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Metamorphosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324024/thyroid-hormone-receptor-%C3%AE-controls-developmental-timing-and-regulates-the-rate-and-coordination-of-tissue-specific-metamorphosis-in-xenopus-tropicalis
#1
Luan Wen, Yuki Shibata, Dan Su, Liezhen Fu, Nga Luu, Yun-Bo Shi
Thyroid hormone (T3) receptor (TR) mediates the effects of T3 on organ metabolism and animal development. There are two TR genes, TRα and TRβ, in all vertebrates. During animal development, TRα expression is activated earlier than zygotic T3 synthesis and secretion into the plasma, implicating a developmental role of TRα both in the presence and absence of T3. Using T3-dependend amphibian metamorphosis as a model, we have previously proposed a dual functional model for TRs, in particular TRα, during development...
March 14, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323994/direct-regulation-of-histidine-ammonia-lyase-2-gene-by-thyroid-hormone-in-the-developing-adult-intestinal-stem-cells
#2
Nga Luu, Liezhen Fu, Kenta Fujimoto, Yun-Bo Shi
Most vertebrate organs utilize adult stem cells to maintain homeostasis and ensure proper repair when damaged. How such organ-specific stem cells are formed during vertebrate development is largely unexplored. We have been using the thyroid hormone (T3)-dependent amphibian metamorphosis to address this issue. Early studies in Xenopus laevis have shown that intestinal remodeling involves complete degeneration of the larval epithelium and de novo formation of adult stem cells through dedifferentiation of some larval epithelial cells...
February 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323943/growth-development-and-intestinal-remodeling-occurs-in-the-absence-of-thyroid-hormone-receptor-alpha-in-tadpoles-of-xenopus-tropicalis
#3
Jinyoung Choi, Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka, Daniel R Buchholz
During development in all vertebrates, thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are expressed before as well as during and after the peak in plasma thyroid hormone (TH) levels. Previously, we established a role for unliganded TRα in gene repression and developmental timing using tadpoles of TRα knockout (TRαKO) frogs. Here, we examined the role of liganded TRα on growth, development, and intestinal remodeling during natural and TH-induced metamorphosis. Disrupted TRα had little effect on growth during the larval period, but after metamorphosis TRαKO juveniles grew more slowly than wild-type (WT) juveniles...
March 2, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321369/developmental-and-loco-like-effects-of-a-swainsonine-induced-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-mannosidase-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#4
Laura Wedd, Regan Ashby, Sylvain Foret, Ryszard Maleszka
BACKGROUND: Deficiencies in lysosomal a-mannosidase (LAM) activity in animals, caused either by mutations or by consuming toxic alkaloids, lead to severe phenotypic and behavioural consequences. Yet, epialleles adversely affecting LAM expression exist in the honey bee population suggesting that they might be beneficial in certain contexts and cannot be eliminated by natural selection. METHODS: We have used a combination of enzymology, molecular biology and metabolomics to characterise the catalytic properties of honey bee LAM (AmLAM) and then used an indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine to inhibit its activity in vitro and in vivo...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316792/jak-stat-pathway-activation-in-response-to-spinal-cord-injury-in-regenerative-and-non-regenerative-stages-of-xenopus-laevis
#5
Victor S Tapia, Mauricio Herrera-Rojas, Juan Larrain
Xenopus laevis tadpoles can regenerate the spinal cord after injury but this capability is lost during metamorphosis. Comparative studies between pre-metamorphic and metamorphic Xenopus stages can aid towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of spinal cord regeneration. Analysis of a previous transcriptome-wide study suggests that, in response to injury, the JAK-STAT pathway is differentially activated in regenerative and non-regenerative stages. We characterized the activation of the JAK-STAT pathway and found that regenerative tadpoles have an early and transient activation...
February 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314472/the-metamorphosis-of-the-dragonfly-visual-system
#6
J González-Martín-Moro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291946/enantioselective-bioaccumulation-tissue-distribution-and-toxic-effects-of-myclobutanil-enantiomers-in-pelophylax-nigromaculatus-tadpole
#7
Cheng Cheng, Shanshan Di, Li Chen, Wenjun Zhang, Jinling Diao, Zhiqiang Zhou
The research on the enantioselective behavior of chiral pesticides on amphibian has received growing attention, because amphibian is experiencing population decline and amphibian metamorphosis shares many similarities with human fetal development. In this study, the enantioselective behavior of myclobutanil on Pelophylax nigromaculatus tadpole was studied. The antioxidant enzyme (SOD, GST) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were investigated to assess the different toxic effects when tadpoles were exposed to myclobutanil enantiomers for 96 h...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291098/a-metamorphosis-in-our-approach-to-treatment-is-not-likely-to-result-from-a-meta-analysis-of-the-use-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Jessica S Wallisch, Patrick M Kochanek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288904/thyroid-hormone-regulation-of-intestinal-epithelial-stem-cell-biology
#9
Carla Frau, Matthias Godart, Michelina Plateroti
The gastrointestinal tract is a well-characterized target of thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone nuclear receptors TRs, as extensively described in the literature. The paradigm is its important remodelling in amphibians during thyroid hormone-dependent metamorphosis. Interestingly, several studies have described the conservation of this hormonal signal during intestinal development in mammals. Additional data suggested that it may also play a role in intestinal homeostasis, stem cell physiology and progenitor commitment as well as in tumour development...
March 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285352/midgut-morphological-changes-and-autophagy-during-metamorphosis-in-sand-flies
#10
Juliana Malta, Matthew Heerman, Ju Lin Weng, Kenner M Fernandes, Gustavo Ferreira Martins, Marcelo Ramalho-Ortigão
During metamorphosis, holometabolous insects undergo significant remodeling of their midgut and become able to cope with changes in dietary requirements between larval and adult stages. At this stage, insects must be able to manage and recycle available food resources in order to develop fully into adults, especially when no nutrients are acquired from the environment. Autophagy has been previously suggested to play a crucial role during metamorphosis of the mosquito. Here, we investigate the overall morphological changes of the midgut of the sand fly during metamorphosis and assess the expression profiles of the autophagy-related genes ATG1, ATG6, and ATG8, which are associated with various steps of the autophagic process...
March 11, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282618/integrating-multiple-stressors-across-life-stages-and-latitudes-combined-and-delayed-effects-of-an-egg-heat-wave-and-larval-pesticide-exposure-in-a-damselfly
#11
Szymon Sniegula, Lizanne Janssens, Robby Stoks
To understand the effects of pollutants in a changing world we need multistressor studies that combine pollutants with other stressors associated with global change such as heat waves. We tested for the delayed and combined impact of a heat wave during the egg stage and subsequent sublethal exposure to the pesticide esfenvalerate during the larval stage on life history and physiology in the larval and adult stage of the damselfly Lestes sponsa. We studied this in a common garden experiment with replicated central- and high latitude populations to explore potential effects of local thermal adaptation and differences in life history shaping the multistressor responses...
March 1, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282454/identification-of-the-essential-protein-domains-for-mib2-function-during-the-development-of-the-drosophila-larval-musculature-and-adult-flight-muscles
#12
Katrin Domsch, Andreas Acs, Claudia Obermeier, Hanh T Nguyen, Ingolf Reim
The proper differentiation and maintenance of myofibers is fundamental to a functional musculature. Disruption of numerous mostly structural factors leads to perturbations of these processes. Among the limited number of known regulatory factors for these processes is Mind bomb2 (Mib2), a muscle-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase, which was previously established to be required for maintaining the integrity of larval muscles. In this study, we have examined the mechanistic aspects of Mib2 function by performing a detailed functional dissection of the Mib2 protein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280573/the-dance-of-life-visualizing-metamorphosis-during-pupation-in-the-blow-fly-calliphora-vicina-by-x-ray-video-imaging-and-micro-computed-tomography
#13
Martin J R Hall, Thomas J Simonsen, Daniel Martín-Vega
The dramatic metamorphosis from larva to adult of insect orders such as Diptera cannot usually be witnessed because it occurs within an opaque structure. For the cyclorrhaphous dipterans, such as blow flies, this structure is the puparium, formed from the larval cuticle. Here, we reveal metamorphosis within the puparium of a blow fly at higher temporal resolution than previously possible with two-dimensional time-lapse videos created using the X-ray within a micro-computed tomography scanner, imaging development at 1 min and 2 min intervals...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277949/metabolic-rate-of-diploid-and-triploid-edible-frog-pelophylax-esculentus-correlates-inversely-with-cell-size-in-tadpoles-but-not-in-frogs
#14
Adam Hermaniuk, Mariusz Rybacki, Jan R E Taylor
In multicellular organisms, cell size may have crucial consequences for basic parameters, such as body size and whole-body metabolic rate (MR). The hypothesis predicts that animals composed of smaller cells (a higher membrane surface-to-cell volume ratio) should have a higher mass-specific MR because a large part of their energy is used to maintain cell membranes and ionic gradients. In this article, we investigated the link between cell size and MR in diploid and triploid tadpoles and froglets of the hybridogenetic frog Pelophylax esculentus...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273663/sex-specific-transcript-diversity-in-the-fly-head-is-established-during-pupal-stages-and-adulthood-and-is-largely-independent-of-the-mating-process-and-the-germline
#15
Carmen Mohr, Sarah Kleiner, Marco Blanchette, George Pyrowolakis, Britta Hartmann
Alternative splicing (AS), the process which generates multiple RNA and protein isoforms from a single pre-mRNA, greatly contributes to transcript diversity and compensates for the fact that the gene number does not scale with organismal complexity. A number of genomic approaches have established that the extent of AS is much higher than previously expected, raising questions on its spatio-temporal regulation and function. In the present study, we address AS in the context of sex-specific neuronal development in the model Drosophila melanogaster...
March 9, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267461/quantitative-pteridine-fluorescence-analysis-a-possible-age-grading-technique-for-the-adult-stages-of-the-blow-fly-calliphora-vicina-diptera-calliphoridae
#16
Victoria Bernhardt, Laura Hannig, Ronja Kinast, Marcel A Verhoff, Florian Rothweiler, Richard Zehner, Jens Amendt
Age estimation of adult flies could extend the possible window of time for calculating the minimal postmortem interval (PMImin) by means of entomological methods. Currently, this is done by estimating the time required by necrophagous Diptera to reach certain juvenile developmental landmarks, and the method only works until the end of metamorphosis and emergence of the adult fly. Particularly at indoor crime scenes, being able to estimate the age of trapped adult flies would be an important tool with which to extend the calculable PMI beyond the developmental period...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265497/indomethacin-reproducibly-induces-metamorphosis-in-cassiopea-xamachana-scyphistomae
#17
Patricia Cabrales-Arellano, Tania Islas-Flores, Patricia E Thomé, Marco A Villanueva
Cassiopea xamachana jellyfish are an attractive model system to study metamorphosis and/or cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis due to the ease of cultivation of their planula larvae and scyphistomae through their asexual cycle, in which the latter can bud new larvae and continue the cycle without differentiation into ephyrae. Then, a subsequent induction of metamorphosis and full differentiation into ephyrae is believed to occur when the symbionts are acquired by the scyphistomae. Although strobilation induction and differentiation into ephyrae can be accomplished in various ways, a controlled, reproducible metamorphosis induction has not been reported...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259700/describing-the-diversity-of-ag-specific-receptors-in-vertebrates-contribution-of-repertoire-deep-sequencing
#18
Rosario Castro, Sofie Navelsaker, Aleksei Krasnov, Louis Du Pasquier, Pierre Boudinot
During the last decades, gene and cDNA cloning identified TCR and Ig genes across vertebrates; genome sequencing of TCR and Ig loci in many species revealed the different organizations selected during evolution under the pressure of generating diverse repertoires of Ag receptors. By detecting clonotypes over a wide range of frequency, deep sequencing of Ig and TCR transcripts provides a new way to compare the structure of expressed repertoires in species of various sizes, at different stages of development, with different physiologies, and displaying multiple adaptations to the environment...
March 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254723/semicarbazide-induced-thyroid-disruption-in-japanese-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus-and-its-potential-mechanisms
#19
Zonghao Yue, Miao Yu, Xiaona Zhang, Yifei Dong, Hua Tian, Wei Wang, Shaoguo Ru
Semicarbazide (SMC) is a carcinogenic and genotoxic substance that has been found in aquatic systems. SMC may also cause thyroid follicular epithelial cell injury in rats, but the thyroid-disrupting properties of SMC and its potential mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we exposed fertilized eggs of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) to 1, 10, 100, and 1000μg/L SMC for 55 d to assess the impact of SMC exposure on the thyroid system. The number of larvae in each metamorphic stage was counted, the concentrations of whole-body thyroid hormones (THs) 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were measured, and the transcription levels of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis were quantified...
February 27, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254054/re-evaluation-of-thyroid-hormone-signaling-antagonism-of-tetrabromobisphenol-a-for-validating-the-t3-induced-xenopus-metamorphosis-assay
#20
Yao Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Zhanfen Qin, Wuji Wei
We developed the T3-induced Xenopus metamorphosis assay, which is supposed to be able to sensitively detect thyroid hormone (TH) signaling disruption of chemicals. The present study aimed to validate the T3-induced Xenopus metamorphosis assay by re-evaluating the TH signaling antagonism of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a known TH signaling disruptor. According to the assay we developed, Xenopus tadpoles at stage 52 were exposed to 10-500nmol/L TBBPA in the presence of 1nmol/L T3. After 96hr of exposure, TBBPA in the range of 10-500nmol/L was found to significantly inhibit T3-induced morphological changes of Xenopus tadpoles in a concentration-dependent manner in term of body weight and four morphological endpoints including head area (HA), mouth width (MW), unilateral brain width/brain length (ULBW/BL), and hind-limb length/snout-vent length (HLL/SVL)...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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