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Neural identity

Rifqi O Affan, Siyuan Huang, Stephen M Cruz, Lee A Holcomb, Edward Nguyen, Ksenija Marinkovic
Heavy episodic alcohol consumption (also termed binge drinking) contributes to a wide range of health and cognitive deficits, but the associated brain-based indices are poorly understood. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine spontaneous neural oscillations in young adults as a function of quantity, frequency, and the pattern of their alcohol consumption. Sixty-one young adults (23.4 ± 3.4 years of age) were assigned to binge drinking (BD) and light drinking (LD) groups that were equated on gender, race/ethnic identity, age, educational background, and family history of alcoholism...
January 8, 2018: Alcohol
Jessica M Adams, Hongjuan Pei, Darleen A Sandoval, Randy J Seeley, Rui B Chang, Stephen D Liberles, David P Olson
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are FDA-approved weight loss drugs. Despite their widespread use, the sites of action through which GLP-1R agonists (GLP1RAs) impact appetite and body weight are still not fully understood. Here, we determined whether GLP-1Rs in either GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons are necessary for the acute and chronic effects of the GLP1RA liraglutide on food intake, visceral illness, body weight and neural network activation. We found that mice lacking GLP-1Rs in vGAT -expressing GABAergic neurons responded identically to controls in all parameters measured, whereas deletion of GLP-1Rs in vGlut2 -expressing glutamatergic neurons eliminated liraglutide-induced weight loss and visceral illness and severely attenuated its effects on feeding...
May 18, 2018: Diabetes
Pascal Belin, Clémentine Bodin, Virginia Aglieri
We review behavioural and neural evidence for the processing of information contained in conspecific vocalizations (CVs) in three primate species: humans, macaques and marmosets. We focus on abilities that are present and ecologically relevant in all three species: the detection and sensitivity to CVs; and the processing of identity cues in CVs. Current evidence, although fragmentary, supports the notion of a "voice patch system" in the primate brain analogous to the face patch system of visual cortex: a series of discrete, interconnected cortical areas supporting increasingly abstract representations of the vocal input...
May 7, 2018: Hearing Research
Anna Lozano-Ureña, Raquel Montalbán-Loro, Anne C Ferguson-Smith, Sacri R Ferrón
Most genes required for mammalian development are expressed from both maternally and paternally inherited chromosomal homologues. However, there are a small number of genes known as " imprinted genes " that only express a single allele from one parent, which is repressed on the gene from the other parent. Imprinted genes are dependent on epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of the DNA-associated histone proteins to establish and maintain their parental identity...
November 9, 2017: Brain Plasticity
Ruth Beckervordersandforth
The life-long generation of new neurons from radial glia-like neural stem cells (NSCs) is achieved through a stereotypic developmental sequence that requires precise regulatory mechanisms to prevent exhaustion or uncontrolled growth of the stem cell pool. Cellular metabolism is the new kid on the block of adult neurogenesis research and the identity of stage-specific metabolic programs and their impact on neurogenesis turns out to be an emerging research topic in the field. Mitochondrial metabolism is best known for energy production but it contains a great deal more...
November 9, 2017: Brain Plasticity
Xi Yin, Xiaoming Liu
This paper explores multi-task learning (MTL) for face recognition. First, we propose a multi-task convolutional neural network (CNN) for face recognition, where identity classification is the main task and pose, illumination, and expression (PIE) estimations are the side tasks. Second, we develop a dynamic-weighting scheme to automatically assign the loss weights to each side task, which solves the crucial problem of balancing between different tasks in MTL. Third, we propose a pose-directed multi-task CNN by grouping different poses to learn pose-specific identity features, simultaneously across all poses in a joint framework...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Joshua M Dudik, James L Coyle, Amro El-Jaroudi, Zhi-Hong Mao, Mingui Sun, Ervin Sejdić
Cervical auscultation is a method for assessing swallowing performance. However, its ability to serve as a classification tool for a practical clinical assessment method is not fully understood. In this study, we utilized neural network classification methods in the form of Deep Belief networks in order to classify swallows. We specifically utilized swallows that did not result in clinically significant aspiration and classified them on whether they originated from healthy subjects or unhealthy patients. Dual-axis swallowing vibrations from 1946 discrete swallows were recorded from 55 healthy and 53 unhealthy subjects...
April 12, 2018: Neurocomputing
Rachel Tsunemoto, Sohyon Lee, Attila Szűcs, Pavel Chubukov, Irina Sokolova, Joel W Blanchard, Kevin T Eade, Jacob Bruggemann, Chunlei Wu, Ali Torkamani, Pietro Paolo Sanna, Kristin K Baldwin
The transcriptional programs that establish neuronal identity evolved to produce the rich diversity of neuronal cell types that arise sequentially during development. Remarkably, transient expression of certain transcription factors can also endow non-neural cells with neuronal properties. The relationship between reprogramming factors and the transcriptional networks that produce neuronal identity and diversity remains largely unknown. Here, from a screen of 598 pairs of transcription factors, we identify 76 pairs of transcription factors that induce mouse fibroblasts to differentiate into cells with neuronal features...
May 9, 2018: Nature
Julia Brasch, Phinikoula S Katsamba, Oliver J Harrison, Göran Ahlsén, Regina B Troyanovsky, Indrajyoti Indra, Anna Kaczynska, Benjamin Kaeser, Sergey Troyanovsky, Barry Honig, Lawrence Shapiro
Type II cadherins are cell-cell adhesion proteins critical for tissue patterning and neuronal targeting but whose molecular binding code remains poorly understood. Here, we delineate binding preferences for type II cadherin cell-adhesive regions, revealing extensive heterophilic interactions between specific pairs, in addition to homophilic interactions. Three distinct specificity groups emerge from our analysis with members that share highly similar heterophilic binding patterns and favor binding to one another...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
Allison M Ahrens, Lindsay M Ferguson, Terry E Robinson, J Wayne Aldridge
Some rats are especially prone to attribute incentive salience to a cue (conditioned stimulus, CS) paired with food reward (sign-trackers, STs), but the extent they do so varies as a function of the form of the CS. Other rats respond primarily to the predictive value of a cue (goal-trackers, GTs), regardless of its form. Sign-tracking is associated with greater cue-induced activation of mesolimbic structures than goal-tracking; however, it is unclear how the form of the CS itself influences activity in neural systems involved in incentive salience attribution...
March 2018: ENeuro
Jacopo Frascaroli, Stefano Brivio, Erika Covi, Sabina Spiga
The development of devices that can modulate their conductance under the application of electrical stimuli constitutes a fundamental step towards the realization of synaptic connectivity in neural networks. Optimization of synaptic functionality requires the understanding of the analogue conductance update under different programming conditions. Moreover, properties of physical devices such as bounded conductance values and state-dependent modulation should be considered as they affect storage capacity and performance of the network...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Caitlin C Winkler, Odessa R Yabut, Santiago P Fregoso, Hector G Gomez, Brett E Dwyer, Samuel J Pleasure, Santos J Franco
Neural progenitor cells in the developing dorsal forebrain give rise to excitatory neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes for the neocortex. Compared to neurons and astrocytes, less is known about the molecular mechanisms that instruct dorsal forebrain progenitors to an oligodendrocyte fate. In this study, we show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is required in dorsal progenitors for their late embryonic transition to oligodendrogenesis. Using genetic lineage-tracing in mice of both sexes, we demonstrate that the majority of oligodendrocytes in the embryonic neocortex derive from Emx1+ dorsal forebrain progenitors...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Marisa Nordt, Kilian Semmelmann, Erhan Genç, Sarah Weigelt
Face recognition undergoes prolonged development from childhood to adulthood, thereby raising the question which neural underpinnings are driving this development. Here, we address the development of the neural foundation of the ability to recognize a face across naturally varying images. Fourteen children (ages, 7-10) and 14 adults (ages, 20-23) watched images of either the same or different faces in a functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation paradigm. The same face was either presented in exact image repetitions or in varying images...
April 22, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Sheri A Berenbaum
Why do girls and women differ from boys and men? Gender development is typically considered to result from socialization, but sex hormones present during sensitive periods of development, particularly prenatal androgens, play an important role. Data from natural experiments, especially from females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, show the complexity of the effects of androgens on behavior: Prenatal androgens apparently have large effects on interests and engagement in gendered activities; moderate effects on spatial abilities; and relatively small or no effects on gender identity, gender cognitions, and gendered peer involvement...
March 2018: Child Development Perspectives
Phillip Bokiniec, Niccolò Zampieri, Gary R Lewin, James Fa Poulet
Thermal information about skin surface temperature is a key sense for the perception of object identity and valence. The identification of ion channels involved in the transduction of thermal changes has provided a genetic access point to the thermal system. However, from sensory specific 'labeled-lines' to multimodal interactive pathways, the functional organization and identity of the neural circuits mediating innocuous thermal perception have been debated for over 100 years. Here we highlight points in the system that require further attention and review recent advances using in vivo electrophysiology, cellular resolution calcium imaging, optogenetics and thermal perceptual tasks in behaving mice that have begun to uncover the anatomical principles and neural processing mechanisms underlying innocuous thermal perception...
May 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Haiying Ma, Zan Mo, Huijun Zhang, Cuicui Wang, Huijian Fu
Studies have revealed that consumers are susceptible to price framing effect, a common cognitive bias, due to their limited capacity in processing information. The effect of price framing in a bundling context and its neural correlates, however, remain not clearly characterized. The present study applied the event-related potentials (ERPs) approach to investigate the role of price framing in information processing and purchase decision making in a bundling context. Three price frames were created with practically identical total prices (with a maximum difference of ¥0...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Michal Bernstein, Yaara Erez, Idan Blank, Galit Yovel
Faces convey rich information including identity, gender and expression. Current neural models of face processing suggest a dissociation between the processing of invariant facial aspects such as identity and gender, that engage the fusiform face area (FFA) and the processing of changeable aspects, such as expression and eye gaze, that engage the posterior superior temporal sulcus face area (pSTS-FA). Recent studies report a second dissociation within this network such that the pSTS-FA, but not the FFA, shows much stronger response to dynamic than static faces...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Craig G Richter, Richard Coppola, Steven L Bressler
Top-down modulation of sensory processing is a critical neural mechanism subserving numerous important cognitive roles, one of which may be to inform lower-order sensory systems of the current 'task at hand' by conveying behavioral context to these systems. Accumulating evidence indicates that top-down cortical influences are carried by directed interareal synchronization of oscillatory neuronal populations, with recent results pointing to beta-frequency oscillations as particularly important for top-down processing...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qunjian Wu, Bin Yan, Ying Zeng, Chi Zhang, Li Tong
BACKGROUND: The electroencephalogram (EEG) signal represents a subject's specific brain activity patterns and is considered as an ideal biometric given its superior invisibility, non-clonality, and non-coercion. In order to enhance its applicability in identity authentication, a novel EEG-based identity authentication method is proposed based on self- or non-self-face rapid serial visual presentation. RESULTS: In contrast to previous studies that extracted EEG features from rest state or motor imagery, the designed paradigm could obtain a distinct and stable biometric trait with a lower time cost...
May 3, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Matthew T Harrison, Lars Strother
Unlike most objects, letter recognition is closely tied to orientation and mirroring, which in some cases (e.g., b and d), defines letter identity altogether. We combined a divided field paradigm with a negative priming procedure to examine the relationship between mirror generalization, its suppression during letter recognition, and language-related visual processing in the left hemisphere. In our main experiment, observers performed a centrally viewed letter-recognition task, followed by an object-recognition task performed in either the right or the left visual hemifield...
May 1, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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