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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930975/streamlined-single-cell-tcr-isolation-and-generation-of-retroviral-vectors-for-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-expression-of-human-tcrs
#1
Maran L Sprouse, Gabriele Blahnik, Thomas Lee, Natalie Tully, Pinaki Benarjee, Eddie A James, Maria J Redondo, Matthew L Bettini, Maria Bettini
Although, several methods for sequencing of paired T cell receptor (TCR) alpha and beta chains from single T cells have been developed, none so far have been conducive to downstream in vivo functional analysis of TCR heterodimers. We have developed an improved protocol based on a two-step multiplex-nested PCR, which results in a PCR product that spans entire variable regions of a human TCR alpha and beta chains. By identifying unique restriction sites and incorporating them into the PCR primers, we have made the PCR product compatible with direct sub-cloning into the template retroviral vector...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929237/underground-anemotactic-orientation-in-leaf-cutting-ants-perception-of-airflow-and-experience-dependent-choice-of-airflow-direction-during-digging
#2
Florian Halboth, Flavio Roces
Air exchange between the large nests of Atta vollenweideri leaf-cutting ants and the environment strongly relies on a passive, wind-induced ventilation mechanism. Air moves through nest tunnels and airflow direction depends on the location of the tunnel openings on the nest mound. We hypothesized that ants might use the direction of airflow along nest tunnels as orientation cue in the context of climate control, as digging workers might prefer to broaden or to close tunnels with inflowing or outflowing air in order to regulate nest ventilation...
September 19, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927164/hyalinizing-clear-cell-carcinoma-of-the-lung-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Susanne K Jeffus, Jerad M Gardner, Matthew A Steliga, Akeesha A Shah, Edward B Stelow, Konstantinos Arnaoutakis
Objectives: Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is common in head and neck sites but extremely rare in the lung. This case report describes an HCCC in the lung of a 54-year-old female patient. Methods: We summarize the histomorphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features for our and three previously reported HCCCs of the lung with emphasis on potential diagnostic pitfalls. Results: Sections of a well-circumscribed 3.5-cm lung mass were characterized by a bronchocentric tumor growing in sheets, nests, and cords in a background of hyalinized stroma...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925537/continental-extent-patterns-in-amphibian-malformations-linked-to-parasites-chemical-contaminants-and-their-interactions
#4
Sarah E Haas, Mari K Reeves, Alfred E Pinkney, Pieter T J Johnson
Widespread observations of malformed amphibians across North America have generated both concern and controversy. Debates over the causes of such malformations-which can affect >50% of animals in a population-have continued, likely due to involvement of multiple causal factors. Here, we used a 13-year dataset encompassing 53,880 frogs and toads from 422 wetlands and 42 states in the conterminous USA to test hypotheses relating abnormalities and four categories of potential drivers: (1) chemical contaminants, (2) land use practices, (3) parasite infection, and (4) targeted interactions between parasites and pesticides...
September 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916367/rucaparib-maintenance-treatment-for-recurrent-ovarian-carcinoma-after-response-to-platinum-therapy-ariel3-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-3-trial
#5
Robert L Coleman, Amit M Oza, Domenica Lorusso, Carol Aghajanian, Ana Oaknin, Andrew Dean, Nicoletta Colombo, Johanne I Weberpals, Andrew Clamp, Giovanni Scambia, Alexandra Leary, Robert W Holloway, Margarita Amenedo Gancedo, Peter C Fong, Jeffrey C Goh, David M O'Malley, Deborah K Armstrong, Jesus Garcia-Donas, Elizabeth M Swisher, Anne Floquet, Gottfried E Konecny, Iain A McNeish, Clare L Scott, Terri Cameron, Lara Maloney, Jeff Isaacson, Sandra Goble, Caroline Grace, Thomas C Harding, Mitch Raponi, James Sun, Kevin K Lin, Heidi Giordano, Jonathan A Ledermann
BACKGROUND: Rucaparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, has anticancer activity in recurrent ovarian carcinoma harbouring a BRCA mutation or high percentage of genome-wide loss of heterozygosity. In this trial we assessed rucaparib versus placebo after response to second-line or later platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with high-grade, recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian carcinoma. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients from 87 hospitals and cancer centres across 11 countries...
September 12, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910322/social-interactions-promote-adaptive-resource-defense-in-ants
#6
Christoph Johannes Kleineidam, Eva Linda Heeb, Stefanie Neupert
Social insects vigorously defend their nests against con- and heterospecific competitors. Collective defense is also seen at highly profitable food sources. Aggressive responses are elicited or promoted by several means of communication, e.g. alarm pheromones and other chemical markings. In this study, we demonstrate that the social environment and interactions among colony members (nestmates) modulates the propensity to engage in aggressive behavior and therefore plays an important role in allocating workers to a defense task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892842/influence-of-climatic-and-geographic-factors-on-the-spatial-distribution-of-qinghai-spruce-forests-in-the-dryland-qilian-mountains-of-northwest-china
#7
Wenjuan Yang, Yanhui Wang, Ashley A Webb, Zengyuan Li, Xin Tian, Zongtao Han, Shunli Wang, Pengtao Yu
The effect of climate variables (temperature and precipitation) on forest spatial distribution is more prominent in dryland high mountains, where forest distribution is inherently very sensitive to and strongly limited by the substantial spatial heterogeneity of site conditions. Thus, a more reliable prediction of forest distribution under changing environment depends upon an understanding of the joint influence of climatic and topographic factors and their thresholds. This study was conducted on Qinghai spruce forests as dominant tree species in the Qilian Mountains of northwest China...
September 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890937/improvement-of-individual-camouflage-through-background-choice-in-ground-nesting-birds
#8
Martin Stevens, Jolyon Troscianko, Jared K Wilson-Aggarwal, Claire N Spottiswoode
Animal camouflage is a longstanding example of adaptation. Much research has tested how camouflage prevents detection and recognition, largely focusing on changes to an animal's own appearance over evolution. However, animals could also substantially alter their camouflage by behaviourally choosing appropriate substrates. Recent studies suggest that individuals from several animal taxa could select backgrounds or positions to improve concealment. Here, we test whether individual wild animals choose backgrounds in complex environments, and whether this improves camouflage against predator vision...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888650/detection-of-rat-hepatitis-e-virus-in-wild-norway-rats-rattus-norvegicus-and-black-rats-rattus-rattus-from-11-european-countries
#9
René Ryll, Samuel Bernstein, Elisa Heuser, Mathias Schlegel, Paul Dremsek, Maxi Zumpe, Sandro Wolf, Michel Pépin, Daniel Bajomi, Gabi Müller, Ann-Charlotte Heiberg, Carina Spahr, Johannes Lang, Martin H Groschup, Hermann Ansorge, Jona Freise, Sebastian Guenther, Kristof Baert, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Jiri Pikula, Nataša Knap, Ιoannis Tsakmakidis, Chrysostomos Dovas, Stefania Zanet, Christian Imholt, Gerald Heckel, Reimar Johne, Rainer G Ulrich
Rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) is genetically only distantly related to hepeviruses found in other mammalian reservoirs and in humans. It was initially detected in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Germany, and subsequently in rats from Vietnam, the USA, Indonesia, China, Denmark and France. Here, we report on a molecular survey of Norway rats and Black rats (Rattus rattus) from 12 European countries for ratHEV and human pathogenic hepeviruses. RatHEV-specific real-time and conventional RT-PCR investigations revealed the presence of ratHEV in 63 of 508 (12...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883778/examination-of-risk-factors-for-the-development-of-surgical-site-infections
#10
Slobodan Stanic, Janja Bojanic, Predrag Grubor, Biljana Mijovic, Veljko Maric
INTRODUCTION: Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) and surgical site infections (SSI) are a global public health problem. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of SSIs at the Surgical Clinics of the University Clinical Centre Banja Luka and to identify risk factors for the development of SSIs. METHODS: In order to determine the frequency of SSIs through the incidence compared to the patients operated at the Surgical Clinics of the University Clinical Centre Banja Luka, we conducted a prospective cohort study which encompassed 11...
June 2017: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883425/computational-genome-wide-survey-of-odorant-receptors-from-two-solitary-bees-dufourea-novaeangliae-hymenoptera-halictidae-and-habropoda-laboriosa-hymenoptera-apidae
#11
Snehal D Karpe, Surbhi Dhingra, Axel Brockmann, R Sowdhamini
Olfactory/odorant receptors (ORs) probably govern eusocial behaviour in honey bees through detection of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) and queen mandibular gland pheromones (QMP). CHCs are involved in nest-mate recognition whereas QMP acts as sex pheromone for drones and as retinue pheromone for female workers. Further studies on the effect of eusociality on the evolution of ORs are hindered by the non-availability of comprehensive OR sets of solitary species. We report complete OR repertoires from two solitary bees Dufourea novaeangliae (112 ORs) and Habropoda laboriosa (151 ORs)...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877166/potential-of-pest-regulation-by-insectivorous-birds-in-mediterranean-woody-crops
#12
José M Rey Benayas, Jorge Meltzer, Daniel de Las Heras-Bravo, Luis Cayuela
Regulation of agricultural pests managing their natural enemies represents an alternative to chemical pesticides. We assessed the potential of insectivorous birds as pest regulators in woody crops located in central Spain. A total of 417 nest boxes installed in five field study sites (one vineyard, two fruit orchards, and two olive groves) were monitored for use and breeding of insectivorous birds and other species for four consecutive years (2013-2016). At all field sites except the two olive groves, where birds never occupied the nest boxes, predation experiments were conducted with Greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) sentinel caterpillars, and food consumption by birds was estimated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875443/sinonasal-tract-alveolar-rhabdomyosarcoma-in-adults-a-clinicopathologic-and-immunophenotypic-study-of-fifty-two-cases-with-emphasis-on-epithelial-immunoreactivity
#13
Lester D R Thompson, Vickie Y Jo, Abbas Agaimy, Antonio Llombart-Bosch, Gema Nieto Morales, Isidro Machado, Uta Flucke, Paul E Wakely, Markku Miettinen, Justin A Bishop
Sinonasal tract (SNT) alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) are frequently misdiagnosed, especially in adults. Fifty-two adult (≥18 years) patients with SNT ARMS were reviewed and characterized by immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. Twenty-six females and 26 males (18-72 years; mean 43.2 years), presented after a short duration (mean 2.6 months) with a large (mean 5.5 cm) destructive nasal cavity mass, involving multiple contiguous paranasal sites (n = 46) and with cervical adenopathy (n = 41)...
September 5, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874142/risk-factors-for-increased-immune-reconstitution-in-response-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigens-in-tuberculosis-hiv-infected-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-patients
#14
Tatiana Pereira da Silva, Carmem Beatriz Wagner Giacoia-Gripp, Carolina A Schmaltz, Flavia Marinho Sant'Anna, Maria Helena Saad, Juliana Arruda de Matos, Julio Castro Alves de Lima E Silva, Valeria Cavalcanti Rolla, Mariza Gonçalves Morgado
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the restoration of the specific immune response after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and anti-tuberculosis (TB) therapy introduction among TB-HIV patients. In this study, we examined the immune response of TB-HIV patients to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens to evaluate the response dynamics to different antigens over time. Moreover, we also evaluated the influence of two different doses of efavirenz and the factors associated with immune reconstitution...
September 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870379/esource-for-clinical-trials-implementation-and-evaluation-of-a-standards-based-approach-in-a-real-world-trial
#15
Jean-Francois Ethier, Vasa Curcin, Mark M McGilchrist, Sarah N Lim Choi Keung, Lei Zhao, Anna Andreasson, Piotr Bródka, Radoslaw Michalski, Theodoros N Arvanitis, Nikolaos Mastellos, Anita Burgun, Brendan C Delaney
OBJECTIVE: The Learning Health System (LHS) requires integration of research into routine practice. 'eSource' or embedding clinical trial functionalities into routine electronic health record (EHR) systems has long been put forward as a solution to the rising costs of research. We aimed to create and validate an eSource solution that would be readily extensible as part of a LHS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The EU FP7 TRANSFoRm project's approach is based on dual modelling, using the Clinical Research Information Model (CRIM) and the Clinical Data Integration Model of meaning (CDIM) to bridge the gap between clinical and research data structures, using the CDISC Operational Data Model (ODM) standard...
October 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866394/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-multiple-stressors-on-stream-invertebrates-across-watershed-reach-and-site-scales-a-structural-equation-modelling-better-informing-on-hydromorphological-impacts
#16
B Villeneuve, J Piffady, L Valette, Y Souchon, P Usseglio-Polatera
The purpose of our approach was to take into account the nested spatial scales driving stream functioning in the description of pressures/ecological status links by analysing the results of a hierarchical model. The development of this model has allowed us to answer the following questions: Does the consideration of the indirect links between anthropogenic pressures and stream ecological status modify the hierarchy of pressure types impacting benthic invertebrates? Do the different nested scales play different roles in the anthropogenic pressures/ecological status relationship? Does this model lead to better understanding of the specific role of hydromorphology in the evaluation of stream ecological status? To achieve that goal, we used the Partial Least Square (PLS) path modelling method to develop a structural model linking variables describing (i) land use and hydromorphological alterations at the watershed scale, (ii) hydromorphological alterations at the reach scale, (iii) nutrients-organic matter contamination levels at the site scale, and (iv) substrate characteristics at the sampling site scale, to explain variation in values of a macroinvertebrate-based multimetric index: the French I2M2...
August 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863180/a-non-invasive-specimen-collection-method-and-a-novel-simian-foamy-virus-sfv-dna-quantification-assay-in-new-world-primates-reveal-aspects-of-tissue-tropism-and-improved-sfv-detection
#17
Cláudia P Muniz, HaoQiang Zheng, Hongwei Jia, Liliane T F Cavalcante, Anderson M Augusto, Luiz P Fedullo, Alcides Pissinatti, Marcelo A Soares, William M Switzer, André F Santos
Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) co-evolved with a wide range of Old World and New World primates (OWPs and NWPs, respectively) and occasionally transmit to humans. Previous studies of OWPs showed that the predominant site of SFV replication is the oral mucosa. However, very little is known about SFV viral loads (VLs) in the oral mucosa or blood of NWPs. NWPs have smaller body sizes, limiting collection of sufficient whole blood volumes to molecularly detect and quantify SFV. Our study evaluated the use of noninvasively collected buccal swabs to detect NWP SFV compared with detection in blood using a new NWP SFV quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861229/influence-of-olfactory-and-visual-cover-on-nest-site-selection-and-nest-success-for-grassland-nesting-birds
#18
Dillon T Fogarty, R Dwayne Elmore, Samuel D Fuhlendorf, Scott R Loss
Habitat selection by animals is influenced by and mitigates the effects of predation and environmental extremes. For birds, nest site selection is crucial to offspring production because nests are exposed to extreme weather and predation pressure. Predators that forage using olfaction often dominate nest predator communities; therefore, factors that influence olfactory detection (e.g., airflow and weather variables, including turbulence and moisture) should influence nest site selection and survival. However, few studies have assessed the importance of olfactory cover for habitat selection and survival...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855557/diarrhea-morbidities-in-small-areas-accounting-for-non-stationarity-in-sociodemographic-impacts-using-bayesian-spatially-varying-coefficient-modelling
#19
F B Osei, A Stein
Model-based estimation of diarrhea risk and understanding the dependency on sociodemographic factors is important for prioritizing interventions. It is unsuitable to calibrate regression model with a single set of coefficients, especially for large spatial domains. For this purpose, we developed a Bayesian hierarchical varying coefficient model to account for non-stationarity in the covariates. We used the integrated nested Laplace approximation for parameter estimation. Diarrhea morbidities in Ghana motivated our empirical study...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845976/from-chlorella-to-nestlike-framework-constructed-with-doped-carbon-nanotubes-a-biomass-derived-high-performance-bifunctional-oxygen-reduction-evolution-catalyst
#20
Guanghua Wang, Yijie Deng, Jinnan Yu, Long Zheng, Li Du, Huiyu Song, Shijun Liao
The development of effective bifunctional catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is significant for energy conversion systems, such as Li-air batteries, fuel cells, and water splitting technologies. Herein, a Chlorella-derived catalyst with a nestlike framework, composed of bamboolike nanotubes that encapsulate cobalt nanoparticles, has been prepared through a facile pyrolysis process. It achieves perfect bifunctional catalysis both in ORR and OER on a single catalyst...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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