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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107383/effects-of-forced-swimming-stress-on-erk-and-histone-h3-phosphorylation-in-limbic-areas-of-roman-high-and-low-avoidance-rats
#1
Noemi Morello, Ornella Plicato, Maria Antonietta Piludu, Laura Poddighe, Maria Pina Serra, Marina Quartu, Maria Giuseppa Corda, Osvaldo Giorgi, Maurizio Giustetto
Stressful events evoke molecular adaptations of neural circuits through chromatin remodeling and regulation of gene expression. However, the identity of the molecular pathways activated by stress in experimental models of depression is not fully understood. We investigated the effect of acute forced swimming (FS) on the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 (pERK) and histone H3 (pH3) in limbic brain areas of genetic models of vulnerability (RLA, Roman low-avoidance rats) and resistance (RHA, Roman high-avoidance rats) to stress-induced depression-like behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100736/methyl-cpg-binding-protein-mbd1-regulates-neuronal-lineage-commitment-through-maintaining-adult-neural-stem-cell-identity
#2
Emily M Jobe, Yu Gao, Brian E Eisinger, Janessa K Mladucky, Charles C Giuliani, Laurel E Kelnhofer, Xinyu Zhao
: Methyl-CpG-binding domain 1 (MBD1) belongs to a family of methyl-CpG-binding proteins that are epigenetic "readers" linking DNA methylation to transcriptional regulation. MBD1 is expressed in neural stem cells residing in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus (aNSCs) and MBD1 deficiency leads to reduced neuronal differentiation, impaired neurogenesis, learning deficits, and autism-like behaviors in mice; however, the precise function of MBD1 in aNSCs remains unexplored. Here, we show that MBD1 is important for maintaining the integrity and stemness of NSCs, which is critical for their ability to generate neurons...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099854/single-cell-transcriptomic-analysis-defines-heterogeneity-and-transcriptional-dynamics-in-the-adult-neural-stem-cell-lineage
#3
Ben W Dulken, Dena S Leeman, Stéphane C Boutet, Katja Hebestreit, Anne Brunet
Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mammalian brain serve as a reservoir for the generation of new neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Here, we use single-cell RNA sequencing to characterize adult NSC populations and examine the molecular identities and heterogeneity of in vivo NSC populations. We find that cells in the NSC lineage exist on a continuum through the processes of activation and differentiation. Interestingly, rare intermediate states with distinct molecular profiles can be identified and experimentally validated, and our analysis identifies putative surface markers and key intracellular regulators for these subpopulations of NSCs...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097516/are-event-related-potentials-to-dynamic-facial-expressions-of-emotion-related-to-individual-differences-in-the-accuracy-of-processing-facial-expressions-and-identity
#4
Guillermo Recio, Oliver Wilhelm, Werner Sommer, Andrea Hildebrandt
Despite a wealth of knowledge about the neural mechanisms behind emotional facial expression processing, little is known about how they relate to individual differences in social cognition abilities. We studied individual differences in the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by dynamic facial expressions. First, we assessed the latent structure of the ERPs, reflecting structural face processing in the N170, and the allocation of processing resources and reflexive attention to emotionally salient stimuli, in the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive complex (LPC)...
January 17, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097054/hydrogel-scaffolds-promote-neural-gene-expression-and-structural-reorganization-in-human-astrocyte-cultures
#5
V Bleu Knight, Elba E Serrano
Biomaterial scaffolds have the potential to enhance neuronal development and regeneration. Understanding the genetic responses of astrocytes and neurons to biomaterials could facilitate the development of synthetic environments that enable the specification of neural tissue organization with engineered scaffolds. In this study, we used high throughput transcriptomic and imaging methods to determine the impact of a hydrogel, PuraMatrix™, on human glial cells in vitro. Parallel studies were undertaken with cells grown in a monolayer environment on tissue culture polystyrene...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094016/a-single-cell-roadmap-of-lineage-bifurcation-in-human-esc-models-of-embryonic-brain-development
#6
Zizhen Yao, John K Mich, Sherman Ku, Vilas Menon, Anne-Rachel Krostag, Refugio A Martinez, Leon Furchtgott, Heather Mulholland, Susan Bort, Margaret A Fuqua, Ben W Gregor, Rebecca D Hodge, Anu Jayabalu, Ryan C May, Samuel Melton, Angelique M Nelson, N Kiet Ngo, Nadiya V Shapovalova, Soraya I Shehata, Michael W Smith, Leah J Tait, Carol L Thompson, Elliot R Thomsen, Chaoyang Ye, Ian A Glass, Ajamete Kaykas, Shuyuan Yao, John W Phillips, Joshua S Grimley, Boaz P Levi, Yanling Wang, Sharad Ramanathan
During human brain development, multiple signaling pathways generate diverse cell types with varied regional identities. Here, we integrate single-cell RNA sequencing and clonal analyses to reveal lineage trees and molecular signals underlying early forebrain and mid/hindbrain cell differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Clustering single-cell transcriptomic data identified 41 distinct populations of progenitor, neuronal, and non-neural cells across our differentiation time course. Comparisons with primary mouse and human gene expression data demonstrated rostral and caudal progenitor and neuronal identities from early brain development...
January 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088670/fibrin-hydrogels-induce-mixed-dorsal-ventral-spinal-neuron-identities-during-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#7
John M Edgar, Meghan Robinson, Stephanie M Willerth
: We hypothesized that generating spinal motor neurons (sMNs) from human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neural aggregates (NAs) using a chemically-defined differentiation protocol would be more effective inside of 3D fibrin hydrogels compared to 2D poly-L-ornithine(PLO)/laminin-coated tissue culture plastic surfaces. We performed targeted RNA-Seq using next generation sequencing to determine the substrate-specific differences in gene expression that regulate cell phenotype...
January 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075326/transformation-of-spatiotemporal-dynamics-in-the-macaque-vestibular-system-from-otolith-afferents-to-cortex
#8
Jean Laurens, Sheng Liu, Xiong-Jie Yu, Raymond Chan, David Dickman, Gregory C DeAngelis, Dora E Angelaki
Sensory signals undergo substantial recoding when neural activity is relayed from sensors through pre-thalamic and thalamic nuclei to cortex. To explore how temporal dynamics and directional tuning are sculpted in hierarchical vestibular circuits, we compared responses of macaque otolith afferents with neurons in the vestibular and cerebellar nuclei, as well as five cortical areas, to identical three-dimensional translational motion. We demonstrate a remarkable spatio-temporal transformation: otolith afferents carry spatially aligned cosine-tuned translational acceleration and jerk signals...
January 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075051/bilateral-multifocal-upper-extremity-atypical-granular-cell-tumors-presenting-as-long-standing-right-wrist-and-left-hand-masses-in-a-15-year-old-african-american-female
#9
Michael DeWall, Corey O Montgomery, Jerad M Gardner
Granular cell tumor (GrCT) is a benign nerve sheath tumor. Atypical and malignant variants of GrCT are rare but have been well described. We report a case of multifocal symmetric atypical GrCT in the bilateral hand/wrists of a 15 year old African American female. The initial clinical impression for both masses were favored to be ganglion cysts. Ultrasound findings of both masses revealed hypoechoic soft tissue lesions with some internal echogenicity favoring complex cysts. On excision, both masses were histologically circumscribed, lobulated, and attached to tendon...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071661/neuronal-sflt1-and-vegfaa-determine-venous-sprouting-and-spinal-cord-vascularization
#10
Raphael Wild, Alina Klems, Masanari Takamiya, Yuya Hayashi, Uwe Strähle, Koji Ando, Naoki Mochizuki, Andreas van Impel, Stefan Schulte-Merker, Janna Krueger, Laetitia Preau, Ferdinand le Noble
Formation of organ-specific vasculatures requires cross-talk between developing tissue and specialized endothelial cells. Here we show how developing zebrafish spinal cord neurons coordinate vessel growth through balancing of neuron-derived Vegfaa, with neuronal sFlt1 restricting Vegfaa-Kdrl mediated angiogenesis at the neurovascular interface. Neuron-specific loss of flt1 or increased neuronal vegfaa expression promotes angiogenesis and peri-neural tube vascular network formation. Combining loss of neuronal flt1 with gain of vegfaa promotes sprout invasion into the neural tube...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060861/predicting-the-multisensory-consequences-of-one-s-own-action-bold-suppression-in-auditory-and-visual-cortices
#11
Benjamin Straube, Bianca M van Kemenade, B Ezgi Arikan, Katja Fiehler, Dirk T Leube, Laurence R Harris, Tilo Kircher
Predictive mechanisms are essential to successfully interact with the environment and to compensate for delays in the transmission of neural signals. However, whether and how we predict multisensory action outcomes remains largely unknown. Here we investigated the existence of multisensory predictive mechanisms in a context where actions have outcomes in different modalities. During fMRI data acquisition auditory, visual and auditory-visual stimuli were presented in active and passive conditions. In the active condition, a self-initiated button press elicited the stimuli with variable short delays (0-417ms) between action and outcome, and participants had to detect the presence of a delay for auditory or visual outcome (task modality)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060704/segnet-a-deep-convolutional-encoder-decoder-architecture-for-scene-segmentation
#12
Vijay Badrinarayanan, Alex Kendall, Roberto Cipolla
We present a novel and practical deep fully convolutional neural network architecture for semantic pixel-wise segmentation termed SegNet. This core trainable segmentation engine consists of an encoder network, a corresponding decoder network followed by a pixel-wise classification layer. The architecture of the encoder network is topologically identical to the 13 convolutional layers in the VGG16 network [1]. The role of the decoder network is to map the low resolution encoder feature maps to full input resolution feature maps for pixel-wise classification...
January 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053328/neural-development-relaying-control-of-neuronal-identity
#13
Katherine Whalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051770/disentangling-the-representation-of-identity-from-head-view-along-the-human-face-processing-pathway
#14
J Swaroop Guntupalli, Kelsey G Wheeler, M Ida Gobbini
Neural models of a distributed system for face perception implicate a network of regions in the ventral visual stream for recognition of identity. Here, we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neural decoding study in humans that shows that this pathway culminates in the right inferior frontal cortex face area (rIFFA) with a representation of individual identities that has been disentangled from variable visual features in different images of the same person. At earlier stages in the pathway, processing begins in early visual cortex and the occipital face area with representations of head view that are invariant across identities, and proceeds to an intermediate level of representation in the fusiform face area in which identity is emerging but still entangled with head view...
November 23, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046642/mo-g-201-04-knowledge-based-planning-for-single-isocenter-stereotactic-radiosurgery-to-multiple-brain-metastases
#15
B Ziemer, S Shiraishi, J Hattangadi-Gluth, P Sanghvi, K Moore
PURPOSE: Single-isocenter, linac-based SRS for multiple brain metastases (multi-mets) can deliver highly conformal radiation doses and reduce overall patient treatment time compared to other therapy techniques. This study aims to quantify the dosimetric benefits of knowledge-based planning (KBP) for multi-met treatments. METHODS: Using a previously-published KBP methodology (an artificial neural network (ANN) trained on single-target linac-based SRS plans), 3D dose distribution predictions for multi-met patients were obtained by treating each brain lesion as a solitary target and subsequently combining individual predictions into a single distribution using a dose-weighted geometric averaging to obtain the best results in the inter-target space...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045134/methamphetamine-and-ovarian-steroid-responsive-cells-in-the-posteriodorsal-medial-amygdala-are-required-for-methamphetamine-enhanced-proceptive-behaviors
#16
Katrina M Williams, Jessica A Mong
Methamphetamine (Meth) is a psychomotor stimulant strongly associated with increases in sexual drive and impulse in both men and women. These changes in sexual motivation have a greater impact on women due to their likelihood of facing the greater burden of unplanned pregnancies, as well as increased risk for psychiatric co-morbidities such as depression. We have previously established a rodent model of Meth-induced increases in sexual motivation. Using this model, we have identified the posteriodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) via excitotoxic lesion studies as a necessary nucleus in Meth-facilitated female sexual motivation...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043919/a-spontaneous-and-novel-pax3-mutant-mouse-that-models-waardenburg-syndrome-and-neural-tube-defects
#17
Tetsuo Ohnishi, Ikuo Miura, Hisako Ohba, Chie Shimamoto, Yoshimi Iwayama, Shigeharu Wakana, Takeo Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Genes responsible for reduced pigmentation phenotypes in rodents are associated with human developmental defects, such as Waardenburg syndrome, where patients display congenital deafness along with various abnormalities mostly related to neural crest development deficiency. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we identified a spontaneous mutant mouse line Rwa, which displays variable white spots on mouse bellies and white digits and tail, on a C57BL/6N genetic background...
December 30, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042033/feeding-cycle-dependent-circulating-insulin-fluctuation-is-not-a-dominant-zeitgeber-for-mouse-peripheral-clocks-except-in-the-liver-differences-between-endogenous-and-exogenous-insulin-effects
#18
Katsutaka Oishi, Yuki Yasumoto, Sayaka Higo-Yamamoto, Saori Yamamoto, Naoki Ohkura
The master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus synchronizes peripheral clocks via humoral and neural signals in mammals. Insulin is thought to be a critical Zeitgeber (synchronizer) for peripheral clocks because it induces transient clock gene expression in cultured cells. However, the extent to which fluctuations in feeding-dependent endogenous insulin affect the temporal expression of clock genes remains unclear. We therefore investigated the temporal expression profiles of clock genes in the peripheral tissues of mice fed for 8 h during either the daytime (DF) or the nighttime (NF) for one week to determine the involvement of feeding cycle-dependent endogenous insulin rhythms in the circadian regulation of peripheral clocks...
December 29, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028220/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-similarity-based-neural-representations-of-facial-identity
#19
Mark D Vida, Adrian Nestor, David C Plaut, Marlene Behrmann
Humans' remarkable ability to quickly and accurately discriminate among thousands of highly similar complex objects demands rapid and precise neural computations. To elucidate the process by which this is achieved, we used magnetoencephalography to measure spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity with high temporal resolution during visual discrimination among a large and carefully controlled set of faces. We also compared these neural data to lower level "image-based" and higher level "identity-based" model-based representations of our stimuli and to behavioral similarity judgments of our stimuli...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028199/idiosyncratic-patterns-of-representational-similarity-in-prefrontal-cortex-predict-attentional-performance
#20
Jeongmi Lee, Joy J Geng
: The efficiency of finding an object in a crowded environment depends largely on the similarity of non-targets to the search target. Models of attention theorize that the similarity is determined by representations stored within an "attentional template" held in working memory. However, the degree to which the contents of the attentional template are individually-unique and where those idiosyncratic representations are encoded in the brain, are unknown. We investigated this problem using representational similarity analysis (RSA) of human fMRI data to measure the common and idiosyncratic representations of famous face morphs during an identity categorization task; data from the categorization task were then used to predict performance on a separate identity search task...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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