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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913633/chemorepellent-semaphorin-3e-negatively-regulates-neutrophil-migration-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#1
Hesam Movassagh, Abeer Saati, Saravanan Nandagopal, Ashfaque Mohammed, Nazanin Tatari, Lianyu Shan, Jonathan S Duke-Cohan, Keith R Fowke, Francis Lin, Abdelilah S Gounni
Neutrophil migration is an essential step in leukocyte trafficking during inflammatory responses. Semaphorins, originally discovered as axon guidance cues in neural development, have been shown to regulate cell migration beyond the nervous system. However, the potential contribution of semaphorins in the regulation of neutrophil migration is not well understood. This study examines the possible role of a secreted chemorepellent, Semaphorin 3E (Sema3E), in neutrophil migration. In this study, we demonstrated that human neutrophils constitutively express Sema3E high-affinity receptor, PlexinD1...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911604/neutrophil-elastase-activity-is-associated-with-exacerbations-and-lung-function-decline-in-bronchiectasis
#2
James D Chalmers, Kelly L Moffitt, Guillermo Suarez-Cuartin, Oriol Sibila, Simon Finch, Elizabeth Furrie, Alison Dicker, Karolina Wrobel, J Stuart Elborn, Brian Walker, S Lorraine Martin, Sara E Marshall, Jeffrey T-J Huang, Thomas C Fardon
RATIONALE: Sputum neutrophil elastase and serum desmosine, a linked marker of endogenous elastin degradation, are possible biomarkers of disease severity and progression in bronchiectasis. This study aimed to determine the association of elastase activity and desmosine with exacerbations and lung function decline in bronchiectasis. METHODS: This was a single-centre prospective cohort study using the TAYBRIDGE registry in Dundee, UK. 433 patients with HRCT-confirmed bronchiectasis provided blood samples for desmosine measurement and 381 provided sputum for baseline elastase activity measurements using an activity based immunosassay and fluorometric substrate assay...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845343/directed-transport-of-neutrophil-derived-extracellular-vesicles-enables-platelet-mediated-innate-immune-response
#3
Jan Rossaint, Katharina Kühne, Jennifer Skupski, Hugo Van Aken, Mark R Looney, Andres Hidalgo, Alexander Zarbock
The innate immune response to bacterial infections requires the interaction of neutrophils and platelets. Here, we show that a multistep reciprocal crosstalk exists between these two cell types, ultimately facilitating neutrophil influx into the lung to eliminate infections. Activated platelets adhere to intravascular neutrophils through P-selectin/P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1)-mediated binding, a primary interaction that allows platelets glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα)-induced generation of neutrophil-derived extracellular vesicles (EV)...
November 15, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826293/assessing-marine-microbial-induced-corrosion-at-santa-catalina-island-california
#4
Gustavo A Ramírez, Colleen L Hoffman, Michael D Lee, Ryan A Lesniewski, Roman A Barco, Arkadiy Garber, Brandy M Toner, Charles G Wheat, Katrina J Edwards, Beth N Orcutt
High iron and eutrophic conditions are reported as environmental factors leading to accelerated low-water corrosion, an enhanced form of near-shore microbial induced corrosion. To explore this hypothesis, we deployed flow-through colonization systems in laboratory-based aquarium tanks under a continuous flow of surface seawater from Santa Catalina Island, CA, USA, for periods of 2 and 6 months. Substrates consisted of mild steel - a major constituent of maritime infrastructure - and the naturally occurring iron sulfide mineral pyrite...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818081/enhanced-sensitivity-of-neil1-mice-to-chronic-uvb-exposure
#5
Marcus J Calkins, Vladimir Vartanian, Nichole Owen, Guldal Kirkali, Pawel Jaruga, Miral Dizdaroglu, Amanda K McCullough, R Stephen Lloyd
Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced DNA base damage are thought to be central mediators of UV-induced carcinogenesis and skin aging. However, increased steady-state levels of ROS-induced DNA base damage have not been reported after chronic UV exposure. Accumulation of ROS-induced DNA base damage is governed by rates of lesion formation and repair. Repair is generally performed by Base Excision Repair (BER), which is initiated by DNA glycosylases, such as 8-oxoguanine glycosylase and Nei-Endonuclease VIII-Like 1 (NEIL1)...
October 28, 2016: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792201/preparation-characterization-and-activity-of-a-peptide-cellulosic-aerogel-protease-sensor-from-cotton
#6
J Vincent Edwards, Krystal R Fontenot, Nicolette T Prevost, Nicole Pircher, Falk Liebner, Brian D Condon
Nanocellulosic aerogels (NA) provide a lightweight biocompatible material with structural properties, like interconnected high porosity and specific surface area, suitable for biosensor design. We report here the preparation, characterization and activity of peptide-nanocellulose aerogels (PepNA) made from unprocessed cotton and designed with protease detection activity. Low-density cellulosic aerogels were prepared from greige cotton by employing calcium thiocyanate octahydrate/lithium chloride as a direct cellulose dissolving medium...
October 26, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746119/development-of-the-first-internally-quenched-fluorescent-substrates-of-human-cathepsin-c-the-application-in-the-enzyme-detection-in-biological-samples
#7
Monika Łęgowska, Yveline Hamon, Anna Wojtysiak, Renata Grzywa, Marcin Sieńczyk, Timo Burster, Brice Korkmaz, Adam Lesner
Cathepsin C is a widely expressed cysteine exopeptidase that is mostly recognized for the activation of the granule-associated proinflammatory serine proteases in neutrophils, cytotoxic T lymphocytes and mast cells. It has been shown that the enzyme can be secreted extracellularly; however, its occurrence in human bodily fluids/physiological samples has not been thoroughly studied. In the course of this study, the first fluorescence resonance energy transfer peptides for the measurement of the activity of human cathepsin C were designed and synthesized...
October 13, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726789/the-nadph-oxidase-and-microbial-killing-by-neutrophils-with-a-particular-emphasis-on-the-proposed-antimicrobial-role-of-myeloperoxidase-within-the-phagocytic-vacuole
#8
Adam P Levine, Anthony W Segal
This review is devoted to a consideration of the way in which the NADPH oxidase of neutrophils, NOX2, functions to enable the efficient killing of bacteria and fungi. It includes a critical examination of the current dogma that its primary purpose is the generation of hydrogen peroxide as substrate for myeloperoxidase-catalyzed generation of hypochlorite. Instead, it is demonstrated that NADPH oxidase functions to optimize the ionic and pH conditions within the vacuole for the solubilization and optimal activity of the proteins released into this compartment from the cytoplasmic granules, which kill and digest the microbes...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698010/circulating-soluble-il-6r-but-not-adam17-activation-drives-mononuclear-cell-migration-in-tissue-inflammation
#9
Neele Schumacher, Stefanie Schmidt, Jeanette Schwarz, Dana Dohr, Juliane Lokau, Jürgen Scheller, Christoph Garbers, Athena Chalaris, Stefan Rose-John, Björn Rabe
Neutrophil and mononuclear cell infiltration during inflammatory processes is highly regulated. The first cells at the site of infection or inflammation are neutrophils, followed by mononuclear cells. IL-6 plays an important role during inflammatory states. It has been shown in several models that the soluble form of IL-6R (sIL-6R) is involved in the recruitment of mononuclear cells by a mechanism called IL-6 trans-signaling. It had been speculated that sIL-6R was generated at the site of inflammation by shedding from neutrophils via activation of the metalloprotease ADAM17...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693468/parkin-regulates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-proinflammatory-responses-in-acute-lung-injury
#10
Eleftheria Letsiou, Saad Sammani, Huashan Wang, Patrick Belvitch, Steven M Dudek
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious condition resulting from direct or indirect lung injury that is associated with high mortality and morbidity. A key biological event in the pathogenesis of the acute lung injury (ALI) that causes acute respiratory distress syndrome is activation of the lung endothelium cells (ECs), which is triggered by a variety of inflammatory insults leading to barrier disruption and excessive accumulation of neutrophils. Recently, we demonstrated that imatinib protects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced EC activation by inhibiting c-Abl kinase...
September 13, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676391/the-role-of-neutrophil-proteins-on-the-amyloid-beta-rage-axis
#11
Amanda J Stock, Anne Kasus-Jacobi, Jonathan D Wren, Virginie H Sjoelund, Glenn D Prestwich, H Anne Pereira
We previously showed an elevated expression of the neutrophil protein, cationic antimicrobial protein of 37kDa (CAP37), in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), suggesting that CAP37 could be involved in AD pathogenesis. The first step in determining how CAP37 might contribute to AD pathogenesis was to identify the receptor through which it induces cell responses. To identify a putative receptor, we performed GAMMA analysis to determine genes that positively correlated with CAP37 in terms of expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648695/tranexamic-acid-attenuates-the-loss-of-lung-barrier-function-in-a-rat-model-of-polytrauma-and-hemorrhage-with-resuscitation
#12
Xiaowu Wu, Michael A Dubick, Martin G Schwacha, Andrew P Cap, Daniel N Darlington
INTRODUCTION: Severe trauma, hemorrhage and resuscitation can lead to a trauma related acute lung injury that involves rapid infiltration of immune cells and platelets. This infiltration involves exymatic degradation of matrix proteins, including plasmin, and causes loss of barrier function. Since tranexamic acid (TXA) inhibits plasminogen/ plasmin binding to target substrates, it may attenuate loss of barrier function after severe trauma, hemorrhage and resuscitation. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to polytrauma (laparotomy, and trauma to intestines, liver, right leg skeletal muscle and right femur fracture), then bled 40% of their blood volume...
September 19, 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642633/adam17-substrate-release-in-proximal-tubule-drives-kidney-fibrosis
#13
Eirini Kefaloyianni, Muthu Lakshmi Muthu, Jakob Kaeppler, Xiaoming Sun, Venkata Sabbisetti, Athena Chalaris, Stefan Rose-John, Eitan Wong, Irit Sagi, Sushrut S Waikar, Helmut Rennke, Benjamin D Humphreys, Joseph V Bonventre, Andreas Herrlich
Kidney fibrosis following kidney injury is an unresolved health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In a study into its molecular mechanism, we identified essential causative features. Acute or chronic kidney injury causes sustained elevation of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17); of its cleavage-activated proligand substrates, in particular of pro-TNFα and the EGFR ligand amphiregulin (pro-AREG); and of the substrates' receptors. As a consequence, EGFR is persistently activated and triggers the synthesis and release of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors, resulting in macrophage/neutrophil ingress and fibrosis...
August 18, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637877/peeking-under-the-iron-curtain-development-of-a-microcosm-for-imaging-the-colonization-of-steel-surfaces-by-mariprofundus-sp-strain-dis-1-an-oxygen-tolerant-fe-oxidizing-bacterium
#14
Adam C Mumford, Irini J Adaktylou, David Emerson
: Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is a major cause of damage to steel infrastructure in the marine environment. Despite their ability to grow directly on Fe(II) released from steel, comparatively little is known about the role played by neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). Recent work has shown that FeOB grow readily on mild steel (1018 MS) incubated in situ or as a substrate for pure cultures in vitro; however, details of how they colonize steel surfaces are unknown yet are important for understanding their effects...
November 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621809/intratracheal-myriocin-enhances-allergen-induced-th2-inflammation-and-airway-hyper-responsiveness
#15
Ramakrishna Edukulla, Kira Lee Rehn, Bo Liu, Jaclyn W McAlees, Gurjit K Hershey, Yui Hsi Wang, Ian Lewkowich, Andrew W Lindsley
INTRODUCTION: Ceramide is the central substrate of sphingolipid metabolism and plays a key role in cellular signal transduction pathways, regulating apoptosis, differentiation, and chemotaxis. Alterations in airway ceramide levels are observed in multiple pulmonary diseases and recent human genetic association studies have linked dysregulation of sphingolipid regulatory genes with asthma pathogenesis. METHODS: Utilizing myriocin, a potent inhibitor of sphingolipid synthesis, we evaluated the immune regulatory role of de novo ceramide generation in vitro and in vivo...
September 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599938/streptococcus-iniae-cpsg-alters-capsular-carbohydrate-composition-and-is-a-cause-of-serotype-switching-in-vaccinated-fish
#16
Candice Heath, Christine M Gillen, Panagiotis Chrysanthopoulos, Mark J Walker, Andrew C Barnes
Streptococcus iniae causes septicaemia and meningitis in marine and freshwater fish wherever they are farmed in warm-temperate and tropical regions. Although serotype specific, vaccination with bacterins (killed bacterial cultures) is largely successful and vaccine failure occurs only occasionally through emergence of new capsular serotypes. Previously we showed that mutations in vaccine escapes are restricted to a limited repertoire of genes within the 20-gene capsular polysaccharide (cps) operon. cpsG, a putative UDP-galactose 4-epimerase, has three sequence types based on the insertion or deletion of the three amino acids leucine, serine and lysine in the substrate binding site of the protein...
September 25, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597642/celastrol-modulates-inflammation-through-inhibition-of-the-catalytic-activity-of-mediators-of-arachidonic-acid-pathway-secretory-phospholipase-a2-group-iia-5-lipoxygenase-and-cyclooxygenase-2
#17
Vikram Joshi, Shivaprasad H Venkatesha, Chandrasekaran Ramakrishnan, Ankanahalli N Nanjaraj Urs, Vilas Hiremath, Kamal D Moudgil, Devadasan Velmurugan, Bannikuppe Sannanaik Vishwanath
Elevated production of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived pro-inflammatory eicosanoids due to the concerted action of secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2IIA), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a common feature of many inflammatory disorders. Hence, modulation of the bioactivity of these 3 enzymes is an important strategy to control inflammation. However, the failure of drugs specific for an individual enzyme (sPLA2IIA-, 5-LOX- or COX-2) and the success of 5-LOX/COX-2 dual inhibitors in effectively controlling inflammation in clinical trials prompted us to evaluate a common inhibitor for sPLA2IIA, 5-LOX and COX-2 enzymes...
September 3, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580387/molecular-imaging-in-preclinical-models-of-ibd-with-nuclear-imaging-techniques-state-of-the-art-and-perspectives
#18
Eric Kaaru, Andrea Bianchi, Andreas Wunder, Volker Rasche, Detlef Stiller
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is characterized by chronic unregulated inflammation of the intestinal mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. To date, this pathology has no cure. Colonoscopy and biopsies are the current gold standard diagnostic tools. However, being a chronic disease, IBD requires continuous follow-up to check for disease progress, treatment response, and remission. Unfortunately, these 2 diagnostic procedures are invasive and generally unable to show the cellular and molecular changes that take place in vivo...
October 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558338/neutral-serine-proteases-of-neutrophils
#19
REVIEW
Ralph Kettritz
Neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs) exercise tissue-degrading and microbial-killing effects. The spectrum of NSP-mediated functions grows continuously, not least because of methodological progress. Sensitive and specific FRET substrates were developed to study the proteolytic activity of each NSP member. Advanced biochemical methods are beginning to characterize common and specific NSP substrates. The resulting novel information indicates that NSPs contribute not only to genuine inflammatory neutrophil functions but also to autoimmunity, metabolic conditions, and cancer...
September 2016: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556883/an-inhaled-inhibitor-of-myristoylated-alanine-rich-c-kinase-substrate-reverses-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice
#20
Qi Yin, Shijing Fang, Joungjoa Park, Anne L Crews, Indu Parikh, Kenneth B Adler
Intratracheal instillation of bacterial LPS is a well-established model of acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Because the myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) protein is involved in neutrophil migration and proinflammatory cytokine production, we examined whether an aerosolized peptide that inhibits MARCKS function could attenuate LPS-induced lung injury in mice. The peptide, BIO-11006, was delivered at 50 μM via inhalation either just before intratracheal instillation of 5 μg of LPS into Balb/C mice, or 4, 12, 24, or 36 hours after LPS instillation...
November 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
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