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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635673/toxicity-of-naphthalene-and-benzene-on-tribollium-castaneum-herbst
#1
Nerlis Pajaro-Castro, Karina Caballero-Gallardo, Jesus Olivero-Verbel
Naphthalene and benzene are widely-used volatile organic compounds. The aim of this research was to examine the toxicological effects of naphthalene and benzene against Tribolium castaneum as an animal model. Adult insects were exposed to these aromatic compounds to assess mortality after 4-48 h of exposure. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) for naphthalene, naphthalin, and benzene were 63.6 µL/L, 20.0 µL/L, and 115.9 µL/L in air, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed expression changes in genes related to oxidative stress and metabolism [Glutathione S-Transferase (Gst), and Cytochrome P450 6BQ8 (Cyp6bq8)]; reproduction and metamorphosis [Hormone receptor in 39-like protein (Hr39), Ecdysone receptor: (Ecr), and Chitin synthase 2 (Chs2)]; and neurotransmission [Histamine-gated chloride channel 2 (Hiscl2)] in insects exposed for 4 h to 70...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634083/effects-of-the-soya-isoflavone-genistein-in-early-life-stages-of-the-senegalese-sole-solea-senegalensis-thyroid-estrogenic-and-metabolic-biomarkers
#2
Carmen Sarasquete, Maria Úbeda-Manzanaro, Juan Bosco Ortiz-Delgado
This study examines the effects induced by environmentally relevant concentrations of the isoflavone genistein (3 mg/L and 10 mg/L) during early life stages of the Senegalese sole. Throughout the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, several neurohormonal regulatory thyroid signalling patterns (thyroglobulin/Tg, thyroid peroxidase/TPO, transthyretin/TTR, thyroid receptors/TRβ, and iodothrynonine deiodinases, Dio2 and Dio3) were analysed. Furthermore, the expression patterns of estrogen receptor ERβ and haemoprotein Cyp1a were also evaluated...
June 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630022/lamprey-metamorphosis-thyroid-hormone-signaling-in-a-basal-vertebrate
#3
REVIEW
Richard G Manzon, Lori A Manzon
As one of the most basal living vertebrates, lampreys represent an excellent model system to study the evolution of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling. The lamprey hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and reproductive axes overlap functionally. Lampreys have 3 gonadotropin releasing hormones and a single glycoprotein hormone from the hypothalamus and pituitary, respectively, that regulate both the reproductive and thyroid axes. TH synthesis in larval lampreys takes place in an endostyle that transforms into typical vertebrate thyroid tissue during metamorphosis; both the endostyle and follicular tissue have all the typical TH synthetic components found in other vertebrates...
June 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627423/severe-developmental-timing-defects-in-the-prothoracicotropic-hormone-ptth-deficient-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#4
Miwa Uchibori-Asano, Takumi Kayukawa, Hideki Sezutsu, Tetsuro Shinoda, Takaaki Daimon
The insect neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) triggers the biosynthesis and release of the molting hormone ecdysone in the prothoracic gland (PG), thereby controlling the timing of molting and metamorphosis. Despite the well-documented physiological role of PTTH and its signaling pathway in the PG, it is not clear whether PTTH is an essential hormone for ecdysone biosynthesis and development. To address this question, we established and characterized a PTTH knockout line in the silkworm, Bombyx mori...
June 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624536/microrna-dependent-regulation-of-metamorphosis-and-identification-of-micrornas-in-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#5
Wei Wu, Wenfeng Xiong, Chengjun Li, Mengfan Zhai, Yao Li, Fei Ma, Bin Li
To date, although some microRNAs (miRNAs) have been discovered in the holometabolism insect Tribolium castaneum, large numbers of miRNAs still require investigation. Knocking down Dicer-1 (Dcr-1) and Argonaute-1 (Ago-1) in late larvae impaired miRNA synthesis, affected the juvenile hormone pathway by up-regulating Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and Krüppel-homolog1 (Kr-h1) transcript levels, and resulted in a series of defects in T. castaneum development and metamorphosis. Thus, high-throughput Illumina/Solexa sequencing was performed with a mixed sample of eight key developmental stages of T...
June 14, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623733/a-novel-immune-related-gene-hdd1-of-silkworm-bombyx-mori-is-involved-in-bacterial-response
#6
Kui Zhang, Guangzhao Pan, Yuzu Zhao, Xiangwei Hao, Chongyang Li, Li Shen, Rui Zhang, Jingjing Su, Hongjuan Cui
Insects have evolved an effective immune system to respond to various challenges. In this study, a novel immune-related gene, called BmHDD1, was first charactered in silkworm, Bombyx mori. BmHDD1 contained an ORF of 837bp and encoding a deduced protein of 278 amino acids. BmHDD1 was specifically expressed in hemocytes, and highly expressed at the molting and metamorphosis stages under normal physiological conditions. Our results suggested that BmHDD1 was mainly generated by hemocytes and secreted into hemolymph...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620858/toxicity-assessment-of-five-emerging-pollutants-alone-and-in-binary-or-ternary-mixtures-towards-three-aquatic-organisms
#7
Carole Di Poi, Katherine Costil, Valérie Bouchart, Marie-Pierre Halm-Lemeille
Despite a growing scientific attention on ecological impact of emerging pollutants (EPs) such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides, knowledge gaps remain regarding mixture toxicity and effects on aquatic organisms. Several EPs were screened in seawater (Normandy, France), and the ecotoxicity of five compounds, chosen on their occurrence in ecosystems and use worldwide, was assessed and were the biocides methylparaben (MP) and triclosan (TCS), a pesticide degradation product (AMPA), and the pharmaceuticals venlafaxine (VEN) and carbamazepine (CBZ)...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618059/cells-from-subcutaneous-tissues-contribute-to-scarless-skin-regeneration-in-xenopus-laevis-froglets
#8
Rina Otsuka-Yamaguchi, Aiko Kawasumi-Kita, Nanako Kudo, Yumi Izutsu, Koji Tamura, Hitoshi Yokoyama
BACKGROUND: Mammals cannot regenerate the dermis and other skin structures after an injury and instead form a scar. However, a Xenopus laevis froglet can regenerate scarless skin, including the dermis and secretion glands, on the limbs and trunk after skin excision. Subcutaneous tissues in the limbs and trunk consist mostly of muscles. Although subcutaneous tissues beneath a skin injury appear disorganized, the cellular contribution of these underlying tissues to skin regeneration remains unclear...
June 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617644/a-parent-offspring-trade-off-limits-the-evolution-of-an-ontogenetic-niche-shift
#9
Hanna Ten Brink, André M de Roos
Many free-living animal species, including the majority of fish, insects, and amphibians, change their food and habitat during their life. Even though these ontogenetic changes in niche are common, it is not well understood which ecological conditions have favored the evolution of these shifts. Using an adaptive dynamics approach, we show that it is evolutionarily advantageous to switch to an alternative food source in the course of ontogeny when this results in a higher intake rate for the switching consumers...
July 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613937/cell-removal-efferocytosis
#10
Peter M Henson
In metazoa, removal of cells in situ is involved in larval maturation, metamorphosis, and embryonic development. In adults, such cell removal plays a role in the homeostatic maintenance of cell numbers and tissue integrity as well as in the response to cell injury and damage. This removal involves uptake of the whole or fragmented target cells into phagocytes. Depending on the organism, these latter may be near-neighbor tissue cells and/or professional phagocytes such as, in vertebrates, members of the myeloid family of cells, especially macrophages...
June 14, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613232/off-the-shelf-fouling-management
#11
REVIEW
Daniel Rittschof
This chapter tells the story of a research thread that identified and modified a pharmaceutical that could be a component of environmentally benign fouling management coatings. First, I present the background context of biofouling and how fouling is managed. The major target of the research is disrupting transduction of a complex process in all macrofouling organisms: metamorphosis. Using a bioassay directed approach we first identified a pharmaceutical candidate. Then, based on structure function studies coupled with laboratory and field bioassays, we simplified the molecule, eliminating halogens and aromatic rings to a pharmacophore that could be readily broken down by bacteria...
June 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610907/insulin-like-growth-factor-igf-like-peptide-and-20-hydroxyecdysone-regulate-the-growth-and-development-of-the-male-genital-disk-through-different-mechanisms-in-the-silkmoth-bombyx-mori
#12
Daiki Fujinaga, Yusuke Kohmura, Naoki Okamoto, Hiroshi Kataoka, Akira Mizoguchi
It is well established that ecdysteroids play pivotal roles in the regulation of insect molting and metamorphosis. However, the mechanisms by which ecdysteroids regulate the growth and development of adult organs after pupation are poorly understood. Recently, we have identified insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-like peptides (IGFLPs), which are secreted after pupation under the control of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). In the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, massive amounts of Bombyx-IGFLP (BIGFLP) are present in the hemolymph during pupal-adult development, suggesting its importance in the regulation of adult tissue growth...
June 10, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610048/the-phytotelm-tadpoles-of-i-microhyla-i-i-arboricola-i-anura-microhylidae-from-vietnam-with-comments-on-reproductive-biology-and-development
#13
Anna B Vassilieva, Vitaly L Trounov, Nikolay A Jr Poyarkov, Eduard A Galoyan
The reproductive biology of Microhyla arboricola (Microhylidae) was studied in two regions of the southern Annamite Mountains in Vietnam. M. arboricola is an obligate phytotelm-breeder that reproduces in water-filled tree hollows in montane evergreen forests. Clutches are attached above the water level in the hollows and contain 5-37 pigmented, relatively large eggs. Larvae hatch at markedly advanced stages and develop in water until metamorphosis is completed. The developing tadpoles are obligately oophagous and feed on conspecific eggs and embryos...
March 28, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608158/surface-water-mitigates-the-anti-metamorphic-effects-of-elevated-perchlorate-concentrations-in-new-mexico-spadefoot-toad-larvae-spea-multiplicata
#14
Melissa A Sandoz, Mike Wages, Kim J Wooten, Sheree L Clendening, Lucas R Smith, Brian Mulhearn, Philip N Smith
Perchlorate (ClO4(-)) has potential to negatively impact amphibian populations by inhibiting thyroid hormone production, and thus metamorphosis in developing larvae. However, variability exists in species sensitivity, and there is evidence suggesting that natural surface waters can mitigate the anti-metamorphic potential of perchlorate. New Mexico spadefoot toad tadpoles, Spea multiplicata, were exposed to natural surface waters spiked with nominal concentrations of 0, 1000, 1350, 1710, 3000, 5110, and 8000 μg/L perchlorate ion for up to 42 days...
June 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597953/a-clip-domain-serine-protease-involved-in-moulting-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori-cloning-characterization-expression-patterns-and-functional-analysis
#15
H-W Liu, L-L Wang, Z Meng, X Tang, Y-S Li, Q-Y Xia, P Zhao
Clip domain serine proteases (CLIPs), characterized by one or more conserved clip domains, are essential components of extracellular signalling cascades in various biological processes, especially in innate immunity and the embryonic development of insects. Additionally, CLIPs may have additional non-immune functions in insect development. In the present study, the clip domain serine protease gene Bombyx mori serine protease 95 (BmSP95), which encodes a 527-residue protein, was cloned from the integument of B...
June 9, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594821/dynamics-of-dna-methylomes-underlie-oyster-development
#16
Guillaume Riviere, Yan He, Samuele Tecchio, Elizabeth Crowell, Michaël Gras, Pascal Sourdaine, Ximing Guo, Pascal Favrel
DNA methylation is a critical epigenetic regulator of development in mammals and social insects, but its significance in development outside these groups is not understood. Here we investigated the genome-wide dynamics of DNA methylation in a mollusc model, the oyster Crassostrea gigas, from the egg to the completion of organogenesis. Large-scale methylation maps reveal that the oyster genome displays a succession of methylated and non methylated regions, which persist throughout development. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) are strongly regulated during cleavage and metamorphosis...
June 8, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591769/functional-characterisation-of-xenopus-thyroid-hormone-transporters-mct8-and-oatp1c1
#17
Bilal B Mughal, Michelle Leemans, Elaine C L de Souza, Sébastien le Mevel, Petra Spirhanzlova, Theo Visser, Jean-Baptiste Fini, Barbara A Demeneix
Xenopus is an excellent model for studying thyroid hormone signalling as it undergoes thyroid hormone-dependent metamorphosis. Despite the fact that receptors and deiodinases have been described in Xenopus, membrane transporters for these hormones are yet to be characterised. We cloned Xenopus monocarboxylate transporter 8 (mct8) and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1C1 (oatpc1c1), focusing on these two transporters given their importance for vertebrate brain development. Protein alignment and bootstrap analysis showed that Xenopus mct8 and oatp1c1 are closer to their mammalian orthologues than their teleost counterparts...
June 7, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578399/transcription-factor-forkhead-regulates-expression-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-the-tobacco-hornworm-manduca-sexta
#18
Xue Zhong, Munmun Chowdhury, Chun-Feng Li, Xiao-Qiang Yu
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an important role in defense against microbial infections in insects. Expression of AMPs is regulated mainly by NF-κB factors Dorsal, Dif and Relish. Our previous study showed that both NF-κB and GATA-1 factors are required for activation of moricin promoter in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and a 140-bp region in the moricin promoter contains binding sites for additional transcription factors. In this study, we identified three forkhead (Fkh)-binding sites in the 140-bp region of the moricin promoter and several Fkh-binding sites in the lysozyme promoter, and demonstrated that Fkh-binding sites are required for activation of both moricin and lysozyme promoters by Fkh factors...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575436/unliganded-tr%C3%AE-a-safety-lock-to-metamorphosis
#19
Alexander M Schreiber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566535/right-time-right-place-the-temporal-regulation-of-developmental-gene-expression
#20
REVIEW
Sophia A Praggastis, Carl S Thummel
Many studies have focused on defining the critical transcription factors that specify tissue morphogenesis and differentiation. Our understanding of how these spatial regulators are deployed in the proper temporal order, however, has remained less clear. In this issue of Genes & Development, Uyehara and colleagues (pp. 862-875) provide new insights into the mechanisms by which temporal and spatial regulators are coordinated to control Drosophila wing development during metamorphosis.
May 1, 2017: Genes & Development
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