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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782304/role-of-in-vivo-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-in-the-analysis-of-melanocytic-lesions
#1
Elena-Daniela Serban, Francesca Farnetani, Giovanni Pellacani, Maria Magdalena Constantin
Worldwide melanoma incidence and mortality are increasing (1). Despite the ongoing research, advanced melanoma is still incurable; therefore, the most appropriate solution seems to be early detection combined with complete surgical excision (2). Since the diagnostic protocol of suspicious lesions includes a complete excision with safety margins (2), the problem of unnecessary scarring is significant. The real challenge in this case is to have a properly formulated diagnosis before acquiring a biopsy. Currently available non-invasive techniques are coherence tomography, digital dermoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781169/effects-of-urbanization-on-the-population-structure-of-freshwater-turtles-across-the-united-states
#2
David R Bowne, Bradley J Cosentino, Laurel J Anderson, Christopher P Bloch, Sandra Cooke, Patrick W Crumrine, Jason Dallas, Alexandra Doran, Jerald J Dosch, Daniel L Druckenbrod, Richard D Durtsche, Danielle Garneau, Kristen S Genet, Todd S Fredericksen, Peter A Kish, Mary Beth Kolozsvary, Frank T Kuserk, Erin S Lindquist, Carol Mankiewicz, James G March, Timothy J Muir, K Greg Murray, Madeline N Santulli, Frank J Sicignano, Peter D Smallwood, Rebecca A Urban, Kathy Winnett-Murray, Craig R Zimmermann
Landscape-scale alterations that accompany urbanization may negatively affect the population structure of wildlife species such as freshwater turtles. Changes to nesting sites and higher mortality rates due to vehicular collisions and increased predator populations may particularly affect immature turtles and mature female turtles. We hypothesized that the proportions of adult female and immature turtles in a population will negatively correlate with landscape urbanization. As a collaborative effort of the Ecological Research as Education Network (EREN), we sampled freshwater turtle populations in 11 states across the central and eastern United States...
May 20, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775458/species-turnover-drives-%C3%AE-diversity-patterns-across-multiple-spatial-scales-of-plant-galling-interactions-in-mountaintop-grasslands
#3
Marcel Serra Coelho, Marco Antônio Alves Carneiro, Cristina Alves Branco, Rafael Augusto Xavier Borges, Geraldo Wilson Fernandes
This study describes differences in species richness and composition of the assemblages of galling insects and their host plants at different spatial scales. Sampling was conducted along altitudinal gradients composed of campos rupestres and campos de altitude of two mountain complexes in southeastern Brazil: Espinhaço Range and Mantiqueira Range. The following hypotheses were tested: i) local and regional richness of host plants and galling insects are positively correlated; ii) beta diversity is the most important component of regional diversity of host plants and galling insects; and iii) Turnover is the main mechanism driving beta diversity of both host plants and galling insects...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765661/testing-the-assumptions-of-the-pyrodiversity-begets-biodiversity-hypothesis-for-termites-in-semi-arid-australia
#4
Hayley Davis, Euan G Ritchie, Sarah Avitabile, Tim Doherty, Dale G Nimmo
Fire shapes the composition and functioning of ecosystems globally. In many regions, fire is actively managed to create diverse patch mosaics of fire-ages under the assumption that a diversity of post-fire-age classes will provide a greater variety of habitats, thereby enabling species with differing habitat requirements to coexist, and enhancing species diversity (the pyrodiversity begets biodiversity hypothesis). However, studies provide mixed support for this hypothesis. Here, using termite communities in a semi-arid region of southeast Australia, we test four key assumptions of the pyrodiversity begets biodiversity hypothesis (i) that fire shapes vegetation structure over sufficient time frames to influence species' occurrence, (ii) that animal species are linked to resources that are themselves shaped by fire and that peak at different times since fire, (iii) that species' probability of occurrence or abundance peaks at varying times since fire and (iv) that providing a diversity of fire-ages increases species diversity at the landscape scale...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763967/machine-learning-algorithms-for-outcome-prediction-in-chemo-radiotherapy-an-empirical-comparison-of-classifiers
#5
Timo M Deist, Frank J W M Dankers, Gilmer Valdes, Robin Wijsman, I-Chow Hsu, Cary Oberije, Tim Lustberg, Johan van Soest, Frank Hoebers, Arthur Jochems, Issam El Naqa, Leonard Wee, Olivier Morin, David R Raleigh, Wouter Bots, Johannes H Kaanders, José Belderbos, Margriet Kwint, Timothy Solberg, René Monshouwer, Johan Bussink, Andre Dekker, Philippe Lambin
PURPOSE: Machine learning classification algorithms (classifiers) for prediction of treatment response are becoming more popular in radiotherapy literature. General machine learning literature provides evidence in favor of some classifier families (random forest, support vector machine, gradient boosting) in terms of classification performance. The purpose of this study is to compare such classifiers specifically for (chemo)radiotherapy datasets and to estimate their average discriminative performance for radiation treatment outcome prediction...
May 15, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763716/prognostic-factors-in-primary-anorectal-melanoma-a-clinicopathologic-study-of-60-cases-in-china
#6
Min Ren, Yawen Lu, Jiaojie Lv, Xuxia Shen, Jincheng Kong, Bo Dai, Yunyi Kong
To investigate the clinicopathologic features and prognostic factors of primary anorectal melanoma, we described the clinical presentations, histopathology, and prognosis of 60 cases in China. Patients' age ranged from 17 to 86years with a female-to-male ratio of 2.33:1. The prevalent anatomic site of tumor was anorectum. The mean tumor thickness was 11.5mm and mean tumor size was 2.9cm. Abdominoperineal resection was performed on 38 (63.3%) patients, while wide local excision on 22 (36.7%) patients. Thirty-three (55...
May 12, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761593/uncovering-the-drivers-of-host-associated-microbiota-with-joint-species-distribution-modeling
#7
Johannes R Björk, Francis K C Hui, Robert B O'Hara, Jose M Montoya
In addition to the processes structuring free-living communities, host-associated microbiota are directly or indirectly shaped by the host. Therefore, microbiota data have a hierarchical structure where samples are nested under one or several variables representing host-specific factors, often spanning multiple levels of biological organization. Current statistical methods do not accommodate this hierarchical data structure, and therefore cannot explicitly account for the effect of the host in structuring the microbiota...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761357/classifying-brain-metastases-by-their-primary-site-of-origin-using-a-radiomics-approach-based-on-texture-analysis-a-feasibility-study
#8
Rafael Ortiz-Ramón, Andrés Larroza, Silvia Ruiz-España, Estanislao Arana, David Moratal
OBJECTIVE: To examine the capability of MRI texture analysis to differentiate the primary site of origin of brain metastases following a radiomics approach. METHODS: Sixty-seven untreated brain metastases (BM) were found in 3D T1-weighted MRI of 38 patients with cancer: 27 from lung cancer, 23 from melanoma and 17 from breast cancer. These lesions were segmented in 2D and 3D to compare the discriminative power of 2D and 3D texture features. The images were quantized using different number of gray-levels to test the influence of quantization...
May 14, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760391/asynchronous-evolution-of-interdependent-nest-characters-across-the-avian-phylogeny
#9
Yi-Ting Fang, Mao-Ning Tuanmu, Chih-Ming Hung
Nest building is a widespread behavior among birds that reflects their adaptation to the environment and evolutionary history. However, it remains unclear how nests evolve and how their evolution relates to the bird phylogeny. Here, by examining the evolution of three nest characters-structure, site, and attachment-across all bird families, we reveal that nest characters did not change synchronically across the avian phylogeny but had disparate evolutionary trajectories. Nest structure shows stronger phylogenetic signal than nest site, while nest attachment has little variation...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758024/hatchling-survival-to-breeding-age-in-northern-pine-snakes-pituophis-melanoleucus-in-the-new-jersey-pine-barrens-human-effects-on-recruitment-from-1986-to-2017
#10
Joanna Burger, Robert T Zappalorti, Michael Gochfeld
To conserve threatened/endangered species, we need to understand the factors contributing to reproductive success and recruitment to reproductive stage. Obtaining this information is difficult for snakes because they are secretive, are not easy to locate at the same stage each year, and are sometimes sparsely distributed. We determined nest fate, hatchling growth and survival to age 5 years, and recruitment to breeding age of Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) in New Jersey Pine Barrens from 1986 to 2017...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755391/odor-learning-and-its-experience-dependent-modulation-in-the-south-american-native-bumblebee-bombus-atratus-hymenoptera-apidae
#11
Florencia Palottini, María C Estravis Barcala, Walter M Farina
Learning about olfactory stimuli is essential in bumblebees' life since it is involved in orientation, recognition of nest sites, foraging efficiency and food yield for the colony as a whole. To evaluate associative learning abilities in bees under controlled environmental conditions, the proboscis extension response (PER) assay is a well-established method used in honey bees, stingless bees and successfully adapted to bumblebees of the genus Bombus . However, studies on the learning capacity of Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae), one of the most abundant native species in South America, are non-existent...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751422/spatiotemporal-variability-of-suspended-sediment-particle-size-in-a-mixed-land-use-watershed
#12
Elliott Kellner, Jason A Hubbart
Given existing knowledge gaps, there is a need for research that quantitatively characterizes spatiotemporal variation of suspended sediment particle size distribution (PSD) in contemporary watersheds. A five-year study was conducted in a representative watershed of the central United States utilizing a nested-scale experimental watershed study design, comprising five gauging sites partitioning the catchment into five sub-watersheds. Streamwater grab samples were collected four times per week, at each gauging site, for the duration of the study period (Oct...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751308/the-influence-of-avian-biovectors-on-mercury-speciation-in-a-bog-ecosystem
#13
Jocelyn C Kickbush, Mark L Mallory, John D Murimboh, Jennie Rand, Sara J Klapstein, Amanda L Loder, Nicholas M Hill, Nelson J O'Driscoll
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin and endocrine disruptor that bioaccumulates and biomagnifies through trophic levels, resulting in potentially hazardous concentrations. Although wetlands are known hotspots for mercury (Hg) methylation, the effects of avian biovectors on these processes are poorly understood. We examined Hg speciation and distribution in shallow groundwater and surface water from a raised-bog with over 30years of avian biovector (herring gulls Larus argentatus and great black-backed gulls Larus marinus) colonization and guano input...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748213/time-optimized-path-choice-in-the-termite-hunting-ant-megaponera-analis
#14
Erik T Frank, Philipp O Hönle, K Eduard Linsenmair
Trail network systems among ants have received a lot of scientific attention due to their various applications in problem solving of networks. Recent studies have shown that ants select the fastest available path when facing different velocities on different substrates, rather than the shortest distance. The progress of decision-making by these ants is determined by pheromone-based maintenance of paths, which is a collective decision. However, path optimization through individual decision-making remains mostly unexplored...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746564/multiple-bacterial-infections-increase-the-risk-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#15
Lan-Ting Yuan, Seng-Kee Chuah, Shih-Cheng Yang, Chih-Ming Liang, Cheng-Kun Wu, Wei-Chen Tai, Tsung-Hsing Hung, Seng-Howe Nguang, Jiunn-Wei Wang, Kuo-Lun Tseng, Ming-Kun Ku, Pin-I Hsu, Deng-Chyang Wu, Chien-Ning Hsu
OBJECTIVE: Patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) are at increased risk for bacterial infections. It is not fully understood how exposure to infections induces further development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This study estimated risks of infection associated with HE among patients with LC. METHODS: A nested case-control study of 14,428 adult patients with LC was performed using the population-based Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 in Taiwan. Cases were cirrhotic patients who developed HE during follow-up...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744607/stepwise-partially-overlapping-primer-based-pcr-for-genome-walking
#16
Kunpeng Chang, Qiong Wang, Xiaofei Shi, Shuixing Wang, Hongjing Wu, Lijuan Nie, Haixing Li
A stepwise partially overlapping primer-based PCR (SWPOP-PCR) method for isolating flanking unknown DNA regions was developed, which comprises three rounds of nested PCRs sequentially driven by SWPOP primer-nested specific primer pairs. SWPOP primer set is characterized by a partial overlap of 10 bp with 3'-part of the latter primer is identical to 5'-part of the former one, which makes the SWPOP primer in use anneal to SWPOP site of the prior PCR product only at relatively low temperature. For each PCR, target single-stranded DNA primed by the SWPOP primer in the exclusive one low-stringency cycle is converted into double-stranded form in the following high-stringency cycle due to the presence of a perfect annealing site for the specific primer...
May 9, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743115/geographical-distribution-and-relative-risk-of-anjozorobe-virus-thailand-orthohantavirus-infection-in-black-rats-rattus-rattus-in-madagascar
#17
Vololoniaina Raharinosy, Marie-Marie Olive, Fehivola Mandanirina Andriamiarimanana, Soa Fy Andriamandimby, Jean-Pierre Ravalohery, Seta Andriamamonjy, Claudia Filippone, Danielle Aurore Doll Rakoto, Sandra Telfer, Jean-Michel Heraud
BACKGROUND: Hantavirus infection is a zoonotic disease that is associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and cardiopulmonary syndrome in human. Anjozorobe virus, a representative virus of Thailand orthohantavirus (THAIV), was recently discovered from rodents in Anjozorobe-Angavo forest in Madagascar. To assess the circulation of hantavirus at the national level, we carried out a survey of small terrestrial mammals from representative regions of the island and identified environmental factors associated with hantavirus infection...
May 9, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742557/cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-with-sclerosing-features-an-uncommon-and-potentially-aggressive-variant
#18
Shira Ronen, Alejandro A Gru, Mary M Noland, David M Rowe, Mark R Wick
Sclerosing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), also known as "desmoplastic" SCC, is a rare subtype of cutaneous malignancy. This variant is clinically significant because it is associated with an increased risk of local recurrence and metastasis. We herein present 16 examples of sclerotic SCC of the skin in 8 men and 3 women, with a median age of 66 years. The most common site of origin for this tumor is the skin of the head and neck, including the scalp (5 tumors in 2 different patients), forehead (3 cases), nasal ala (2 cases), neck (2 cases in the same patient), ear (2 cases), cheek (1 case), and chest (1 case)...
May 8, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738931/objectives-and-integrated-approaches-for-the-control-of-brown-tree-snakes-an-updated-overview
#19
REVIEW
Richard M Engeman, Aaron B Shiels, Craig S Clark
After its inadvertent introduction to Guam, the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis, BTS) extirpated most of the island's native terrestrial vertebrates, presented a health hazard to small children, and had considerable economic ramifications. Management of BTS is aimed at a number of objectives, the foremost of which has been to deter its dispersal from Guam to other locations. Further objectives include reclaiming areas on Guam as snake-free for reintroduction of native wildlife, to protect small sensitive sites on Guam from BTS intrusion (e...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736045/urosepsis-due-to-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-a-retrospective-single-centre-review-of-risk-factors-and-clinical-outcomes
#20
Yi-Wenn Yvonne Huang, Alison Alleyne, Vivian Leung, Michael Chapman
Background: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are pathogens that are implicated in urosepsis and may be associated with greater morbidity and mortality than non-ESBL Enterobacteriaceae. Identification of risk factors for ESBL infection may facilitate the selection of appropriate empiric therapy. Objectives: The primary objectives were to determine the cumulative incidence of ESBL urosepsis, to identify major risk factors for ESBL urosepsis, and to determine the impact of international travel on development of ESBL urosepsis in an ethnically diverse Canadian population...
March 2018: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
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