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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212941/injections-of-the-of-the-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptor-antagonist-prazosin-into-the-median-raphe-nucleus-increase-food-intake-and-fos-expression-in-orexin-neurons-of-free-feeding-rats
#1
Eduardo Simão da Silva, Rafael Appel Flores, Anderson Savaris Ribas, Ana Paula Taschetto, Moacir Serralvo Faria, Leandro Bueno Lima, Martin Metzger, José Donato, Marta Aparecida Paschoalini
Previously, we showed that the blockade of α1-adrenoreceptors in the median raphe nucleus (MnR) increased food intake in free-feeding rats, indicating that adrenergic mechanisms in the MnR participate in the regulation of food intake. However, the impact of such a pharmacological manipulation on other neural circuits related to food intake remains unknown. In the current study, we sought to identify forebrain regions which are responsive to α1-adrenergic receptor blockade and presumably involved in the modulation of the feeding response...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211462/zebrafish-tracking-using-convolutional-neural-networks
#2
Zhiping Xu, Xi En Cheng
Keeping identity for a long term after occlusion is still an open problem in the video tracking of zebrafish-like model animals, and accurate animal trajectories are the foundation of behaviour analysis. We utilize the highly accurate object recognition capability of a convolutional neural network (CNN) to distinguish fish of the same congener, even though these animals are indistinguishable to the human eye. We used data augmentation and an iterative CNN training method to optimize the accuracy for our classification task, achieving surprisingly accurate trajectories of zebrafish of different size and age zebrafish groups over different time spans...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205496/planning-functional-grasps-of-simple-tools-invokes-the-hand-independent-praxis-representation-network-an-fmri-study
#3
Łukasz Przybylski, Gregory Króliczak
OBJECTIVES: Neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence indicates that tool use knowledge and abilities are represented in the praxis representation network (PRN) of the left cerebral hemisphere. We investigated whether PRN would also underlie the planning of function-appropriate grasps of tools, even though such an assumption is inconsistent with some neuropsychological evidence for independent representations of tool grasping and skilled tool use. METHODS: Twenty right-handed participants were tested in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study wherein they planned functionally appropriate grasps of tools versus grasps of non-tools matched for size and/or complexity, and later executed the pantomimed grasps of these objects...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191778/generation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-bona-fide-neural-stem-cells-for-ex-vivo-gene-therapy-of-metachromatic-leukodystrophy
#4
Vasco Meneghini, Giacomo Frati, Davide Sala, Silvia De Cicco, Marco Luciani, Chiara Cavazzin, Marianna Paulis, Wieslawa Mentzen, Francesco Morena, Serena Giannelli, Francesca Sanvito, Anna Villa, Alessandro Bulfone, Vania Broccoli, Sabata Martino, Angela Gritti
Allogeneic fetal-derived human neural stem cells (hfNSCs) that are under clinical evaluation for several neurodegenerative diseases display a favorable safety profile, but require immunosuppression upon transplantation in patients. Neural progenitors derived from patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may be relevant for autologous ex vivo gene-therapy applications to treat genetic diseases with unmet medical need. In this scenario, obtaining iPSC-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) showing a reliable "NSC signature" is mandatory...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183868/separation-of-different-pollen-types-by-chemotactile-sensing-in-bombus-terrestris
#5
Fabian A Ruedenauer, Sara D Leonhardt, Fabian Schmalz, Wolfgang Rössler, Martin F Strube-Bloss
When tasting food, animals rely on chemical and tactile cues, which determine the animal's decision on whether or not to eat food. As food nutritional composition has enormous consequences for the survival of animals, food items should generally be tasted before they are eaten or collected for later consumption. Even though recent studies confirmed the importance of e.g. gustatory cues, compared to olfaction only little is known about the representation of chemotactile stimuli at the receptor level (let alone higher brain centers) in animals other than vertebrates...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179190/species-specific-developmental-timing-is-maintained-by-pluripotent-stem-cells-ex-utero
#6
Christopher Barry, Matthew T Schmitz, Peng Jiang, Michael P Schwartz, Bret M Duffin, Scott Swanson, Rhonda Bacher, Jennifer M Bolin, Angela L Elwell, Brian E McIntosh, Ron Stewart, James A Thomson
How species-specific developmental timing is controlled is largely unknown. By following human embryonic stem (ES) cell and mouse epiblast stem (EpiS) cell differentiation through detailed RNA-sequencing time courses, here we show that pluripotent stem cells closely retain in vivo species-specific developmental timing in vitro. In identical neural differentiation conditions in vitro, gene expression profiles are accelerated in mouse EpiS cells compared to human ES cells with relative rates of differentiation closely reflecting the rates of progression through the Carnegie stages in utero...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169425/analgesia-induced-by-self-initiated-electrotactile-sensation-is-mediated-by-top-down-modulations
#7
Ke Zhao, Zhengyu Tang, Huiquan Wang, Yifei Guo, Weiwei Peng, Li Hu
It is well known that sensory perception can be attenuated when sensory stimuli are controlled by self-initiated actions. This phenomenon is explained by the consistency between forward models of anticipated action effects and actual sensory feedback. Specifically, the brain state related to the binding between motor processing and sensory perception would have inhibitory function by gating sensory information via top-down control. Since the brain state could casually influence the perception of subsequent stimuli of different sensory modalities, we hypothesize that pain evoked by nociceptive stimuli following the self-initiated tactile stimulation would be attenuated as compared to that following externally determined tactile stimulation...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169421/n1-response-attenuation-and-the-mismatch-negativity-mmn-to-within-and-across-category-phonetic-contrasts
#8
Daniel M R Silva, Danilo B Melges, Rui Rothe-Neves
According to the neural adaptation model of the mismatch negativity (MMN), the sensitivity of this event-related response to both acoustic and categorical information in speech sounds can be accounted for by assuming that (a) the degree of overlapping between neural representations of two sounds depends on both the acoustic difference between them and whether or not they belong to distinct phonetic categories, and (b) a release from stimulus-specific adaptation causes an enhanced N1 obligatory response to infrequent deviant stimuli...
February 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167793/theory-of-cortical-function
#9
David J Heeger
Most models of sensory processing in the brain have a feedforward architecture in which each stage comprises simple linear filtering operations and nonlinearities. Models of this form have been used to explain a wide range of neurophysiological and psychophysical data, and many recent successes in artificial intelligence (with deep convolutional neural nets) are based on this architecture. However, neocortex is not a feedforward architecture. This paper proposes a first step toward an alternative computational framework in which neural activity in each brain area depends on a combination of feedforward drive (bottom-up from the previous processing stage), feedback drive (top-down context from the next stage), and prior drive (expectation)...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166506/collaborative-random-faces-guided-encoders-for-pose-invariant-face-representation-learning
#10
Ming Shao, Yizhe Zhang, Yun Fu
Learning discriminant face representation for pose-invariant face recognition has been identified as a critical issue in visual learning systems. The challenge lies in the drastic changes of facial appearances between the test face and the registered face. To that end, we propose a high-level feature learning framework called ''collaborative random faces (RFs)-guided encoders'' toward this problem. The contributions of this paper are three fold. First, we propose a novel supervised autoencoder that is able to capture the high-level identity feature despite of pose variations...
February 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157484/small-molecules-modulate-chromatin-accessibility-to-promote-neurog2-mediated-fibroblast-to-neuron-reprogramming
#11
Derek K Smith, Jianjing Yang, Meng-Lu Liu, Chun-Li Zhang
Pro-neural transcription factors and small molecules can induce the reprogramming of fibroblasts into functional neurons; however, the immediate-early molecular events that catalyze this conversion have not been well defined. We previously demonstrated that neurogenin 2 (NEUROG2), forskolin (F), and dorsomorphin (D) can reprogram fibroblasts into functional neurons with high efficiency. Here, we used this model to define the genetic and epigenetic events that initiate an acquisition of neuronal identity. We demonstrate that NEUROG2 is a pioneer factor, FD enhances chromatin accessibility and H3K27 acetylation, and synergistic transcription activated by these factors is essential to successful reprogramming...
November 8, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155662/an-ensemble-micro-neural-network-approach-for-elucidating-interactions-between-zinc-finger-proteins-and-their-target-dna
#12
Shayoni Dutta, Spandan Madan, Harsh Parikh, Durai Sundar
BACKGROUND: The ability to engineer zinc finger proteins binding to a DNA sequence of choice is essential for targeted genome editing to be possible. Experimental techniques and molecular docking have been successful in predicting protein-DNA interactions, however, they are highly time and resource intensive. Here, we present a novel algorithm designed for high throughput prediction of optimal zinc finger protein for 9 bp DNA sequences of choice. In accordance with the principles of information theory, a subset identified by using K-means clustering was used as a representative for the space of all possible 9 bp DNA sequences...
December 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148821/the-notch-pathway-in-the-annelid-platynereis-insights-into-chaetogenesis-and-neurogenesis-processes
#13
Eve Gazave, Quentin I B Lemaître, Guillaume Balavoine
Notch is a key signalling pathway playing multiple and varied functions during development. Notch regulates the selection of cells with a neurogenic fate and maintains a pool of yet uncommitted precursors through lateral inhibition, both in insects and in vertebrates. Here, we explore the functions of Notch in the annelid Platynereis dumerilii (Lophotrochozoa). Conserved components of the pathway are identified and a scenario for their evolution in metazoans is proposed. Unexpectedly, neither Notch nor its ligands are expressed in the neurogenic epithelia of the larva at the time when massive neurogenesis begins...
February 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137894/integrins-are-required-for-tissue-organization-and-restriction-of-neurogenesis-in-regenerating-planarians
#14
Florian Seebeck, Martin März, Anna-Wiebke Meyer, Hanna Reuter, Matthias C Vogg, Martin Stehling, Karina Mildner, Dagmar Zeuschner, Franziska Rabert, Kerstin Bartscherer
Tissue regeneration depends on proliferative cells and on cues that regulate cell division, differentiation, patterning and the restriction of these processes once regeneration is complete. In planarians, flatworms with high regenerative potential, muscle cells express some of these instructive cues. Here we show that members of the Integrin family of adhesion molecules are required for the integrity of regenerating tissues, including the musculature. Remarkably, in regenerating β1-integrin RNAi planarians, we detected increased numbers of mitotic cells and progenitor cell types, as well as a reduced ability of stem cells and lineage restricted progenitor cells to accumulate at wound sites...
January 30, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137283/the-hunchback-temporal-transcription-factor-establishes-but-is-not-required-to-maintain-early-born-neuronal-identity
#15
Keiko Hirono, Minoree Kohwi, Matt Q Clark, Ellie S Heckscher, Chris Q Doe
BACKGROUND: Drosophila and mammalian neural progenitors typically generate a diverse family of neurons in a stereotyped order. Neuronal diversity can be generated by the sequential expression of temporal transcription factors. In Drosophila, neural progenitors (neuroblasts) sequentially express the temporal transcription factors Hunchback (Hb), Kruppel, Pdm, and Castor. Hb is necessary and sufficient to specify early-born neuronal identity in multiple lineages, and is maintained in the post-mitotic neurons produced during each neuroblast expression window...
January 31, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135575/chimpanzees-process-structural-isomorphisms-across-sensory-modalities
#16
Andrea Ravignani, Ruth Sonnweber
Evolution has shaped animal brains to detect sensory regularities in environmental stimuli. In addition, many species map one-dimensional quantities across sensory modalities, such as conspecific faces to voices, or high-pitched sounds to bright light. If basic patterns like repetitions and identities are frequently perceived in different sensory modalities, it could be advantageous to detect cross-modal isomorphisms, i.e. develop modality-independent representations of structural features, exploitable in visual, tactile, and auditory processing...
January 27, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135213/brain-activity-for-tactile-allodynia-a-longitudinal-awake-rat-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-tracking-emergence-of-neuropathic-pain
#17
Pei-Ching Chang, Maria Virginia Centeno, Daniel Procissi, Alex Baria, A Vania Apkarian
Tactile allodynia, a condition in which innocuous mechanical stimuli are perceived as painful, is a common feature of chronic pain. However, how the brain reorganizes in relation to the emergence of tactile allodynia is still largely unknown. This may stem from the fact that experiments in humans are cross-sectional in nature, whereas animal brain imaging studies typically require anaesthesia rendering the brain incapable of consciously sensing or responding to pain. In this longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study in awake rats, we tracked brain activity with the development of tactile allodynia...
March 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131724/insights-in-spatio-temporal-characterization-of-human-fetal-neural-stem-cells
#18
Raquel Martín-Ibáñez, Inés Guardia, Mónica Pardo, Cristina Herranz, Rike Zietlow, Ngoc-Nga Vinh, Anne Rosser, Josep M Canals
Primary human fetal cells have been used in clinical trials of cell replacement therapy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD). However, human fetal primary cells are scarce and difficult to work with and so a renewable source of cells is sought. Human fetal neural stem cells (hfNSCs) can be generated from human fetal tissue, but little is known about the differences between hfNSCs obtained from different developmental stages and brain areas. In the present work we characterized hfNSCs, grown as neurospheres, obtained from three developmental stages: 4-5, 6-7 and 8-9weeks post conception (wpc) and four brain areas: forebrain, cortex, whole ganglionic eminence (WGE) and cerebellum...
January 25, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129061/inferior-frontal-cortex-contributions-to-the-recognition-of-spoken-words-and-their-constituent-speech-sounds
#19
Jack C Rogers, Matthew H Davis
Speech perception and comprehension are often challenged by the need to recognize speech sounds that are degraded or ambiguous. Here, we explore the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in resolving ambiguity in the identity of speech sounds using syllables that contain ambiguous phonetic segments (e.g., intermediate sounds between /b/ and /g/ as in "blade" and "glade"). We used an audio-morphing procedure to create a large set of natural sounding minimal pairs that contain phonetically ambiguous onset or offset consonants (differing in place, manner, or voicing)...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122246/glioblastoma-cell-malignancy-and-drug-sensitivity-are-affected-by-the-cell-of-origin
#20
Yiwen Jiang, Voichita Dana Marinescu, Yuan Xie, Malin Jarvius, Naga Prathyusha Maturi, Caroline Haglund, Sara Olofsson, Nanna Lindberg, Tommie Olofsson, Caroline Leijonmarck, Göran Hesselager, Irina Alafuzoff, Mårten Fryknäs, Rolf Larsson, Sven Nelander, Lene Uhrbom
The identity of the glioblastoma (GBM) cell of origin and its contributions to disease progression and treatment response remain largely unknown. We have analyzed how the phenotypic state of the initially transformed cell affects mouse GBM development and essential GBM cell (GC) properties. We find that GBM induced in neural stem-cell-like glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing cells in the subventricular zone of adult mice shows accelerated tumor development and produces more malignant GCs (mGC1GFAP) that are less resistant to cancer drugs, compared with those originating from more differentiated nestin- (mGC2NES) or 2,'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (mGC3CNP)-expressing cells...
January 24, 2017: Cell Reports
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