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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453773/increased-cerebrospinal-fluid-levels-of-gaba-testosterone-and-estradiol-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#1
Jennifer F Kawwass, Kristen M Sanders, Tammy L Loucks, Lisa Cencia Rohan, Sarah L Berga
STUDY QUESTION: Do cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) differ in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as compared to eumenorrheic, ovulatory women (EW)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women with PCOS displayed higher CSF levels of GABA and E2, and possibly T, than EW. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The chronic anovulation characteristic of PCOS has been attributed to increased central GnRH drive and resulting gonadotropin aberrations...
April 27, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453285/pharmacological-reprogramming-of-somatic-cells-for-regenerative-medicine
#2
Min Xie, Shibing Tang, Ke Li, Sheng Ding
Lost or damaged cells in tissues and organs can be replaced by transplanting therapeutically competent cells. This approach requires methods that effectively manipulate cellular identities and properties to generate sufficient numbers of desired cell types for transplantation. These cells can be generated by reprogramming readily available somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which can replicate indefinitely and give rise to any somatic cell type. This reprogramming can be achieved with genetic methods, such as forced expression of pluripotency-inducing transcription factors (TFs), which can be further improved, or even avoided, with pharmacological agents...
April 28, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447825/enhanced-processing-of-untrustworthiness-in-natural-faces-with-neutral-expressions
#3
Alexander Lischke, Martin Junge, Alfons O Hamm, Mathias Weymar
During social interactions, individuals rapidly and automatically judge others' trustworthiness on the basis of subtle facial cues. To investigate the behavioral and neural correlates of these judgments, we conducted 2 studies: 1 study for the construction and evaluation of a set of natural faces differing in trustworthiness (Study 1: n = 30) and another study for the investigation of event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to this set of natural faces (Study 2: n = 30). Participants of both studies provided highly reliable and nearly identical trustworthiness ratings for the selected faces, supporting the notion that the discrimination of trustworthy and untrustworthy faces depends on distinct facial cues...
April 27, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444371/neural-correlates-of-both-perception-and-memory-for-objects-in-the-rodent-perirhinal-cortex
#4
Jae-Rong Ahn, Inah Lee
Despite its anatomical positioning as an interface between the perceptual and memory systems, the perirhinal cortex (PER) has long been considered dedicated for object recognition memory. Whether the PER is also involved in object perception has been intensely debated in recent studies, but physiological evidence has been lacking. We recorded single units from the PER while the rat made categorical responses immediately after sampling a visual object as the originally learned objects were ambiguously morphed to varying degrees...
April 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443001/functional-sub-circuits-of-the-olfactory-system-viewed-from-the-olfactory-bulb-and-the-olfactory-tubercle
#5
REVIEW
Masahiro Yamaguchi
Understanding of the olfactory neural circuits has progressed beyond analysis of how odor information from the external environment is processed in the brain. While spatially-organized sub-circuits were found to exist up to the olfactory bulb (OB), the arrangement in the olfactory cortex (OC), especially in its representative piriform cortex (PC), appears diffuse and dispersed. An emerging view is that the activity of OC neurons may not simply encode odor identity but rather encode plastic odor information such as odor value...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436888/neuromorphic-hardware-architecture-using-the-neural-engineering-framework-for-pattern-recognition
#6
Runchun Wang, Chetan Singh Thakur, Gregory Cohen, Tara Julia Hamilton, Jonathan Tapson, Andre van Schaik
We present a hardware architecture that uses the neural engineering framework (NEF) to implement large-scale neural networks on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for performing massively parallel real-time pattern recognition. NEF is a framework that is capable of synthesising large-scale cognitive systems from subnetworks and we have previously presented an FPGA implementation of the NEF that successfully performs nonlinear mathematical computations. That work was developed based on a compact digital neural core, which consists of 64 neurons that are instantiated by a single physical neuron using a time-multiplexing approach...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436835/neural-spike-train-synchronisation-indices-definitions-interpretations-and-applications
#7
D M Halliday, J R Rosenberg
A comparison of previously defined spike train syncrhonization indices is undertaken within a stochastic point process framework. The second order cumulant density (covariance density) is shown to be common to all the indices. Simulation studies were used to investigate the sampling variability of a single index based on the second order cumulant. The simulations used a paired motoneurone model and a paired regular spiking cortical neurone model. The sampling variability of spike trains generated under identical conditions from the paired motoneurone model varied from 50% { 160% of the estimated value...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432136/selective-modulation-of-the-pupil-light-reflex-by-prefrontal-cortex-microstimulation
#8
R Becket Ebitz, Tirin Moore
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to flexibly regulate sensorimotor responses. One way the PFC regulates sensorimotor transformations is to modulate activity in other circuits. However, the scope of that control remains unknown: it remains unclear whether the prefrontal cortex can modulate basic reflexes. One canonical example of a central reflex is the pupil light reflex (PLR): the automatic constriction of the pupil in response to luminance increments. Unlike pupil size, which depends the interaction of multiple physiological and neuromodulatory influences, the PLR reflects the action of a simple brainstem circuit...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431525/membrane-enriched-proteome-changes-and-prion-protein-expression-during-neural-differentiation-and-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#9
J A Macedo, D Schrama, I Duarte, E Tavares, J Renaut, M E Futschik, P M Rodrigues, E P Melo
BACKGROUND: The function of the prion protein, involved in the so-called prion diseases, remains a subject of intense debate and the possibility that it works as a pleiotropic protein through the interaction with multiple membrane proteins is somehow supported by recent reports. Therefore, the use of proteomic and bioinformatics combined to uncover cellular processes occurring together with changes in the expression of the prion protein may provide further insight into the putative pleiotropic role of the prion protein...
April 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426095/models-of-global-gene-expression-define-major-domains-of-cell-type-and-tissue-identity
#10
Andrew P Hutchins, Zhongzhou Yang, Yuhao Li, Fangfang He, Xiuling Fu, Xiaoshan Wang, Dongwei Li, Kairong Liu, Jiangping He, Yong Wang, Jiekai Chen, Miguel A Esteban, Duanqing Pei
The current classification of cells in an organism is largely based on their anatomic and developmental origin. Cells types and tissues are traditionally classified into those that arise from the three embryonic germ layers, the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, but this model does not take into account the organization of cell type-specific patterns of gene expression. Here, we present computational models for cell type and tissue specification derived from a collection of 921 RNA-sequencing samples from 272 distinct mouse cell types or tissues...
March 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419208/interhemispheric-synchrony-of-spontaneous-cortical-states-at-the-cortical-column-level
#11
Kazunori O'Hashi, Tomer Fekete, Thomas Deneux, Rina Hildesheim, Cees van Leeuwen, Amiram Grinvald
In cat early visual cortex, neural activity patterns resembling evoked orientation maps emerge spontaneously under anesthesia. To test if such patterns are synchronized between hemispheres, we performed bilateral imaging in anesthetized cats using a new improved voltage-sensitive dye. We observed map-like activity patterns spanning early visual cortex in both hemispheres simultaneously. Patterns virtually identical to maps associated with the cardinal and oblique orientations emerged as leading principal components of the spontaneous fluctuations, and the strength of transient orientation states was correlated with their duration, providing evidence that these maps are transiently attracting states...
April 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406957/event-related-potentials-to-changes-in-facial-expression-in-two-phase-transitions
#12
Michael J Wright, Lisa K Kuhn
The purpose of the study was to compare event-related potentials (ERPs) to different transitions between emotional and neutral facial expressions. The stimuli contained a single transition between two different images of the same face, giving a strong impression of changing expression though apparent motion whilst eliminating change in irrelevant stimulus variables such as image contrast or identity. Stimuli were calibrated for intensity, valence and perceived emotion category and only trials where the target emotion was correctly identified were included...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402863/biotagging-of-specific-cell-populations-in-zebrafish-reveals-gene-regulatory-logic-encoded-in-the-nuclear-transcriptome
#13
Le A Trinh, Vanessa Chong-Morrison, Daria Gavriouchkina, Tatiana Hochgreb-Hägele, Upeka Senanayake, Scott E Fraser, Tatjana Sauka-Spengler
Interrogation of gene regulatory circuits in complex organisms requires precise tools for the selection of individual cell types and robust methods for biochemical profiling of target proteins. We have developed a versatile, tissue-specific binary in vivo biotinylation system in zebrafish termed biotagging that uses genetically encoded components to biotinylate target proteins, enabling in-depth genome-wide analyses of their molecular interactions. Using tissue-specific drivers and cell-compartment-specific effector lines, we demonstrate the specificity of the biotagging toolkit at the biochemical, cellular, and transcriptional levels...
April 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402506/social-identity-shapes-social-valuation-evidence-from-prosocial-behavior-and-vicarious-reward
#14
Leor M Hackel, Jamil Zaki, Jay J Van Bavel
People frequently engage in more prosocial behavior toward members of their own groups, as compared to other groups. Such group-based prosociality may reflect either strategic considerations concerning one's own future outcomes or intrinsic value placed on the outcomes of in-group members. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, we examined vicarious reward responses to witnessing the monetary gains of in-group and out-group members, as well as prosocial behavior towards both types of individuals...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401457/comparative-studies-of-vertebrate-iduronate-2-sulfatase-ids-genes-and-proteins-evolution-of-a-mammalian-x-linked-gene
#15
REVIEW
Roger S Holmes
IDS is responsible for the lysosomal degradation of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate and linked to an X-linked lysosomal storage disease, mucopolysaccharidosis 2 (MPS2), resulting in neurological damage and early death. Comparative IDS amino acid sequences and structures and IDS gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate IDS sequences shared 60-99% identities with each other. Human IDS showed 47% sequence identity with fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) IDS...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400441/neuralized-regulates-crumbs-endocytosis-and-epithelium-morphogenesis-via-specific-stardust-isoforms
#16
Gantas Perez-Mockus, Vanessa Roca, Khalil Mazouni, François Schweisguth
Crumbs (Crb) is a conserved determinant of apical membrane identity that regulates epithelial morphogenesis in many developmental contexts. In this study, we identify the Crb complex protein Stardust (Sdt) as a target of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Neuralized (Neur) in Drosophila melanogaster Neur interacts with and down-regulates specific Sdt isoforms containing a Neur binding motif (NBM). Using a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-induced deletion of the NBM-encoding exon, we found that Sdt is a key Neur target and that Neur acts via Sdt to down-regulate Crb...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395730/emergence-of-transformation-tolerant-representations-of-visual-objects-in-rat-lateral-extrastriate-cortex
#17
Sina Tafazoli, Houman Safaai, Gioia De Franceschi, Federica Bianca Rosselli, Walter Vanzella, Margherita Riggi, Federica Buffolo, Stefano Panzeri, Davide Zoccolan
Rodents are emerging as increasingly popular models of visual functions. Yet, evidence that rodent visual cortex is capable of advanced visual processing, such as object recognition, is limited. Here we investigate how neurons located along the progression of extrastriate areas that, in the rat brain, run laterally to primary visual cortex, encode object information. We found a progressive functional specialization of neural responses along these areas, with: (1) a sharp reduction of the amount of low-level, energy-related visual information encoded by neuronal firing; and (2) a substantial increase in the ability of both single neurons and neuronal populations to support discrimination of visual objects under identity-preserving transformations (e...
April 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393878/frequency-dependent-oscillatory-neural-profiles-during-imitation
#18
Hisato Sugata, Masayuki Hirata, Yuichi Tamura, Hisao Onishi, Tetsu Goto, Toshihiko Araki, Shiro Yorifuji
Imitation is a complex process that includes higher-order cognitive and motor function. This process requires an observation-execution matching system that transforms an observed action into an identical movement. Although the low-gamma band is thought to reflect higher cognitive processes, no studies have focused on it. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine the neural oscillatory changes including the low-gamma band during imitation. Twelve healthy, right-handed participants performed a finger task consisting of four conditions (imitation, execution, observation, and rest)...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392584/relating-accumulator-model-parameters-and-neural-dynamics
#19
Braden A Purcell, Thomas J Palmeri
Accumulator models explain decision-making as an accumulation of evidence to a response threshold. Specific model parameters are associated with specific model mechanisms, such as the time when accumulation begins, the average rate of evidence accumulation, and the threshold. These mechanisms determine both the within-trial dynamics of evidence accumulation and the predicted behavior. Cognitive modelers usually infer what mechanisms vary during decision-making by seeing what parameters vary when a model is fitted to observed behavior...
February 2017: Journal of Mathematical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387590/encoding-of-predictable-and-unpredictable-stimuli-by-inferior-temporal-cortical-neurons
#20
Susheel Kumar, Peter Kaposvari, Rufin Vogels
Animals and humans learn statistical regularities that are embedded in sequences of stimuli. The neural mechanisms of such statistical learning are still poorly understood. Previous work in macaque inferior temporal (IT) cortex demonstrated suppressed spiking activity to visual images of a sequence in which the stimulus order was defined by transitional probabilities (labeled as "standard" sequence), compared with a sequence in which the stimulus order was random ("random" sequence). Here, we asked whether IT neurons encode the images of the standard sequence more accurately compared with images of the random sequence...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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