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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352393/eco-friendly-pheromone-dispensers-a-green-route-to-manage-the-european-grapevine-moth
#1
Andrea Lucchi, Edith Ladurner, Andrea Iodice, Francesco Savino, Renato Ricciardi, Francesca Cosci, Giuseppe Conte, Giovanni Benelli
The development of environmentally sustainable control strategies to fight insect pests is a key challenge nowadays. Pheromone-mediated mating disruption (MD) is based on the release of synthetic sex attractants into a crop, interfering with mate finding of a given pest species. However, a limited number of research items have been published on the optimization of MD strategies against the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, as well as on the use of biodegradable dispensers to reduce waste production in vineyards, despite the high economic importance of this pest...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352238/molting-site-fidelity-accounts-for-colony-elimination-of-the-formosan-subterranean-termites-isoptera-rhinotermitidae-by-chitin-synthesis-inhibitor-baits
#2
G Kakkar, W Osbrink, N-Y Su
Site fidelity by molting termites in Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki colonies is a new addition to our understanding of lower termites' behavior and biology. Our previous studies indicated that workers moved to the central nest to molt in the presence of eggs and reproductives. The current study showed that noviflumuron-affected workers also return to the central nest and died in the vicinity of reproductives and eggs. The aversion to the dead and decaying workers caused reproductives and brood to leave the original central nest site in a colony and refuge at newer sites every few days in response to newly dead workers near them...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351804/a-metastasized-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-the-capsule-of-an-undescended-testis-in-the-right-inguinal-area-report-of-a-rare-case
#3
Qianhui Li, Xiuying Shi, Chuifeng Fan
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary carcinoma of the liver, which mainly metastasizes through the portal vein system. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report an extremely rare case in which HCC metastasized to the capsule of an undescended testis in the right inguinal area of the patient. A tumor approximately 8.8 × 7.0 cm in size was found in the patient's liver during a health check-up. Initially, it was considered a metastatic tumor because the patient was found to have cryptorchidism, which had been left untreated before he presented to our hospital...
January 19, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346536/residual-carcinoma-cells-after-chemoradiotherapy-for-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-patients-striving-toward-appropriate-judgment-of-biopsy
#4
F Fujishima, Y Taniyama, Y Nakamura, H Okamoto, Y Ozawa, K Ito, H Ishida, T Konno-Kumagai, A Kasajima, S Taniuchi, M Watanabe, T Kamei, H Sasano
In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients who are treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT), identification of the presence or absence of residual or recurrent carcinoma is usually pivotal in their clinical management. In addition, the extent of carcinoma invasion into the esophageal wall could determine the clinical outcome of these patients following CRT. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the response to CRT both macroscopically and histologically in a consecutive series of 42 ESCC patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy following curative esophageal resection at Tohoku University Hospital between August 2011 and December 2012...
January 13, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335421/hydroacoustics-as-a-tool-to-examine-the-effects-of-marine-protected-areas-and-habitat-type-on-marine-fish-communities
#5
J P Egerton, A F Johnson, J Turner, L LeVay, I Mascareñas-Osorio, O Aburto-Oropeza
Hydroacoustic technologies are widely used in fisheries research but few studies have used them to examine the effects of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). We evaluate the efficacy of hydroacoustics to examine the effects of closure to fishing and habitat type on fish populations in the Cabo Pulmo National Park (CPNP), Mexico, and compare these methods to Underwater Visual Censuses (UVC). Fish density, biomass and size were all significantly higher inside the CPNP (299%, 144% and 52% respectively) than outside in non-MPA control areas...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322382/tandem-recruitment-and-foraging-in-the-ponerine-ant-pachycondyla-harpax-fabricius
#6
C Grüter, M Wüst, A P Cipriano, F S Nascimento
Tandem running is a common recruitment strategy in ant species with small colony sizes. During a tandem run, an informed leader guides a usually naïve nestmate to a food source or a nest site. Some species perform tandem runs only during house hunting, suggesting that tandem running does not always improve foraging success in species known to use tandem running as a recruitment strategy, but more natural history information on tandem running under natural conditions is needed to better understand the adaptive significance of tandem recruitment in foraging...
January 10, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316067/deep-sequencing-shows-low-level-oncogenic-hepatitis-b-virus-variants-persisting-post-liver-transplant-despite-potent-anti-hbv-prophylaxis
#7
Keith Ck Lau, Carla Osiowy, Elizabeth Giles, Beth Lusina, Guido van Marle, Kelly W Burak, Carla S Coffin
Recent studies suggest that withdrawal of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) prophylaxis may be considered in HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) negative liver transplant (LT) recipients with a low risk of disease recurrence. However, the frequency of occult HBV infection (OBI) and HBV variants after LT in the current era of potent NA therapy is unknown. 12 LT recipients on prophylaxis were tested in matched plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for HBV quasispecies by in-house nested PCR and next generation sequencing of amplicons...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311304/chronic-anthropogenic-noise-disrupts-glucocorticoid-signaling-and-has-multiple-effects-on-fitness-in-an-avian-community
#8
Nathan J Kleist, Robert P Guralnick, Alexander Cruz, Christopher A Lowry, Clinton D Francis
Anthropogenic noise is a pervasive pollutant that decreases environmental quality by disrupting a suite of behaviors vital to perception and communication. However, even within populations of noise-sensitive species, individuals still select breeding sites located within areas exposed to high noise levels, with largely unknown physiological and fitness consequences. We use a study system in the natural gas fields of northern New Mexico to test the prediction that exposure to noise causes glucocorticoid-signaling dysfunction and decreases fitness in a community of secondary cavity-nesting birds...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304837/process-evaluation-for-optibirth-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-complex-intervention-designed-to-increase-rates-of-vaginal-birth-after-caesarean-section
#9
Patricia Healy, Valerie Smith, Gerard Savage, Mike Clarke, Declan Devane, Mechthild M Gross, Sandra Morano, Deirdre Daly, Susanne Grylka-Baeschlin, Jane Nicoletti, Marlene Sinclair, Rebekah Maguire, Margaret Carroll, Cecily Begley
BACKGROUND: Complex interventions encompassing several interconnecting and interacting components can be challenging to evaluate. Examining the underlying trial processes while an intervention is being tested can assist in explaining why an intervention was effective (or not). This paper describes a process evaluation of a pan-European cluster randomised controlled trial, OptiBIRTH (undertaken in Ireland, Italy and Germany), that successfully used both quantitative and qualitative methods to enhance understanding of the underlying trial mechanisms and their effect on the trial outcome...
January 5, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299232/multispecies-comparisons-of-adaptability-to-climate-change-a-role-for-life-history-characteristics
#10
Sarah T Saalfeld, Richard B Lanctot
Phenological advancement allows individuals to adapt to climate change by timing life-history events to the availability of key resources so that individual fitness is maximized. However, different trophic levels may respond to changes in their environment at different rates, potentially leading to a phenological mismatch. This may be especially apparent in the highly seasonal arctic environment that is experiencing the effects of climate change more so than any other region. During a 14-year study near Utqiaġvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska, we estimated phenological advancement in egg laying in relation to snowmelt for eight arctic-breeding shorebirds and investigated potential linkages to species-specific life-history characteristics...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284488/unexpected-high-circulation-of-plasmodium-vivax-in-asymptomatic-children-from-k%C3%A3-dougou-southeastern-senegal
#11
Makhtar Niang, Fode Diop, Oulimata Niang, Bacary D Sadio, Abdourahmane Sow, Ousmane Faye, Mawlouth Diallo, Amadou A Sall, Ronald Perraut, Aissatou Toure-Balde
BACKGROUND: Malaria in Senegal is due essentially to infections by Plasmodium falciparum and, to a lesser extent to Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale. By the use of molecular methods, detection of Plasmodium vivax has been recently reported in the region of Kedougou, raising the question of appraisal of its potential prevalence in this setting. METHODS: A retrospective serological study was carried out using 188 samples taken from 2010 to 2011 in a longitudinal school survey during which 48 asymptomatic children (9-11 years) were recruited...
December 29, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282580/savanna-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes-verus-nesting-ecology-at-bagnomba-kedougou-senegal
#12
REVIEW
L Badji, P I Ndiaye, S M Lindshield, C T Ba, J D Pruetz
We studied the nesting behavior of the critically endangered West African chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus). We assumed that the nesting data stemmed from a single, unhabituated community at the Bagnomba hill site in the savanna-woodlands of southeastern Senegal. The aim of this study was to examine chimpanzees' nesting habits in terms of the tree species utilized and sleeping nest heights. We recorded a total of 550 chimpanzee nests at Bagnomba between January 2015 and December 2015. The chimpanzees here made nests in particular tree species more often than others...
December 27, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279452/prevalence-and-genotype-distribution-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-in-urine-among-men-attending-std-clinics-in-guangdong-province-china-2016
#13
Yaohua Xue, Heping Zheng, Weiming Tang, Zhida Mai, Jinmei Huang, Shujie Huang, Xiaolin Qin, Lei Chen, Lei Zheng
Studies rarely assessed the genotype distribution of chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in urine among men attending STD clinics (MSCs) in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of CT infection by examining urine samples among MSCs from different geographic areas of Guangdong province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSCs from ten HIV sentinel surveillance sites in Guangdong province. CT DNA in men urine samples were extracted and detected by using the Roche cobas® 4800 CT/NG...
December 26, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277767/antitumor-memory-t-cells-become-functionally-mature-from-30-to-100-days-in-a-mouse-model-of-neoplasia
#14
Yanhua Gao, Mamdouha A Barmada, Ira Bergman
BACKGROUND: Late metastases develop from cancer of the breast, prostate, lung, kidney and malignant melanomas. Memory T-cells have excellent potential to prevent this devastating development in the same way that they routinely prevent emergence of latent viruses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A peritoneal tumor mouse model of viral oncotherapy was used to generate therapeutic antitumor memory T-cells. Functional in vivo and in vitro assays were used to study the temporal evolution of their anticancer effects...
January 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276339/frog-foams-and-natural-protein-surfactants
#15
Alan Cooper, Steven J Vance, Brian O Smith, Malcolm W Kennedy
Foams and surfactants are relatively rare in biology because of their potential to harm cell membranes and other delicate tissues. However, in recent work we have identified and characterized a number of natural surfactant proteins found in the foam nests of tropical frogs and other unusual sources. These proteins, and their associated foams, are relatively stable and bio-compatible, but with intriguing molecular structures that reveal a new class of surfactant activity. Here we review the structures and functional mechanisms of some of these proteins as revealed by experiments involving a range of biophysical and biochemical techniques, with additional mechanistic support coming from more recent site-directed mutagenesis studies...
December 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. A, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250230/ablation-of-background-tachycardia-in-long-standing-atrial-fibrillation-improving-the-outcomes-by-unmasking-a-residual-atrial-fibrillation-perpetuator
#16
José Carlos Pachón-M, Enrique I Pachón-M, Tomas G Santillana P, Tasso Julio Lobo, Carlos Thiene C Pachón, Juán Carlos Pachón-M, Remy Nelson Albornoz V, Juán Carlos Zerpa A, Felipe Ortencio, Mauricio Arruda
Background: Catheter ablation of long-standing persistent AF (LSAF) remains challenging. Since AF-Nest (AFN) description, we have observed that a stable, protected, fast source firing, namely "Background Tachycardia"(BT), could be hidden beneath the chaotic AF. Following pulmonary vein isolation (PVI)+AFN ablation one or more BT may arise or be induced in 30-40% of patients, which could be the culprit forAF maintenance and ablation recurrences. Methods and Results: We studied 114 patients, from 322 sequential LSAF regular ablations, having spontaneous or induced residual BT after EGM-guided PVI+AFN ablation of LSAF; 55...
August 2017: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248610/cross-talk-evaluation-of-a-curriculum-to-teach-medical-students-how-to-use-telephone-interpreter-services
#17
Emma A Omoruyi, Jesse Dunkle, Colby Dendy, Erin McHugh, Michelle S Barratt
PURPOSE: Telephone interpretation and recent technology advances assist patients with more timely access to rare languages, but no one has examined the role of this technology in the medical setting and how medical students can be prepared for their use. We sought to determine if structured curriculum on interpretation would promote learners self-reported competency in these encounters and if proficiency would be demonstrated in actual patient encounters. METHODS: Training on the principles of interpreter use with a focus on communication technology was added to medical student education...
December 14, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245529/-i-hexapleomera-urashima-i-sp-nov-crustacea-tanaidacea-a-tanaidid-epibiotic-on-loggerhead-sea-turtles-at-yakushima-island-japan
#18
Yuki Tanabe, Ryota Hayashi, Shinri Tomioka, Keiichi Kakui
We describe Hexapleomera urashima sp. nov. from the carapaces of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) on Yakushi-ma Island, southwestern Japan, the primary nesting site for the North Pacific population of this turtle. Hexapleomera urashima closely resembles H. edgari Bamber collected from Australian loggerheads (South Pacific population), sharing a uropod with four articles and maxillipedal endites with distal spiniform setae, but differs in having the maxillipedal coxa with two simple setae, the maxillipedal endite with two tiny dorsosubdistal and two distal spiniform setae, the labial palp fused to the outer lobe of the labium, and the basal article of pleopod 3 without inner setae...
November 22, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243832/abiotic-rather-than-biotic-filtering-shapes-the-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-communities-of-european-seminatural-grasslands
#19
Maarten Van Geel, Hans Jacquemyn, Jan Plue, Liina Saar, Liis Kasari, Gerrit Peeters, Kasper van Acker, Olivier Honnay, Tobias Ceulemans
Although it is well known that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a key role in the functioning of natural ecosystems, the underlying drivers determining the composition of AMF communities remain unclear. In this study, we established 138 sampling plots at 46 grassland sites, consisting of 26 acidic grasslands and 20 calcareous grasslands spread across eight European countries, to assess the relative importance of abiotic and biotic filtering in driving AMF community composition and structure in both the grassland soils and in the roots of 13 grassland plant species...
December 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243208/plasma-cholinesterase-activity-in-female-green-turtles-chelonia-mydas-nesting-in-laguna-de-terminos-mexico-related-to-organochlorine-pesticides-in-their-eggs
#20
Gerardo Rivas-Hernández, Yaneli May-Uc, Elsa Noreña-Barroso, Víctor Cobos-Gasca, Gabriela Rodríguez-Fuentes
The inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity has been used as a biomarker of exposure to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. ChE of nesting female green turtles (Chelonia mydas) were biochemically characterized using two substrates, acetylthiocholine iodide and butyrylthiocholine iodide, and three ChE inhibitors (eserine sulfate, BW284C51 and iso-OMPA). The results indicated that BChE is the predominant plasma ChE in female C. mydas, but with atypical properties that differ from those found in human BChE...
December 14, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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