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Plant based diet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533962/dietary-flavonoids-of-spanish-youth-intakes-sources-and-association-with-the-mediterranean-diet
#1
Rowaedh Ahmed Bawaked, Helmut Schröder, Lourdes Ribas Barba, Gabriela Cárdenas, Luis Peña-Quintana, Carmen Pérez Rodrigo, Montserrat Fíto, Lluis Serra Majem
BACKGROUND: Plant-based diets have been linked to high diet quality and reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. The health impact of plant-based diets might be partially explained by the concomitant intake of flavonoids. Estimation of flavonoids intake in adults has been important for the development of dietary recommendations and interventions for the prevention of weight gain and its consequences. However, estimation of flavonoids intake in children and adolescents is limited. METHODS: Average daily intake and sources of flavonoids were estimated for a representative national sample of 3,534 children and young people in Spain, aged 2-24 years...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532520/are-more-environmentally-sustainable-diets-with-less-meat-and-dairy-nutritionally-adequate
#2
S Marije Seves, Janneke Verkaik-Kloosterman, Sander Biesbroek, Elisabeth Hm Temme
OBJECTIVE: Our current food consumption patterns, and in particular our meat and dairy intakes, cause high environmental pressure. The present modelling study investigates the impact of diets with less or no meat and dairy foods on nutrient intakes and assesses nutritional adequacy by comparing these diets with dietary reference intakes. DESIGN: Environmental impact and nutrient intakes were assessed for the observed consumption pattern (reference) and two replacement scenarios...
May 23, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531221/human-paleodiet-and-animal-utilization-strategies-during-the-bronze-age-in-northwest-yunnan-province-southwest-china
#3
Lele Ren, Xin Li, Lihong Kang, Katherine Brunson, Honggao Liu, Weimiao Dong, Haiming Li, Rui Min, Xu Liu, Guanghui Dong
Reconstructing ancient diets and the use of animals and plants augment our understanding of how humans adapted to different environments. Yunnan Province in southwest China is ecologically and environmentally diverse. During the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods, this region was occupied by a variety of local culture groups with diverse subsistence systems and material culture. In this paper, we obtained carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic ratios from human and faunal remains in order to reconstruct human paleodiets and strategies for animal exploitation at the Bronze Age site of Shilinggang (ca...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515162/dietary-protein-and-the-health-nutrition-agriculture-connection-in-india
#4
REVIEW
Sumedha Minocha, Tinku Thomas, Anura V Kurpad
The connection between the production, availability, and consumption of high-quality food is becoming very important in developing countries. The requirement of protein is linked to its quality, or its digestibility and ability to meet human indispensable amino acid requirements. This requirement is particularly relevant in India, where commonly consumed cereal-based diets and cereal-based food subsidy programs offer low-quality protein and therefore pose a risk of quality protein deficiency. The production of and access to sustainable sources of high-quality protein will be important parts of mitigating risks to human health...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513546/edible-plants-and-their-influence-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-acne
#5
REVIEW
Ashley K Clark, Kelly N Haas, Raja K Sivamani
Acne vulgaris affects most people at some point in their lives. Due to unclear etiology, likely with multiple factors, targeted and low-risk treatments have yet to be developed. In this review, we explore the multiple causes of acne and how plant-based foods and supplements can control these. The proposed causative factors include insulin resistance, sex hormone imbalances, inflammation and microbial dysbiosis. There is an emerging body of work on the human gut microbiome and how it mediates feedback between the foods we eat and our bodies...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512322/physicochemical-properties-of-dietary-phytochemicals-can-predict-their-passive-absorption-in-the-human-small-intestine
#6
Sophie N B Selby-Pham, Rosalind B Miller, Kate Howell, Frank Dunshea, Louise E Bennett
A diet high in phytochemical-rich plant foods is associated with reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, diabetes and cancer. Oxidative stress and inflammation (OSI) is the common component underlying these chronic diseases. Whilst the positive health effects of phytochemicals and their metabolites have been demonstrated to regulate OSI, the timing and absorption for best effect is not well understood. We developed a model to predict the time to achieve maximal plasma concentration (Tmax) of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510251/short-term-effects-of-green-tea-chronotherapy-on-the-metabolic-homeostasis-of-mice-on-different-diets
#7
R P Amorim, I P Daher, F P D Arcangelo, M F Bellini, W A Orcini, G R Sarria, R L Peruquetti
Biological rhythms can be defined as changes in physiological or behavioral variables that repeat at certain time intervals. Rhythms that last approximately 24 h are referred to as circadian rhythms. Modern lifestyles have drastically affected human habits, as well as the population's eating habits. These changes have generated an epidemic of metabolic syndromes, such as obesity and diabetes. In an attempt to combat obesity, populations have attempted to use many different herbal remedies and plant-based drugs, the most common of which is Camellia sinensis, or green tea...
May 10, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506700/synergistic-antimutagenic-effect-of-isothiocyanates-against-varied-mutagens
#8
Geetanjali Rampal, Tarunpreet Singh Thind, Rohit Arora, Adarsh Pal Vig, Saroj Arora
Although plant foods provide an array of nutrients in the human diet, our knowledge of how these nutrients are interacting among each other at molecular level is limited. Among these, glucosinolates are the most important secondary metabolites, which are readily hydrolyzed to a variety of products including isothiocyanates. The current study emphasizes on the antimutagenic potential of three isothiocyanates (ITCs) viz. allyl, benzyl and 3-butenyl ITCs (individually and in binary combinations) in Ames Salmonella histidine reversion assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 tester strains...
May 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503930/impact-of-a-plant-based-diet-and-support-on-mitigating-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-latinos-living-in-medically-underserved-areas
#9
Edelweiss Ramal, Andrea Champlin, Khaled Bahjri
PURPOSE: To determine the impact that a high-fiber, low-fat diet, derived from mostly plant-based sources, when coupled with support has upon self-management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Latinos from medically underserved areas (MUAs). DESIGN: Experimental randomized controlled community pilot study. SETTING: Three community clinics in MUAs located within San Bernardino County, California. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two randomly assigned Latinos with A1C greater than 6...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503053/pea-pisum-sativum-and-its-anticancer-activity
#10
REVIEW
Runchana Rungruangmaitree, Wannee Jiraungkoorskul
Pisum sativum (Family: Fabaceae), as known as green pea or garden pea, has long been important in diet due to its content of fiber, protein, starch, trace elements, and many phytochemical substances. It has been shown to possess antibacterial, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antihypercholesterolemia, and antioxidant activities and also shown anticancer property. Its nonnutritive biologically active components include alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, isoflavones, phenols, phytosterols, phytic acid, protease inhibitors, saponins, and tannins...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499771/the-key-role-of-the-meat-industry-in-transformation-to-a-low-carbon-climate-resilient-sustainable-economy
#11
Frank Rijsberman
Climate change, air pollution and refugees have become key global challenges threatening sustainability of lifestyles, economies and ecosystems. Agri-food systems are the number one driver of environmental change. Livestock production is the world's largest land user, responsible for half of greenhouse gas emissions from agri-food systems, and the source of repeated health crises. Poor diets have become the number one cause of ill health. Recommendations for a healthy diet emphasize plant-based food. Rapidly falling costs in information technology, biotechnology, renewable energy and battery technology will disrupt current energy and transportation systems and offer opportunities for responsible meat production...
April 26, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498878/the-malleable-gut-microbiome-of-juvenile-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-diet-dependent-shifts-of-bacterial-community-structures
#12
Stéphanie Céline Michl, Jenni-Marie Ratten, Matt Beyer, Mario Hasler, Julie LaRoche, Carsten Schulz
Plant-derived protein sources are the most relevant substitutes for fishmeal in aquafeeds. Nevertheless, the effects of plant based diets on the intestinal microbiome especially of juvenile Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are yet to be fully investigated. The present study demonstrates, based on 16S rDNA bacterial community profiling, that the intestinal microbiome of juvenile Rainbow trout is strongly affected by dietary plant protein inclusion levels. After first feeding of juveniles with either 0%, 50% or 97% of total dietary protein content derived from plants, statistically significant differences of the bacterial gut community for the three diet-types were detected, both at phylum and order level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493929/selecting-the-best-stable-isotope-mixing-model-to-estimate-grizzly-bear-diets-in-the-greater-yellowstone-ecosystem
#13
John B Hopkins, Jake M Ferguson, Daniel B Tyers, Carolyn M Kurle
Past research indicates that whitebark pine seeds are a critical food source for Threatened grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). In recent decades, whitebark pine forests have declined markedly due to pine beetle infestation, invasive blister rust, and landscape-level fires. To date, no study has reliably estimated the contribution of whitebark pine seeds to the diets of grizzlies through time. We used stable isotope ratios (expressed as δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S values) measured in grizzly bear hair and their major food sources to estimate the diets of grizzlies sampled in Cooke City Basin, Montana...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492498/assessment-of-inheritance-and-fitness-costs-associated-with-field-evolved-resistance-to-cry3bb1-maize-by-western-corn-rootworm
#14
Aubrey R Paolino, Aaron J Gassmann
The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is among the most serious insect pests of maize in North America. One strategy used to manage this pest is transgenic maize that produces one or more crystalline (Cry) toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). To delay Bt resistance by insect pests, refuges of non-Bt maize are grown in conjunction with Bt maize. Two factors influencing the success of the refuge strategy to delay resistance are the inheritance of resistance and fitness costs, with greater delays in resistance expected when inheritance of resistance is recessive and fitness costs are present...
May 11, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480413/presence-of-citrinin-in-grains-and-its-possible-health-effects
#15
Borna Čulig, Martina Bevardi, Jasna Bošnir, Sonja Serdar, Dario Lasić, Aleksandar Racz, Antonija Galić, Željka Kuharić
BACKGROUND: Citrinin is a mycotoxin produced by several species of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Monascus and it occurs mainly in stored grain. Citrinin is generally formed after harvest and occurs mainly in stored grains, it also occurs in other plant products. Often, the co-occurrence with other mycotoxins is observed, especially ochratoxin A, which is usually associated with endemic nephropathy. At the European Union level, systematic monitoring of Citrinin in grains began with the aim of determining its highest permissible amount in food...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479991/intra-trophic-isotopic-discrimination-of-15-n-14-n-for-amino-acids-in-autotrophs-implications-for-nitrogen-dynamics-in-ecological-studies
#16
Yuko Takizawa, Prarthana S Dharampal, Shawn A Steffan, Yoshinori Takano, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Yoshito Chikaraishi
The differential discrimination of nitrogen isotopes ((15)N/(14)N) within amino acids in consumers and their diets has been routinely used to estimate organismal tropic position (TP). Analogous isotopic discrimination can occur within plants, particularly in organs lacking chloroplasts. Such discrimination likely arises from the catabolic deamination of amino acids, resulting in a numerical elevation of estimated TP, within newly synthesized biomass. To investigate this phenomenon, we examined the (15)N/(14)N of amino acids (δ(15) NAA) in spring leaves and flowers from eight deciduous and two annual plants...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472968/prioritizing-fodder-species-based-on-traditional-knowledge-a-case-study-of-mithun-bos-frontalis-in-dulongjiang-area-yunnan-province-southwest-china
#17
Yanfei Geng, Guoxiong Hu, Sailesh Ranjitkar, Yuhua Wang, Dengpan Bu, Shengji Pei, Xiaokun Ou, Yang Lu, Xuelan Ma, Jianchu Xu
BACKGROUND: Livestock rearing is one of the oldest and most important types of smallholder farming worldwide. The sustainability of livestock production depends on the efficient utilization of locally available resources. Some traditional methods of raising livestock may offer valuable lessons in this regard. This study documented and evaluated local knowledge of wild forage plants in the Dulongjiang area in Southwest China in the context of rearing mithun (Bos frontalis) in order to provide a sound evidence base for tree fodder selection and the establishment of integrated tree-crop-livestock systems...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459071/effects-of-an-ad-libitum-consumed-low-fat-plant-based-diet-supplemented-with-plant-based-meal-replacements-on-body-composition-indices
#18
Boštjan Jakše, Stanislav Pinter, Barbara Jakše, Maja Bučar Pajek, Jernej Pajek
Objective. To document the effect of a diet free from animal-sourced nutrients on body composition indices. Methods. This was a nonrandomized interventional (n = 241)-control (n = 84) trial with a 10-week, low-fat, plant-based diet supplemented with two daily meal replacements. The meals were allowed to be eaten to full satiety without prespecified calorie restrictions. Control subjects received weekly lectures on the rationale and expected benefits of plant-based nutrition. Body composition indices were measured with bioimpedance analysis...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446498/diet-quality-of-us-adolescents-during-the-transition-to-adulthood-changes-and-predictors
#19
Leah M Lipsky, Tonja R Nansel, Denise L Haynie, Danping Liu, Kaigang Li, Charlotte A Pratt, Ronald J Iannotti, Katherine W Dempster, Bruce Simons-Morton
Background: Influences on diet quality during the transition from adolescence to adulthood are understudied.Objective: This study examined association of 3 diet-quality indicators-Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI), Whole Plant Foods Density (WPF), and Empty Calories (EC; the percentage of calories from discretionary solid fat, added sugar and alcohol)-with lifestyle behaviors, baseline weight status, and sociodemographic characteristics in US emerging adults.Design: Data come from the first 4 waves (annual assessments) of the NEXT Plus Study, a population-based cohort of 10th graders enrolled in 2010 (n = 566)...
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435656/white-tailed-deer-browse-on-an-invasive-shrub-with-extended-leaf-phenology-meets-assumptions-of-an-apparent-competition-hypothesis
#20
Kylie L Martinod, David L Gorchov
It has been hypothesized that invasive plant species with extended leaf phenology (ELP) elevate generalist herbivore populations, increasing herbivory on native plants (apparent competition). This hypothesis assumes that consumption of the invasive is associated with periods of ELP, the invasive is a major component of the herbivore's diet, and that it is more nutritious than native plants during periods of ELP. We tested these assumptions by estimating the proportion of the white-tailed deer diet comprised of Lonicera maackii, an invasive shrub with ELP, quantifying the seasonal pattern of deer browse on this invasive shrub, and comparing its nutritional quality to leafless woody stems...
March 2017: AoB Plants
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