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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229543/developmental-trajectories-of-amphibian-microbiota-response-to-bacterial-therapy-depends-on-initial-community-structure
#1
Leyla R Davis, Laurent Bigler, Douglas C Woodhams
Improving host health through microbial manipulation requires untangling factors that shape the microbiome. There is currently little understanding of how initial community structure may drive the microbiota trajectory across host development or influence bacterial therapy. Probiotic baths of surface symbionts, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Flavobacterium johnsoniae were administered to 240 tadpoles of the midwife toad, Alytes obstetricans in semi-natural outdoor mesocosms originating from geographically and genetically distinct populations in Switzerland...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225122/aromatic-metamorphosis-conversion-of-an-aromatic-skeleton-into-a-different-ring-system
#2
Keisuke Nogi, Hideki Yorimitsu
Aromatic skeletons are generally regarded as being uncleavable because of their aromatic stabilization energy. Compared to exocyclic functionalizations of aromatic compounds, much less attention has been paid to substitutions of endocyclic atoms in aromatic cores through partial disassembly of the cyclic skeletons and subsequent ring reconstruction. In this Feature Article, we describe our endeavours to establish "aromatic metamorphosis", where general aromatic compounds such as dibenzothiophenes, dibenzofurans, and benzofurans are transformed into different ring systems using a multi-step strategy or ideally in one step...
February 22, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219118/bmcalpains-are-involved-in-autophagy-and-apoptosis-during-metamorphosis-and-after-starvation-in-bombyx-mori
#3
Hui-Yu Yi, Wan-Ying Yang, Wen-Mei Wu, Xing-Xia Li, Xiao-Juan Deng, Qing-Rong Li, Yang Cao, Yang-Jin Zhong, Ya-Dong Huang
Apoptosis and autophagy play crucial roles during Bombyx mori metamorphosis and in response to various adverse conditions, including starvation. Recently, calpain, one of the major intracellular proteases, has been reported to be involved in apoptosis and autophagy in mammals. BmATG5 and BmATG6 have been identified to mediate apoptosis following autophagy induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone and starvation in B. mori. However, B. mori calpains and their functions remain unclear. In this study, phylogenetic analysis of calpains from B...
November 7, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213302/disrupting-effects-of-azocyclotin-to-the-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal-axis-and-reproduction-of-xenopus-laevis
#4
Shuying Li, Meng Li, Wenjun Gui, Qiangwei Wang, Guonian Zhu
Over the past few decades, the hazards associated with the extensive use of organictin compounds have become an issue of extreme concern, while at present the effects of these substances on amphibians remain poorly understood. In the present study, we chose azocyclotin, one of common use acaricides in China. We focused on sexual development and steroidogenesis disrupting effects of azocyclotin in the Xenopus laevis. Tadpoles were exposed to azocyclotin (0.05 and 0.5μg/L) for long-term (4 months) study. Results showed that exposure to azocyclotin caused developmental toxicity, including decreased survival, body weight, body length, gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and female phenotype...
February 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205090/-from-controversy-to-scientific-discussion-the-dispute-over-the-vacuum-and-its-pascalian-metamorphosis
#5
Martine Pécharman
Pascal's Expériences nouvelles touchant le vide (1647) outlines a physical demonstration that aims to put to an end controversies between plenists and vacuists. The traditional form of the dispute with which Pascal wanted to break, however, finds itself reactivated by Étienne Noël, who takes up again the plenist objections which the Expériences nouvelles only consider as possible the better to refute them. Pascal's letters Au très révérend père Noël and À Monsieur Le Pailleur on the contrary permit one to define a field of disputation different from the one which Noël perpetuates...
December 2016: Revue de Synthèse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198035/testing-the-effect-of-dietary-carotenoids-on-larval-survival-growth-and-development-in-the-critically-endangered-southern-corroboree-frog
#6
Phillip G Byrne, Aimee J Silla
The success of captive breeding programs (CBPs) for threatened species is often limited due to a lack of knowledge of the nutritional conditions required for optimal growth and survival. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants known to accelerate vertebrate growth and reduce mortality. However, the effect of carotenoids on amphibian life-history traits remains poorly understood. The aim of our study was to use a manipulative laboratory experiment to test the effect of dietary-carotenoid supplementation during the larval life stage on the survival, growth and development of the critically endangered southern corroboree frog (Pseudophryne corroboree)...
February 15, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197705/chronic-effects-of-fluoride-exposure-on-growth-metamorphosis-and-skeleton-development-in-bufo-gargarizans-larvae
#7
Lihong Chai, Hongyuan Wang, Hongfeng Zhao, Suiming Dong
Bufo gargarizans tadpoles were chronically exposed to waterborne fluoride at measured concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 61.2 mg F(-)/L for 70 days from Gosner stage 26 to completion of metamorphosis. The chronic exposure caused a concentration-dependent mortality in all tested fluoride concentrations. Total length, snout-to-vent length (SVL), body mass, and developmental stage of tadpoles were significantly inhibited at 42.6 mg F(-)/L. In addition, significant metamorphic delay and increase in size at completion of metamorphosis occurred after exposure to 19...
February 14, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195220/induction-of-invertebrate-larval-settlement-different-bacteria-different-mechanisms
#8
Marnie L Freckelton, Brian T Nedved, Michael G Hadfield
Recruitment via settlement of pelagic larvae is critical for the persistence of benthic marine populations. For many benthic invertebrates, larval settlement occurs in response to surface microbial films. Larvae of the serpulid polychaete Hydroides elegans can be induced to settle by single bacterial species. Until now, only Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea had been subjected to detailed genetic and mechanistic studies. To determine if the complex structures, termed tailocins, derived from phage-tail gene assemblies and hypothesized to be the settlement cue in P...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194219/development-of-a-lecithotrophic-pilidium-larva-illustrates-convergent-evolution-of-trochophore-like-morphology
#9
Marie K Hunt, Svetlana A Maslakova
BACKGROUND: The pilidium larva is an idiosyncrasy defining one clade of marine invertebrates, the Pilidiophora (Nemertea, Spiralia). Uniquely, in pilidial development, the juvenile worm forms from a series of isolated rudiments called imaginal discs, then erupts through and devours the larval body during catastrophic metamorphosis. A typical pilidium is planktotrophic and looks like a hat with earflaps, but pilidial diversity is much broader and includes several types of non-feeding pilidia...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190921/lethal-and-sublethal-effects-of-a-methomyl-based-insecticide-in-hoplobatrachus-rugulosus
#10
Waret Trachantong, Supap Saenphet, Kanokporn Saenphet, Monruedee Chaiyapo
The aim of this study was to investigate the lethal and sublethal toxicity of a methomyl-based insecticide in Hoplobatrachus rugulosus, as methomyl-based insecticides are applied in massive amounts and agrochemicals have effects on the decline in amphibian populations. To evaluate the toxic effects of methomyl from agricultural application, a methomyl-based insecticide containing 40% methomyl was selected. The median lethal concentration of 96 hours of methomyl exposure was 8.69 ppm for H. rugulosus tadpoles...
January 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186362/effects-of-the-herbicide-triclopyr-on-metamorphic-northern-red-legged-frogs
#11
Amy E Yahnke, Christian E Grue, Marc P Hayes, Schuyler Pearman-Gillman
Aquatic herbicides are used to manage invasive emergent plants in and around wetlands. Metamorphic frogs that emerge during the aquatic weed management season may be at risk of herbicide exposure. Metamorphic northern red-legged frogs (Rana aurora) were exposed to a triclopyr tank mix labelled for control of broadleaf emergent aquatic weeds such as invasive purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). The tank mix consisted of Renovate® 3 (triclopyr triethylamine salt [TEA] 44.4%), the modified vegetable oil surfactant Competitor®, and marker dye Hi-Light®...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182298/looking-into-the-puparium-micro-ct-visualization-of-the-internal-morphological-changes-during-metamorphosis-of-the-blow-fly-calliphora-vicina-with-the-first-quantitative-analysis-of-organ-development-in-cyclorrhaphous-dipterans
#12
Daniel Martín-Vega, Thomas J Simonsen, Martin J R Hall
Metamorphosis of cyclorrhaphous flies takes place inside a barrel-like puparium, formed by the shrinking, hardening and darkening of the third-instar larval cuticle. The opacity of this structure hampers the visualization of the morphological changes occurring inside and therefore a full understanding of the metamorphosis process. Here, we use micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to describe the internal morphological changes that occur during metamorphosis of the blow fly, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) at a greater temporal resolution than anything hitherto published...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176337/how-fish-color-their-skin-a-paradigm-for-development-and-evolution-of-adult-patterns-multipotency-plasticity-and-cell-competition-regulate-proliferation-and-spreading-of-pigment-cells-in-zebrafish-coloration
#13
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Ajeet Pratap Singh
Pigment cells in zebrafish - melanophores, iridophores, and xanthophores - originate from neural crest-derived stem cells associated with the dorsal root ganglia of the peripheral nervous system. Clonal analysis indicates that these progenitors remain multipotent and plastic beyond embryogenesis well into metamorphosis, when the adult color pattern develops. Pigment cells share a lineage with neuronal cells of the peripheral nervous system; progenitors propagate along the spinal nerves. The proliferation of pigment cells is regulated by competitive interactions among cells of the same type...
February 3, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169179/reproductive-medicine-in-amphibians
#14
REVIEW
Norin Chai
Reproduction of amphibians includes ovulation, spermiation, fertilization, oviposition, larval stage and development, and metamorphosis. A problem at any stage could lead to reproductive failure. To stimulate reproduction, environmental conditions must be arranged to simulate changes in natural habits. Reproductive life history is well documented in amphibians; a thorough knowledge of this subject will aid the practitioner in diagnosis and treatment. Technologies for artificial reproduction are developing rapidly, and some protocols may be transferable to privately kept or endangered species...
February 4, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168034/tracing-the-history-and-ecological-context-of-wolbachia-double-infection-in-a-specialist-host-urophora-cardui-parasitoid-eurytoma-serratulae-system
#15
Jes Johannesen
The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia is the most widespread bacteria in insects, yet the ecology of novel acquisitions in natural host populations is poorly understood. Using temporal data separated by 12 years, I tested the hypothesis that immigration of a parasitoid wasp led to transmission of its Wolbachia strain to its dipteran host, resulting in double-strain infection, and I used geographic and community surveys to explore the history of transmission in fly and parasitoid. Double infection in the fly host was present before immigration of the parasitoid...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165149/post-metamorphic-development-of-skin-glands-in-a-true-toad-parotoids-versus-dorsal-skin
#16
Eleonora Regueira, Camila Dávila, Alina G Sassone, María E Ailín O'Donohoe, Gladys N Hermida
Chemical defenses in amphibians are a common antipredatory and antimicrobial strategy related to the presence of dermal glands that synthesize and store toxic or unpalatable substances. Glands are either distributed throughout the skin or aggregated in multiglandular structures, being the parotoids the most ubiquitous macrogland in toads of Bufonidae. Even though dermal glands begin to develop during late-larval stages, many species, including Rhinella arenarum, have immature glands by the end of metamorphosis, and their post-metamorphic growth is unknown...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153644/cathepsin-l-participates-in-the-remodeling-of-the-midgut-through-dissociation-of-midgut-cells-and-activation-of-apoptosis-via-caspase-1
#17
Cui Yang, Xian-Wu Lin, Wei-Hua Xu
The larval midgut in holometabolous insects must undergo a remodeling process during metamorphosis to form the pupal-adult midgut. However, the molecular mechanism of larval midgut cell dissociation remains unknown. Here, we show that the expression and activity of Helicoverpa armigera cathepsin L (Har-CatL) are high in the midgut at the mid-late stage of the 6th-instar larvae and are responsive to the upstream hormone ecdysone. Immunocytochemistry shows that signals for Har-CatL-like are localized in midgut cells, and an inhibitor experiment demonstrates that Har-CatL functions in the dissociation of midgut epithelial cells...
January 31, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146391/peer-reviewer-recognition-2016
#18
(no author information available yet)
Dear CPCJ Peer Reviewers, As we start 2017, it is again time to say thank you to all the 2016 peer reviewers. Published bimonthly with a global readership, CPCJ is the official organ of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. For the six issues of Volume 53, 2016, 114 articles were published in 963 pages with 756 print pages and 207 online-only pages. Three hundred and forty-six manuscripts were received and 321 were processed by 23 Section Editors and reviewed by 355 peer reviewers. Through your collective efforts and expertise, the quality of CPCJ continues to grow...
March 2017: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146353/strong-delayed-interactive-effects-of-metal-exposure-and-warming-latitude-dependent-synergisms-persist-across-metamorphosis
#19
Sara Debecker, Khuong V Dinh, Robby Stoks
As contaminants are often more toxic at higher temperatures, predicting their impact under global warming remains a key challenge for ecological risk assessment. Ignoring delayed effects, synergistic interactions between contaminants and warming, and differences in sensitivity across species' ranges could lead to an important underestimation of the risks. We addressed all three mechanisms by studying effects of larval exposure to zinc and warming before, during, and after metamorphosis in Ischnura elegans damselflies from high- and low-latitude populations...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141828/an-intronic-cis-regulatory-element-is-crucial-for-the-alpha-tubulin-pl-tuba1a-gene-activation-in-the-ciliary-band-and-animal-pole-neurogenic-domains-during-sea-urchin-development
#20
Salvatore Costa, Aldo Nicosia, Angela Cuttitta, Fabrizio Gianguzza, Maria Antonietta Ragusa
In sea urchin development, structures derived from neurogenic territory control the swimming and feeding responses of the pluteus as well as the process of metamorphosis. We have previously isolated an alpha tubulin family member of Paracentrotus lividus (Pl-Tuba1a, formerly known as Pl-Talpha2) that is specifically expressed in the ciliary band and animal pole neurogenic domains of the sea urchin embryo. In order to identify cis-regulatory elements controlling its spatio-temporal expression, we conducted gene transfer experiments, transgene deletions and site specific mutagenesis...
2017: PloS One
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