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Metamorphosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933984/differentiation-of-lepidoptera-scale-cells-from-epidermal-stem-cells-followed-by-ecdysone-regulated-dna-duplication-and-scale-secreting
#1
Shenglei Yuan, Wuren Huang, Lei Geng, Brenda T Beerntsen, Hongsheng Song, Erjun Ling
Integuments are the first line to protect insects from physical damage and pathogenic infection. In lepidopteran insects, they undergo distinct morphology changes such as scale formation during metamorphosis. However, we know little about integument development and scale formation during this stage. Here, we use the silkworm, Bombyx mori, as a model and show that stem cells in the integument of each segment, but not intersegmental membrane, divide into two scale precursor cells during the spinning stage. In young pupae, the scale precursor cell divides again...
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933588/death-by-over-eating-the-gaucher-disease-associated-gene-gba1-identified-in-a-screen-for-mediators-of-autophagic-cell-death-is-necessary-for-developmental-cell-death-in-drosophila-midgut
#2
Santosh K Dasari, Eyal Schejter, Shani Bialik, Aya Shkedy, Vered Levin-Salomon, Smadar Levin-Zaidman, Adi Kimchi
Autophagy is critical for homeostasis and cell survival during stress, but can also lead to cell death, a little understood process that has been shown to contribute to developmental cell death in lower model organisms, and to human cancer cell death. We recently reported (1) on our thorough molecular and morphologic characterization of an autophagic cell death system involving resveratrol treatment of lung carcinoma cells. To gain mechanistic insight into this death program, we performed a signalome-wide RNAi screen for genes whose functions are necessary for resveratrol-induced death...
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929570/impacts-of-human-induced-environmental-change-in-wetlands-on-aquatic-animals
#3
Michael Sievers, Robin Hale, Kirsten M Parris, Stephen E Swearer
Many wetlands harbour highly diverse biological communities and provide extensive ecosystem services; however, these important ecological features are being altered, degraded and destroyed around the world. Despite a wealth of research on how animals respond to anthropogenic changes to natural wetlands and how they use created wetlands, we lack a broad synthesis of these data. While some altered wetlands may provide vital habitat, others could pose a considerable risk to wildlife. This risk will be heightened if such wetlands are ecological traps - preferred habitats that confer lower fitness than another available habitat...
September 19, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928245/evi-and-mds-evi-are-required-for-adult-intestinal-stem-cell-formation-during-postembryonic-vertebrate-development
#4
Morihiro Okada, Yun-Bo Shi
The gene ectopic viral integration site 1 (EVI) and its variant myelodysplastic syndrome 1 (MDS)/EVI encode zinc-finger proteins that have been recognized as important oncogenes in various types of cancer. In contrast to the established role of EVI and MDS/EVI in cancer development, their potential function during vertebrate postembryonic development, especially in organ-specific adult stem cells, is unclear. Amphibian metamorphosis is strikingly similar to postembryonic development around birth in mammals, with both processes taking place when plasma thyroid hormone (T3) levels are high...
September 19, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926242/structure-function-studies-of-artemisia-tridentata-farnesyl-diphosphate-synthase-and-chrysanthemyl-diphosphate-synthase-by-site-directed-mutagenesis-and-morphogenesis
#5
J Scott Lee, Jian-Jung Pan, Gurusankar Ramamoorthy, C Dale Poulter
The amino acid sequences of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPase) and chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CPPase) from Artemisia tridentata ssp. Spiciformis, minus their chloroplast targeting regions, are 71% identical and 90% similar. FPPase efficiently and selectively synthesizes the "regular" sesquiterpenoid farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) by coupling isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) and then to geranyl diphosphate (GPP). In contrast, CPPase is an inefficient promiscuous enzyme, which synthesizes the "irregular" monoterpenes chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP), lavandulyl diphosphate (LPP), and trace quantities of maconelliyl diphosphate (MPP) from two molecules of DMAPP, in addition to coupling IPP to DMAPP...
September 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921628/who-wins-in-the-weaning-process-juvenile-feeding-morphology-of-two-freshwater-mussel-species
#6
Rafael Araujo, Miquel Campos, Carles Feo, Catuxa Varela, Joaquín Soler, Paz Ondina
The global decline of freshwater mussels can be partially attributed to their complex life cycle. Their survival from glochidium to adulthood is like a long obstacle race, with juvenile mortality as a key critical point. Mass mortality shortly after entering into a juvenile state has been reported in both wild and captive populations, thus weakening the effective bivalve population. A similar phenomenon occurs during metamorphosis in natural and hatchery populations of juvenile marine bivalves. Based on a morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy of newly formed juveniles of the freshwater species Margaritifera margaritifera (L...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919940/calcitox-aging-counterbalanced-by-endogenous-farnesol-like-sesquiterpenoids-an-undervalued-evolutionarily-ancient-key-signaling-pathway
#7
Arnold De Loof
Cells are powerful miniature electrophoresis chambers, at least during part of their life cycle. They die at the moment the voltage gradient over their plasma membrane, and their ability to drive a self-generated electric current carried by inorganic ions through themselves irreversibly collapses. Senescence is likely due to the progressive, multifactorial damage to the cell's electrical system. This is the essence of the "Fading electricity theory of aging" (De Loof et al., Aging Res. Rev. 2013;12:58-66)...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918159/identification-of-circular-rna-in-the-bombyx-mori-silk-gland
#8
Huaiyan Gan, Tieshan Feng, Yuqian Wu, Chun Liu, Qingyou Xia, Tingcai Cheng
Bombyx mori is an economically important holometabolous lepidopteran insect. In B. mori endogenous noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs play crucial biological functions in metamorphosis and sex determination. In addition, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been recently identified as noncoding RNAs in most common model organisms and show potential as gene regulators. However, to date, there have been few studies on the circRNAs present in the B. mori genome conducted to date. Here, we identified 3916 circRNAs by deep circular transcriptome sequencing using the silk gland of B...
September 14, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917944/tetrabromoethylcyclohexane-affects-gonadal-differentiation-and-development-in-the-frog-pelophylax-nigromaculatus
#9
Peng-Yan Liu, Tan Meng, Yuan-Yuan Li, Man Cai, Xing-Hong Li, Juan Chen, Zhan-Fen Qin
Tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH), an additive brominated flame retardant, has been shown to have an androgenic activity in vitro. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of TBECH on gonadal differentiation and development in the frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus, an amphibian species sensitive to androgenic chemicals, and to assess the androgenic activity of TBECH in vivo. P. nigromaculatus tadpoles were exposed to TBECH (1, 10, 100nM) from Gosner stage 24 to complete metamorphosis, and to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as a positive control...
September 9, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916169/the-large-and-small-spen-family-proteins-stimulate-axon-outgrowth-during-neurosecretory-cell-remodeling-in-drosophila
#10
Tingting Gu, Tao Zhao, Uday Kohli, Randall S Hewes
Split ends (SPEN) is the founding member of a well conserved family of nuclear proteins with critical functions in transcriptional regulation and the post-transcriptional processing and nuclear export of transcripts. In animals, the SPEN proteins fall into two size classes that perform either complementary or antagonistic functions in different cellular contexts. Here, we show that the two Drosophila representatives of this family, SPEN and Spenito (NITO), regulate metamorphic remodeling of the CCAP/bursicon neurosecretory cells...
September 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912375/organ-culture-of-the-xenopus-tadpole-intestine
#11
Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka
During Xenopus metamorphosis, most tadpole organs remodel from the larval to adult form to prepare for adaptation to terrestrial life. Organ culture serves as an important tool for studying larval-to-adult organ remodeling independent of the effects of other parts of the body. Here, I introduce a protocol for organ culture in vitro using the Xenopus laevis tadpole intestine before metamorphic climax. During culture in the absence of exogenous 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), the most potent natural thyroid hormone, the intestine remains in its larval state without any metamorphic changes...
September 14, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904296/developmental-changes-in-drug-metabolizing-enzyme-expression-during-metamorphosis-of-xenopus-tropicalis
#12
Junpei Mori, Seigo Sanoh, Keiko Kashiwagi, Hideki Hanada, Mitsuki Shigeta, Ken-Ichi T Suzuki, Takashi Yamamoto, Yaichiro Kotake, Kazumi Sugihara, Shigeyuki Kitamura, Akihiko Kashiwagi, Shigeru Ohta
A large number of chemicals are routinely detected in aquatic environments, and these chemicals may adversely affect aquatic organisms. Accurate risk assessment requires understanding drug-metabolizing systems in aquatic organisms because metabolism of these chemicals is a critical determinant of chemical bioaccumulation and related toxicity. In this study, we evaluated mRNA expression levels of nuclear receptors and drug-metabolizing enzymes as well as cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities in pro-metamorphic tadpoles, froglets, and adult frogs to determine how drug-metabolizing systems are altered at different life stages...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898599/transcriptomic-basis-of-metamorphic-competence-in-the-salt-marsh-dwelling-polychaete-capitella-teleta
#13
Robert Burns, Jan Pechenik
Marine invertebrate larvae typically take hours to weeks after being released into the plankton before becoming "competent" to metamorphose. The mechanisms that govern this transition between the precompetent and metamorphically competent states are unknown. We studied gene expression patterns in precompetent and competent larvae of the salt-marsh-dwelling polychaete worm Capitella teleta (Blake, Grassle & Eckelbarger, 2009)-a species in which precompetent larvae are unusually easy to distinguish from competent larvae-to determine differences in gene expression associated with the onset of metamorphic competence...
June 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894959/variation-in-phenology-and-density-differentially-affects-predator-prey-interactions-between-salamanders
#14
Thomas L Anderson, Freya E Rowland, Raymond D Semlitsch
Variation in the timing of breeding (i.e., phenological variation) can affect species interactions and community structure, in part by shifting body size differences between species. Body size differences can be further altered by density-dependent competition, though synergistic effects of density and phenology on species interactions are rarely evaluated. We tested how field-realistic variation in phenology and density affected ringed salamander (Ambystoma annulatum) predation on spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum), and whether these altered salamander dynamics resulted in trophic cascades...
September 11, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894097/photo-triggered-solvent-free-metamorphosis-of-polymeric-materials
#15
Satoshi Honda, Taro Toyota
Liquefaction and solidification of materials are the most fundamental changes observed during thermal phase transitions, yet the design of organic and polymeric soft materials showing isothermal reversible liquid-nonliquid conversion remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate that solvent-free repeatable molecular architectural transformation between liquid-star and nonliquid-network polymers that relies on cleavage and reformation of a covalent bond in hexaarylbiimidazole. Liquid four-armed star-shaped poly(n-butyl acrylate) and poly(dimethyl siloxane) with 2,4,5-triphenylimidazole end groups were first synthesized...
September 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893599/natural-products-and-morphogenic-activity-of-%C3%AE-proteobacteria-associated-with-the-marine-hydroid-polyp-hydractinia-echinata
#16
Huijuan Guo, Maja Rischer, Martin Sperfeld, Christiane Weigel, Klaus Dieter Menzel, Jon Clardy, Christine Beemelmanns
Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to profile the associated bacterial community of the marine hydroid Hydractinia echinata, a long-standing model system in developmental biology. 56 associated bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Three strains were selected for further in-depth chemical analysis leading to the identification of 17 natural products. Several γ-Proteobacteria were found to induce settlement of the motile larvae, but only six isolates induced the metamorphosis to the primary polyp stage within 24h...
July 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873065/mechanisms-of-tail-resorption-during-anuran-metamorphosis
#17
REVIEW
Yuya Nakai, Keisuke Nakajima, Yoshio Yaoita
Amphibian metamorphosis has historically attracted a good deal of scientific attention owing to its dramatic nature and easy observability. However, the genetic mechanisms of amphibian metamorphosis have not been thoroughly examined using modern techniques such as gene cloning, DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction or genomic editing. Here, we review the current state of knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms underlying tadpole tail resorption.
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869887/chronic-toxicity-of-1-3-5-triazine-herbicides-in-the-postembryonic-development-of-the-western-clawed-frog-silurana-tropicalis
#18
Masahiro Saka, Noriko Tada, Yoichi Kamata
Seven 1,3,5- triazine (s-triazine) herbicides (ametryn, prometryn, dimethametryn, simazine, atrazine, propazine, and cyanazine) were tested using an amphibian (Silurana tropicalis) metamorphosis assay focusing on morphometric, gravimetric, and thyroid-histological endpoints. Premetamorphic tadpoles were exposed to each s-triazine at 2 concentrations between 1/1000 and 1/10 of the 96-h acute toxicity values, until all tadpoles in the control group reached either the late prometamorphosic stages or the initial stage of metamorphic climax...
September 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868029/thrombosis-of-the-vein-of-galen-pitfalls-metamorphosis-and-paroxysmal-sympathetic-hyperactivity
#19
Paulo César Santos-Soares, Jamary Oliveira-Filho
Isolated thrombosis of the vein of Galen is a rare and serious entity with few cases reported in the literature. We report the case of a previously healthy 18-year-old male who was admitted after developing headache and subsequently worsening mental status, requiring endotracheal intubation for airway protection. During his admission he developed symptoms of severe paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity and posturing. The computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed bilateral thalamic lesions...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866085/comparative-profiling-of-micrornas-and-their-association-with-sexual-dimorphism-in-the-fig-wasp-ceratosolen-solmsi
#20
Yan-Kun Wang, Jian-Ping Li, Tian-Tian Li, Ran Liu, Ling-Yi Jia, Xian-Qin Wei, Jin-Hua Xiao, Da-Wei Huang
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate various biological processes, including insect metamorphosis and sexual dimorphism. The fig-pollinating wasp, Ceratosolen solmsi, is a member of the super family Chalcidoidea, which have mutualistic relationships with their fig tree hosts. C. solmsi exhibits extreme sexual dimorphism, which corresponds to the distinct lifestyles of both sexes. Our previous studies showed that these dimorphic characteristics are associated with a dimorphic gene expression pattern...
October 30, 2017: Gene
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