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Metamorphosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812715/anniversary-maria-sibylla-merian-and-metamorphosis
#1
Ulrich Kutschera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801886/effects-of-3-nitro-1-2-4-triazol-5-one-on-survival-growth-and-metamorphosis-in-the-northern-leopard-frog-lithobates-pipiens
#2
David A Pillard, William S Eck, Mark S Johnson, Stephanie Packard
New explosive formulations are being developed to be less sensitive to impact and inadvertent explosion, increasing safety for the warfighter. Since testing and training make environmental releases imminent, the toxicity of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), a component of Insensitive Munitions eXplosive (IMX) formulations, was assessed in a one-generation study to the northern leopard frog (Lithobates ( = Rana) pipiens). Because NTO in water creates acidic conditions, acute studies were conducted with non-pH-adjusted NTO, while a long-term (70-d) study was conducted with neutralized NTO...
August 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800885/methyl-farnesoate-epoxidase-mfe-gene-expression-and-juvenile-hormone-titers-in-the-life-cycle-of-a-highly-eusocial-stingless-bee-melipona-scutellaris
#3
Carlos Antônio Mendes Cardoso-Júnior, Renato Pereira Silva, Naiara Araújo Borges, Washington João de Carvalho, S Leal Walter, Zilá Luz Paulino Simões, Marcia Maria Gentile Bitondi, Carlos Ueira Vieira, Ana Maria Bonetti, Klaus Hartfelder
In social insects, juvenile hormone (JH) has acquired novel functions related to caste determination and division of labor among workers, and this is best evidenced in the honey bee. In contrast to honey bees, stingless bees are a much more diverse group of highly eusocial bees, and the genus Melipona has long called special attention due to a proposed genetic mechanism of caste determination. Here, we examined methyl farnesoate epoxidase (mfe) gene expression, encoding an enzyme relevant for the final step in JH biosynthesis, and measured the hemolymph JH titers for all life cycle stages of Melipona scutellaris queens and workers...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799665/effects-of-chronic-cadmium-exposure-on-metamorphosis-skeletal-development-and-thyroid-endocrine-disruption-in-chinese-toad-bufo-gargarizans-tadpoles
#4
Nailiang Sun, Hongyuan Wang, Zongqi Ju, Hongfeng Zhao
The study examined the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on metamorphosis, body size, thyroid gland, and skeletal development of Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) tadpoles. Tadpoles were exposed to cadmium concentrations at 0, 5, 10, 50,100 and 500 μg/L from Gonser stage 26 to Gosner stage 46 of completion of metamorphosis. Our results showed 100 and 500 μg/L cadmium concentrations increased mortality and decelerated metamorphosis rate. In addition, significant body size reduction at Gosner stage 42 was observed at 100 and 500 μg/L cadmium treatments (p < 0...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790182/protein-kinase-c-delta-phosphorylates-ecdysone-receptor-b1-to-promote-gene-expression-and-apoptosis-under-20-hydroxyecdysone-regulation
#5
Cai-Hua Chen, Jing Pan, Yu-Qin Di, Wen Liu, Li Hou, Jin-Xing Wang, Xiao-Fan Zhao
The nuclear receptor EcRB1, which is activated by the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), is reportedly phosphorylated by a protein kinase after 20E induction. However, the protein kinase has not been identified, and the significance of EcRB1 phosphorylation is unclear. In this study, we identified a protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) isoform (the E isoform) that phosphorylates EcRB1 in the lepidopteran Helicoverpa armigera, a serious agricultural pest worldwide, to promote apoptotic gene expression and apoptosis during metamorphosis...
August 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776674/skeletal-ontogeny-of-the-vertebral-column-and-of-the-fins-in-shi-drum-umbrina-cirrosa-teleostei-perciformes-sciaenidae-a-new-candidate-species-for-aquaculture
#6
M Neofytou, D G Sfakianakis, G Koumoundouros, C C Mylonas, M Kentouri
The osteological development of the vertebral column and fins in shi drum Umbrina cirrosa was studied in order to improve knowledge for its introduction in Mediterranean aquaculture. The osteological development was studied in 171 individuals, of total length (LT ) from 2·7 to 30·2 mm that were reared under the mesocosm technique. Vertebral ontogeny starts at 3·4 and 4·0 mm LT , with the formation of the first cartilaginous neural and haemal arches, and spines, respectively, and is completed with the full attainment of epicentrals (12·5 mm LT )...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772540/metamorphosis-in-the-porosity-of-recycled-concretes-through-the-use-of-a-recycled-polyethylene-terephthalate-pet-additive-correlations-between-the-porous-network-and-concrete-properties
#7
José Miguel Mendivil-Escalante, José Manuel Gómez-Soberón, Jorge Luis Almaral-Sánchez, Francisca Guadalupe Cabrera-Covarrubias
In the field of construction, sustainable building materials are currently undergoing a process of technological development. This study aims to contribute to understanding the behavior of the fundamental properties of concretes prepared with recycled coarse aggregates that incorporate a polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-based additive in their matrix (produced by synthesis and glycolysis of recycled PET bottles) in an attempt to reduce their high porosity. Techniques to measure the gas adsorption, water porosity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate the effect of the additive on the physical, mechanical and microstructural properties of these concretes...
February 14, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770197/wave-propagation-of-junctional-remodeling-in-collective-cell-movement-of-epithelial-tissue-numerical-simulation-study
#8
Tetsuya Hiraiwa, Erina Kuranaga, Tatsuo Shibata
During animal development, epithelial cells forming a monolayer sheet move collectively to achieve the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues. One driving mechanism of such collective cell movement is junctional remodeling, which is found in the process of clockwise rotation of Drosophila male terminalia during metamorphosis. However, it still remains unknown how the motions of cells are spatiotemporally organized for collective movement by this mechanism. Since these moving cells undergo elastic deformations, the influence of junctional remodeling may mechanically propagate among them, leading to spatiotemporal pattern formations...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768561/field-application-of-maldi-tof-ms-on-mosquito-larvae-identification
#9
Amira Nebbak, Sekou Koumare, Alexandra C Willcox, Jean-Michel Berenger, Didier Raoult, Lionel Almeras, Philippe Parola
In recent years, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as an efficient tool for arthropod identification. Its application for field monitoring of adult mosquitoes was demonstrated, but identification of larvae has been limited to laboratory-reared specimens. Study aim was to test the success of MALDI-TOF MS in correctly identifying mosquito larvae collected in the field. Collections were performed at 13 breeding sites in urban areas of Marseille, a city in the South of France...
August 3, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764812/anopheles-gambiae-larvae-mount-stronger-immune-responses-against-bacterial-infection-than-adults-evidence-of-adaptive-decoupling-in-mosquitoes
#10
Garrett P League, Tania Y Estévez-Lao, Yan Yan, Valeria A Garcia-Lopez, Julián F Hillyer
BACKGROUND: The immune system of adult mosquitoes has received significant attention because of the ability of females to vector disease-causing pathogens while ingesting blood meals. However, few studies have focused on the immune system of larvae, which, we hypothesize, is highly robust due to the high density and diversity of microorganisms that larvae encounter in their aquatic environments and the strong selection pressures at work in the larval stage to ensure survival to reproductive maturity...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763165/a-pesticide-paradox-fungicides-indirectly-increase-fungal-infections
#11
Jason R Rohr, Jenise Brown, William A Battaglin, Taegan A McMahon, Rick A Relyea
There are many examples where the use of chemicals have had profound unintended consequences, such as fertilizers reducing crop yields (paradox of enrichment) and insecticides increasing insect pests (by reducing natural biocontrol). Recently, the application of agrochemicals, such as agricultural disinfectants and fungicides, has been explored as an approach to curb the pathogenic fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which is associated with worldwide amphibian declines. However, the long-term, net effects of early-life exposure to these chemicals on amphibian disease risk have not been thoroughly investigated...
August 1, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758360/essential-roles-of-thyroid-hormone-regulated-hyaluronan-cd44-signaling-in-adult-stem-cell-development-during-xenopus-laevis-intestinal-remodeling
#12
Takashi Hasebe, Kenta Fujimoto, Mitsuko Kajita, Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka
In the amphibian intestine during metamorphosis, thyroid hormone (TH) induces some larval epithelial cells to dedifferentiate into stem cells, which generate the adult epithelium analogous to the mammalian intestinal epithelium. We have previously shown that the canonical Wnt signaling pathway is involved in adult epithelial development in the Xenopus laevis intestine. To understand the function of this pathway more precisely, we here focused on CD44, a major Wnt target, which has been identified as a TH response gene in the X...
July 31, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756344/development-of-a-reliable-experimental-set-up-for-dover-sole-larvae-solea-solea-l-and-exploring-the-possibility-of-implementing-this-housing-system-in-a-gnotobiotic-model
#13
Evelien De Swaef, Kristof Demeestere, Nico Boon, Wim Van den Broeck, Freddy Haesebrouck, Annemie Decostere
Due to the increasing importance of the aquaculture sector, diversification in the number of cultured species imposes itself. Dover sole Solea solea L. is put forward as an important new aquaculture candidate due to its high market value and high flesh quality. However, as for many other fish species, sole production is hampered by amongst others high susceptibility to diseases and larval mortality, rendering the need for more research in this area. In this respect, in first instance, a housing system for Dover sole larvae was pinpointed by keeping the animals individually in 24-well plates for 26days with good survival rates and initiating metamorphosis...
July 24, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754942/macromolecular-metamorphosis-via-stimulus-induced-transformations-of-polymer-architecture
#14
Hao Sun, Christopher P Kabb, Yuqiong Dai, Megan R Hill, Ion Ghiviriga, Abhijeet P Bapat, Brent S Sumerlin
Macromolecular architecture plays a pivotal role in determining the properties of polymers. When designing polymers for specific applications, it is not only the size of a macromolecule that must be considered, but also its shape. In most cases, the topology of a polymer is a static feature that is inalterable once synthesized. Using reversible-covalent chemistry to prompt the disconnection of chemical bonds and the formation of new linkages in situ, we report polymers that undergo dramatic topological transformations via a process we term macromolecular metamorphosis...
August 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751238/bhlh-proneural-genes-as-cell-fate-determinants-of-entero-endocrine-cells-an-evolutionarily-conserved-lineage-sharing-a-common-root-with-sensory-neurons
#15
Volker Hartenstein, Shigeo Takashima, Parvana Hartenstein, Samuel Asanad, Kian Asanad
Entero-endocrine cells involved in the regulation of digestive function form a large and diverse cell population within the intestinal epithelium of all animals. Together with absorptive enterocytes and secretory gland cells, entero-endocrine cells are generated by the embryonic endoderm and, in the mature animal, from a pool of endoderm derived, self-renewing stem cells. Entero-endocrine cells share many structural/functional and developmental properties with sensory neurons, which hints at the possibility of an ancient evolutionary relationship between these two cell types...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750998/the-alternative-splicing-of-bdtai-and-its-involvement-in-the-development-of-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#16
Hong Liu, Hui-Min Li, Yong Yue, Zhong-Hao Song, Jin-Jun Wang, Wei Dou
Interest in insect metamorphosis has primarily focused on juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysone. Compared to ecdysone signaling, the molecular action of JH is less well established because Methoprene-tolerant (Met) as the JH receptor has been identified until recently. In vitro studies have indicated that Met forms an active JH-dependent complex with one partner protein, Taiman (Tai). However, the related studies on Tai's role in insect metamorphosis are very limited. In this study, five Tai isoforms differing in C-terminal region are identified from the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis, an important worldwide pest infesting fruits and vegetables...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746045/applicability-of-biotechnologically-produced-insect-silks
#17
Heike M Herold, Thomas Scheibel
Silks are structural proteins produced by arthropods. Besides the well-known cocoon silk, which is produced by larvae of the silk moth Bombyx mori to undergo metamorphosis inside their silken shelter (and which is also used for textile production by men since millennia), numerous further less known silk-producing animals exist. The ability to produce silk evolved multiple independent times during evolution, and the fact that silk was subject to convergent evolution gave rise to an abundant natural diversity of silk proteins...
July 26, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743885/genome-wide-identification-of-thyroid-hormone-receptor-targets-in-the-remodeling-intestine-during-xenopus-tropicalis-metamorphosis
#18
Liezhen Fu, Biswajit Das, Kazuo Matsuura, Kenta Fujimoto, Rachel A Heimeier, Yun-Bo Shi
Thyroid hormone (T3) affects development and metabolism in vertebrates. We have been studying intestinal remodeling during T3-dependent Xenopus metamorphosis as a model for organ maturation and formation of adult organ-specific stem cells during vertebrate postembryonic development, a period characterized by high levels of plasma T3. T3 is believed to affect development by regulating target gene transcription through T3 receptors (TRs). While many T3 response genes have been identified in different animal species, few have been shown to be direct target genes in vivo, especially during development...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739643/histone-methyltransferase-dot1l-is-a-coactivator-for-thyroid-hormone-receptor-during-xenopus-development
#19
Luan Wen, Liezhen Fu, Yun-Bo Shi
Histone modifications are associated with transcriptional regulation by diverse transcription factors. Genome-wide correlation studies have revealed that histone activation marks and repression marks are associated with activated and repressed gene expression, respectively. Among the histone activation marks is histone H3 K79 methylation, which is carried out by only a single methyltransferase, disruptor of telomeric silencing-1-like (DOT1L). We have been studying thyroid hormone (T3)-dependent amphibian metamorphosis in two highly related species, the pseudo-tetraploid Xenopus laevis and diploid Xenopus tropicalis, as a model for postembryonic development, a period around birth in mammals that is difficult to study...
July 24, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736927/pituitary-thyroid-axis-development-during-the-larval-juvenile-transition-in-the-pejerrey-odontesthes-bonariensis
#20
T Chalde, L A Miranda
The morphological development of the thyroid gland of pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis during larval-juvenile transition was studied and related to whole-body concentrations of thyroxine (T4 ) and tri-iodothyronine (T3 ). A complementary (c)DNA fragment of the thyroid-stimulating hormone β-subunit (tshb) was sequenced and transcript levels quantified during this period. Follicles with eosinophilic and T4 -immunoreactive colloids were detected at hatching together with tshb transcript levels and whole-body concentrations of T4 and T3 hormones...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
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