We developed a lightweight radio tag with no battery (solar nanotag) to study the movements of small animals, and we deployed it to explore the behavior of Tree Swallows after the end of their summer breeding season...
2018: PloS One
Natalie Montero, Maria A G Dei Marcovaldi, Milagros Lopez-Mendilaharsu, Alexsandro S Santos, Armando J B Santos, Mariana M P B Fuentes
Climate change is expected to impact animals that are heavily reliant on environmental factors, such as sea turtles, since the incubation of their eggs, hatching success and sex ratio are influenced by the environment in which eggs incubate. As climate change progresses it is therefore important to understand how climatic conditions influence their reproductive output and the ramifications to population stability. Here, we examined the influences of five climatic variables (air temperature, accumulated and average precipitation, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) at different temporal scales on hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) hatchling production at ten nesting beaches within two regions of Brazil (five nesting beaches in Rio Grande do Norte and five in Bahia)...
2018: PloS One
Beneharo Rodríguez, Airam Rodríguez, Felipe Siverio, Manuel Siverio
The specific spatial distribution and habitat association-strongly influenced by environmental factors or competitive interactions-are major issues in ecology and conservation. We located and georeferenced nesting sites of five cliff-nesting raptors (Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus [a locally extinct species], common buzzard Buteo buteo , osprey Pandion haliaetus , common kestrel Falco tinnunculus , Barbary falcon Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides ), and common raven Corvus corax on one of the most biodiverse hotspot within the Canary Islands (Teno, Tenerife)...
April 2018: Current Zoology
Mizuho Yabushita, Nicolás A Grosso-Giordano, Atsushi Fukuoka, Alexander Katz
The separation of aromatic contaminants from sugar-aromatic aqueous mixtures is required in second-generation biorefineries because aromatic compounds deactivate (bio)catalysts typically involved in upgrading lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. This separation remains challenging, however, because of the degree of molecular recognition needed to sequester dilute aromatic impurities from concentrated sugar streams. Herein, we demonstrate that hydrophobic cavities of p- tert-butylcalix[4]arene macrocycles grafted on amorphous silica (calix/SiO2 ) perform this separation selectively and efficiently by acting as selective molecular hosts that adsorb aromatic compounds (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillin, and vanillic acid) while excluding monomeric sugar (glucose chosen as a prototypical model) in aqueous mixtures...
November 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Michelle Debatisse, Filippo Rosselli
The replication process should be as faithful as possible in order to minimize mutations but some regions of the genome, named fragile sites, are hypersensitive to replication stress and often involved in the generation of gross chromosome rearrangements. Common fragile sites (CFSs) are a type of fragile sites that nest within very large genes and display cell-type-dependent instability. Fragile or not, large genes replicate late in S-phase but their complete replication is specifically delayed upon replication fork slowing, only when they are transcribed...
November 1, 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
Chelsea N Miller, Charles Kwit
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Comparing ecological attributes of endemic species with related, widespread species can reveal differences accounting for rarity. Forests of the southeastern United States are home to many range-restricted endemic and widespread species of Trillium, a genus of ant-dispersed herbs. Evidence suggests that aspects of seed-related life history stages are often correlated with plant rarity, but few studies have tested whether the process of seed dispersal differs for endemic and widespread species...
November 2018: American Journal of Botany
S J Nuske, S Anslan, L Tedersoo, M T L Bonner, B CCongdon, S E Abell
Organisms that are highly connected in food webs often perform unique and vital functions within ecosystems. Understanding the unique ecological roles played by highly connected organisms and the consequences of their loss requires a comprehensive understanding of the functional redundancy among organisms. One important, yet poorly understood, food web is that between truffle-forming ectomycorrhizal fungi and their mammalian consumers and dispersers. Mammalian fungal specialists rely on fungi as a food source, and they consume and disperse a higher diversity and abundance of fungi than do mycophagous mammals with generalist diets...
October 30, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Sofía Ocaña-Mayorga, Simón E Lobos, Verónica Crespo-Pérez, Anita G Villacís, C Miguel Pinto, Mario J Grijalva
BACKGROUND: The white-naped squirrel, Simosciurus nebouxii (previously known as Sciurus stramineus), has recently been identified as an important natural host for Trypanosoma cruzi in Ecuador. The nests of this species have been reported as having high infestation rates with the triatomine vector Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The present study aims to determine the levels of nest infestation with R. ecuadoriensis, the ecological variables that are influencing the nest site selection, and the relationship between R...
October 29, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Pembe Issamou Mayengue, Roch Fabien Niama, Dezi Kouhounina Batsimba, Alida Malonga-Massanga, Igor Louzolo, Nadia Claricelle Loukabou Bongolo, Lucette Macosso, Reyna Ibara Ottia, Ghyslain Kimbassa Ngoma, Louis Régis Dossou-Yovo, Brice Pembet Singana, Gabriel Ahombo, Géril Sekangue Obili, Simon Charles Kobawila, Henri Joseph Parra
BACKGROUND: In the Republic of Congo, artemisinin-based combinations have been recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria since 2006. However, the emergence of resistant parasites again these combinations in Southeast Asia is a threat for the control of this disease, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where the weight of the disease is important. Indeed, polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum K13-propeller gene have been involved in variations of drug sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin-based combinations...
October 29, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Abibatou Konaté, Paterne Akpa Gnagne, Valérie Akoua Bédia-Tanoh, Mireille Amiah-Droh, Dominique Konan Tano, Hervé Ignace Eby Menan, William Yavo
Despite efforts to eliminate it, malaria remains a major public health concern, particularly in Côte d'Ivoire. Chloroquine (CQ) was one of the first drugs used for its treatment, but was officially withdrawn from the market in 2007 following reports of high levels of chloroquine resistance. The present study was carried out after the withdrawal of CQ and provides an update on the rates of CQ resistance in Côte d'Ivoire. Samples were collected between September 2013 and March 2014 in Abidjan and from January to May 2016 in Abengourou and San Pedro through cross-sectional studies...
December 19, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
Lisa Celano, Caroline Sullivan, Angela Field, Michael Salmon
Hatchling marine turtles emerge at night from underground nests on oceanic beaches and then use visual cues to crawl from the nest site to the sea ("seafinding"). However, the light wavelengths (λ's) used to accomplish this orientation have not been thoroughly documented, nor do we understand why some λ's are favored over others. We measured nocturnal radiance on the horizon at 20 nm intervals between 340 and 600 nm at two nesting beach sites and then, under laboratory conditions, determined the lowest intensities of those λ's that induced green turtle and loggerhead hatchlings to crawl toward each light source (a low positive "phototaxis threshold")...
December 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Alicia Correa, Lutz Breuer, Patricio Crespo, Rolando Célleri, Jan Feyen, Christian Birkel, Camila Silva, David Windhorst
We demonstrated the great value of spatially distributed and temporally high-resolution hydro-chemical data to enhance knowledge about the intra-catchment variability of flow processes and the runoff composition of individual storms in a tropical alpine (Páramo) ecosystem. In this study, water sources (rainfall, spring water, and water from soil layers of Histosols and Andosols) and nested streams were sampled bi-weekly (2013-2014), including three storm high-resolution events (5-240 min). Water samples were analyzed for 14 tracers including electrical conductivity (EC) and rare earth trace elements and used as input to perform End-Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA)...
February 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Laura Beani, Federico Cappa, Fabio Manfredini, Marco Zaccaroni
The parasitic insect Xenos vesparum induces noticeable behavioral and physiological changes-e.g. castration-in its female host, the paper wasp Polistes dominula: parasitized putative workers avoid any colony task and desert the colony to survive in the nearby vegetation, like future queens and males do. In this long-term observational study, we describe the spectacular attraction of parasitized workers towards trumpet creeper bushes (Campsis radicans) in early-summer. Two thirds of all wasps that we sampled on these bushes were parasitized, whereas the parasite prevalence was much lower in our study area and most wasps sampled on other nearby flowering bushes were non-parasitized...
2018: PloS One
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