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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905697/luteolibacter-gellanilyticus-sp-nov-a-gellan-gum-degrading-bacterium-of-the-phylum-verrucomicrobia-isolated-from-miniaturized-diffusion-chambers
#1
Javier Pascual, Marina García-López, Ignacio González, Olga Genilloud
A novel chemo-organoheterotrophic bacterium, strain CB-286403T, was isolated from a Mediterranean forest soil, collected at Sierra de Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Natural Park, Spain, by using the Diffusion Sandwich System, a device with 384 miniature diffusion chambers. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified the isolate as a member of the genus Luteolibacter where the type strains Luteolibacterpohnpeiensis A4T-83T (GenBank acc. no. AB331895), Luteolibacteryonseiensis EBTL01T (JQ319003), Luteolibacterluojiensis DR4-30T (JN630810) and Luteolibacteralgae A5J-41-2T (AB331893) were the closest relatives with similarities of 97...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881492/a-novel-elane-mutation-associated-with-inflammatory-arthritis-defective-netosis-and-recurrent-parvoviral-infection
#2
Uma Thanarajasingam, Mark A Jensen, Jessica M Dorschner, Theresa Wampler Muskardin, Yogita Ghodke-Puranik, Monica Purmalek, Elias Eliopoulos, Maria I Zervou, George N Goulielmos, Matthew Howard, Mariana J Kaplan, Timothy B Niewold
OBJECTIVE: We describe a 38-year-old woman presenting with a history of inflammatory arthritis, rash and daily fevers. She was noted to have chronic parvoviral infection with persistently detectable viral titers and a novel mutation in the ELANE gene. ELANE encodes neutrophil elastase, a neutrophil serine protease with important antimicrobial effects and is found as part of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) complexes. Pathogenic ELANE mutations have been described in forms of hereditary neutropenia...
September 7, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843171/the-f0f1-atp-synthase-regulates-human-neutrophil-migration-through-cytoplasmic-proton-extrusion-coupled-with-atp-generation
#3
Jun Gao, Tian Zhang, Zhanfang Kang, Weijen Ting, Lingqing Xu, Dazhong Yin
Cytoplasmic alkalinization and extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) signals are required for migration of chemokineactivated neutrophils, but the precise functions remain unclear. In this work, the effect of the plasma membrane-expressed F0F1-ATP synthase (FATPase) on human neutrophils was examined. We found F-ATPase to be involved in cytoplasm proton extrusion and extracellular ATP generation. Oligomycin A, an F-ATPase inhibitor that blocks proton transfer, inhibited cytoplasmic alkalinization, extracellular ATP generation, adhesion and chemotaxis in N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP)-stimulated neutrophils; however, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), a substrate and activator of F-ATPase, had the opposite effect...
August 23, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821572/rolling-neutrophils-form-tethers-and-slings-under-physiologic-conditions-in-vivo
#4
Alex Marki, Konrad Buscher, Zbigniew Mikulski, Axel Pries, Klaus Ley
Human and mouse neutrophils are known to form tethers when rolling on selectins in vitro. Tethers are ∼0.2 μm thin, ∼5-10 μm-long structures behind rolling cells that can swing around to form slings that serve as self-adhesive substrates. Here, we developed a mouse intravital imaging method, where the neutrophil surface is labeled by injecting fluorescently labeled mAb to Ly-6G. Venules in the cremaster muscle of live mice were imaged at a high frame rate using a confocal microscope equipped with a fast resonant scanner...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808028/immune-evasion-by-a-staphylococcal-inhibitor-of-myeloperoxidase
#5
Nienke W M de Jong, Kasra X Ramyar, Fermin E Guerra, Reindert Nijland, Cindy Fevre, Jovanka M Voyich, Alex J McCarthy, Brandon L Garcia, Kok P M van Kessel, Jos A G van Strijp, Brian V Geisbrecht, Pieter-Jan A Haas
Staphylococcus aureus is highly adapted to its host and has evolved many strategies to resist opsonization and phagocytosis. Even after uptake by neutrophils, S. aureus shows resistance to killing, which suggests the presence of phagosomal immune evasion molecules. With the aid of secretome phage display, we identified a highly conserved protein that specifically binds and inhibits human myeloperoxidase (MPO), a major player in the oxidative defense of neutrophils. We have named this protein "staphylococcal peroxidase inhibitor" (SPIN)...
August 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806402/multi-functional-mechanisms-of-immune-evasion-by-the-streptococcal-complement-inhibitor-c5a-peptidase
#6
Nicola N Lynskey, Mark Reglinski, Damien Calay, Matthew K Siggins, Justin C Mason, Marina Botto, Shiranee Sriskandan
The complement cascade is crucial for clearance and control of invading pathogens, and as such is a key target for pathogen mediated host modulation. C3 is the central molecule of the complement cascade, and plays a vital role in opsonization of bacteria and recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. Streptococcal species have evolved multiple mechanisms to disrupt complement-mediated innate immunity, among which ScpA (C5a peptidase), a C5a inactivating enzyme, is widely conserved. Here we demonstrate for the first time that pyogenic streptococcal species are capable of cleaving C3, and identify C3 and C3a as novel substrates for the streptococcal ScpA, which are functionally inactivated as a result of cleavage 7 amino acids upstream of the natural C3 convertase...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760594/s-oxiracetam-protect-against-ischemic-stroke-via-alleviating-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-in-rats
#7
Liangliang Huang, Erxin Shang, Wenxiang Fan, Xiang Li, Binbin Li, Shucheng He, Yuxin Fu, Yizhi Zhang, Yunman Li, Weirong Fang
The blood brain barrier (BBB) maintains the basic stability of the brain tissue under physiological conditions, while destroys and exaggerates brain edema and inflammatory response after ischemic stroke. In this study, we researched S-oxiracetam (S-ORC), a nootropic drug, alleviates BBB dysfunction and protects against ischemic stroke in rats. Middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)/reperfusion in rats is applied to mimic ischemic stroke. One hour after reperfusion, rats are administered intravenously with different dose (0...
July 29, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705760/synthetic-analogues-of-cyanobacterial-alkaloid-cylindrospermopsin-and-their-toxicological-activity
#8
Christopher Cartmell, Daniel M Evans, Jessica M L Elwood, Hisham S Fituri, Patrick J Murphy, Thomas Caspari, Barbara Poniedziałek, Piotr Rzymski
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a naturally occurring alkaloid produced by a variety of cyanobacteria and known to induce oxidative stress-mediated toxicity in eukaryotic cells. Despite extensive research on the mechanism of CYN toxicity, an understanding of the structural features responsible for this toxicity and the mechanism by which it can enter the cell are still not clear. It was established that the presence of both the uracil and guanidine groups is essential in biological activity of CYN whilst not much is known in this regard on the role of tether that separates them and the attached hydroxyl group...
October 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619950/how-neutrophils-resist-shear-stress-at-blood-vessel-walls-molecular-mechanisms-subcellular-structures-and-cell-cell-interactions
#9
REVIEW
Daniela Begandt, Sarah Thome, Markus Sperandio, Barbara Walzog
Neutrophils are the first cells arriving at sites of tissue injury or infection to combat invading pathogens. Successful neutrophil recruitment to sites of inflammation highly depends on specific molecular mechanisms, fine-tuning the received information into signaling pathways and converting them into well-described recruitment steps. This review highlights the impact of vascular flow conditions on neutrophil recruitment and the multitude of mechanisms developed to enable this sophisticated process under wall shear stress conditions...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600292/adam10-interacting-tetraspanins-tspan5-and-tspan17-regulate-ve-cadherin-expression-and-promote-t-lymphocyte-transmigration
#10
Jasmeet S Reyat, Myriam Chimen, Peter J Noy, Justyna Szyroka, G Ed Rainger, Michael G Tomlinson
The recruitment of blood leukocytes across the endothelium to sites of tissue infection is central to inflammation, but also promotes chronic inflammatory diseases. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) is a ubiquitous transmembrane molecular scissor that is implicated in leukocyte transmigration by proteolytically cleaving its endothelial substrates. These include VE-cadherin, a homotypic adhesion molecule that regulates endothelial barrier function, and transmembrane chemokines CX3CL1 and CXCL16, which have receptors on leukocytes...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587841/3-nucleotidase-nuclease-in-protozoan-parasites-molecular-and-biochemical-properties-and-physiological-roles
#11
REVIEW
Anita Leocadio Freitas-Mesquita, José Roberto Meyer-Fernandes
3'-nucleotidase/nuclease (3'NT/NU) is a bi-functional enzyme that is able to hydrolyze 3'-monophosphorylated nucleotides and nucleic acids. This review summarizes the major molecular and biochemical properties of this enzyme in different trypanosomatid species. Sequence analysis of the gene encoding 3'NT/NU in Leishmania and Crithidia species showed that the protein possesses five highly conserved regions that are characteristic of members of the class I nuclease family. 3'NT/NU presents a molecular weight of approximately 40 kDa, which is conserved among the studied species...
August 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553292/asct2-slc1a5-deficient-mice-have-normal-b-cell-development-proliferation-and-antibody-production
#12
Etienne Masle-Farquhar, Angelika Bröer, Mehmet Yabas, Anselm Enders, Stefan Bröer
SLC1A5 (solute carrier family 1, member 5) is a small neutral amino acid exchanger that is upregulated in rapidly proliferating lymphocytes but also in many primary human cancers. Furthermore, cancer cell lines have been shown to require SLC1A5 for their survival in vitro. One of SLC1A5's primary substrates is the immunomodulatory amino acid glutamine, which plays an important role in multiple key processes, such as energy supply, macromolecular synthesis, nucleotide biosynthesis, redox homeostasis, and resistance against oxidative stress...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552694/mesna-2-mercaptoethane-sodium-sulfonate-functions-as-a-regulator-of-myeloperoxidase
#13
Roohi Jeelani, Seyedehameneh Jahanbakhsh, Hamid-Reza Kohan-Ghadr, Mili Thakur, Sana Khan, Sarah R Aldhaheri, Zhe Yang, Peter Andreana, Robert Morris, Husam M Abu-Soud
Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an abundant protein in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, is thought to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various disorders ranging from cardiovascular diseases to cancer. We show that mesna (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid sodium salt), a detoxifying agent, which inhibits side effects of oxazaphosphorine chemotherapy, functions as a potent inhibitor of MPO; modulating its catalytic activity and function. Using rapid kinetic methods, we examined the interactions of mesna with MPO compounds I and II and ferric forms in the presence and absence of chloride (Cl(-)), the preferred substrate of MPO...
May 25, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550118/s100a9-potentiates-the-activation-of-neutrophils-by-the-etiological-agent-of-gout-monosodium-urate-crystals
#14
Louis-Simon Rousseau, Guillaume Paré, Asmaa Lachhab, Paul H Naccache, François Marceau, Philippe Tessier, Martin Pelletier, Maria Fernandes
Gout is one of the most painful types of arthritis that arises when the body mounts an acute inflammatory reaction against a crystallized form of uric acid known as monosodium urate crystals (MSUs). Although MSUs are known to activate neutrophils, the most abundant leukocyte in the synovial fluid of patients with gout, few studies have investigated the effect on neutrophils of the simultaneous stimulation with MSU and proinflammatory mediators in the inflamed joint. Herein, we focused on a protein that is highly expressed in the synovium in gout, S100A9...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524191/thermal-scribing-to-prototype-plastic-microfluidic-devices-applied-to-study-the-formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#15
Arvind Chandrasekaran, Nikita Kalashnikov, Roni Rayes, Claire Wang, Jonathan Spicer, Christopher Moraes
Innovation in microfluidics-based biological research has been aided by the growing accessibility of versatile microscale fabrication techniques, particularly in rapid prototyping of elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based devices. However, the use of PDMS presents considerable and often unexpected limitations, particularly in interpreting and validating biological data. To rapidly prototype microfluidic culture systems in conventional plastics commonly used in cell culture, we developed 'thermal scribing', a one-step micromachining technique in which thermoplastics are locally patterned by a heated tip, moving in user-controlled patterns...
May 31, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522730/11%C3%AE-hsd1-suppresses-cardiac-fibroblast-cxcl2-cxcl5-and-neutrophil-recruitment-to-the-heart-post-mi
#16
Katie J Mylonas, Neil A Turner, Sumia A Bageghni, Christopher J Kenyon, Christopher I White, Kieran McGregor, Robert A Kimmitt, Richard Sulston, Valerie Kelly, Brian R Walker, Karen E Porter, Karen E Chapman, Gillian A Gray
We have previously demonstrated that neutrophil recruitment to the heart following myocardial infarction (MI) is enhanced in mice lacking 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) that regenerates active glucocorticoid within cells from intrinsically inert metabolites. The present study aimed to identify the mechanism of regulation. In a mouse model of MI, neutrophil mobilization to blood and recruitment to the heart were higher in 11β-HSD1-deficient (Hsd11b1(-)(/)(-) ) relative to wild-type (WT) mice, despite similar initial injury and circulating glucocorticoid...
June 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511370/correlation-of-plasma-neutrophil-elastase-activity-and-endogenous-protease-inhibitor-levels-with-the-severity-of-pre-eclampsia
#17
Mamatha Kunder, Av Moideen Kutty, V Lakshmaiah, S R Sheela
INTRODUCTION: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a common maternal syndrome characterized by severe systemic inflammatory response including neutrophil activation leading to uncontrolled activity of elastase. The excessive activity of elastase would lead to destroyal of the integrity of endothelial cells and could exacerbate the pathophysiological symptoms in PE. Thus, assessment of NE activity and its control mechanisms would be of relevance in the determination of severity of PE. AIM: To correlate the activity of plasma NE and its endogenous inhibitors α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) and α2-macroglobulin (α2-MG) with severity of PE...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487846/ectodomain-shedding-by-adam17-its-role-in-neutrophil-recruitment-and-the-impairment-of-this-process-during-sepsis
#18
REVIEW
Hemant K Mishra, Jing Ma, Bruce Walcheck
Neutrophils are specialized at killing bacteria and are recruited from the blood in a rapid and robust manner during infection. A cascade of adhesion events direct their attachment to the vascular endothelium and migration into the underlying tissue. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) functions in the cell membrane of neutrophils and endothelial cells by cleaving its substrates, typically in a cis manner, at an extracellular site proximal to the cell membrane. This process is referred to as ectodomain shedding and it results in the downregulation of various adhesion molecules and receptors, and the release of immune regulating factors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464614/imaging-xps-and-photoemission-electron-microscopy-surface-chemical-mapping-and-blood-cell-visualization
#19
Andreas Skallberg, Caroline Brommesson, Kajsa Uvdal
Combined photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) and imaging x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), i.e., electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis in the nanoregion, has been used for surface characterization of bio-relevant and biological samples. In the first example, the authors prepared a gold patterned silicon substrate, stepwise surface modified by self-assembled monolayers followed by quantum dot (QDot) specific linking and investigated by means of work function mapping and elemental imaging in the submicrometer range...
May 2, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462209/lung-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-the-therapeutic-role-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibition
#20
REVIEW
Paul A J Beckers, Jan F Gielis, Paul E Van Schil, Dirk Adriaensen
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is a cell surface protease that has been reported to play a role in glucose homeostasis, cancer, HIV, autoimmunity, immunology and inflammation. A role for DPP4 in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in the heart has been established. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibition (DPP4i) appeared to decrease infarct size, improves cardiac function and promotes myocardial regeneration. Lung ischemia reperfusion injury is caused by a complex mechanism in which macrophages and neutrophils play an important role...
March 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
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