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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641388/recognition-of-the-component-odors-in-mixtures
#1
Marion E Frank, Dane B Fletcher, Thomas P Hettinger
Natural olfactory stimuli are volatile-chemical mixtures in which relative perceptual saliencies determine which odor-components are identified. Odor identification also depends on rapid selective adaptation, as shown for 4 odor stimuli in an earlier experimental simulation of natural conditions. Adapt-test pairs of mixtures of water-soluble, distinct odor stimuli with chemical features in common were studied. Identification decreased for adapted components but increased for unadapted mixture-suppressed components, showing compound identities were retained, not degraded to individual molecular features...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639464/neurophysiological-analysis-of-the-genesis-mechanism-of-eeg-during-the-interictal-and-ictal-periods-using-a-multiple-neural-masses-model
#2
Zhen Ma
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important method to investigate the neurophysiological mechanism underlying epileptogenesis to identify new therapies for the treatment of epilepsy. The neurophysiologically based neural mass model (NMM) can build a bridge between signal processing and neurophysiology, which can be used as a platform to explore the neurophysiological mechanism of epileptogenesis. Most EEG signals cannot be regarded as the outputs of a single NMM with identical model parameters. The outputs of NMM are simple because the diversity of neural signals in the same NMM is ignored...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636676/mitochondrion-to-endoplasmic-reticulum-apposition-length-in-zebrafish-embryo-spinal-progenitors-is-unchanged-in-response-to-perturbations-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Morgan Newman, Lena Halter, Anne Lim, Michael Lardelli
Mutations in the human genes PRESENILIN1 (PSEN1), PRESENILIN2 (PSEN2) and AMYLOID BETA A4 PRECURSOR PROTEIN (APP) have been identified in familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). The length of mitochondrion-endoplasmic reticulum (M-ER) appositions is increased in Psen1-/-/Psen2-/- double knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts and in fibroblasts from AD-affected individuals. Development of an easily accessible, genetically manipulable, in vivo system for studying M-ER appositions would be valuable so we attempted to manipulate M-ER apposition length in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634359/infections-of-horses-and-shrews-with-bornaviruses-in-upper-austria-a-novel-endemic-area-of-borna-disease
#4
Herbert Weissenböck, Zoltán Bagó, Jolanta Kolodziejek, Barbara Hager, Günter Palmetzhofer, Ralf Dürrwald, Norbert Nowotny
Borna disease, a lethal infection with Borna disease virus-1 (BoDV-1), was diagnosed in four horses from Upper Austria in 2015 and 2016. All cases occurred in winter (two cases in February 2015 and two cases in December 2016), and the maximal distance of the affected stables was 17 km. To demonstrate whether the causative agent was also harbored by its reservoir host, the bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon), 28 shrews from this geographic area were collected in 2015 and investigated for the presence of BoDV-1...
June 21, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630880/prominent-lateral-spread-of-imaged-evoked-activity-beyond-cortical-columns-in-barrel-cortex-provides-foundation-for-coding-whisker-identity
#5
Nathan S Jacobs, Ron D Frostig
The posterior medial barrel subfield (PMBSF) of a rat primary somatosensory cortex exquisitely demonstrates topography and columnar organization, defining features of sensory cortices in the mammalian brain. Optical imaging and neuronal recordings in rat PMBSF demonstrate how evoked cortical activity following single whisker stimulation also rapidly spreads laterally into surrounding cortices, disregarding columnar and modality boundaries. The current study quantifies the spatial prominence of such lateral activity spreads by demonstrating that functional connectivity between laterally spaced cortical locations is actually stronger than between vertically spaced cortical locations...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629974/the-effects-of-changes-in-object-location-on-object-identity-detection-a-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-study
#6
Ping Yang, Chenggui Fan, Min Wang, Noa Fogelson, Ling Li
Object identity and location are bound together to form a unique integration that is maintained and processed in visual working memory (VWM). Changes in task-irrelevant object location have been shown to impair the retrieval of memorial representations and the detection of object identity changes. However, the neural correlates of this cognitive process remain largely unknown. In the present study, we aim to investigate the underlying brain activation during object color change detection and the modulatory effects of changes in object location and VWM load...
June 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626635/eosinophilic-meningoencephalitis-associated-with-rat-lungworm-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-migration-in-two-nine-banded-armadillos-dasypus-novemcinctus-and-an-opossum-didelphis-virginiana-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#7
Martha F Dalton, Heather Fenton, Christopher A Cleveland, Elizabeth J Elsmo, Michael J Yabsley
Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, was the cause of neural larval migrans in two nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) and one Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) from the southeastern United States. Histologic findings in all three cases included eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with variable numbers of nematode larvae in the meninges or the neuroparenchyma. In two of the three cases, nematodes were extracted from brain tissue via a "squash prep" method. Identification of the nematodes was confirmed by amplification and sequence analysis of the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene from all three cases...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625658/enhancing-anger-perception-in-older-adults-by-stimulating-inferior-frontal-cortex-with-high-frequency-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation
#8
Tao Yang, Michael J Banissy
Extensive behavioural evidence has shown that older people have declined ability in facial emotion perception. Recent work has begun to examine the neural mechanism that contribute to this, and potential tools to support emotion perception during aging. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high frequency tRNS applied to the inferior frontal cortex would enhance facial expression perception in older adults. Healthy aged adults (60+ years) were randomly assigned to receive active high-frequency or sham tRNS targeted at bilateral inferior frontal cortices...
June 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624203/exosome-mediated-delivery-of-mir-124-promotes-neurogenesis-after-ischemia
#9
Jialei Yang, Xiufen Zhang, Xiangjie Chen, Lei Wang, Guodong Yang
The intrinsic ability of neurogenesis after stroke has been proven weak, which results in insufficient repair of injury in the nerve system. Recent studies suggest multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the neuroremodeling process. Targeted miRNAs delivery for amplification of neurogenesis is promising in promoting the prognosis after ischemia. Here, we showed that modified exosomes, with rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) fused to exosomal protein lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2b (Lamp2b), could efficiently deliver miR-124 to the infarct site...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619719/hypothalamic-regulation-of-regionally-distinct-adult-neural-stem-cells-and-neurogenesis
#10
Alex Paul, Zayna Chaker, Fiona Doetsch
Neural stem cells (NSCs) in specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain generate neurons throughout life. NSCs in the adult mouse ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) exhibit a regional identity, and depending on their location, generate distinct olfactory bulb interneuron subtypes. Here we show that the hypothalamus, a brain area regulating physiological states, provides long-range regionalized input to the V-SVZ niche and can regulate specific NSC subpopulations. Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons selectively innervate the anterior ventral V-SVZ and promote the proliferation of Nkx2...
June 15, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619657/low-frequency-oscillations-employ-a-general-coding-of-the-spatio-temporal-similarity-of-dynamic-faces
#11
Nicholas Furl, Michael Lohse, Francesca Pizzorni-Ferrarese
Brain networks use neural oscillations as information transfer mechanisms. Although the face perception network in occipitotemporal cortex is well-studied, contributions of oscillations to face representation remain an open question. We tested for links between oscillatory responses that encode facial dimensions and the theoretical proposal that faces are encoded in similarity-based "face spaces". We quantified similarity-based encoding of dynamic faces in magnetoencephalographic sensor-level oscillatory power for identity, expression, physical and perceptual similarity of facial form and motion...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619447/similar-movements-are-associated-with-drastically-different-muscle-contraction-velocities
#12
Daniel A Hagen, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
We investigated how kinematic redundancy interacts with the neurophysiological control mechanisms required for smooth and accurate, rapid limb movements. Biomechanically speaking, tendon excursions are over-determined because the rotation of few joints determines the lengths and velocities of many muscles. But how different are the muscle velocity profiles induced by various, equally valid hand trajectories? We used an 18-muscle sagittal-plane arm model to calculate 100,000 feasible shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint rotations that produced valid basketball free throws with different hand trajectories, but identical initial and final hand positions and velocities...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618817/an-algorithm-to-increase-intelligibility-for-hearing-impaired-listeners-in-the-presence-of-a-competing-talker
#13
Eric W Healy, Masood Delfarah, Jordan L Vasko, Brittney L Carter, DeLiang Wang
Individuals with hearing impairment have particular difficulty perceptually segregating concurrent voices and understanding a talker in the presence of a competing voice. In contrast, individuals with normal hearing perform this task quite well. This listening situation represents a very different problem for both the human and machine listener, when compared to perceiving speech in other types of background noise. A machine learning algorithm is introduced here to address this listening situation. A deep neural network was trained to estimate the ideal ratio mask for a male target talker in the presence of a female competing talker...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615040/immunohistochemical-and-immunocytochemical-study-of-mechanoreceptors-in-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-with-the-remnant-preserving-technique-using-achilles-tendon-allografts
#14
Keun Churl Chun, Sung Hyun Lee, Jeong Woo Kim, Eun Jung Jin, Kwang Mee Kim, Churl Hong Chun
BACKGROUND: Attempts have been made to validate the significance of remnant preservation with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical techniques. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of mechanoreceptors in the remnant tissue of ACL reconstruction performed with the remnant-preserving technique. METHODS: Tissue samples were obtained from 10 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction with the remnant-preserving technique...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610582/behavioral-and-neural-adaptations-in-response-to-five-weeks-of-balance-training-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Jan Ruffieux, Audrey Mouthon, Martin Keller, Michael Wälchli, Wolfgang Taube
BACKGROUND: While the positive effect of balance training on age-related impairments in postural stability is well-documented, the neural correlates of such training adaptations in older adults remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to shed more light on neural adaptations in response to balance training in older adults. METHODS: Postural stability as well as spinal reflex and cortical excitability was measured in older adults (65-80 years) before and after 5 weeks of balance training (n = 15) or habitual activity (n = 13)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607422/morphology-controls-how-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-neuron-responds-to-uniform-electric-fields-a-biophysical-modeling-study
#16
Guo-Sheng Yi, Jiang Wang, Bin Deng, Xi-Le Wei
Responses of different neurons to electric field (EF) are highly variable, which depends on intrinsic properties of cell type. Here we use multi-compartmental biophysical models to investigate how morphologic features affect EF-induced responses in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. We find that the basic morphologies of neuronal elements, including diameter, length, bend, branch, and axon terminals, are all correlated with somatic depolarization through altering the current sources or sinks created by applied field...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607389/visual-adaptation-reveals-an-objective-electrophysiological-measure-of-high-level-individual-face-discrimination
#17
Talia L Retter, Bruno Rossion
The ability to individualize faces is a fundamental human brain function. Following visual adaptation to one individual face, the suppressed neural response to this identity becomes discriminable from an unadapted facial identity at a neural population level. Here, we investigate a simple and objective measure of individual face discrimination with electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency tagging following adaptation. In a first condition, (1) two facial identities are presented in alternation at a rate of six images per second (6 Hz; 3 Hz identity repetition rate) for a 20 s testing sequence, following 10-s adaptation to one of the facial identities; this results in a significant identity discrimination response at 3 Hz in the frequency domain of the EEG over right occipito-temporal channels, replicating our previous findings...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605383/quadruple-immunostaining-of-the-olfactory-bulb-for-visualization-of-olfactory-sensory-axon-molecular-identity-codes
#18
Naoki Ihara, Yuji Ikegaya, Haruki Takeuchi
The mouse olfactory system is often used to study mechanisms of neural circuit formation because of its simple anatomical structure. An Olfactory Sensory Neuron (OSN) is a bipolar cell with a single dendrite and a single unbranched axon. An OSN expresses only one Olfactory Receptor (OR) gene, OSNs expressing a given type of OR converge their axons to a few sets of invariant glomeruli in the Olfactory Bulb (OB). A remarkable feature of OSN projection is that the expressed ORs play instructive roles in axonal projection...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599147/integration-of-identity-and-emotion-information-in-faces-fmri-evidence
#19
Alla Yankouskaya, Moritz Stolte, Zargol Moradi, Pia Rotshtein, Glyn Humphreys
Separate neural systems have been implicated in the recognition of facial identity and emotional expression. A growing number of studies now provide evidence against this modular view by demonstrating that integration of identity and emotion information enhances face processing. Yet, the neural mechanisms that shape this integration remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that the presence of both personal and emotional expression target information triggers changes in functional connectivity between frontal and extrastriate areas in the brain...
August 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593141/glycosyl-chains-and-25-hydroxycholesterol-contribute-to-the-intracellular-transport-of-amyloid-beta-a%C3%AE-42-in-jurkat-t-cells
#20
Neha Sharma, KeangOK Baek, Huong T T Phan, Naofumi Shimokawa, Masahiro Takagi
Amyloid beta (Aβ) is a peptide responsible for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Misfolding and accumulation of endogenous Aβ can lead to neural cell apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Added exogenous Aβ can also result in ER stress, leading to neurotoxicity and apoptosis, which is identical to that caused by the endogenous peptide. We have speculated that the endocytic transport of Aβ causes ER stress and have previously shown that the oxysterol, in particular, 7-ketocholesterol (7-keto) induces more surface interaction between Aβ-42 and Jurkat cells than cholesterol...
June 2017: FEBS Open Bio
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