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Shweta Arora, Kapil Dev, Beamon Agarwal, Pragnya Das, Mansoor Ali Syed
Macrophages, circulating in the blood or concatenated into different organs and tissues constitute the first barrier against any disease. They are foremost controllers of both innate and acquired immunity, healthy tissue homeostasis, vasculogenesis and congenital metabolism. Two hallmarks of macrophages are diversity and plasticity due to which they acquire a wobbling array of phenotypes. These phenotypes are appropriately synchronized responses to a variety of different stimuli from either the tissue microenvironment or - microbes or their products...
November 12, 2017: Immunobiology
Silvia Messinetti, Silvia Mercurio, Marco Parolini, Michela Sugni, Roberta Pennati
Nowadays, microplastics represent one of the main threats to marine ecosystems, being able to affect organisms at different stages of their life cycle and at different levels of the food web. Although the presence of plastic debris has been reported in different habitats and the ability to ingest it has been confirmed for different taxa, few studies have been performed to elucidate the effects on survival and development of marine animals. Thus, we explored the effects of different environmental concentrations of polystyrene microbeads on the early stages of two invertebrate species widespread in the Mediterranean shallow waters: the pelagic planktotrophic pluteus larvae of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the filter-feeding sessile juveniles of the ascidian Ciona robusta...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Isabella Buttino, Valentina Vitiello, Simona Macchia, Alice Scuderi, David Pellegrini
The copepod Acartia tonsa was used as a model species to assess marine sediment quality. Acute and chronic bioassays, such as larval development ratio (LDR) and different end-points were evaluated. As a pelagic species, A. tonsa is mainly exposed to water-soluble toxicants and bioassays are commonly performed in seawater. However, an interaction among A. tonsa eggs and the first larval stages with marine sediments might occur in shallow water environments. Here we tested two different LDR protocols by incubating A...
November 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jutshina Hota, Sushri Sangita Pati, Pravati Kumari Mahapatra
Spinal cord injury could be fatal in man and often results in irreversible medical conditions affecting mobility. However, anuran amphibians win over such pathological condition by the virtue of regeneration abilities. The tail of anuran tadpoles therefore allures researchers to study spinal cord injury and self- repair process. In the present study, we inflicted injury to the spinal cord by means of surgical transection of the tail and investigated the self-repair activity in the tadpoles of the Indian tree frog Polypedates maculatus...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Laura R Tessier, Tristan A F Long, Michael P Wilkie
Invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are controlled in the Great Lakes using the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), which is applied to streams infested with larval lamprey. However, lamprey that survive treatments (residuals) remain a challenge because they may subsequently undergo metamorphosis into parasitic juvenile animals that migrate downstream to the Great Lakes, where they feed on important sport and commercial fishes. The goal of this study was to determine if body size and life stage could potentially influence sea lamprey tolerance to TFM by influencing patterns of TFM uptake and elimination...
October 28, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
K Zhang, C Li, X Weng, J Su, L Shen, G Pan, D Long, A Zhao, H Cui
Haemocytes play crucial roles in insect metabolism, metamorphosis, and innate immunity. As a model of lepidopteran insects, the silkworm is a useful model to study the functions of both haematopoiesis and haemocytes. Tissue-specific promoters are excellent tools for genetic manipulation and are widely used in fundamental biological research. Herein, two haemocyte-specific genes, Integrin β2 and Integrin β3, were confirmed. Promoter activities of Integrin β2 and Integrin β3 were evaluated by genetic manipulation...
November 13, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
Keisuke Nakajima, Ichiro Tazawa, Yoshio Yaoita
Thyroid hormone (TH) binds TH receptor alpha (TRα) and beta (TRβ) receptors to induce amphibian metamorphosis. Whereas TH signalling has been well studied, functional differences between TRα and TRβ during this process have not been characterized. To understand how each TR contributes to metamorphosis, we generated TRα- and TRβ-knockout tadpoles of Xenopus tropicalis and examined developmental abnormalities, histology of the tail and intestine, and mRNA expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzymes...
November 3, 2017: Endocrinology
Kerrianne Ryan, Zhiuyan Lu, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Physical and chemical cues from the environment are used to direct animal behaviour through a complex network of connections originating in exteroceptors. In chordates, mechanosensory and chemosensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) must signal to the motor circuits of the central nervous system (CNS) through a series of pathways that integrate and regulate the output to motor neurons; ultimately these drive contraction of the tail and limb muscles. We used serial-section electron microscopy to reconstruct PNS neurons and their hitherto unknown synaptic networks in the tadpole larva of a sibling chordate, the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Ana Fernandez-Nicolas, Xavier Belles
The role of juvenile hormone (JH) in insect embryos is a mystery, especially in short germ-band hemimetabolan species. To shed light on this mystery, we depleted the mRNA levels of Kruppel homolog 1, Methoprene tolerant and JH acid O-methyltransferase, key elements of JH signaling, in embryos of the short germ-band hemimetabolan species Blattella germanica This precluded the formation of the germ-band anlage in a group of embryos. Hatchability was also reduced, which may have been due to premature upregulation of laccase 2, a promoter of cuticle tanning...
November 9, 2017: Development
Silke Rothenbusch-Fender, Katharina Fritzen, Maik C Bischoff, Detlev Buttgereit, Susanne F Oenel, Renate Renkawitz-Pohl
During Drosophila metamorphosis, nascent testis myotubes migrate from the prospective seminal vesicle of the genital disc onto pupal testes and then further to cover the testes with multinucleated smooth-like muscles. Here we show that DWnt2 is likely required for determination of testis-relevant myoblasts on the genital disc. Knock down of FGFR Heartless by RNAi and a dominant-negative version revealed multiple functions of Heartless, namely regulation of the amount of myoblasts on the genital disc, connection of seminal vesicles and testes, and migration of muscles along the testes...
November 9, 2017: Biology Open
Qiangqiang Jia, Suning Liu, Di Wen, Yongxu Cheng, William G Bendena, Jian Wang, Sheng Li
Tissue remodeling is a crucial process in animal development and disease progression. Coordinately controlled by the two main insect hormones, juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), tissues are remodeled context-specifically during insect metamorphosis. We previously discovered that two matrix metalloproteinases (Mmps) cooperatively induce fat body cell dissociation in Drosophila. However, the molecular events involved in this Mmps-mediated dissociation are unclear. Here we report that JH and 20E coordinately and precisely control the developmental timing of Mmps-induced fat body cell dissociation...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Mahmoud A Awara, Hamdy F Moselhy, Manal O Elnenaei
BACKGROUND: The delusional misidentification syndromes (DMS) include a myriad of discrete but related syndromes, which have wide spectrum anomalies of familiarity. Several misidentification syndromes have been described in the psychiatric literature, the most common of these delusions are: the Capgras syndrome; the Fregoli syndrome; the syndrome of inter-metamorphosis; reduplicative paramnesia; and environmental reduplication. CASE PRESENTATION: The reported case highlights the emergence of late onset first episode psychosis in a Middle Eastern 65-year-old female who has no previous psychiatric history...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
Nedim T Uuml Z Uuml N, Robby Stoks
Current ecological risk assessment of pesticides fails to protect aquatic biodiversity. For the first time, we tested two potential reasons for this failure with regard to carry-over effects across metamorphosis: their dependence on hatching period, and the lack of studies quantifying adult fitness under seminatural conditions. Using the damselfly Coenagrion puella sampled from six populations, we designed an outdoor longitudinal one-year study starting from the egg stage. We exposed the aquatic larvae to the pesticide esfenvalerate (0...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Yasunori Sasakura, Akiko Hozumi
The representative characteristic of ascidians is their vertebrate-like, tadpole shape at the larval stage. Ascidians lose the tadpole shape through metamorphosis to become adults with a nonmotile, sessile body and a shape generally considered distinct from that of vertebrates. Solitary ascidians including Ciona species are extensively studied to understand the developmental mechanisms of ascidians, and to compare these mechanisms with their counterparts in vertebrates. In these ascidian species, the digestive and circulatory systems are not well developed in the larval trunk and the larvae do not take food...
November 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Falin Zhou, Kaimin Zhou, Jianhua Huang, Qibin Yang, Song Jiang, Lihua Qiu, Lishi Yang, Shigui Jiang
Chitinases are crucial enzymes for crustaceans. Previous researches had already revealed that chitinases play important roles in digestion, molting and defense against viruses. In the present study, a chitinase cDNA was identified from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and designated as PmChi-5. The full-length PmChi-5 cDNA was 2860 bp in size, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 1731 bp that encoded a protein of 576 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 64.8 kDa. Expression of the PmChi-5 mRNA was ubiquitously detected in all selected tissues, with the highest level in the gill and hepatopancreas...
October 31, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yuhui Zhang, Xinyi Li, Jinshu Gao, Hongyuan Wang
In the present study, responses of the Chinese brown frog (Rana chensinensis) to exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a common plasticizer, during the larval period were characterized. The effects of DEHP on metamorphosis rate, thyroid hormone, thyroid histology and the expression of genes involved in the steroid hormone synthesis in gonad were investigated. Metamorphosis rate and 50 percent of the tadpoles to reach Gosner stage 42 (T0.5 ) were significantly slower in all DEHP groups. The thyroid glands of the tadpoles exposed to DEHP clearly exhibited colloid depletion...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Lucas J Kirschman, Erica J Crespi, Robin W Warne
1.Ubiquitous environmental stressors are often thought to alter animal susceptibility to pathogens and contribute to disease emergence. However, duration of exposure to a stressor is likely critical, because while chronic stress is often immunosuppressive, acute stress can temporarily enhance immune function. Furthermore, host susceptibility to stress and disease often varies with ontogeny; increasing during critical developmental windows. How the duration and timing of exposure to stressors interact to shape critical windows and influence disease processes is not well tested...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Matthew D Patmann, Leena H Shewade, Katelin A Schneider, Daniel R Buchholz
The procedures described here apply to Xenopus tadpoles from the beginning of feeding through the major changes of metamorphosis and are appropriate for downstream postoperative snap freezing for molecular analysis, fixation for histological analysis, and sterile organ culture. To the uninitiated, the most difficult aspects of tadpole tissue dissections are likely knowing the appearance and location of organs, and the difficulty manipulating and holding tadpoles in place to carry out the oftentimes fine and precise dissections...
November 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Guillaume Holzer, Marc Besson, Anne Lambert, Loïc François, Paul Barth, Benjamin Gillet, Sandrine Hughes, Gwenaël Piganeau, Francois Leulier, Laurent Viriot, David Lecchini, Vincent Laudet
Larval recruitment, the transition of pelagic larvae into reef-associated juveniles, is a critical step for the resilience of marine fish populations but its molecular control is unknown. Here, we investigate whether thyroid-hormones (TH) and their receptors (TR) coordinate the larval recruitment of the coral-reef-fish Acanthurus triostegus. We demonstrate an increase of TH-levels and TR-expressions in pelagic-larvae, followed by a decrease in recruiting juveniles. We generalize these observations in four other coral reef-fish species...
October 30, 2017: ELife
Chan Lin, Thomas W Cronin
The compound eyes of adult stomatopod crustaceans have two to six ommatidial rows at the equator, called the midband, that are often specialized for color and polarization vision. Beneath the retina, this midband specialization is represented as enlarged optic lobe lamina cartridges and a hernia-like expansion in the medulla. We studied how the optic lobe transforms from the larvae, which possess typical crustacean larval compound eyes without a specialized midband, through metamorphosis into the adults with the midband in a two midband-row species Alima pacifica...
October 30, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
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