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Metamorphosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333345/ontogeny-reversal-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-turritopsis-sp-5-cnidaria-hydrozoa-oceaniidae-a-possible-new-species-endemic-to-xiamen-china
#1
Jun-Yuan Li, Dong-Hui Guo, Peng-Cheng Wu, Li-Sheng He
Ontogeny reversal, as seen in some cnidarians, is an unprecedented phenomenon in the animal kingdom involving reversal of the ordinary life cycle. Three species of Turritopsis have been shown to be capable of inverted metamorphosis, a process in which the pelagic medusa transforms back into a juvenile benthic polyp stage when faced with adverse conditions. Turritopsis sp.5 is a species of Turritopsis collected from Xiamen, China which presents a similar ability, being able to reverse its life cycle if injured by mechanical stress...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325020/dynamic-effects-of-initial-ph-of-substrate-on-biological-growth-and-metamorphosis-of-black-soldier-fly-diptera-stratiomyidae
#2
Junhua Ma, Yanyan Lei, Kashif Ur Rehman, Ziniu Yu, Jibin Zhang, Wu Li, Qing Li, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Longyu Zheng
Edible insects have become a recognized alternative and sustainable source of high-quality proteins and fats for livestock or human consumption. In the production process of black soldier fly (BSF), (Hermetia illucens L. [Diptera: Stratiomyidae]), initial substrate pH is a critical parameter to ensure the best value of insect biomass, life history traits, and quality bio-fertilizer. This study examined the impact of initial pH values on BSF larvae production, development time, and adult longevity. The BSF were reared on artificial diet with initial pH of 2...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324038/the-evolution-and-metamorphosis-of-arthropod-proteomics-and-genomics
#3
Judith H Willis
This article presents an overview of the development of techniques for analyzing cuticular proteins (CPs), their transcripts, and their genes over the past 50 years based primarily on experience in the laboratory of J.H. Willis. It emphasizes changes in the kind of data that can be gathered and how such data provided insights into the molecular underpinnings of insect metamorphosis and cuticle structure. It describes the techniques that allowed visualization of the location of CPs at both the anatomical and intracuticular levels and measurement of the appearance and deployment of transcripts from CP genes as well as what was learned from genomic and transcriptomic data...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323886/bisphenol-f-disrupts-thyroid-hormone-signaling-and-postembryonic-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#4
Min Zhu, Xiaoying Chen, Yuanyuan Li, Nuoya Yin, Francesco Faiola, Zhanfen Qin, Wuji Wei
The safety of bisphenol A (BPA) alternatives has attracted much attention due to their wide use. In this study, we investigated the effects of bisphenol F (BPF), an alternative to BPA, on thyroid hormone (TH) signaling and postembryonic development in vertebrates using T3-induced and spontaneous Xenopus metamorphosis as models. We found that in the T3-induced metamorphosis assay, higher concentrations of BPF (100-10000 nM) antagonized T3-induced TH-response gene transcription and morphological changes including intestinal remodeling in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas 10 nM BPF exerted stimulatory effects on T3-induced integral metamorphosis when inhibited T3-induced TH-response gene transcription, demonstrating TH signaling disrupting effects of BPF...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323148/reference-gene-identification-and-validation-for-quantitative-real-time-pcr-studies-in-developing-xenopus-laevis
#5
Bilal B Mughal, Michelle Leemans, Petra Spirhanzlova, Barbara Demeneix, Jean-Baptiste Fini
Reference genes are essential for gene expression analysis when using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Xenopus laevis is a popular amphibian model for studying vertebrate embryogenesis and development. Further, X. laevis is ideal for studying thyroid signaling due to its thyroid dependent metamorphosis, a stage comparable to birth in humans. When using PCR based studies, a primary concern is the choice of reference genes. Commonly used references are eef1a1, odc1, rpl8, and actnB, although there is a lack of ad hoc reference genes for X...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314423/kr%C3%A3-ppel-homologue-1-acts-as-a-repressor-and-an-activator-in-the-transcriptional-response-to-juvenile-hormone-in-adult-mosquitoes
#6
R Ojani, X Fu, T Ahmed, P Liu, J Zhu
Krüppel homologue 1 (Kr-h1) is a zinc finger transcription factor that is upregulated in insects by juvenile hormone (JH) in metamorphosis and adult reproduction. The molecular function of Kr-h1 in reproduction remains largely unknown. Here we report that AaKr-h1 functions as an important transcription regulator in adult female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The amount of AaKr-h1 protein increases with rising JH levels after adult emergence, reaches its peak at 48 h after eclosion, then decreases gradually and disappears after blood feeding...
January 4, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302575/professional-socialization-of-iranian-bsn-students-a-grounded-theory-study
#7
Mohammad Reza Dinmohammadi, Hamid Peyrovi, Neda Mehrdad
Introduction: Professional socialization is a critical aspect of nursing students' development, which begins with entry into the nursing program and continues when their professional practice begins. The aim of this study was to explore the socialization of Iranian BSN students in the nursing profession. Methods: An exploratory qualitative approach utilizing Straussian version of the grounded theory (1998) method was used. Individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 14 participants chosen from two large nursing schools in an urban area through purposive and theoretical sampling...
December 2017: Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301490/molecular-characterization-of-larval-development-from-fertilization-to-metamorphosis-in-a-reef-building-coral
#8
Marie E Strader, Galina V Aglyamova, Mikhail V Matz
BACKGROUND: Molecular mechanisms underlying coral larval competence, the ability of larvae to respond to settlement cues, determine their dispersal potential and are potential targets of natural selection. Here, we profiled competence, fluorescence and genome-wide gene expression in embryos and larvae of the reef-building coral Acropora millepora daily throughout 12 days post-fertilization. RESULTS: Gene expression associated with competence was positively correlated with transcriptomic response to the natural settlement cue, confirming that mature coral larvae are "primed" for settlement...
January 4, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299255/evolution-of-a-complex-phenotype-with-biphasic-ontogeny-contribution-of-development-versus-function-and-climatic-variation-to-skull-modularity-in-toads
#9
Monique Nouailhetas Simon, Gabriel Marroig
The theory of morphological integration and modularity predicts that if functional correlations among traits are relevant to mean population fitness, the genetic basis of development will be molded by stabilizing selection to match functional patterns. Yet, how much functional interactions actually shape the fitness landscape is still an open question. We used the anuran skull as a model of a complex phenotype for which we can separate developmental and functional modularity. We hypothesized that functional modularity associated to functional demands of the adult skull would overcome developmental modularity associated to bone origin at the larval phase because metamorphosis would erase the developmental signal...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288754/microrna-14-regulates-larval-development-time-in-bombyx-mori
#10
Zulian Liu, Lin Ling, Jun Xu, Baosheng Zeng, Yongping Huang, Peng Shang, Anjiang Tan
MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate multiple physiological processes including development and metamorphosis in insects. In the current study, we demonstrate that a conserved invertebrate miRNA-14 (miR-14) plays an important role in ecdysteroid regulated development in the silkworm Bombyx mori, a lepidopteran model insect. Ubiquitous transgenic overexpression of miR-14 using the GAL4/UAS system resulted in delayed silkworm larval development and smaller body size of larva and pupa with decrease in ecdysteriod titers...
December 27, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281657/indoles-induce-metamorphosis-in-a-broad-diversity-of-jellyfish-but-not-in-a-crown-jelly-coronatae
#11
Rebecca R Helm, Casey W Dunn
Many animals go through one or more metamorphoses during their lives, however, the molecular underpinnings of metamorphosis across diverse species are not well understood. Medusozoa (Cnidaria) is a clade of animals with complex life cycles, these life cycles can include a polyp stage that metamorphoses into a medusa (jellyfish). Medusae are produced through a variety of different developmental mechanisms-in some species polyps bud medusae (Hydrozoa), in others medusae are formed through polyp fission (Scyphozoa), while in others medusae are formed through direct transformation of the polyp (Cubozoa)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280071/distribution-and-reproductive-plasticity-of-gyrinicola-batrachiensis-oxyuroidea-pharyngodonidae-in-tadpoles-of-five-anuran-species
#12
Chelcie C Pierce, Ryan P Shannon, Matthew G Bolek
Previous studies on Gyrinicola batrachiensis indicate that these pinworms have distinct reproductive strategies dependent on the development time to metamorphosis of their anuran tadpole hosts. In tadpoles of amphibian species with short developmental periods (a few weeks), female nematodes reproduce parthenogenetically, and only produce thick-shelled eggs used as transmission agents from tadpole to tadpole. In contrast, nematodes in tadpoles with longer larval developmental periods (months to years) reproduce by haplodiploidy, and females produce thick-shelled as well as autoinfective thin-shelled eggs...
December 26, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275000/the-metamorphosis-of-adolescent-hormonal-stress-reactivity-a-focus-on-animal-models
#13
REVIEW
Russell D Romeo
As adolescents transition from childhood to adulthood, many physiological and neurobehavioral changes occur. Shifts in neuroendocrine function are one such change, including the hormonal systems that respond to stressors. This review will focus on these hormonal changes, with a particular emphasis on the pubertal and adolescent maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Furthermore, this review will concentrate on studies using animal models, as these model systems have contributed a great deal to our mechanistic understanding of how factors such as sex and experience with stress shape hormonal reactivity during development...
December 21, 2017: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248578/identification-of-a-fish-short-chain-dehydrogenase-reductase-associated-with-bone-metabolism
#14
Joana Rosa, Cymon J Cox, M Leonor Cancela, Vincent Laizé
Although human and mouse genetics have largely contributed to the better understanding of the mechanisms underlying skeletogenesis, much more remains to be uncovered. In this regard alternative and complementary systems have been sought and cell systems capable of in vitro calcification have been developed to study the mechanisms underlying bone formation. In gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a gene coding for an unknown protein that is strongly up-regulated during extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization of a pre-osteoblast cell line was recently identified as a potentially important player in bone formation...
December 14, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247380/utilizing-mass-spectrometry-imaging-to-map-the-thyroid-hormones-triiodothyronine-and-thyroxine-in-xenopus-tropicalis-tadpoles
#15
Naoko Goto-Inoue, Tomohiko Sato, Mizuki Morisasa, Akihiko Kashiwagi, Keiko Kashiwagi, Yuki Sugiura, Eiji Sugiyama, Makoto Suematsu, Tsukasa Mori
Thyroid hormones are not only responsible for thermogenesis and energy metabolism in animals, but also have an important role in cell differentiation and development. Amphibian metamorphosis provides an excellent model for studying the remodeling of the body. This metamorphic organ remodeling is induced by thyroid hormones, and a larval body is thus converted into an adult one. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry (MS) imaging technology is expected to be a suitable tool for investigating small bioreactive molecules...
December 15, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245502/early-ontogeny-of-i-tatia-neivai-i-ihering-1930-osteichthyes-auchenipteridae-a-small-catfish-from-neotropical-region
#16
Joyce Andreia Dos Santos, Regina Meneguetti Passos, Angelo Antonio Agostinho, Andréa Bialetzki
The early development of Tatia neivai (Ihering 1930) was analyzed (i) to characterize its morphological, morphometric and meristic development; and (ii) to examine its possible ontogenic variation as a result of the development of structures and organs necessary for survival. Samples were collected in the Baía River, basin Paraná River, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, between February 1999 and April 2000. After identification, the specimens were separated according to notochord development, and the morphometric and meristic characters were measured and counted...
November 24, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242196/a-novel-assessment-of-the-traction-forces-upon-settlement-of-two-typical-marine-fouling-invertebrates-using-pdms-micropost-arrays
#17
Kang Xiao, Wen-Bin Cao, Cu-Huang Rong, Lian-Guo Chen, Xiao-Xue Yang, Wei-Jia Wen, Pei-Yuan Qian, Zhang-Li Hu, Ying Xu, Yu Zhang
Marine biofouling poses a severe threat to maritime and aquaculture industries. To prevent the attachment of marine biofouling organisms on man-made structures, countless cost and effort were spent annually. In particular, most attention has been paid on the development of efficient and environmentally friendly fouling-resistant coatings, as well as larval settlement mechanism of several major biofouling invertebrates. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropost arrays were utilized as the settlement substrata and opposite tractions were identified during early settlement of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina The settling A...
December 14, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230627/effect-of-pollen-extract-supplementation-on-the-varroatosis-tolerance-of-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-larvae-reared-in-vitro
#18
Vincent Piou, Jérémy Tabart, Jean-Louis Hemptinne, Angélique Vétillard
As the main source of lipids and proteins in honey bees, pollen is a major nutrient provider involved in development and health and has been studied for tolerance stimulation against pathogens and parasites. In the case of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari, Mesostigmata: Varroidae) parasitization, the lack of a complete laboratory system to rear both the bee larva and the acarian parasite limited the studies concerning larval nutrition effects on the bee tolerance and resistance against varroatosis...
December 11, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224041/identifying-and-monitoring-neurons-that-undergo-metamorphosis-regulated-cell-death-metamorphoptosis-by-a-neuron-specific-caspase-sensor-casor-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Gyunghee Lee, Jaeman Kim, Yujin Kim, Siuk Yoo, Jae H Park
Activation of caspases is an essential step toward initiating apoptotic cell death. During metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, many larval neurons are programmed for elimination to establish an adult central nervous system (CNS) as well as peripheral nervous system (PNS). However, their neuronal functions have remained mostly unknown due to the lack of proper tools to identify them. To obtain detailed information about the neurochemical phenotypes of the doomed larval neurons and their timing of death, we generated a new GFP-based caspase sensor (Casor) that is designed to change its subcellular position from the cell membrane to the nucleus following proteolytic cleavage by active caspases...
December 9, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223282/the-hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid-axis-and-biological-rhythms-the-discovery-of-tsh-s-unexpected-role-using-animal-models
#20
REVIEW
Keisuke Ikegami, Takashi Yoshimura
Thyroid hormones (TH) are important for development, growth, and metabolism. It is also clear that the synthesis and secretion of TH are regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Animal models have helped advance our understanding of the roles and regulatory mechanisms of TH. The animals' bodies develop through coordinated timing of cell division and differentiation. Studies of frog metamorphosis led to the discovery of TH and their role in development. However, to adapt to rhythmic environmental changes, animals also developed various endocrine rhythms...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
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