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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446607/juvenile-hormone-and-its-receptor-methoprene-tolerant-promote-ribosomal-biogenesis-and-vitellogenesis-in-the-aedes-aegypti-mosquito
#1
Jia-Lin Wang, Tusar T Saha, Yang Zhang, Changyu Zhang, Alexander S Raikhel
Juvenile hormone (JH) controls many biological activities in insects, including development, metamorphosis and reproduction. In the Aedes aegypti mosquito, a vector of Dengue, Yellow fever, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, the metabolic tissue, the fat body, which is an analogue of the vertebrate liver, produces yolk proteins (YPs) for developing oocytes. JH is important for the fat body to acquire competence for YP production. However, the molecular mechanisms of how JH promotes mosquito reproduction are not completely understood...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441464/crucial-roles-of-pox-neuro-in-the-developing-ellipsoid-body-and-antennal-lobes-of-the-drosophila-brain
#2
Shilpi Minocha, Werner Boll, Markus Noll
The paired box gene Pox neuro (Poxn) is expressed in two bilaterally symmetric neuronal clusters of the developing adult Drosophila brain, a protocerebral dorsal cluster (DC) and a deutocerebral ventral cluster (VC). We show that all cells that express Poxn in the developing brain are postmitotic neurons. During embryogenesis, the DC and VC consist of only 20 and 12 neurons that express Poxn, designated embryonic Poxn-neurons. The number of Poxn-neurons increases only during the third larval instar, when the DC and VC increase dramatically to about 242 and 109 Poxn-neurons, respectively, virtually all of which survive to the adult stage, while no new Poxn-neurons are added during metamorphosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438338/effects-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-on-metamorphosis-of-a-marine-fish-japanese-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus-in-relation-to-thyroid-disruption
#3
Yifei Dong, Xiaona Zhang, Hua Tian, Xiang Li, Wei Wang, Shaoguo Ru
This study examined the influence of environmental concentrations of Aroclor 1254 (10, 100, and 1000ng/L) on metamorphosis of Paralichthys olivaceus, and analyzed the mechanisms in relation to thyroid disruption. Results showed that 100 and 1000ng/L Aroclor 1254 delayed metamorphosis and that 1000ng/L Aroclor 1254 caused abnormal morphology. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels in the control group were significantly elevated at metamorphic climax, but treatment with 100 and 1000ng/L delayed the increase in thyroid hormones (THs) and retarded metamorphic processes...
April 21, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438113/hopping-over-red-leg-the-metamorphosis-of-amphibian-pathology
#4
Allan P Pessier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436085/effect-of-triclosan-on-anuran-development-and-growth-in-a-larval-amphibian-growth-and-development-assay
#5
Douglas J Fort, Michael B Mathis, Sascha Pawlowski, Jeffrey C Wolf, Robert Peter, Samantha Champ
A larval amphibian growth and development assay was performed to evaluate the potential effects of environmentally-relevant concentrations of triclosan (TCS) on amphibian development and growth. Xenopus laevis were exposed to TCS 0.0 (control), 6.3, 12.5 and 25.0 μg l(-1) (estimated maximum tolerable concentration) until 10 weeks post-metamorphosis. At median metamorphosis time (Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 62), five larvae per replicate were collected for snout-vent length, hind limb length and body weight measurements, and histopathological examination of thyroid glands...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431762/effects-of-a-common-insecticide-on-wetland-communities-with-varying-quality-of-leaf-litter-inputs
#6
A B Stoler, B M Mattes, W D Hintz, D K Jones, L Lind, M S Schuler, R A Relyea
Chemical contamination of aquatic systems often co-occurs with dramatic changes in surrounding terrestrial vegetation. Plant leaf litter serves as a crucial resource input to many freshwater systems, and changes in litter species composition can alter the attributes of freshwater communities. However, little is known how variation in litter inputs interacts with chemical contaminants. We investigated the ecological effects resulting from changes in tree leaf litter inputs to freshwater communities, and how those changes might interact with the timing of insecticide contamination...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428023/cyp450s-analysis-across-spiny-lobster-metamorphosis-identifies-a-long-sought-missing-link-in-crustacean-development
#7
Tomer Ventura, Utpal Bose, Quinn P Fitzgibbon, Gregory G Smith, P Nicholas Shaw, Scott F Cummins, Abigail Elizur
Cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) are a rapidly evolving family of enzymes, making it difficult to identify bona fide orthologs with notable lineage-specific exceptions. In ecdysozoans, a small number of the most conserved orthologs include enzymes which metabolize ecdysteroids. Ecdysone pathway components were recently shown in a decapod crustacean but with a notable absence of shade, which is important for converting ecdysone to its active form, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE), suggesting that another CYP450 performs a similar function in crustaceans...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424346/the-male-escape-hypothesis-sex-biased-metamorphosis-in-response-to-climatic-drivers-in-a-facultatively-paedomorphic-amphibian
#8
Anthony G E Mathiron, Jean-Paul Lena, Sarah Baouch, Mathieu Denoël
Paedomorphosis is a major evolutionary process that bypasses metamorphosis and allows reproduction in larvae. In newts and salamanders, it can be facultative with paedomorphs retaining gills and metamorphs dispersing. The evolution of these developmental processes is thought to have been driven by the costs and benefits of inhabiting aquatic versus terrestrial habitats. In this context, we aimed at testing the hypothesis that climatic drivers affect phenotypic transition and the difference across sexes because sex-ratio is biased in natural populations...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423270/bioaccumulation-and-biodistribution-of-selenium-in-metamorphosing-tadpoles
#9
Chantal M Lanctot, Tom Cresswell, Paul D Callaghan, Steven D Melvin
Selenium is an important macronutrient with a very narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity. Amphibians are hypothesized to be particularly sensitive due to the potential for metamorphosis-driven mobilization, which could transfer or concentrate contaminant burdens within specific organs. We explored the potential role of tissue degeneration and remodeling during anuran metamorphosis as a mechanism for altering tissue-specific Se burdens. Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles were exposed to dissolved (75)Se (as selenite) for 7 days and depurated until completion of metamorphosis...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421370/the-current-state-of-knowledge-on-the-neuroactive-compounds-that-affect-the-development-mating-and-reproduction-of-spiders-araneae-compared-to-insects
#10
REVIEW
Marta Sawadro, Agata Bednarek, Agnieszka Babczyńska
The neuroendocrine system of insects, including the presence of the main neuroactive compounds, and their role in ontogenesis are probably best understood of all the arthropods. Development, metamorphosis, the maturation of the gonads, vitellogenesis and egg production are regulated by hormones (juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids) and neuropeptides. However, knowledge about their presence and functions in spiders is fragmentary. In this paper, we present a summary of the current data about the juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids and neuropeptides in selected groups of arthropods, with particular emphasis on spiders...
June 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421346/decoupling-of-behavioral-trait-correlation-across-life-stages-in-two-holometabolous-insects
#11
Kentarou Matsumura, Taro Fuchikawa, Takahisa Miyatake
Many animal behaviors have a genetic base, and behavioral traits often correlate with one another. In this study, we tested for a behavioral correlation between tonic immobility and walking distance in the larval and adult stages independently of two holometabolous insects. We confirmed a negative correlation of traits between strains in adults of both the species; however, we did not find it in larvae of either species. This suggests that the negative correlation between tonic immobility and walking is decoupled across life stages from larva to adult...
April 18, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421137/the-effect-of-temperature-on-development-and-behaviour-of-relict-leopard-frog-tadpoles
#12
Jeffrey A Goldstein, Karin von Seckendorr Hoff, Stanley D Hillyard
Relict leopard frog (Rana [Lithobates] onca) tadpoles were obtained shortly after hatching at Gosner stage 25 and raised in aquaria maintained at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Development was arrested in the 15°C group, and survivorship declined to 64% after 191 days. However, 80% of the surviving larvae remained alive after the temperature was increased to 25°C. Of these, 96% reached metamorphosis. Survivorship of the 20, 25 and 30°C acclimation groups was 82, 94 and 66%, respectively, whereas none survived at 35°C...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420712/sec71-functions-as-a-gef-for-the-small-gtpase-arf1-to-govern-dendrite-pruning-of-drosophila-sensory-neurons
#13
Yan Wang, Heng Zhang, Meng Shi, Yih-Cherng Liou, Lei Lu, Fengwei Yu
Pruning, whereby neurons eliminate their exuberant neurites, is central for the maturation of the nervous system. In Drosophila, sensory neurons, ddaCs, selectively prune their larval dendrites without affecting their axons during metamorphosis. However, it is unknown whether the secretory pathway plays a role in dendrite pruning. Here, we show that the small GTPase Arf1, an important regulator of secretory pathway, is specifically required for dendrite pruning of ddaC/D/E sensory neurons but dispensable for apoptosis of ddaF neurons...
April 18, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417205/an-eclosion-hormone-like-gene-participates-in-the-molting-process-of-palaemonid-shrimp-exopalaemon-carinicauda
#14
Lihong Zhou, Shihao Li, Zhiwei Wang, Fuhua Li, Jianhai Xiang
Molting behavior is an important physiological process related to metamorphosis, growth, and reproduction in crustaceans. Previous studies indicated that the molting process was controlled by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and upstream hormones, peptides, and environmental factors, which regulate 20E function. Eclosion hormone (EH) in insect is a kind of neuropeptide that is regulated by 20E and triggers ecdysis behavior at the end of molting process. However, the function of eclosion hormone gene during the molting process in crustaceans is still largely unknown...
April 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415049/metamorphosis-and-transition-between-developmental-stages-in-european-eel-anguilla-anguilla-l-involve-epigenetic-changes-in-dna-methylation-patterns
#15
Jochen H Trautner, Stefan Reiser, Tina Blancke, Katrin Unger, Klaus Wysujack
The life history of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla, L.) is characterized by a series of metamorphoses and transitions that provoke drastic morphological changes. Most of these changes go along with the catadromous life cycle in eels, involving extensive physiologically adaptations. In this study it was investigated whether these drastic changes have an epigenetic basis by analyzing global methylation patterns in liver, gill and brain tissue from glass eels caught at the British coast as well as yellow and silver eels from River Rhine using methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphisms (MSAP)...
April 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412521/a-lamprey-view-on-the-origins-of-neuroendocrine-regulation-of-the-thyroid-axis
#16
REVIEW
Stacia A Sower, Krist N Hausken
This mini review summarizes the current knowledge of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) endocrine system in lampreys, jawless vertebrates. Lampreys and hagfish are the only two extant members of the class of agnathans, the oldest lineage of vertebrates. The high conservation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in lampreys makes the lamprey model highly appropriate for comparative and evolutionary analyses. However, there are still many unknown questions concerning the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis in its regulation of thyroid activities in lampreys...
April 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409193/dietary-accumulation-of-inorganic-selenium-by-a-larval-amphibian-hyla-chrysoscelis-and-influence-on-accumulation-of-background-mercury
#17
Christopher L Rowe, Andrew Heyes
Larval gray tree frogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) were exposed to inorganic Se (SeO2) added to the diet (10.2 and 86.3 ug/g dw) and monitored for accumulation and effect. Background concentrations of Hg were also measured in food and carcasses to assess possible effects of Se on Hg accumulation. Selenium was accumulated in a dose dependent manner, and life stages did not differ. No effects of Se exposure were observed on survival, growth, or time to metamorphosis. Mercury concentrations in carcasses, resulting from background concentrations in food, were significantly affected by the presence of Se...
April 13, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408149/leptinotarsa-cap-n-collar-isoform-c-kelch-like-ech-associated-protein%C3%A2-1-signaling-is-critical-for-the-regulation-of-ecdysteroidogenesis-in-the-larvae
#18
Qiang-Kun Sun, Qing-Wei Meng, Qing-Yu Xu, Pan Deng, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
Drosophila cap 'n' collar isoform C (CncC) and Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) regulate metamorphosis by transcriptional control of a subset of genes involved in ecdysteroidogenesis, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling, and juvenile hormone (JH) degradation. In the present paper, we found that prothoracicotropic hormone signal was required for the activation of LdCncC and LdKeap1 in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Moreover, RNA interference of LdCncC or LdKeap1 in the fourth-instar larvae delayed development...
April 10, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390932/20-hydroxyecdysone-positively-regulates-the-transcription-of-the-antimicrobial-peptide-lebocin-via-bmets-and-bmbr-c-z4-in-the-midgut-of-bombyx-mori-during-metamorphosis
#19
Taoyi Mai, Shuna Chen, Xianyu Lin, Xiaojuan Zhang, Xiaopeng Zou, Qili Feng, Sichun Zheng
Metamorphosis is an essential physiological process in insects. This process is triggered by 20-hydroxyecydsone (20E). Lebocin, an antimicrobial peptide of Lepidoptera insects, was significantly up-regulated in the midgut, but not in the fat body of Bombyx mori during metamorphosis. In this study, the expression regulation of lebocin in B. mori midgut was studied. The results showed that B. mori lebocin and its activator BmEts were not responsive to bacterial infection in the midgut, instead, the expression of both genes was up-regulated by 20E treatment...
April 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388016/remodeling-of-peripheral-nerve-ensheathment-during-the-larval-to-adult-transition-in-drosophila
#20
Aswati Subramanian, Matthew Siefert, Soumya Banerjee, Kumar Vishal, Kayla A Bergmann, Clay C M Curts, Meredith Dorr, Camillo Molina, Joyce Fernandes
Over the course of a four-day period of metamorphosis, the Drosophila larval nervous system is remodeled to prepare for adult-specific behaviors. One example is the reorganization of peripheral nerves in the abdomen, where five pairs of abdominal nerves (A4-A8) fuse to form the terminal nerve trunk. This reorganization is associated with selective remodeling of four layers that ensheath each peripheral nerve. The neural lamella (NL), is the first to dismantle; its breakdown is initiated by 6 hours after puparium formation, and is completely removed by the end of the first day...
April 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
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