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neutrophil substrate

Monika Łęgowska, Yveline Hamon, Anna Wojtysiak, Renata Grzywa, Marcin Sieńczyk, Timo Burster, Brice Korkmaz, Adam Lesner
Cathepsin C is a wildly expressed cysteine exopeptidase that is mostly recognized for the activation of the granule-associated proinflammatory serine proteases in neutrophils, cytotoxic T lymphocytes and mast cells. It has been shown that the enzyme can be secreted extracellularly; however, its occurrence in human bodily fluids/physiological samples has not been thoroughly studied. In the course of this study, the first fluorescence resonance energy transfer peptides for the measurement of the activity of human cathepsin C were designed and synthesized...
October 13, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Adam P Levine, Anthony W Segal
This review is devoted to a consideration of the way in which the NADPH oxidase of neutrophils, NOX2, functions to enable the efficient killing of bacteria and fungi. It includes a critical examination of the current dogma that its primary purpose is the generation of hydrogen peroxide as substrate for myeloperoxidase-catalyzed generation of hypochlorite. Instead, it is demonstrated that NADPH oxidase functions to optimize the ionic and pH conditions within the vacuole for the solubilization and optimal activity of the proteins released into this compartment from the cytoplasmic granules, which kill and digest the microbes...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Neele Schumacher, Stefanie Schmidt, Jeanette Schwarz, Dana Dohr, Juliane Lokau, Jürgen Scheller, Christoph Garbers, Athena Chalaris, Stefan Rose-John, Björn Rabe
Neutrophil and mononuclear cell infiltration during inflammatory processes is highly regulated. The first cells at the site of infection or inflammation are neutrophils, followed by mononuclear cells. IL-6 plays an important role during inflammatory states. It has been shown in several models that the soluble form of IL-6R (sIL-6R) is involved in the recruitment of mononuclear cells by a mechanism called IL-6 trans-signaling. It had been speculated that sIL-6R was generated at the site of inflammation by shedding from neutrophils via activation of the metalloprotease ADAM17...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Eleftheria Letsiou, Saad Sammani, Huashan Wang, Patrick Belvitch, Steven M Dudek
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious condition resulting from direct or indirect lung injury that is associated with high mortality and morbidity. A key biological event in the pathogenesis of the acute lung injury (ALI) that causes acute respiratory distress syndrome is activation of the lung endothelium cells (ECs), which is triggered by a variety of inflammatory insults leading to barrier disruption and excessive accumulation of neutrophils. Recently, we demonstrated that imatinib protects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced EC activation by inhibiting c-Abl kinase...
September 13, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Amanda J Stock, Anne Kasus-Jacobi, Jonathan D Wren, Virginie H Sjoelund, Glenn D Prestwich, H Anne Pereira
We previously showed an elevated expression of the neutrophil protein, cationic antimicrobial protein of 37kDa (CAP37), in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), suggesting that CAP37 could be involved in AD pathogenesis. The first step in determining how CAP37 might contribute to AD pathogenesis was to identify the receptor through which it induces cell responses. To identify a putative receptor, we performed GAMMA analysis to determine genes that positively correlated with CAP37 in terms of expression...
2016: PloS One
Xiaowu Wu, Michael A Dubick, Martin G Schwacha, Andrew P Cap, Daniel N Darlington
INTRODUCTION: Severe trauma, hemorrhage and resuscitation can lead to a trauma related acute lung injury that involves rapid infiltration of immune cells and platelets. This infiltration involves exymatic degradation of matrix proteins, including plasmin, and causes loss of barrier function. Since tranexamic acid (TXA) inhibits plasminogen/ plasmin binding to target substrates, it may attenuate loss of barrier function after severe trauma, hemorrhage and resuscitation. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to polytrauma (laparotomy, and trauma to intestines, liver, right leg skeletal muscle and right femur fracture), then bled 40% of their blood volume...
September 19, 2016: Shock
Eirini Kefaloyianni, Muthu Lakshmi Muthu, Jakob Kaeppler, Xiaoming Sun, Venkata Sabbisetti, Athena Chalaris, Stefan Rose-John, Eitan Wong, Irit Sagi, Sushrut S Waikar, Helmut Rennke, Benjamin D Humphreys, Joseph V Bonventre, Andreas Herrlich
Kidney fibrosis following kidney injury is an unresolved health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In a study into its molecular mechanism, we identified essential causative features. Acute or chronic kidney injury causes sustained elevation of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17); of its cleavage-activated proligand substrates, in particular of pro-TNFα and the EGFR ligand amphiregulin (pro-AREG); and of the substrates' receptors. As a consequence, EGFR is persistently activated and triggers the synthesis and release of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors, resulting in macrophage/neutrophil ingress and fibrosis...
August 18, 2016: JCI Insight
Adam C Mumford, Irini J Adaktylou, David Emerson
: Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is a major cause of damage to steel infrastructure in the marine environment. Despite their ability to grow directly on Fe(II) released from steel, comparatively little is known about the role played by neutrophilic iron oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). Recent work has shown that FeOB grow readily on mild steel (1018 MS) both incubated in situ or as substrate for pure cultures in vitro; however details of how they colonize steel surfaces are unknown, yet important for understanding their effects...
September 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ramakrishna Edukulla, Kira Lee Rehn, Bo Liu, Jaclyn W McAlees, Gurjit K Hershey, Yui Hsi Wang, Ian Lewkowich, Andrew W Lindsley
INTRODUCTION: Ceramide is the central substrate of sphingolipid metabolism and plays a key role in cellular signal transduction pathways, regulating apoptosis, differentiation, and chemotaxis. Alterations in airway ceramide levels are observed in multiple pulmonary diseases and recent human genetic association studies have linked dysregulation of sphingolipid regulatory genes with asthma pathogenesis. METHODS: Utilizing myriocin, a potent inhibitor of sphingolipid synthesis, we evaluated the immune regulatory role of de novo ceramide generation in vitro and in vivo...
September 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Candice Heath, Christine M Gillen, Panagiotis Chrysanthopoulos, Mark J Walker, Andrew C Barnes
Streptococcus iniae causes septicaemia and meningitis in marine and freshwater fish wherever they are farmed in warm-temperate and tropical regions. Although serotype specific, vaccination with bacterins (killed bacterial cultures) is largely successful and vaccine failure occurs only occasionally through emergence of new capsular serotypes. Previously we showed that mutations in vaccine escapes are restricted to a limited repertoire of genes within the 20-gene capsular polysaccharide (cps) operon. cpsG, a putative UDP-galactose 4-epimerase, has three sequence types based on the insertion or deletion of the three amino acids leucine, serine and lysine in the substrate binding site of the protein...
September 25, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Vikram Joshi, Shivaprasad H Venkatesha, Chandrasekaran Ramakrishnan, Ankanahalli N Nanjaraj Urs, Vilas Hiremath, Kamal D Moudgil, Devadasan Velmurugan, Bannikuppe Sannanaik Vishwanath
Elevated production of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived pro-inflammatory eicosanoids due to the concerted action of secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2IIA), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a common feature of many inflammatory disorders. Hence, modulation of the bioactivity of these 3 enzymes is an important strategy to control inflammation. However, the failure of drugs specific for an individual enzyme (sPLA2IIA-, 5-LOX- or COX-2) and the success of 5-LOX/COX-2 dual inhibitors in effectively controlling inflammation in clinical trials prompted us to evaluate a common inhibitor for sPLA2IIA, 5-LOX and COX-2 enzymes...
September 3, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Eric Kaaru, Andrea Bianchi, Andreas Wunder, Volker Rasche, Detlef Stiller
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is characterized by chronic unregulated inflammation of the intestinal mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. To date, this pathology has no cure. Colonoscopy and biopsies are the current gold standard diagnostic tools. However, being a chronic disease, IBD requires continuous follow-up to check for disease progress, treatment response, and remission. Unfortunately, these 2 diagnostic procedures are invasive and generally unable to show the cellular and molecular changes that take place in vivo...
October 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Ralph Kettritz
Neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs) exercise tissue-degrading and microbial-killing effects. The spectrum of NSP-mediated functions grows continuously, not least because of methodological progress. Sensitive and specific FRET substrates were developed to study the proteolytic activity of each NSP member. Advanced biochemical methods are beginning to characterize common and specific NSP substrates. The resulting novel information indicates that NSPs contribute not only to genuine inflammatory neutrophil functions but also to autoimmunity, metabolic conditions, and cancer...
September 2016: Immunological Reviews
Qi Yin, Shijing Fang, Joungjoa Park, Anne L Crews, Indu Parikh, Kenneth B Adler
Intratracheal (IT) instillation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a well-established model of acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Since the myristoylated alanine-rich C Kinase substrate (MARCKS) protein is involved in neutrophil migration and proinflammatory cytokine production, we examined whether an aerosolized peptide that inhibits MARCKS function could attenuate LPS - induced lung injury in mice. The peptide, BIO-11006, was delivered at 50 μM via inhalation either just prior to IT instillation of 5μg of LPS into Balb/C mice, or 4, 12, 24 or 36 hrs after LPS instillation...
August 24, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Konstantin Tsoyi, Sean R R Hall, Jesmond Dalli, Romain A Colas, Sailaja Ghanta, Bonna Ith, Anna Coronata, Laura E Fredenburgh, Rebecca M Baron, Augustine M K Choi, Charles N Serhan, Xiaoli Liu, Mark A Perrella
OBJECTIVES: Mesenchymal stromal cells are being investigated as a cell-based therapy for a number of disease processes, with promising results in animal models of systemic inflammation and sepsis. Studies are ongoing to determine ways to further improve the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells. A gas molecule that improves outcome in experimental sepsis is carbon monoxide. We hypothesized that preconditioning of mesenchymal stromal cells with carbon monoxide ex vivo would promote further therapeutic benefit when cells are administered in vivo after the onset of polymicrobial sepsis in mice...
August 10, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Jörg Flemmig, Pauline Schwarz, Ingo Bäcker, Anna Leichsenring, Franziska Lange, Jürgen Arnhold
In this paper a protocol for the quick and standardized enrichment of leukocytes from small whole blood samples is described. This procedure is based on the hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes and can be applied to human samples as well as to blood of non-human origin. The small initial sample volume of about 50 to 100 µl makes this method applicable to recurrent blood sampling from small laboratory animals. Moreover, leukocyte enrichment is achieved within minutes and with low material efforts regarding chemicals and instrumentation, making this method applicable in multiple laboratory environments...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Stefanie Liening, Gerhard K Scriba, Silke Rummler, Christina Weinigel, Thea K Kleinschmidt, Jesper Z Haeggström, Oliver Werz, Ulrike Garscha
Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs) cause bronchoconstriction in anaphylaxis and asthma. They are formed by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) from arachidonic acid (AA) yielding the unstable leukotriene A4 (LTA4) that is subsequently conjugated with glutathione (GSH) by LTC4 synthase (LTC4S). Cys-LT receptor antagonists and LTC4S inhibitors have been developed, but only the former have reached the market. High structural homology to related enzymes and lack of convenient test systems due to instability of added LTA4 have hampered the development of LTC4S inhibitors...
July 28, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Roel A van der Heijden, Martine C Morrison, Fareeba Sheedfar, Petra Mulder, Marijke Schreurs, Pascal P H Hommelberg, Marten H Hofker, Casper Schalkwijk, Robert Kleemann, Uwe J F Tietge, Debby P Y Koonen, Peter Heeringa
Background. Naturally occurring substances from the flavanol and anthocyanin family of polyphenols have been proposed to exert beneficial effects in the course of obesity. We hypothesized that their effects on attenuating obesity-induced dyslipidemia as well as the associated inflammatory sequelae especially have health-promoting potential. Methods. Male C57BL/6J mice (n = 52) received a control low-fat diet (LFD; 10 kcal% fat) for 6 weeks followed by 24 weeks of either LFD (n = 13) or high-fat diet (HFD; 45 kcal% fat; n = 13) or HFD supplemented with 0...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Alex Marki, Edgar Gutierrez, Zbigniew Mikulski, Alex Groisman, Klaus Ley
Neutrophils rolling at high shear stress (above 6 dyn/cm(2)) form tethers in the rear and slings in the front. Here, we developed a novel photo-lithographically fabricated, silicone(PDMS)-based side-view flow chamber to dynamically visualize tether and sling formation. Fluorescently membrane-labeled mouse neutrophils rolled on P-selectin substrate at 10 dyn/cm(2). Most rolling cells formed 5 tethers that were 2-30 μm long. Breaking of a single tether caused a reproducible forward microjump of the cell, showing that the tether was load-bearing...
2016: Scientific Reports
Brice Korkmaz, Adam Lesner, Carla Guarino, Magdalena Wysocka, Christine Kellenberger, Hervé Watier, Ulrich Specks, Francis Gauthier, Dieter E Jenne
Proteinase 3 (PR3) has received great scientific attention after its identification as the essential antigenic target of antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies in Wegener's granulomatosis (now called granulomatosis with polyangiitis). Despite many structural and functional similarities between neutrophil elastase (NE) and PR3 during biosynthesis, storage, and extracellular release, unique properties and pathobiological functions have emerged from detailed studies in recent years. The development of highly sensitive substrates and inhibitors of human PR3 and the creation of PR3-selective single knockout mice led to the identification of nonredundant roles of PR3 in cell death induction via procaspase-3 activation in cell cultures and in mouse models...
July 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
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