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Steven M Grodsky, Christopher E Moorman, Sarah R Fritts, Steven B Castleberry, T Bently Wigley
Forest regeneration following timber harvest is a principal source of habitat for early-successional birds and characterized by influxes of early-successional vegetation and residual downed woody material. Early-successional birds may use harvest residues for communication, cover, foraging, and nesting. Yet, increased market viability of woody biomass as bioenergy feedstock may intensify harvest residue removal. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate effects of varying intensities of woody biomass harvest on the early-successional bird community; and (2) document early-successional bird use of harvest residues in regenerating stands...
2016: PloS One
K E Hargan, N Michelutti, K Coleman, C Grooms, J M Blais, L E Kimpe, G Gilchrist, M Mallory, J P Smol
Seabirds that congregate in large numbers during the breeding season concentrate marine-derived nutrients to their terrestrial nesting sites, and these nutrients disperse and enhance production in nearby terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. In the Canadian Arctic, large seabird colonies (>100,000 breeding pairs) nest on cliff faces that drain directly in the ocean, ultimately returning the nutrients back to the marine environment from which they were derived. However, strong winds blowing up cliff faces could transport nutrients up in elevation and onto surrounding terrestrial and aquatic environments...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Benoît Geslin, Violette Le Féon, Morgane Folschweiller, Floriane Flacher, David Carmignac, Eric Motard, Samuel Perret, Isabelle Dajoz
Given the predicted expansion of cities throughout the world, understanding the effect of urbanization on bee fauna is a major issue for the conservation of bees. The aim of this study was to understand how urbanization affects wild bee assemblages along a gradient of impervious surfaces and to determine the influence of landscape composition and floral resource availability on these assemblages. We chose 12 sites with a proportion of impervious surfaces (soil covered by parking, roads, and buildings) ranging from 0...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Ken M Kunisaki, Dennis E Niewoehner, Gary Collins, Bitten Aagaard, Nafisah B Atako, Elzbieta Bakowska, Amanda Clarke, Giulio Maria Corbelli, Ernest Ekong, Sean Emery, Elizabeth B Finley, Eric Florence, Rosa M Infante, Cissy M Kityo, Juan Sierra Madero, Daniel E Nixon, Ellen Tedaldi, Jørgen Vestbo, Robin Wood, John E Connett
BACKGROUND: Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: We did a nested substudy within the randomised, controlled Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) trial at 80 sites in multiple settings in 20 high-income and low-to-middle-income countries...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Andrew J Plumptre, Stuart Nixon, Deo K Kujirakwinja, Ghislain Vieilledent, Rob Critchlow, Elizabeth A Williamson, Radar Nishuli, Andrew E Kirkby, Jefferson S Hall
Grauer's gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri), the World's largest primate, is confined to eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and is threatened by civil war and insecurity. During the war, armed groups in mining camps relied on hunting bushmeat, including gorillas. Insecurity and the presence of several militia groups across Grauer's gorilla's range made it very difficult to assess their population size. Here we use a novel method that enables rigorous assessment of local community and ranger-collected data on gorilla occupancy to evaluate the impacts of civil war on Grauer's gorilla, which prior to the war was estimated to number 16,900 individuals...
2016: PloS One
Ai Kawahara, Gi-Hong An, Sachie Miyakawa, Jun Sonoda, Tatsuhiro Ezawa
Soil acidity is a major constraint on plant productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi support plant colonization in acidic soil, but soil acidity also constrains fungal growth and diversity. Fungi in extreme environments generally evolve towards specialists, suggesting that AM fungi in acidic soil are acidic-soil specialists. In our previous surveys, however, some AM fungi detected in strongly acidic soils could also be detected in a soil with moderate pH, which raised a hypothesis that the fungi in acidic soils are pH generalists...
2016: PloS One
J Martins, F Almada, A Gonçalves, P Duarte-Coelho, P E Jorge
The ability to be faithful to a particular area or site was analysed in the shanny Lipophrys pholis. Using passive integrated transponders, adults from a population of L. pholis at Cabo Raso, Portugal, were followed over a period of 3 years. The findings showed that site fidelity is a consistent behaviour during the breeding season with specific breeding males being found only in particular sectors within the area, and in specific nests throughout the years. The fact that, in general, L. pholis individuals were absent from the study area during the non-breeding season and breeding males were recorded returning to the same nests and sectors for consecutive breeding seasons suggests that they have developed excellent homing abilities...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Farkhanda Manzoor, Mahnoor Pervez
Baiting systems have been introduced using slow-acting bait toxicants to provide environment-friendly and target-specific termite management. In the present study, the Exterra termite bait system (USA) with chlorfluazuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, as the active ingredient was tested against termite colonies. Ten residential areas of Lahore, infested with subterranean termites were selected for the study. The study period was from 2013 to 2015. In-ground stations were installed at 10 sites and above-ground stations were only installed at four test sites...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Anna Ivanova, Julia Geller, Olga Katargina, Kairi Värv, Åke Lundkvist, Irina Golovljova
So far neglected bacteria like Candidatud Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Ehrlichia muris-like agents get increased attention in the recent past. Ixodid ticks were demonstrated to harbor both of these pathogens. Estonia is populated by two medically important tick species, I. ricinus and I. persulcatus. In this study the presence of E. muris and Candidatus N. mikurensis in these two tick species was investigated. Tick DNA was analyzed by nested PCR and subsequent sequencing for the presence of 16S rRNA of E. muris and Candidatus N...
August 24, 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Alexandra Garzon-Garcia, J Patrick Laceby, Jon M Olley, Stuart E Bunn
Understanding the sources of sediment, organic matter and nitrogen (N) transferred from terrestrial to aquatic environments is important for managing the deleterious off-site impacts of soil erosion. In particular, investigating the sources of organic matter associated with fine sediment may also provide insight into carbon (C) and N budgets. Accordingly, the main sources of fine sediment, organic matter (indicated by total organic carbon), and N are determined for three nested catchments (2.5km(2), 75km(2), and 3076km(2)) in subtropical Australia...
October 5, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Justin R Perrault, Katherine D Bauman, Taylor M Greenan, Patricia C Blum, Michael S Henry, Catherine J Walsh
Blooms of Karenia brevis (also called red tides) occur almost annually in the Gulf of Mexico. The health effects of the neurotoxins (i.e., brevetoxins) produced by this toxic dinoflagellate on marine turtles are poorly understood. Florida's Gulf Coast represents an important foraging and nesting area for a number of marine turtle species. Most studies investigating brevetoxin exposure in marine turtles thus far focus on dead and/or stranded individuals and rarely examine the effects in apparently "healthy" free-ranging individuals...
October 1, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Britta Peters, Zhenglei Gao, Ulrich Zumkier
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Elado® (10 g clothianidin & 2 g beta-cyfluthrin/kg seed)-dressed oilseed rape on the development and reproduction of mason bees (Osmia bicornis) as part of a large-scale monitoring field study in Northern Germany, where oilseed rape is usually cultivated at 25-33 % of the arable land. Both reference and test sites comprised 65 km(2) in which no other crops attractive to pollinating insects were present. Six study locations were selected per site and three nesting shelters were placed at each location...
October 5, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Niloofar Shoari, Jean-Sébastien Dubé
In a typical data collection process for the purpose of characterizing contaminated sites, boreholes are usually drilled in different locations based on a sampling plan; and consequently, multiple samples are collected from each borehole. As a result, it is quite plausible that a certain degree of dependency or similarity exists among observations nested within a borehole. However, when classical regression models are employed, such dependencies are often ignored, resulting in biased estimates. In site characterization studies, further complication arises due to the presence of left-censored observations, those falling below the detection limit of measuring instruments...
January 2017: Chemosphere
Zeynep Koloren, Onuralp Seferoğlu, Panagiotis Karanis
A total of 420 environmental water samples and 120 drinking water samples from 45 different sampling sites of the Black Sea in Turkey were collected between 2012 and 2014. Genomic DNA was isolated from all the investigated water samples and comparativelly analyzed by Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the elongation factor 1 Alfa (EF1α) gene, and by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (nPCR) of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA and semi-nested PCR (snPCR) of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene (GDH). 141 (58...
September 30, 2016: Acta Tropica
Jacqueline Degen, Andreas Kirbach, Lutz Reiter, Konstantin Lehmann, Philipp Norton, Mona Storms, Miriam Koblofsky, Sarah Winter, Petya B Georgieva, Hai Nguyen, Hayfe Chamkhi, Hanno Meyer, Pawan K Singh, Gisela Manz, Uwe Greggers, Randolf Menzel
Exploration is an elementary and fundamental form of learning about the structure of the world [1-3]. Little is known about what exactly is learned when an animal seeks to become familiar with the environment. Navigating animals explore the environment for safe return to an important place (e.g., a nest site) and to travel between places [4]. Flying central-place foragers like honeybees (Apis mellifera) extend their exploration into distances from which the features of the nest cannot be directly perceived [5-10]...
September 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Deborah G De La Riva, Kristen R Hladun, Beatriz G Vindiola, John T Trumble
The selenium contamination event that occurred at Kesterson Reservoir (Merced Co., CA) during the 1970-80s is a frequently cited example for the negative effects of contamination on wildlife. Despite the importance of arthropods for ecosystem services and functioning, relatively little information is available as to the impacts of pollution on arthropod community dynamics. We conducted surveys of the arthropod community present at Kesterson Reservoir to assess the impacts of selenium contamination on arthropod diversity, with a focus on ant species richness, composition and density...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Caroline A Efstathion, William H Kern
Introduction of the invasive Africanized honey bee (AHB) into the Neotropics is a serious problem for many cavity nesting birds, specifically parrots. These bees select cavities that are suitable nest sites for birds, resulting in competition. The difficulty of removing bees and their defensive behavior makes a prevention protocol necessary. Here, we describe a push-pull integrated pest management protocol to deter bees from inhabiting bird boxes by applying a bird safe insecticide, permethrin, to repel bees from nest boxes, while simultaneously attracting them to pheromone-baited swarm traps...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
C S Almeida, P F Cristaldo, D F Florencio, E J M Ribeiro, N G Cruz, E A Silva, D A Costa, A P A Araújo
Habitat fragmentation is considered to be one of the biggest threats to tropical ecosystem functioning. In this region, termites perform an important ecological role as decomposers and ecosystem engineers. In the present study, we tested whether termite community is negatively affected by edge effects on three fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Termite abundance and vegetation structure were sampled in 10 transects (15 × 2 m), while termite richness, activity, and soil litter biomass were measured in 16 quadrants (5 × 2 m) at forest edge and interior of each fragment...
September 26, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Amanda Pereira Lima, Felipe José Vieira, Gabriela Procópio DE Moraes Oliveira, Plínio Dos Santos Ramos, Marielle Elisa Avelino, Felipe Garcia Prado, Gilson Salomão, Francisco Campos Silva, João Vicente Linhares Rodrigues
OBJECTIVE: to describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of acute appendicitis (AA) of the patients treated at a referral center in the Juiz de Fora macro-region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. METHODS: we conducted a retrospective, observational study in the Dr. Mozart Geraldo TeixeiraEmergency Hospital. We selected 638 patients diagnosed with AA, and analyzed the variables gender, age, evolutionary phase, length of hospital stay, pathological diagnosis, use of antibiotics, use of drains, complications and mortality...
July 2016: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
Brooke Maslo, Thomas A Schlacher, Michael A Weston, Chantal M Huijbers, Chris Anderson, Ben L Gilby, Andrew D Olds, Rod M Connolly, David S Schoeman
Coastal birds are critical ecosystem constituents on sandy shores, yet are threatened by depressed reproductive success resulting from direct and indirect anthropogenic and natural pressures. Few studies examine clutch fate across the wide range of environments experienced by birds; instead, most focus at the small site scale. We examine survival of model shorebird clutches as an index of true clutch survival at a regional scale (∼200 km), encompassing a variety of geomorphologies, predator communities, and human use regimes in southeast Queensland, Australia...
2016: PeerJ
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