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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811038/fast-and-robust-online-adaptive-planning-in-stereotactic-mr-guided-adaptive-radiation-therapy-smart-for-pancreatic-cancer
#1
O Bohoudi, A M E Bruynzeel, S Senan, J P Cuijpers, B J Slotman, F J Lagerwaard, M A Palacios
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To implement a robust and fast stereotactic MR-guided adaptive radiation therapy (SMART) online strategy in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: SMART strategy for plan adaptation was implemented with the MRIdian system (ViewRay Inc.). At each fraction, OAR (re-)contouring is done within a distance of 3cm from the PTV surface. Online plan re-optimization is based on robust prediction of OAR dose and optimization objectives, obtained by building an artificial neural network (ANN)...
August 12, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808246/how-context-alters-value-the-brain-s-valuation-and-affective-regulation-system-link-price-cues-to-experienced-taste-pleasantness
#2
Liane Schmidt, Vasilisa Skvortsova, Claus Kullen, Bernd Weber, Hilke Plassmann
Informational cues such as the price of a wine can trigger expectations about its taste quality and thereby modulate the sensory experience on a reported and neural level. Yet it is unclear how the brain translates such expectations into sensory pleasantness. We used a whole-brain multilevel mediation approach with healthy participants who tasted identical wines cued with different prices while their brains were scanned using fMRI. We found that the brain's valuation system (BVS) in concert with the anterior prefrontal cortex played a key role in implementing the effect of price cues on taste pleasantness ratings...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804501/regulatory-role-of-redox-balance-in-determination-of-neural-precursor-cell-fate
#3
REVIEW
Mohamed Ariff Iqbal, Eftekhar Eftekharpour
In 1990s, reports of discovery of a small group of cells capable of proliferation and contribution to formation of new neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) reversed a century-old concept on lack of neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain. These cells are found in all stages of human life and contribute to normal cellular turnover of the CNS. Therefore, the identity of regulating factors that affect their proliferation and differentiation is a highly noteworthy issue for basic scientists and their clinician counterparts for therapeutic purposes...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797034/unsupervised-learning-of-temporal-features-for-word-categorization-in-a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-the-auditory-brain
#4
Irina Higgins, Simon Stringer, Jan Schnupp
The nature of the code used in the auditory cortex to represent complex auditory stimuli, such as naturally spoken words, remains a matter of debate. Here we argue that such representations are encoded by stable spatio-temporal patterns of firing within cell assemblies known as polychronous groups, or PGs. We develop a physiologically grounded, unsupervised spiking neural network model of the auditory brain with local, biologically realistic, spike-time dependent plasticity (STDP) learning, and show that the plastic cortical layers of the network develop PGs which convey substantially more information about the speaker independent identity of two naturally spoken word stimuli than does rate encoding that ignores the precise spike timings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777330/a-compact-energy-harvesting-system-for-outdoor-wireless-sensor-nodes-based-on-a-low-cost-in-situ-photovoltaic-panel-characterization-modelling-unit
#5
Diego Antolín, Nicolás Medrano, Belén Calvo, Pedro A Martínez
This paper presents a low-cost high-efficiency solar energy harvesting system to power outdoor wireless sensor nodes. It is based on a Voltage Open Circuit (VOC) algorithm that estimates the open-circuit voltage by means of a multilayer perceptron neural network model trained using local experimental characterization data, which are acquired through a novel low cost characterization system incorporated into the deployed node. Both units-characterization and modelling-are controlled by the same low-cost microcontroller, providing a complete solution which can be understood as a virtual pilot cell, with identical characteristics to those of the specific small solar cell installed on the sensor node, that besides allows an easy adaptation to changes in the actual environmental conditions, panel aging, etc...
August 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775236/patient-derived-dipg-cells-preserve-stem-like-characteristics-and-generate-orthotopic-tumors
#6
Cheng Xu, Xiaoqing Liu, Yibo Geng, Qingran Bai, Changcun Pan, Yu Sun, Xin Chen, Hai Yu, Yuliang Wu, Peng Zhang, Wenhao Wu, Yu Wang, Zhen Wu, Juntin Zhang, Zhaohui Wang, Rui Yang, Jenna Lewis, Darell Bigner, Fangping Zhao, Yiping He, Hai Yan, Qin Shen, Liwei Zhang
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a devastating brain tumor, with a median survival of less than one year. Due to enormous difficulties in the acquisition of DIPG specimens and the sophisticated technique required to perform brainstem orthotopic injection, only a handful of DIPG pre-clinical models are available. In this study, we successfully established eight patient-derived DIPG cell lines, mostly derived from treatment-naïve surgery or biopsy specimens. These patient-derived cell lines can be stably passaged in serum-free neural stem cell media and displayed distinct morphologies, growth rates and chromosome abnormalities...
July 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761904/iglon5-antibody-neurological-accompaniments-and-outcomes-in-20-patients
#7
Josephe A Honorat, Lars Komorowski, Keith A Josephs, Kai Fechner, Erik K St Louis, Shannon R Hinson, Sabine Lederer, Neeraj Kumar, Avi Gadoth, Vanda A Lennon, Sean J Pittock, Andrew McKeon
OBJECTIVE: To describe the phenotypes, treatment response, and outcome of IgLON5 autoimmunity. METHODS: Archived serum and CSF specimens from 367 patients known to harbor unclassified antibodies which stained neural synapses diffusely (mimicking amphiphysin-IgG) were reevaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using a composite of mouse tissues and recombinant IgLON5-transfected cell-based assay (CBA, Euroimmun). RESULTS: Available specimens (serum, 25; CSF, 9) from 26/367 patients (7%) had identical IFA appearance and robust IgLON5 CBA positivity...
September 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753377/expected-number-of-fixed-points-in-boolean-networks-with-arbitrary-topology
#8
Fumito Mori, Atsushi Mochizuki
Boolean network models describe genetic, neural, and social dynamics in complex networks, where the dynamics depend generally on network topology. Fixed points in a genetic regulatory network are typically considered to correspond to cell types in an organism. We prove that the expected number of fixed points in a Boolean network, with Boolean functions drawn from probability distributions that are not required to be uniform or identical, is one, and is independent of network topology if only a feedback arc set satisfies a stochastic neutrality condition...
July 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740262/heterogeneity-of-neuroblastoma-cell-identity-defined-by-transcriptional-circuitries
#9
Valentina Boeva, Caroline Louis-Brennetot, Agathe Peltier, Simon Durand, Cécile Pierre-Eugène, Virginie Raynal, Heather C Etchevers, Sophie Thomas, Alban Lermine, Estelle Daudigeos-Dubus, Birgit Geoerger, Martin F Orth, Thomas G P Grünewald, Elise Diaz, Bertrand Ducos, Didier Surdez, Angel M Carcaboso, Irina Medvedeva, Thomas Deller, Valérie Combaret, Eve Lapouble, Gaelle Pierron, Sandrine Grossetête-Lalami, Sylvain Baulande, Gudrun Schleiermacher, Emmanuel Barillot, Hermann Rohrer, Olivier Delattre, Isabelle Janoueix-Lerosey
Neuroblastoma is a tumor of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, derived from multipotent neural crest cells (NCCs). To define core regulatory circuitries (CRCs) controlling the gene expression program of neuroblastoma, we established and analyzed the neuroblastoma super-enhancer landscape. We discovered three types of identity in neuroblastoma cell lines: a sympathetic noradrenergic identity, defined by a CRC module including the PHOX2B, HAND2 and GATA3 transcription factors (TFs); an NCC-like identity, driven by a CRC module containing AP-1 TFs; and a mixed type, further deconvoluted at the single-cell level...
July 24, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731267/heuristic-knowledge-based-planning-for-single-isocenter-stereotactic-radiosurgery-to-multiple-brain-metastases
#10
Benjamin P Ziemer, Parag Sanghvi, Jona Hattangadi-Gluth, Kevin L Moore
PURPOSE: Single-isocenter, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for multiple brain metastases (multi-mets) can deliver highly conformal dose distributions and reduce overall patient treatment time compared to other techniques. However, treatment planning for multi-met cases is highly complex due to variability in numbers and sizes of brain metastases, as well as their relative proximity to organs-at-risk (OARs). The purpose of this study was to automate the VMAT planning of multi-met cases through a knowledge-based planning (KBP) approach that adapts single target SRS dose predictions to multiple target predictions...
July 21, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729063/eeg-source-reconstruction-evidence-for-the-noun-verb-neural-dissociation-along-semantic-dimensions
#11
Bin Zhao, Jianwu Dang, Gaoyan Zhang
One of the long-standing issues in neurolinguistic research is about the neural basis of word representation, concerning whether grammatical classification or semantic difference causes the neural dissociation of brain activity patterns when processing different word categories, especially nouns and verbs. To disentangle this puzzle, four orthogonalized word categories in Chinese: unambiguous nouns (UN), unambiguous verbs (UV), ambiguous words with noun-biased semantics (AN), and ambiguous words with verb-biased semantics (AV) were adopted in an auditory task for recording electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from 128 electrodes on the scalps of twenty-two subjects...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726548/wnt-yap-interactions-during-neural-tissue-patterning-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#12
Julie Bejoy, Liqing Song, Yi Zhou, Yan Li
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have special ability to self-assemble into neural spheroids or mini-brain like structures. During the self-assembly process, Wnt signaling plays an important role in regional patterning and establishing positional identity of hiPSC-derived neural progenitors. Recently, the role of Wnt signaling in regulating Yes-associated protein (YAP) expression (nuclear or cytoplasmic), the pivotal regulator during organ growth and tissue generation, has attracted increasing interests...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724780/a-reduced-somatosensory-gating-response-in-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis-is-related-to-walking-impairment
#13
David J Arpin, James E Gehringer, Tony W Wilson, Max J Kurz
When identical stimuli are presented in rapid temporal succession, neural responses to the second stimulation are often weaker than that observed for the first. This phenomenon is termed sensory gating and is believed to be an adaptive feature that helps prevent higher-order cortical centers from being flooded with unnecessary information. Recently, sensory gating in the somatosensory system has been linked to deficits in tactile discrimination. Additionally, studies have linked poor tactile discrimination with impaired walking and balance in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723578/convolutional-neural-network-based-encoding-and-decoding-of-visual-object-recognition-in-space-and-time
#14
REVIEW
K Seeliger, M Fritsche, U Güçlü, S Schoenmakers, J-M Schoffelen, S E Bosch, M A J van Gerven
Representations learned by deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for object recognition are a widely investigated model of the processing hierarchy in the human visual system. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, CNN representations of visual stimuli have previously been shown to correspond to processing stages in the ventral and dorsal streams of the visual system. Whether this correspondence between models and brain signals also holds for activity acquired at high temporal resolution has been explored less exhaustively...
July 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716582/a-probabilistic-poisson-based-model-accounts-for-an-extensive-set-of-absolute-auditory-threshold-measurements
#15
Peter Heil, Artur Matysiak, Heinrich Neubauer
Thresholds for detecting sounds in quiet decrease with increasing sound duration in every species studied. The neural mechanisms underlying this trade-off, often referred to as temporal integration, are not fully understood. Here, we probe the human auditory system with a large set of tone stimuli differing in duration, shape of the temporal amplitude envelope, duration of silent gaps between bursts, and frequency. Duration was varied by varying the plateau duration of plateau-burst (PB) stimuli, the duration of the onsets and offsets of onset-offset (OO) stimuli, and the number of identical bursts of multiple-burst (MB) stimuli...
June 27, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715718/when-speaker-identity-is-unavoidable-neural-processing-of-speaker-identity-cues-in-natural-speech
#16
Alba Tuninetti, Kateřina Chládková, Varghese Peter, Niels O Schiller, Paola Escudero
Speech sound acoustic properties vary largely across speakers and accents. When perceiving speech, adult listeners normally disregard non-linguistic variation caused by speaker or accent differences, in order to comprehend the linguistic message, e.g. to correctly identify a speech sound or a word. Here we tested whether the process of normalizing speaker and accent differences, facilitating the recognition of linguistic information, is found at the level of neural processing, and whether it is modulated by the listeners' native language...
July 14, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712653/neural-circuit-specialized-astrocytes-transcriptomic-proteomic-morphological-and-functional-evidence
#17
Hua Chai, Blanca Diaz-Castro, Eiji Shigetomi, Emma Monte, J Christopher Octeau, Xinzhu Yu, Whitaker Cohn, Pradeep S Rajendran, Thomas M Vondriska, Julian P Whitelegge, Giovanni Coppola, Baljit S Khakh
Astrocytes are ubiquitous in the brain and are widely held to be largely identical. However, this view has not been fully tested, and the possibility that astrocytes are neural circuit specialized remains largely unexplored. Here, we used multiple integrated approaches, including RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), mass spectrometry, electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, serial block-face-scanning electron microscopy, morphological reconstructions, pharmacogenetics, and diffusible dye, calcium, and glutamate imaging, to directly compare adult striatal and hippocampal astrocytes under identical conditions...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712365/psychoneurometric-assessment-of-dispositional-liabilities-for-suicidal-behavior-phenotypic-and-etiological-associations
#18
N C Venables, J R Yancey, M D Kramer, B M Hicks, R F Krueger, W G Iacono, T E Joiner, C J Patrick
BACKGROUND: Can core genetic liabilities for suicidal behavior be indexed using psychological and neural indicators combined? The current work addressed this question by examining phenotypic and genetic associations of two biobehavioral traits, threat sensitivity (THT) and disinhibition (DIS) - operationalized as psychoneurometric variables (i.e., composites of psychological-scale and neurophysiological measures) - with suicidal behaviors in a sample of adult twins. METHODS: Participants were 444 identical and fraternal twins recruited from an urban community...
July 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707197/quantum-like-behavior-without-quantum-physics-i-kinematics-of-neural-like-systems
#19
S A Selesnick, J P Rawling, Gualtiero Piccinini
Recently there has been much interest in the possible quantum-like behavior of the human brain in such functions as cognition, the mental lexicon, memory, etc., producing a vast literature. These studies are both empirical and theoretical, the tenets of the theory in question being mainly, and apparently inevitably, those of quantum physics itself, for lack of other arenas in which quantum-like properties are presumed to obtain. However, attempts to explain this behavior on the basis of actual quantum physics going on at the atomic or molecular level within some element of brain or neuronal anatomy (other than the ordinary quantum physics that underlies everything), do not seem to survive much scrutiny...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699028/the-occipital-face-area-is-causally-involved-in-the-formation-of-identity-specific-face-representations
#20
Géza Gergely Ambrus, Maria Dotzer, Stefan R Schweinberger, Gyula Kovács
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and neuroimaging studies suggest a role of the right occipital face area (rOFA) in early facial feature processing. However, the degree to which rOFA is necessary for the encoding of facial identity has been less clear. Here we used a state-dependent TMS paradigm, where stimulation preferentially facilitates attributes encoded by less active neural populations, to investigate the role of the rOFA in face perception and specifically in image-independent identity processing...
July 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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