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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923324/uncovering-the-in-vivo-source-of-adult-neural-crest-stem-cells
#1
Jorge B Aquino
Some late embryonic and adult postmigratory neural crest-derived cells (NCDCs) from diverse tissues were shown to grow as multipotent neurospheres. Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) contained in these spheres, were found to give rise not only to neuroectodermal derivatives but also to some of the progeny of the other embryonic germ layers. In this review, evidences regarding the in vivo properties of NCDCs contributing to NCSCs are discussed. Even though in many cases the final prove for the phenotype identity of in vivo cells generating NCSCs is lacking, some evidences suggest that such postmigratory NCDCs would differ from neural crest cells (NCCs)...
December 6, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921996/the-cns-connectome-of-a-tadpole-larva-of-ciona-intestinalis-l-highlights-sidedness-in-the-brain-of-a-chordate-sibling
#2
Kerrianne Ryan, Zhiyuan Lu, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Left-right asymmetries in brains are usually minor or cryptic. We report brain asymmetries in the tiny, dorsal tubular nervous system of the ascidian tadpole larva, Ciona intestinalis. Chordate in body plan and development, the larva provides an outstanding example of brain asymmetry. Although early neural development is well studied, detailed cellular organization of the swimming larva's CNS remains unreported. Using serial-section EM we document the synaptic connectome of the larva's 177 CNS neurons. These formed 6618 synapses including 1772 neuromuscular junctions, augmented by 1206 gap junctions...
December 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920144/methyl-cpg-binding-protein-mbd1-regulates-neuronal-lineage-commitment-through-maintaining-adult-neural-stem-cell-identity
#3
Emily M Jobe, Yu Gao, Brian E Eisinger, Janessa K Mladucky, Charles C Giuliani, Laurel E Kelnhofer, Xinyu Zhao
: MBD1 belongs to a family of methyl-CpG binding proteins that are epigenetic "readers", linking DNA methylation to transcriptional regulation. MBD1 is expressed in neural stem cells residing in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus (aNSCs), and MBD1 deficiency leads to reduced neuronal differentiation, impaired neurogenesis, learning deficits, and autism-like behaviors in mice; however the precise function of MBD1 in aNSCs remains unexplored. Here, we show that MBD1 is important for maintaining the integrity and stemness of NSCs, which is critical for their ability to generate neurons...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920027/sodium-taste-during-sodium-appetite
#4
Ralph Norgren
Sodium appetite appears to be an excellent model to study the neural mechanisms of motivation. In this issue of Chemical Senses, experiments by St John (2016) challenge 2 hypotheses for how a systemic sodium deficit guides an animal to find and ingest more Na ions in the environment. Both hypotheses deal with modifications of the sensory neural code produced by Na(+) ions on the tongue. One envisions a change in the Na(+) signal amplitude. A reduction could make the strong Na(+) signals less aversive; an increase, weak signals more noticeable...
December 5, 2016: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918785/the-timecourse-of-expression-aftereffects
#5
Nichola Burton, Linda Jeffery, Jack Bonner, Gillian Rhodes
Adaptation to facial expressions produces aftereffects that bias perception of subsequent expressions away from the adaptor. Studying the temporal dynamics of an aftereffect can help us to understand the neural processes that underlie perception, and how they change with experience. Little is known about the temporal dynamics of the expression aftereffect. We conducted two experiments to measure the timecourse of this aftereffect. In Experiment 1 we examined how the size of the aftereffect varies with changes in the duration of the adaptor and test stimuli...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916522/view-tolerant-face-recognition-and-hebbian-learning-imply-mirror-symmetric-neural-tuning-to-head-orientation
#6
Joel Z Leibo, Qianli Liao, Fabio Anselmi, Winrich A Freiwald, Tomaso Poggio
The primate brain contains a hierarchy of visual areas, dubbed the ventral stream, which rapidly computes object representations that are both specific for object identity and robust against identity-preserving transformations, like depth rotations [1, 2]. Current computational models of object recognition, including recent deep-learning networks, generate these properties through a hierarchy of alternating selectivity-increasing filtering and tolerance-increasing pooling operations, similar to simple-complex cells operations [3-6]...
November 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915232/quantitative-profiling-of-selective-sox-pou-pairing-on-hundreds-of-sequences-in-parallel-by-coop-seq
#7
Yiming K Chang, Yogesh Srivastava, Caizhen Hu, Adam Joyce, Xiaoxiao Yang, Zheng Zuo, James J Havranek, Gary D Stormo, Ralf Jauch
Cooperative binding of transcription factors is known to be important in the regulation of gene expression programs conferring cellular identities. However, current methods to measure cooperativity parameters have been laborious and therefore limited to studying only a few sequence variants at a time. We developed Coop-seq (cooperativity by sequencing) that is capable of efficiently and accurately determining the cooperativity parameters for hundreds of different DNA sequences in a single experiment. We apply Coop-seq to 12 dimer pairs from the Sox and POU families of transcription factors using 324 unique sequences with changed half-site orientation, altered spacing and discrete randomization within the binding elements...
December 2, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913345/facial-age-estimation-with-age-difference
#8
Zhenzhen Hu, Yonggang Wen, Jianfeng Wang, Meng Wang, Richang Hong, Shuicheng Yan
Age estimation based on the human face remains a significant problem in computer vision and pattern recognition. In order to estimate an accurate age or age group of a facial image, most of the existing algorithms require a huge face data set attached with age labels. This imposes a constraint on the utilization of the immensely unlabeled or weakly labeled training data, e.g. the huge amount of human photos in the social networks. These images may provide no age label, but it is easily to derive the age difference for an image pair of the same person...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912755/establishment-of-high-reciprocal-connectivity-between-clonal-cortical-neurons-is-regulated-by-the-dnmt3b-dna-methyltransferase-and-clustered-protocadherins
#9
Etsuko Tarusawa, Makoto Sanbo, Atsushi Okayama, Toshio Miyashita, Takashi Kitsukawa, Teruyoshi Hirayama, Takahiro Hirabayashi, Sonoko Hasegawa, Ryosuke Kaneko, Shunsuke Toyoda, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Megumi Kato-Itoh, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Masumi Hirabayashi, Takeshi Yagi, Yumiko Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: The specificity of synaptic connections is fundamental for proper neural circuit function. Specific neuronal connections that underlie information processing in the sensory cortex are initially established without sensory experiences to a considerable extent, and then the connections are individually refined through sensory experiences. Excitatory neurons arising from the same single progenitor cell are preferentially connected in the postnatal cortex, suggesting that cell lineage contributes to the initial wiring of neurons...
December 2, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912091/genetic-ablation-of-axl-does-not-protect-human-neural-progenitor-cells-and-cerebral-organoids-from-zika-virus-infection
#10
Michael F Wells, Max R Salick, Ole Wiskow, Daniel J Ho, Kathleen A Worringer, Robert J Ihry, Sravya Kommineni, Bilada Bilican, Joseph R Klim, Ellen J Hill, Liam T Kane, Chaoyang Ye, Ajamete Kaykas, Kevin Eggan
Zika virus (ZIKV) can cross the placental barrier, resulting in infection of the fetal brain and neurological defects including microcephaly. The cellular tropism of ZIKV and the identity of attachment factors used by the virus to gain access to key cell types involved in pathogenesis are under intense investigation. Initial studies suggested that ZIKV preferentially targets neural progenitor cells (NPCs), providing an explanation for the developmental phenotypes observed in some pregnancies. The AXL protein has been nominated as a key attachment factor for ZIKV in several cell types including NPCs...
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908154/mass-detection-in-digital-breast-tomosynthesis-deep-convolutional-neural-network-with-transfer-learning-from-mammography
#11
Ravi K Samala, Heang-Ping Chan, Lubomir Hadjiiski, Mark A Helvie, Jun Wei, Kenny Cha
PURPOSE: Develop a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for masses in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) volume using a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) with transfer learning from mammograms. METHODS: A data set containing 2282 digitized film and digital mammograms and 324 DBT volumes were collected with IRB approval. The mass of interest on the images was marked by an experienced breast radiologist as reference standard. The data set was partitioned into a training set (2282 mammograms with 2461 masses and 230 DBT views with 228 masses) and an independent test set (94 DBT views with 89 masses)...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905082/facial-identity-and-emotional-expression-as-predictors-during-economic-decisions
#12
Sonia Alguacil, Eduardo Madrid, Antonio M Espín, María Ruz
Two sources of information most relevant to guide social decision making are the cooperative tendencies associated with different people and their facial emotional displays. This electrophysiological experiment aimed to study how the use of personal identity and emotional expressions as cues impacts different stages of face processing and their potential isolated or interactive processing. Participants played a modified trust game with 8 different alleged partners, and in separate blocks either the identity or the emotions carried information regarding potential trial outcomes (win or loss)...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903728/context-dependent-accumulation-of-sensory-evidence-in-the-parietal-cortex-underlies-flexible-task-switching
#13
Hironori Kumano, Yuki Suda, Takanori Uka
: Switching behavior based on multiple rules is a fundamental ability of flexible behavior. Although interactions among the frontal, parietal, and sensory cortices are necessary for such flexibility, little is known about the neural computations concerning context-dependent information readouts. Here, we provide evidence that neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) accumulate relevant information preferentially depending on context. We trained monkeys to switch between direction and depth discrimination tasks and analyzed the buildup activity in the LIP depending on task context...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902696/interglomerular-connectivity-within-the-canonical-and-gc-d-necklace-olfactory-subsystems
#14
Cedric R Uytingco, Adam C Puche, Steven D Munger
The mammalian main olfactory system contains several subsystems that differ not only in the receptors they express and the glomerular targets they innervate within the main olfactory bulb (MOB), but also in the strategies they use to process odor information. The canonical main olfactory system employs a combinatorial coding strategy that represents odorant identity as a pattern of glomerular activity. By contrast, the "GC-D/necklace" olfactory subsystem-formed by olfactory sensory neurons expressing the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D and their target necklace glomeruli (NGs) encircling the caudal MOB-is critical for the detection of a small number of semiochemicals that promote the acquisition of food preferences...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898342/voice-sensitive-brain-networks-encode-talker-specific-phonetic-detail
#15
Emily B Myers, Rachel M Theodore
The speech stream simultaneously carries information about talker identity and linguistic content, and the same acoustic property (e.g., voice-onset-time, or VOT) may be used for both purposes. Separable neural networks for processing talker identity and phonetic content have been identified, but it is unclear how a singular acoustic property is parsed by the neural system for talker identification versus phonetic processing. In the current study, listeners were exposed to two talkers with characteristically different VOTs...
November 26, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897673/soap-opera-self-as-object-and-agent-in-prioritizing-attention
#16
Grace Truong, Rebecca M Todd
A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that multiple sources of salience tune attentional sets toward aspects of the environment, including affectively and motivationally significant categories of stimuli such as angry faces and reward-associated target locations. Recent evidence further indicates that objects that have gained personal significance through ownership can elicit similar attentional prioritization. Here we discuss current research on sources of attentional prioritization that shape our awareness of the visual world from moment to moment and the underlying neural systems and contextualize what is known about attentional prioritization of our possessions within that research...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896486/neural-correlates-of-the-binaural-masking-level-difference-in-human-frequency-following-responses
#17
Christopher G Clinard, Sarah L Hodgson, Mary Ellen Scherer
The binaural masking level difference (BMLD) is an auditory phenomenon where binaural tone-in-noise detection is improved when the phase of either signal or noise is inverted in one of the ears (SπNo or SoNπ, respectively), relative to detection when signal and noise are in identical phase at each ear (SoNo). Processing related to BMLDs and interaural time differences has been confirmed in the auditory brainstem of non-human mammals; in the human auditory brainstem, phase-locked neural responses elicited by BMLD stimuli have not been systematically examined across signal-to-noise ratio...
November 28, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895573/prediction-signatures-in-the-brain-semantic-pre-activation-during-language-comprehension
#18
Burkhard Maess, Fahimeh Mamashli, Jonas Obleser, Liisa Helle, Angela D Friederici
There is broad agreement that context-based predictions facilitate lexical-semantic processing. A robust index of semantic prediction during language comprehension is an evoked response, known as the N400, whose amplitude is modulated as a function of semantic context. However, the underlying neural mechanisms that utilize relations of the prior context and the embedded word within it are largely unknown. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) data while participants were listening to simple German sentences in which the verbs were either highly predictive for the occurrence of a particular noun (i...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892484/environmental-factors-linked-to-depression-vulnerability-are-associated-with-altered-cerebellar-resting-state-synchronization
#19
Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Cristian Tornador, Carles Falcón, Nuria Bargalló, Paolo Brambilla, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Gustavo Deco, Lourdes Fañanás
Hosting nearly eighty percent of all human neurons, the cerebellum is functionally connected to large regions of the brain. Accumulating data suggest that some cerebellar resting-state alterations may constitute a key candidate mechanism for depressive psychopathology. While there is some evidence linking cerebellar function and depression, two topics remain largely unexplored. First, the genetic or environmental roots of this putative association have not been elicited. Secondly, while different mathematical representations of resting-state fMRI patterns can embed diverse information of relevance for health and disease, many of them have not been studied in detail regarding the cerebellum and depression...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892483/down-regulation-of-coasy-the-gene-associated-with-nbia-vi-reduces-bmp-signaling-perturbs-dorso-ventral-patterning-and-alters-neuronal-development-in-zebrafish
#20
Deepak Khatri, Daniela Zizioli, Natascia Tiso, Nicola Facchinello, Sara Vezzoli, Alessandra Gianoncelli, Maurizio Memo, Eugenio Monti, Giuseppe Borsani, Dario Finazzi
Mutations in Pantothenate kinase 2 and Coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (COASY), genes involved in CoA biosynthesis, are associated with rare neurodegenerative disorders with brain iron accumulation. We showed that zebrafish pank2 gene plays an essential role in brain and vasculature development. Now we extended our study to coasy. The gene has high level of sequence identity with the human ortholog and is ubiquitously expressed from the earliest stages of development. The abrogation of its expression led to strong reduction of CoA content, high lethality and a phenotype resembling to that of dorsalized mutants...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
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