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Sebastian Overmans, Mikaela Nordborg, Rubén Díaz-Rúa, Diane L Brinkman, Andrew P Negri, Susana Agustí
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic carbons (PAHs) poses a growing risk to coral reefs due to increasing shipping and petroleum extraction in tropical waters. Damaging effects of specific PAHs can be further enhanced by the presence of ultraviolet radiation, known as phototoxicity. We tested phototoxic effects of the PAHs anthracene and phenanthrene on larvae of the scleractinian coral Acropora tenuis in the presence and absence of UVA (320-400 nm). Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme was reduced by anthracene while phenanthrene and UVA exposure did not have any effect...
March 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Do-Hwan Lim, Seungjae Lee, Jee Yun Han, Min-Seok Choi, Jae-Sang Hong, Youngmo Seong, Young-Soo Kwon, Young Sik Lee
The steroid hormone ecdysone has a central role in the developmental transitions of insects through its control of responsive protein-coding and microRNA (miRNA) gene expression. However, the complete regulatory network controlling the expression of these genes remains to be elucidated. In this study, we performed cross-linking immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing of endogenous Argonaute 1 (Ago1) protein, the core effector of the miRNA pathway, in Drosophila S2 cells. We found that regulatory interactions between miRNAs and their cognate targets were substantially altered by Ago1 in response to ecdysone signaling...
March 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Toshiyasu Matsui, Yasushi Kobayashi
We examined the organization of the olfactory organ and assessed the lectin histochemistry to investigate the glycoconjugate distribution of the olfactory bulb in premetamorphic larvae of Cynops ensicauda. The nasal cavity was an oval chamber that contained olfactory epithelium and a primitive vomeronasal organ. Secretory products were found in the supporting cells of the two sensory epithelia and in the respiratory cells. Ten lectins bound to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerve fibers as well as to the glomeruli in the olfactory bulb...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Ladislav Bocak, Michal Motyka, Matej Bocek, Milada Bocakova
The relationships of the monogeneric family Plastoceridae Crowson, 1972 (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) have remained contentious due to its modified morphology, incorrect information on incomplete metamorphosis of females and the absence of molecular data. We produced the sequences for P. angulosus (Germar, 1844) (the type-species of Plastocerus Schaum, 1852) and performed molecular phylogenetic analyses to estimate its position. The analyses of Elateroidea (186 spp.) and Elateridae (110 spp.) molecular datasets of two mitochondrial and two nuclear gene fragments repeatedly placed Plastocerus Schaum, 1852 in relationships with the elaterid genera Oxynopterus Hope, 1842 and Pectocera Hope, 1842...
2018: PloS One
N Fukuda, H Kurogi, D Ambe, S Chow, T Yamamoto, K Yokouchi, A Shinoda, Y Masuda, M Sekino, K Saitoh, M Masujima, T Watanabe, N Mochioka, H Kuwada
This study clarifies the location, size and age at the onset of metamorphosis in Japanese eels Anguilla japonica through oceanic surveys, rearing experiments and analyses of the morphology and otoliths of leptocephali and glass eels. Twenty-eight metamorphosing leptocephali were collected in the mesoscale eddy region to the east of Taiwan during research expeditions in 2004. Rearing experiments showed that the total length (LT ) of leptocephali decreased by an average of 12·5% during metamorphosis and 13·9% during the 2-12 h after death...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Ellen A G Chernoff, Kazuna Sato, Hai V N Salfity, Deborah A Sarria, Teri Belecky-Adams
The differentiated state of spinal cord ependymal cells in regeneration-competent amphibians varies between a constitutively active state in what is essentially a developing organism, the tadpole of the frog Xenopus laevis , and a quiescent, activatable state in a slowly growing adult salamander Ambystoma mexicanum , the Axolotl. Ependymal cells are epithelial in intact spinal cord of all vertebrates. After transection, body region ependymal epithelium in both Xenopus and the Axolotl disorganizes for regenerative outgrowth (gap replacement)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Barbara K Zajac, Jens Amendt, Marcel A Verhoff, Richard Zehner
Determining the age of juvenile blow flies is one of the key tasks of forensic entomology when providing evidence for the minimum post mortem interval. While the age determination of blow fly larvae is well established using morphological parameters, the current study focuses on molecular methods for estimating the age of blow flies during the metamorphosis in the pupal stage, which lasts about half the total juvenile development. It has already been demonstrated in several studies that the intraspecific variance in expression of so far used genes in blow flies is often too high to assign a certain expression level to a distinct age, leading to an inaccurate prediction...
March 9, 2018: Genes
Reut Hilu-Dadia, Ketty Hakim-Mishnaevski, Flonia Levy-Adam, Estee Kurant
Development of the central nervous system involves elimination of superfluous neurons through apoptosis and subsequent phagocytosis. In Drosophila, this occurs mainly during three developmental stages: embryogenesis, metamorphosis and emerging adult. Two transmembrane glial phagocytic receptors, SIMU (homolog of the mammalian Stabilin-2) and Draper (homolog of the mammalian MEGF10 and Jedi), mediate glial phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons during embryogenesis. However, less is known about the removal of apoptotic neurons during later stages of development...
March 9, 2018: Glia
Keegan Lutek, Rasmeet Singh Dhaliwal, Terence J Van Raay, Andreas Heyland
Settlement is a rapid process in many marine invertebrate species, transitioning a planktonic larva into a benthic juvenile. In indirectly developing sea urchins, this ecological transition correlates with a morphological, developmental and physiological transition (metamorphosis) during which apoptosis is essential for the resorption and remodelling of larval and juvenile structures. While settlement is initiated by environmental cues (i.e. habitat-specific or benthic substrate cues), metamorphosis is regulated by developmental endocrine signals, such as histamine (HA), thyroid hormones (THs) and nitric oxide (NO)...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cristina João, Vir Singh Negi, Michel D Kazatchkine, Jagadeesh Bayry, Srini V Kaveri
The immunoregulatory and anti-infective properties of normal circulating polyclonal Abs have been exploited for the therapeutic purposes in the form of IVIG as well as several hyperimmune globulins. Current knowledge on the therapeutic use of normal Igs is based on the discoveries made by several pioneers of the field. In this paper, we review the evolution of IVIG over the years. More importantly, the process started as an s.c. replacement in γ globulin-deficient patients, underwent metamorphosis into i.m...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
William D Constance, Amrita Mukherjee, Yvette E Fisher, Sinziana Pop, Eric Blanc, Yusuke Toyama, Darren W Williams
Building arborisations of the right size and shape is fundamental for neural network function. Live imaging in vertebrate brains strongly suggests that nascent synapses are critical for branch growth during development. The molecular mechanisms underlying this are largely unknown. Here we present a novel system in Drosophila for studying the development of complex arborisations live, in vivo during metamorphosis. In growing arborisations we see branch dynamics and localisations of presynaptic proteins very similar to the 'synaptotropic growth' described in fish/frogs...
March 5, 2018: ELife
Eugenia Sanchez, Eliane Küpfer, Daniel J Goedbloed, Arne W Nolte, Tim Lüddecke, Stefan Schulz, Miguel Vences, Sebastian Steinfartz
The postembryonic development of amphibians has been characterized as divided into three predominant periods, hereafter named primary developmental stages: premetamorphosis (PreM), prometamorphosis (ProM), metamorphic climax (Meta), and completion of metamorphosis (PostM), largely based on examination of anuran development. Here, we categorized the postembryonic development of larvae of a poisonous fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) by integrating morphology and gene expression (transcriptomic) data. Morphological analysis revealed three distinct clusters suggestive of PreM, ProM, and Meta, which were confirmed in parallel by microarray-derived gene expression analysis...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Michael Sievers, Kirsten M Parris, Stephen E Swearer, Robin Hale
Around cities, natural wetlands are rapidly being destroyed and replaced with wetlands constructed to treat stormwater. Although the intended purpose of these wetlands is to manage urban stormwater, they are inhabited by wildlife that might be exposed to contaminants. These effects will be exacerbated if animals are unable to differentiate between stormwater treatment wetlands of varying quality and some function as 'ecological traps' (i.e. habitats that animals prefer despite fitness being lower than in other habitats)...
March 1, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Blessan Santhosh George, S Silambarasan, K Senthil, John Prasanth Jacob, Modhumita Ghosh Dasgupta
Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins with wide array of functions including plant defense against pathogens and insect pests. In the present study, a putative mannose-binding lectin (WsMBP1) of 1124 bp was isolated from leaves of Withania somnifera. The gene was expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant WsMBP1 with a predicted molecular weight of 31 kDa was tested for its insecticidal properties against Hyblaea puera (Lepidoptera: Hyblaeidae) and Probergrothius sanguinolens (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae)...
February 28, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Mathieu Denoël
Paedomorphosis is an alternative process to metamorphosis in which adults retain larval traits at the adult stage. It is frequent in newts and salamanders, where larvae reach sexual maturity without losing their gills. However, in some populations, larvae overwinter in water, while remaining immature. These alternative ontogenetic processes are of particular interest in various research fields, but have different causes and consequences, as only paedomorphosis allows metamorphosis to be bypassed before maturity...
April 2017: Current Zoology
Xiaoming Zhang, Xiaozhuo Liu, Chengzhang Liu, Jiankai Wei, Haiyan Yu, Bo Dong
BACKGROUND: Metamorphosis takes place within the life cycle of most marine invertebrates. The marine ascidian is a classical model to study complex cellular processes and underlying molecular mechanisms involved in its larval metamorphosis. The detailed molecular signaling pathways remain elusive, though extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) have been revealed to regulate cell migration, differentiation, and apoptosis in ascidian larval organ regression and juvenile organ development...
March 1, 2018: BMC Genomics
Tatsuzo Nagai, Hisao Honda, Masahiko Takemura
The Drosophila wing exhibits a well-ordered cell pattern, especially along the posterior margin, where hair cells are arranged in a zigzag pattern in the lateral view. Based on an experimental result observed during metamorphosis of Drosophila, we considered that a pattern of initial cells autonomously develops to the zigzag pattern through cell differentiation, intercellular communication, and cell death (apoptosis) and performed computer simulations of a cell-based model of vertex dynamics for tissues. The model describes the epithelial tissue as a monolayer cell sheet of polyhedral cells...
February 27, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Daichi G Suzuki, Sten Grillner
Lampreys, which represent the oldest group of living vertebrates (cyclostomes), show unique eye development. The lamprey larva has only eyespot-like immature eyes beneath a non-transparent skin, whereas after metamorphosis, the adult has well-developed image-forming camera eyes. To establish a functional visual system, well-organised visual centres as well as motor components (e.g. trunk muscles for locomotion) and interactions between them are needed. Here we review the available knowledge concerning the structure, function and development of the different parts of the lamprey visual system...
February 28, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Xiao-Xue Yang, Yu Zhang, Yue-Him Wong, Pei-Yuan Qian
The larvae of many sessile marine invertebrates go through a settlement process, during which the planktonic larvae attach to a substrate and metamorphose into sessile juveniles. Larval attachment and metamorphosis (herein defined as "settlement") are complex processes mediated by many signaling pathways. Nitric oxide (NO) signaling is one of the pathways that inhibits larval settlement in marine invertebrates across different phyla. NO is synthesized by NO synthase (NOS), which is a client of molecular chaperon heat shock protein 90 (HSP90)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Yajuan Huang, Haishen Wen, Meizhao Zhang, Nan Hu, Yufeng Si, Siping Li, Feng He
Many genes related to muscle growth determine the proliferation of myoblasts, initiate myoblast differentiation and muscle hypertrophy. MyoD is a myogenic determination factor and contributes to myoblast determination, and IGF-I regulates muscle hypertrophy and muscle mass. MyoD interacted with IGF-I in regulating muscle hypertrophy and muscle mass. The aim of our study was to assess DNA methylation and mRNA expression patterns of MyoD and IGF-I during different developmental stages of Japanese flounder, and to examine the relationship between MyoD and IGF-I gene...
February 24, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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