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Daniel R Buchholz, Yun-Bo Shi
Anuran metamorphosis resembles postembryonic development in mammals, a period around birth when many organs/tissues mature into their adult form as circulating thyroid and stress hormone levels are high. Unlike uterus-enclosed mammalian embryos, tadpoles develop externally and undergo the dramatic changes of hormone-dependent development totally independent of maternal influence, making them a valuable model in which to study vertebrate postembryonic organ development and maturation. Various protocols have been developed and/or adapted for studying metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis and X...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Emilio E Méndez-Olivos, Juan Larraín
Mammals are not capable of regenerating their central nervous system (CNS); anamniotes, however, can regenerate in response to injury. The mechanisms that explain the different regenerative capabilities include: (i) extrinsic mechanisms that consider the cellular environment and extracellular matrix composition, (ii) intrinsic factors implicating the presence or absence of genetic programs that promote axon regeneration, and (iii) the presence or absence of neural stem and progenitors cells (NSPCs) that allow neurogenesis...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Qiwei Wang, Yan Wang, Fengwei Yu
Pruning that selectively removes unnecessary neurites without causing neuronal death is essential for sculpting the mature nervous system during development. In Drosophila , ddaC sensory neurons specifically prune their larval dendrites with intact axons during metamorphosis. However, it remains unknown about an important role of ER-to-Golgi transport in dendrite pruning. Here, in a clonal screen we identified Yif1, an uncharacterized Drosophila homologue of Yif1p that is known as a regulator of ER-to-Golgi transport in yeast...
May 16, 2018: Development
Surjeet Kumar Arya, Yogeshwar Vikram Dhar, Santosh Kumar Upadhyay, Mehar Hasan Asif, Praveen Chandra Verma
The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is a devastating pest of cotton causing tremendous loss in the yield of crops each year. Widespread physiological and biological studies on P. solenopsis have been carried out, but the lack of genetic information has constrained our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its growth and development. To understand and characterize the different developmental stages, RNA-Seq platform was used to execute de-novo transcriptome assembly and differential gene expression profiling for the eggs, first, second, third instar and adult female stages...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Brenda J Mengeling, Michael L Goodson, J David Furlow
Appropriate thyroid hormone (TH) signaling through thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) is essential for vertebrate development. Amphibian metamorphosis is initiated and sustained through the action of TH on TRs which are conserved across vertebrates. TRs heterodimerize with retinoid-X receptors (RXRs) on thyroid hormone-response elements (TREs) in the genome, yet in most cell line and adult animal studies, RXR ligands do not affect expression of TR target genes. We used a quantitative, precocious metamorphosis assay to interrogate the effects of the RXR agonist bexarotene (Bex) and the RXR antagonist UVI 3003 (UVI) on T3-induced resorption phenotypes in Xenopus laevis tadpoles one-week post-fertilization...
May 11, 2018: Endocrinology
Francesca Gissi, Jenny L Stauber, Monique T Binet, Melanie A Trenfield, Joost W Van Dam, Dianne F Jolley
The mining and processing of nickel ores from tropical regions contributes 40% of the global supply. The potential impact of these activities on tropical marine ecosystems is poorly understood. Due to the lack of ecotoxicity data for tropical marine species, there is currently no available water quality guideline value for nickel that is specific to tropical species. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of nickel to three tropical marine invertebrates, the gastropod Nassarius dorsatus, the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite, and the copepod Acartia sinjiensis...
May 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Leah C Dannenberg, Elaine C Seaver
The germline is essential for sexual reproduction and survival of the species. In many metazoans, the developmental potential to generate a distinct germline is segregated from somatic cell lineages early in embryogenesis, suggesting that the unique features of the germline must be established from its onset. Previous studies suggest that germ cells cannot regenerate once removed from the embryo, but few animals have been experimentally tested. We investigated the ability of the germline to regenerate in a lophotrochozoan, the segmented worm Capitella teleta, which has a stereotyped cell lineage program by deleting the germline precursor (cell 3D) in early stage embryos using an infrared laser...
May 11, 2018: Developmental Biology
Jiankai Wei, Bo Dong
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in diverse developmental and pathological processes through chromatin reprogramming, cis regulation and posttranscriptional modification. They have been extensively studied in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the information of lncRNAs in urochordate is still lacking. In this study, we used the RNA-Seq data from three developmental stages (18, 21 and 42 hours post fertilization, hpf) of embryos and larvae in Ciona savignyi to identify candidate lncRNAs and analyze their expression profiles...
May 10, 2018: Marine Genomics
Lihong Chai, Zhongmin Dong, Aixia Chen, Hongyuan Wang
The assembly of intestinal microbial communities can play major roles in animal development. We hypothesized that intestinal microbial communities could mirror the developmental programs of amphibian metamorphosis. Here, we surveyed the morphological parameters of the body and intestine of Bufo gargarizans at varying developmental stages and inventoried the intestinal microbial communities of B. gargarizans at four key developmental stages via 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Firstly, our survey showed that during metamorphosis, body weight and intestinal weight were reduced by 56...
May 10, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Ann Dadich, Navin Doloswala
BACKGROUND: Despite the relative abundance of frameworks and models to guide implementation science, the explicit use of theory is limited. Bringing together two seemingly disparate fields of research, this article asks, what can organisational theory offer implementation science? This is examined by applying a theoretical lens that incorporates agency, institutional, and situated change theories to understand the implementation of healthcare knowledge into practice. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 20 general practitioners (GPs) before and after using a resource to facilitate evidence-based sexual healthcare...
May 10, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Tianqiong Wang, Joshua Sunday Riti, Yang Shu
The adoption and ratification of relevant policies, particularly the household enrolment system metamorphosis in China, led to rising urbanization growth. As the leading developing economy, China has experienced a drastic and rapid increase in the rate of urbanization, energy use, economic growth and greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution for the past 30 years. The knowledge of the dynamic interrelationships among these trends has a plethora of implications ranging from demographic, energy, and environmental and sustainable development policies...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Peter P Fong, Olivia J Lambert, Margot L Hoagland, Emily R Kurtz
Antifouling chemicals are legacy contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Previous experiments have shown that a 14-day exposure to the antifouling chemical medetomidine delays metamorphosis and reduces body mass in wood frog tadpoles. In the present study, we exposed wood frog tadpoles to medetomidine for 3, 7, and 10 days at 100 nM, 1 μM, and 10 μM. We also exposed American toad tadpoles to medetomidine for 3 days at four concentrations (10 nM, 100 nM, 1 μM, and 10 μM) in static renewal experiments...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Er-Hu Chen, Qiu-Li Hou, Wei Dou, Dan-Dan Wei, Yong Yue, Rui-Lin Yang, Pei-Jin Yang, Shuai-Feng Yu, Kristof De Schutter, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
Cuticular proteins (CPs) are essential components of the insect cuticle as they create a structural and protective shield and may have a role in insect development. In this paper, we studied the CPs in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), one of the most economically important pests in the Tephritidae family around the world. The availability of a complete genome sequence (NCBI Assembly: ASM78921v2) allowed the identification of 164 CP genes in B. dorsalis. Comparative analysis of the CPs in B. dorsalis with those in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster and the closely related Ceratitis capitata, and CPs from mosquitoes, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera identified Diptera-specific genes and cuticle development patterns...
May 2, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Nguyen H Nguyen, Quinn P Fitzgibbon, Jane Quinn, Greg Smith, Stephen Battaglene, Wayne Knibb
BACKGROUND: One of the major impediments to spiny lobster aquaculture is the high cost of hatchery production due to the long and complex larval cycle and poor survival during the many moult stages, especially at metamorphosis. We examined if the key trait of larval survival can be improved through selection by determining if genetic variance exists for this trait. Specifically, we report, for the first time, genetic parameters (heritability and correlations) for early survival rates recorded at five larval phases; early-phyllosoma stages (instars 1-6; S1), mid-phyllosoma stages (instars; 7-12; S2), late-phyllosoma stages (instars 13-17; S3), metamorphosis (S4) and puerulus stage (S5) in hatchery-reared spiny lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi...
May 4, 2018: BMC Genetics
Shumpei Yamakawa, Yoshiaki Morino, Masanao Honda, Hiroshi Wada
Background: Although retinoic acid (RA) signaling plays a crucial role in the body patterning of chordates, its function in non-chordate invertebrates, other than its mediation of environmental cues triggering metamorphosis in cnidarians, is largely unknown. We investigated the role of RA signaling in the metamorphosis of starfish (Echinodermata). Results: We found that exogenous RA treatment induced metamorphosis in starfish larvae. In contrast, inhibitors of RA synthesis and RA receptors suppressed metamorphosis triggered by attachment to a substrate...
2018: EvoDevo
Nedim Tüzün, Lin Op de Beeck, Ranalison Oliarinony, Marie Van Dievel, Robby Stoks
Laboratory studies indicate global warming may cause changes in locomotor performance directly relevant for fitness and dispersal. Yet, this remains to be tested under seminatural settings, and the connection with warming-induced alterations in the underlying traits has been rarely studied. In an outdoor mesocosm experiment with the damselfly Ischnura elegans , 4°C warming in the larval stage decreased the flight muscle mass, which correlated with a lower flight endurance. Warming did not affect body mass, size or wing morphology...
May 2018: Biology Letters
W-N Zhang, L Ma, C Liu, L Chen, H-J Xiao, G-M Liang
In insects, metamorphosis and reproduction are controlled by juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1), a transcription factor, is regarded as a JH-early inducible gene responsible for the repression of metamorphosis. However, the role of Kr-h1 in reproduction of holometabolic insects is relatively less understood. In this study, we studied the role of Kr-h1 in larvae-pupae transition and female reproduction in the major agricultural pest Helicoverpa armigera. Two HaKr-h1 isoforms (HaKr-h1α and HaKr-h1ß) were identified, with HaKr-h1α predominant in the cotton bollworm...
May 2, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Alisson M Gontijo, Andres Garelli
Many insects, like cockroaches, moths, and flies, can regenerate tissues by extending the growth-competent phases of their life cycle. The molecular and cellular players mediating this coordination between tissue growth and developmental timing have been recently discovered in Drosophila. The insulin/relaxin-like peptide, Dilp8, was identified as a factor communicating abnormal growth status of Drosophila larval imaginal discs to the neuroendocrine centers that control the timing of the onset of metamorphosis...
April 28, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Ke Xu, Xiaodan Liu, Yuchun Wang, Chouin Wong, Yan Song
Understanding how cellular identity naturally interconverts with high efficiency and temporospatial precision is crucial for regenerative medicine. Here we revealed a natural midgut-to-renal lineage conversion event during Drosophila metamorphosis and identified the evolutionarily-conserved homeodomain protein Cut as a master switch in this process. A steep Wnt/Wingless morphogen gradient intersects with a pulse of steroid hormone ecdysone to induce cut expression in a subset of midgut progenitors and reprogram them into renal progenitors...
May 1, 2018: ELife
Julie Grenier, Sabina Paglialunga, Bruce H Morimoto, Robert M Lester
The assessment of a drug's cardiac liability has undergone considerable metamorphosis by regulators since International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirement for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use E14 guideline was introduced in 2005. Drug developers now have a choice in how proarrhythmia risk can be evaluated; the options include a dedicated thorough QT (TQT) study or exposure response (ER) modeling of intensive electrocardiogram (ECG) captured in early clinical development. The alternative approach of ER modeling was incorporated into a guidance document in 2015 as a primary analysis tool which could be utilized in early phase dose escalation studies as an option to perform a dedicated TQT trial...
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
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