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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160172/neural-differentiation-of-spheroids-derived-from-hipsc-msc-co-culture
#1
Liqing Song, Ang-Chen Tsai, Xuegang Yuan, Julie Bejoy, Sébastien Sart, Teng Ma, Yan Li
Organoids, the condensed 3-D tissues emerged at the early stage of organogenesis, are a promising approach to regenerate functional and vascularized organ mimics. While incorporation of heterotypic cell types such as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived neural progenitors aid neural organ development, the interactions of secreted factors during neurogenesis have not been well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of the composition and structure of 3-D hybrid spheroids of hiPSCs and hMSCs on dorsal cortical differentiation and the secretion of extracellular matrices and trophic factors in vitro...
November 21, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157998/the-developmental-time-course-and-topographic-distribution-of-individual-level-monkey-face-discrimination-in-the-infant-brain
#2
Ryan Barry-Anwar, Hillary Hadley, Stefania Conte, Andreas Keil, Lisa S Scott
The ability to discriminate between faces from unfamiliar face groups has previously been found to decrease across the first year of life. Here, individual-level discrimination of faces within a previously unfamiliar group was investigated by measuring neural responses to monkey faces. Six- and 9-month-old infants (n = 42) completed a Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation (FPVS) task while steady state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) were recorded. Using an oddball task design (e.g., infrequent changes in face identity) faces were presented at a 6Hz (1 face approximately every 167 ms) stimulation rate and every 1...
November 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157410/the-maintenance-and-updating-of-representations-of-no-longer-visible-objects-and-their-parts
#3
J Daniel McCarthy, Gennady Erlikhman, Gideon Paul Caplovitz
When an object partially or completely disappears behind an occluding surface, a representation of that object persists. For example, fragments of no longer visible objects can serve as an input into mid-level constructive visual processes, interacting and integrating with currently visible portions to form perceptual units and global motion signals. Remarkably, these persistent representations need not be static and can have their positions and orientations updated postdictively as new information becomes visible...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155809/multivariate-pattern-dependence
#4
Stefano Anzellotti, Alfonso Caramazza, Rebecca Saxe
When we perform a cognitive task, multiple brain regions are engaged. Understanding how these regions interact is a fundamental step to uncover the neural bases of behavior. Most research on the interactions between brain regions has focused on the univariate responses in the regions. However, fine grained patterns of response encode important information, as shown by multivariate pattern analysis. In the present article, we introduce and apply multivariate pattern dependence (MVPD): a technique to study the statistical dependence between brain regions in humans in terms of the multivariate relations between their patterns of responses...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150140/visual-pathways-from-the-perspective-of-cost-functions-and-multi-task-deep-neural-networks
#5
REVIEW
H Steven Scholte, Max M Losch, Kandan Ramakrishnan, Edward H F de Haan, Sander M Bohte
Vision research has been shaped by the seminal insight that we can understand the higher-tier visual cortex from the perspective of multiple functional pathways with different goals. In this paper, we try to give a computational account of the functional organization of this system by reasoning from the perspective of multi-task deep neural networks. Machine learning has shown that tasks become easier to solve when they are decomposed into subtasks with their own cost function. We hypothesize that the visual system optimizes multiple cost functions of unrelated tasks and this causes the emergence of a ventral pathway dedicated to vision for perception, and a dorsal pathway dedicated to vision for action...
October 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136119/the-bat-as-a-new-model-of-cortical-development
#6
Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño, Jasmin Camacho, Jeanelle Ariza, Hailee Rogers, Kayla Horton-Sparks, Anna Kreutz, Richard Behringer, John J Rasweiler, Stephen C Noctor
The organization of the mammalian cerebral cortex shares fundamental features across species. However, while the radial thickness of grey matter varies within one order of magnitude, the tangential spread of the cortical sheet varies by orders of magnitude across species. A broader sample of model species may provide additional clues for understanding mechanisms that drive cortical expansion. Here, we introduce the bat Carollia perspicillata as a new model species. The brain of C. perspicillata is similar in size to that of mouse but has a cortical neurogenic period at least 5 times longer than mouse, and nearly as long as that of the rhesus macaque, whose brain is 100 times larger...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133907/a-primacy-code-for-odor-identity
#7
Christopher D Wilson, Gabriela O Serrano, Alexei A Koulakov, Dmitry Rinberg
Humans can identify visual objects independently of view angle and lighting, words independently of volume and pitch, and smells independently of concentration. The computational principles underlying invariant object recognition remain mostly unknown. Here we propose that, in olfaction, a small and relatively stable set comprised of the earliest activated receptors forms a code for concentration-invariant odor identity. One prediction of this "primacy coding" scheme is that decisions based on odor identity can be made solely using early odor-evoked neural activity...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129916/a-post-transcriptional-program-coordinated-by-csde1-prevents-intrinsic-neural-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#8
Hyun Ju Lee, Deniz Bartsch, Cally Xiao, Santiago Guerrero, Gaurav Ahuja, Christina Schindler, James J Moresco, John R Yates, Fátima Gebauer, Hisham Bazzi, Christoph Dieterich, Leo Kurian, David Vilchez
While the transcriptional network of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been extensively studied, relatively little is known about how post-transcriptional modulations determine hESC function. RNA-binding proteins play central roles in RNA regulation, including translation and turnover. Here we show that the RNA-binding protein CSDE1 (cold shock domain containing E1) is highly expressed in hESCs to maintain their undifferentiated state and prevent default neural fate. Notably, loss of CSDE1 accelerates neural differentiation and potentiates neurogenesis...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124718/the-bangor-voice-matching-test-a-standardized-test-for-the-assessment-of-voice-perception-ability
#9
Constanze Mühl, Orla Sheil, Lina Jarutytė, Patricia E G Bestelmeyer
Recognising the identity of conspecifics is an important yet highly variable skill. Approximately 2 % of the population suffers from a socially debilitating deficit in face recognition. More recently the existence of a similar deficit in voice perception has emerged (phonagnosia). Face perception tests have been readily available for years, advancing our understanding of underlying mechanisms in face perception. In contrast, voice perception has received less attention, and the construction of standardized voice perception tests has been neglected...
November 9, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114072/neural-representations-of-hierarchical-rule-sets-the-human-control-system-represents-rules-irrespective-of-the-hierarchical-level-they-belong-to
#10
Doris Pischedda, Kai Görgen, John-Dylan Haynes, Carlo Reverberi
Humans use rules to organize their actions to achieve specific goals. While simple rules that link a sensory stimulus to one response may suffice in some situations, often the application of multiple, hierarchically-organized rules is required. Recent theories suggest that progressively higher level rules are encoded along an anterior-to-posterior gradient within PFC. While some work supports the existence of such a functional gradient, other studies argue for a lesser degree of specialization within PFC.We used fMRI to investigate whether rules at different hierarchical levels are represented at distinct locations in the brain or encoded by a single system...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112852/neural-lineage-progression-controlled-by-a-temporal-proliferation-program
#11
Shahrzad Bahrampour, Erika Gunnar, Carolin Jonsson, Helen Ekman, Stefan Thor
Great progress has been made in identifying transcriptional programs that establish stem cell identity. In contrast, we have limited insight into how these programs are down-graded in a timely manner to halt proliferation and allow for cellular differentiation. Drosophila embryonic neuroblasts undergo such a temporal progression, initially dividing to bud off daughters that divide once (type I), then switching to generating non-dividing daughters (type 0), and finally exiting the cell cycle. We identify six early transcription factors that drive neuroblast and type I daughter proliferation...
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109677/mechanisms-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-the-assembly-and-plasticity-of-neural-circuitry
#12
REVIEW
Andi Wang, Junbao Wang, Ying Liu, Yan Zhou
The mechanisms underlying development processes and functional dynamics of neural circuits are far from understood. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as essential players in defining identities of neural cells, and in modulating neural activities. In this review, we summarized latest advances concerning roles and mechanisms of lncRNAs in assembly, maintenance and plasticity of neural circuitry, as well as lncRNAs' implications in neurological disorders. We also discussed technical advances and challenges in studying functions and mechanisms of lncRNAs in neural circuitry...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105895/a-dimensional-approach-to-determine-common-and-specific-neurofunctional-markers-for-depression-and-social-anxiety-during-emotional-face-processing
#13
Lizhu Luo, Benjamin Becker, Xiaoxiao Zheng, Zhiying Zhao, Xiaolei Xu, Feng Zhou, Jiaojian Wang, Juan Kou, Jing Dai, Keith M Kendrick
Major depression disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorder are both prevalent and debilitating. High rates of comorbidity between MDD and social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest common pathological pathways, including aberrant neural processing of interpersonal signals. In patient populations, the determination of common and distinct neurofunctional markers of MDD and SAD is often hampered by confounding factors, such as generally elevated anxiety levels and disorder-specific brain structural alterations. This study employed a dimensional disorder approach to map neurofunctional markers associated with levels of depression and social anxiety symptoms in a cohort of 91 healthy subjects using an emotional face processing paradigm...
November 6, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100338/patient-derived-dipg-cells-preserve-stem-like-characteristics-and-generate-orthotopic-tumors
#14
Cheng Xu, Xiaoqing Liu, Yibo Geng, Qingran Bai, Changcun Pan, Yu Sun, Xin Chen, Hai Yu, Yuliang Wu, Peng Zhang, Wenhao Wu, Yu Wang, Zhen Wu, Junting Zhang, Zhaohui Wang, Rui Yang, Jenna Lewis, Darell Bigner, Fangping Zhao, Yiping He, Hai Yan, Qin Shen, Liwei Zhang
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a devastating brain tumor, with a median survival of less than one year. Due to enormous difficulties in the acquisition of DIPG specimens and the sophisticated technique required to perform brainstem orthotopic injection, only a handful of DIPG pre-clinical models are available. In this study, we successfully established eight patient-derived DIPG cell lines, mostly derived from treatment-naïve surgery or biopsy specimens. These patient-derived cell lines can be stably passaged in serum-free neural stem cell media and displayed distinct morphologies, growth rates and chromosome abnormalities...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097755/lasting-deficit-in-inhibitory-control-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Benjamin Xu, Marco Sandrini, Sarah Levy, Rita Volochayev, Oluwole Awosika, John A Butman, Dzung L Pham, Leonardo G Cohen
Being able to focus on a complex task and inhibit unwanted actions or interfering information (i.e., inhibitory control) are essential human cognitive abilities. However, it remains unknown the extent to which mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may impact these critical functions. In this study, seventeen patients and age-matched healthy controls (HC) performed a variant of the Stroop task and attention-demanding 4-choice response tasks (4CRT) with identical stimuli but two contexts: one required only routine responses and the other with occasional response conflicts...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096198/face-inversion-reveals-holistic-processing-of-peripheral-faces
#16
Petra Kovács, Balázs Knakker, Petra Hermann, Gyula Kovács, Zoltán Vidnyánszky
Face perception is accomplished by face-selective neural processes, involving holistic processing that enables highly efficient integration of facial features into a whole-face representation. It has been shown that in face-selective regions of the ventral temporal cortex (VTC), neural resources involved in holistic processing are primarily dedicated to the central portion of the visual field. These findings raise the intriguing possibility that holistic processing might be the privilege of centrally presented faces and could be strongly diminished in the case of peripheral faces...
October 6, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094783/surface-based-electrode-localization-and-standardized-regions-of-interest-for-intracranial-eeg
#17
Michael S Trotta, John Cocjin, Emily Whitehead, Srikanth Damera, John H Wittig, Ziad S Saad, Sara K Inati, Kareem A Zaghloul
Intracranial recordings captured from subdural electrodes in patients with drug resistant epilepsy offer clinicians and researchers a powerful tool for examining neural activity in the human brain with high spatial and temporal precision. There are two major challenges, however, to interpreting these signals both within and across individuals. Anatomical distortions following implantation make accurately identifying the electrode locations difficult. In addition, because each implant involves a unique configuration, comparing neural activity across individuals in a standardized manner has been limited to broad anatomical regions such as cortical lobes or gyri...
November 2, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080676/amygdaloid-involvement-in-the-defensive-behavior-of-mice-exposed-to-the-open-elevated-plus-maze
#18
Tatiani Sorregotti, Ana Cláudia Cipriano, Fábio Cardoso Cruz, Diego Cardozo Mascarenhas, Robert John Rodgers, Ricardo Luiz Nunes-de-Souza
Previous studies have shown that the exposure to an open elevated plus maze (oEPM, an EPM with all four open arms) elicits fear/anxiety-related responses in laboratory rodents. However, very little is known about the underlying neural substrates of these defensive behaviors. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effects of chemical inactivation of the amygdala [through local injection of cobalt chloride (CoCl2: a nonspecific synaptic blocker)] on the behavior of oEPM-exposed mice. In a second experiment, the pattern of activation of the basolateral (BLA) and central (CeA) nuclei of the amygdala was assessed through quantification of Fos protein expression in mice subjected to one of several behavioral manipulations...
October 31, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072810/serotonin-neuron-development-shaping-molecular-and-structural-identities
#19
REVIEW
Evan Deneris, Patricia Gaspar
The continuing fascination with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) as a nervous system chemical messenger began with its discovery in the brains of mammals in 1953. Among the many reasons for this decades-long interest is that the small numbers of neurons that make 5-HT influence the excitability of neural circuits in nearly every region of the brain and spinal cord. A further reason is that 5-HT dysfunction has been linked to a range of psychiatric and neurological disorders many of which have a neurodevelopmental component...
October 26, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071383/involvement-of-ordinary-what-and-where-auditory-cortical-areas-during-illusory-perception
#20
Alfredo Brancucci, Caterina Padulo, Raffaella Franciotti, Luca Tommasi, Stefania Della Penna
The focus of the present study is on the relationships between illusory and non-illusory auditory perception analyzed at a biological level. To this aim, we investigate neural mechanisms underlying the Deutsch's illusion, a condition in which both sound identity ("what") and origin ("where") are deceptively perceived. We recorded magnetoencephalogram from healthy subjects in three conditions: (a) listening to the acoustic sequence eliciting the illusion (ILL), (b) listening to a monaural acoustic sequence mimicking the illusory percept (MON), and (c) listening to an acoustic sequence similar to (a) but not eliciting the illusion (NIL)...
October 25, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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