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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928507/life-history-linked-to-immune-investment-in-developing-amphibians
#1
Douglas C Woodhams, Sara C Bell, Laurent Bigler, Richard M Caprioli, Pierre Chaurand, Brianna A Lam, Laura K Reinert, Urs Stalder, Victoria M Vazquez, Klaus Schliep, Andreas Hertz, Louise A Rollins-Smith
The broad diversity of amphibian developmental strategies has been shaped, in part, by pathogen pressure, yet trade-offs between the rate of larval development and immune investment remain poorly understood. The expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in skin secretions is a crucial defense against emerging amphibian pathogens and can also indirectly affect host defense by influencing the composition of skin microbiota. We examined the constitutive or induced expression of AMPs in 17 species at multiple life-history stages...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927101/development-of-erythroid-progenitors-under-erythropoietin-stimulation-in-xenopus-laevis-larval-liver
#2
Takehito Okui, Sakiko Hosozawa, Satoka Kohama, Shingo Fujiyama, Shun Maekawa, Hiroshi Muto, Takashi Kato
Erythroid progenitors that respond to erythropoietin (Epo) are present in the liver of adult Xenopus laevis. However, cells responding to Epo in the larval liver and through the metamorphosis period under hepatic remodeling have not been characterized. In this study, tadpoles were staged using the tables of Nieuwkoop and Faber (NF). Liver cells from pre- (NF56) or post- (NF66) metamorphic stage were cultured in the presence of Epo. β2-globin mRNA expression peaked at day 7 after the start of culture. Larval β2-globin was highly expressed in NF56-derived cells, while adult β2-globinwas detected in those of NF66...
December 2016: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918537/the-genome-and-transcriptome-of-japanese-flounder-provide-insights-into-flatfish-asymmetry
#3
Changwei Shao, Baolong Bao, Zhiyuan Xie, Xinye Chen, Bo Li, Xiaodong Jia, Qiulin Yao, Guillermo Ortí, Wenhui Li, Xihong Li, Kristin Hamre, Juan Xu, Lei Wang, Fangyuan Chen, Yongsheng Tian, Alex M Schreiber, Na Wang, Fen Wei, Jilin Zhang, Zhongdian Dong, Lei Gao, Junwei Gai, Takashi Sakamoto, Sudong Mo, Wenjun Chen, Qiong Shi, Hui Li, Yunji Xiu, Yangzhen Li, Wenteng Xu, Zhiyi Shi, Guojie Zhang, Deborah M Power, Qingyin Wang, Manfred Schartl, Songlin Chen
Flatfish have the most extreme asymmetric body morphology of vertebrates. During metamorphosis, one eye migrates to the contralateral side of the skull, and this migration is accompanied by extensive craniofacial transformations and simultaneous development of lopsided body pigmentation. The evolution of this developmental and physiological innovation remains enigmatic. Comparative genomics of two flatfish and transcriptomic analyses during metamorphosis point to a role for thyroid hormone and retinoic acid signaling, as well as phototransduction pathways...
December 5, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896031/salinity-and-temperature-significantly-influence-seed-germination-seedling-establishment-and-seedling-growth-of-eelgrass-zostera-marina-l
#4
Shaochun Xu, Yi Zhou, Pengmei Wang, Feng Wang, Xiaomei Zhang, Ruiting Gu
Globally, seagrass beds have been recognized as critical yet declining coastal habitats. To mitigate seagrass losses, seagrass restorations have been conducted in worldwide over the past two decades. Seed utilization is considered to be an important approach in seagrass restoration efforts. In this study, we investigated the effects of salinity and temperature on seed germination, seedling establishment, and seedling growth of eelgrass Zostera marina L. (Swan Lake, northern China). We initially tested the effects of salinity (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 ppt) and water temperature (5, 10, 15, and 20 °C) on seed germination to identify optimal levels...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894417/oral-transfer-of-chemical-cues-growth-proteins-and-hormones-in-social-insects
#5
Adria C LeBoeuf, Patrice Waridel, Colin S Brent, Andre N Gonc Alves, Laure Menin, Daniel Ortiz, Oksana Riba-Grognuz, Akiko Koto, Zamira G Soares, Eyal Privman, Eric A Miska, Richard Benton, Laurent Keller
Social insects frequently engage in oral fluid exchange - trophallaxis - between adults, and between adults and larvae. Although trophallaxis is widely considered a food-sharing mechanism, we hypothesized that endogenous components of this fluid might underlie a novel means of chemical communication between colony members. Through protein and small- molecule mass spectrometry and RNA sequencing, we found that trophallactic fluid in the ant Camponotus floridanus contains a set of specific digestion- and non-digestion related proteins, as well as hydrocarbons, microRNAs, and a key developmental regulator, juvenile hormone...
November 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888195/remodeling-of-adhesion-and-modulation-of-mechanical-tensile-forces-during-apoptosis-in-drosophila-epithelium
#6
Xiang Teng, Lei Qin, Roland Le Borgne, Yusuke Toyama
Apoptosis is a mechanism of eliminating damaged or unnecessary cells during development and tissue homeostasis. During apoptosis within a tissue, the adhesions between dying and neighboring non-dying cells need to be remodeled so that the apoptotic cell is expelled. In parallel, the contraction of actomyosin cables formed in apoptotic and neighboring cells drive cell extrusion. To date, the coordination between the dynamics of cell adhesion and the progressive changes in tissue tension around an apoptotic cell is not fully understood...
November 25, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884275/50-years-ago-in-the-journal-of-pediatrics-familial-metabolic-disorder-with-fatty-metamorphosis-of-the-viscera
#7
Einar Thor Hafberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883064/the-microrna-toolkit-of-insects
#8
Guillem Ylla, Bastian Fromm, Maria-Dolors Piulachs, Xavier Belles
Is there a correlation between miRNA diversity and levels of organismic complexity? Exhibiting extraordinary levels of morphological and developmental complexity, insects are the most diverse animal class on earth. Their evolutionary success was in particular shaped by the innovation of holometabolan metamorphosis in endopterygotes. Previously, miRNA evolution had been linked to morphological complexity, but astonishing variation in the currently available miRNA complements of insects made this link unclear...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874071/an-ancient-role-for-nitric-oxide-in-regulating-the-animal-pelagobenthic-life-cycle-evidence-from-a-marine-sponge
#9
Nobuo Ueda, Gemma S Richards, Bernard M Degnan, Alexandrea Kranz, Maja Adamska, Roger P Croll, Sandie M Degnan
In many marine invertebrates, larval metamorphosis is induced by environmental cues that activate sensory receptors and signalling pathways. Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signalling molecule that regulates metamorphosis in diverse bilaterians. In most cases NO inhibits or represses this process, although it functions as an activator in some species. Here we demonstrate that NO positively regulates metamorphosis in the poriferan Amphimedon queenslandica. High rates of A. queenslandica metamorphosis normally induced by a coralline alga are inhibited by an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and by a NO scavenger...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870267/thyroid-hormone-induced-activation-of-notch-signaling-is-required-for-adult-intestinal-stem-cell-development-during-xenopus-laevis-metamorphosis
#10
Takashi Hasebe, Kenta Fujimoto, Mitsuko Kajita, Liezhen Fu, Yun-Bo Shi, Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka
In Xenopus laevis intestine during metamorphosis, the larval epithelial cells are removed by apoptosis, and the adult epithelial stem (AE) cells appear concomitantly. They proliferate and differentiate to form the adult epithelium (Ep). Thyroid hormone (TH) is well established to trigger this remodeling by regulating the expression of various genes including Notch receptor. To study the role of Notch signaling, we have analyzed the expression of its components, including the ligands (DLL and Jag), receptor (Notch), and targets (Hairy), in the metamorphosing intestine by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry...
November 21, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870032/warm-vegetarians-heat-waves-and-diet-shifts-in-tadpoles
#11
B M Carreira, P Segurado, G Orizaola, N Gonçalves, V Pinto, A Laurila, R Rebelo
Temperature can play an important role in determining the feeding preferences of ectotherms. In light of the warmer temperatures arising with the current climatic changes, omnivorous ectotherms may perform diet shifts toward higher herbivory to optimize energetic intake. Such diet shifts may also occur during heat waves, which are projected to become more frequent, intense, and longer lasting in the future. Here, we investigated how heat waves of different duration affect feeding preferences in omnivorous anuran tadpoles and how these choices affect larval life history...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868467/k-channel-reorganization-and-homeostatic-plasticity-during-postembryonic-development-biophysical-and-genetic-analyses-in-acutely-dissociated-drosophila-central-neurons
#12
Taixiang Saur, I-Feng Peng, Peng Jiang, Neng Gong, Wei-Dong Yao, Tian-Le Xu, Chun-Fang Wu
Intrinsic electric activities of neurons play important roles in establishing and refining neural circuits during development. However, how the underlying ionic currents undergo postembryonic reorganizations remains largely unknown. Using acutely dissociated neurons from larval, pupal, and adult Drosophila brains, we show drastic re-assemblies and compensatory regulations of voltage-gated (IKv) and Ca(2+)-activated (IK(Ca)) K(+ )currents during postembryonic development. Larval and adult neurons displayed prominent fast-inactivating IKv, mediated by the Shaker (Sh) channel to a large extent, while in the same neurons IK(Ca) was far smaller in amplitude...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863794/biotransfer-of-cd-along-a-soil-plant-mealybug-ladybird-food-chain-a-comparison-with-host-plants
#13
Xingmin Wang, Can Zhang, Baoli Qiu, Umair Ashraf, Rashid Azad, Jianhui Wu, Shaukat Ali
Agro-ecosystem contamination by the heavy metals present in different agricultural products is a serious challenge faced by the living organisms. This study explains the cadmium (Cd) transfer from soils contaminated with different cadmium concentrations through a plant (eggplant and tomato) - mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes) - predator (Cryptolaemus-montrouzieri) food chain. The soils were amended with Cd at the rates of 0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg (w/w). Our findings showed that considerably higher Cd transfer through tomato plant...
November 15, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861562/digitor-dasciz-has-multiple-roles-in-drosophila-development
#14
Saheli Sengupta, Uttama Rath, Changfu Yao, Michael Zavortink, Chao Wang, Jack Girton, Kristen M Johansen, Jørgen Johansen
In this study we provide evidence that the spindle matrix protein Skeletor in Drosophila interacts with the human ASCIZ (also known as ATMIN and ZNF822) ortholog, Digitor/dASCIZ. This interaction was first detected in a yeast two-hybrid screen and subsequently confirmed by pull-down assays. We also confirm a previously documented function of Digitor/dASCIZ as a regulator of Dynein light chain/Cut up expression. Using transgenic expression of a mCitrine-labeled Digitor construct, we show that Digitor/dASCIZ is a nuclear protein that is localized to interband and developmental puff chromosomal regions during interphase but redistributes to the spindle region during mitosis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853591/a-newly-identified-left-right-asymmetry-in-larval-sea-urchins
#15
Jason Hodin, Keegan Lutek, Andreas Heyland
Directional asymmetry (DA) in body form is a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants alike, and a functional understanding of such asymmetries can offer insights into the ways in which ecology and development interface to drive evolution. Echinoids (sea urchins, sand dollars and their kin) with planktotrophic development have a bilaterally symmetrical feeding pluteus larva that undergoes a dramatic metamorphosis into a pentameral juvenile that enters the benthos at settlement. The earliest stage of this transformation involves a DA: a left-side invagination in mid-stage larvae leads to the formation of the oral field of the juvenile via a directionally asymmetric structure called the echinus rudiment...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843935/differential-gene-expression-during-larval-metamorphic-development-in-the-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata-based-on-transcriptome-analysis
#16
Haimei Li, Bo Zhang, Guiju Huang, Baosuo Liu, Sigang Fan, Dongling Zhang, Dahui Yu
P. fucata experiences a series of transformations in appearance, from swimming larvae to sessile juveniles, during which significant changes in gene expression likely occur. Thus, P. fucata could be an ideal model in which to study the molecular mechanisms of larval metamorphosis during development in invertebrates. To study the molecular driving force behind metamorphic development in larvae of P. fucata, transcriptomes of five larval stages (trochophore, D-shape, umbonal, eyespots, and spats) were sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 system and assembled and characterized with the transcripts of six tissues...
2016: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833845/drosophila-ataxin-2-gene-encodes-two-differentially-expressed-isoforms-and-its-function-in-larval-fat-body-is-crucial-for-development-of-peripheral-tissues
#17
Murilo Carlos Bizam Vianna, Deise Cristina Poleto, Paula Fernanda Gomes, Valéria Valente, Maria Luisa Paçó-Larson
Different isoforms of ataxin-2 are predicted in Drosophila and may underlie different cellular processes. Here, we validated the isoforms B and C of Drosophila ataxin-2 locus (dAtx2), which we found to be expressed in various tissues and at different levels during development. dAtx2-B mRNA was detected at low amounts during all developmental stages, whereas dAtx2-C mRNA levels increase by eightfold from L3 to pupal-adult stages. Higher amounts of dAtx2-B protein were detected in embryos, while dAtx2-C protein was also expressed in higher levels in pupal-adult stages, indicating post-transcriptional control for isoform B and transcription induction for isoform C, respectively...
November 2016: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824915/detritus-quality-and-locality-determines-survival-and-mass-but-not-export-of-wood-frogs-at-metamorphosis
#18
Joseph R Milanovich, Kyle Barrett, John A Crawford
Single-site experiments have demonstrated detritus quality in wetlands can have strongly negative, neutral, and even positive influences on wildlife. However, an examination of the influence of detritus quality across several regions is lacking and can provide information on whether impacts from variation in detritus quality are consistent across species with wide ranges. To address this gap in regional studies we examined effects of emergent and allochthonous detritus of different nutrient qualities on amphibians and assessed a mechanism that may contribute to potential impacts...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820902/effects-of-embryonic-exposure-to-salinity-stress-or-hypoxia-on-post-metamorphic-growth-and-survival-of-the-polychaete-capitella-teleta
#19
Jan A Pechenik, Oscar R Chaparro, Aaron Pilnick, Melissa Karp, Michael Acquafredda, Robert Burns
Although a good number of studies have investigated the impact of larval experience on aspects of post-metamorphic performance, only a few have considered the potential impact of stresses experienced by brooded embryos. In this study we separately investigated the impact of salinity stress (as low as 10) and hypoxia (1 ml O2 l(-1)) experienced by brooded embryos of the deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella teleta on hatching success, metamorphosis, post-metamorphic survival, and post-metamorphic growth. Salinity reduction from 30 to 10 or 15 reduced relative hatching success, presumably by reducing embryonic survival, but generally had no negative latent effects on juvenile survival or growth...
October 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819717/wnt7b-gene-expression-and-functional-analysis-in-the-mussel-mytilus-coruscus
#20
Y F Xu, X Liang, Y R Chen, Y F Li, J L Yang
To understand the potential functions of Wnt7b in different developmental stages and adult tissues of the mussel Mytilus coruscus, the Wnt7b gene was cloned using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The full-length Wnt7b gene was 1910 bp long, with a 1059-bp open reading frame encoding 352 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of the M. coruscus Wnt7b gene shared high homology with that of Homo sapiens (59%), Mus musculus (61%), Danio rerio (61% similarity), Biomphalaria glabrata (62% similarity), Aplysia californica (66% similarity), and Crassostrea gigas (74%)...
November 3, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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