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Plant based diet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336997/modulation-of-nonessential-amino-acid-biosynthetic-pathways-in-virulent-hessian-fly-larvae-mayetiola-destructor-feeding-on-susceptible-host-wheat-triticum-aestivum
#1
Subhashree Subramanyam, Jacob T Shreve, Jill A Nemacheck, Alisha J Johnson, Brandi Schemerhorn, Richard H Shukle, Christie E Williams
Compatible interactions between wheat (Triticum aestivum), and its dipteran pest Hessian fly (Hf, Mayetiola destructor) result in successful establishment of larval feeding sites rendering the host plant susceptible. Virulent larvae employ an effector-based feeding strategy to reprogram the host physiology resulting in formation of a protein- and sugar-rich nutritive tissue beneficial to developing larvae. Previous studies documented increased levels of nonessential amino acids (NAA; that need not be received through insect diet) in the susceptible wheat in response to larval feeding, suggesting importance of plant-derived NAA in larval nutrition...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334718/-diet-and-nutrition-interventions-prevent-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Z Y Yang
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications during pregnancy, with rising trend over the years. Dietary nutrient intake (protein, fat and fatty acids, carbohydrate, vitamin D, vitamin E, iron, zinc, selenium and inositol et al.), dietary pattern and probiotics may be related to GDM occurrence. Dietary factors are modifiable factors for preventing GDM. The study reviewed the roles of these dietary factors in preventing GDM. Results showed that plant-based dietary pattern may lower the risk of GDM and dietary pattern characterized with high animal protein, high fat and low carbohydrate may increase the risk of GDM...
January 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332583/eating-green-shining-light-on-the-use-of-dietary-phytochemicals-as-a-modern-approach-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-head-and-neck-cancers
#3
Linda L Eastham, Candace M Howard, Premalatha Balachandran, David S Pasco, Pier Paolo Claudio
Enthusiasm for the use of dietary bioactive compounds as chemopreventive agents and adjuvants for current therapies has increased laboratory research conducted on several types of cancers including Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC). The green chemoprevention movement is a modern approach to highlight healthy lifestyle changes that aim to decrease the incidence of HNSCC. A healthy diet can be an effective way to prevent the development of oral cancers. Discovery of the naturally occurring plant based compounds called phytochemicals has facilitated the development of new treatment strategies for patients that are at risk for, or have developed HNSCC...
January 12, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327229/leopoldia-comosa-prevents-metabolic-disorders-in-rats-with-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#4
T Casacchia, F Scavello, C Rocca, M C Granieri, G Beretta, D Amelio, F Gelmini, A Spena, R Mazza, C C Toma, Tommaso Angelone, Giancarlo Statti, T Pasqua
PURPOSE: Obesity is the main feature of a complex illness known as metabolic syndrome. Anti-obesogenic therapies are often associated with side effects and represent a high cost in conventional pharmacological approaches. New strategies based on natural remedies are under continuous investigation. Leopoldia comosa (L.) Parl. (L. comosa) is a spontaneous plant with diuretic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, a hypoglycemic activity mediated by inhibition of carbohydrate digestion has been identified...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324841/honey-bee-apis-mellifera-nurses-do-not-consume-pollens-based-on-their-nutritional-quality
#5
Vanessa Corby-Harris, Lucy Snyder, Charlotte Meador, Trace Ayotte
Honey bee workers (Apis mellifera) consume a variety of pollens to meet the majority of their requirements for protein and lipids. Recent work indicates that honey bees prefer diets that reflect the proper ratio of nutrients necessary for optimal survival and homeostasis. This idea relies on the precept that honey bees evaluate the nutritional composition of the foods provided to them. While this has been shown in bumble bees, the data for honey bees are mixed. Further, there is controversy as to whether foragers can evaluate the nutritional value of pollens, especially if they do not consume it...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321862/assessing-the-utility-of-metabarcoding-for-diet-analyses-of-the-omnivorous-wild-pig-sus-scrofa
#6
Michael S Robeson, Kamil Khanipov, George Golovko, Samantha M Wisely, Michael D White, Michael Bodenchuck, Timothy J Smyser, Yuriy Fofanov, Noah Fierer, Antoinette J Piaggio
Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species descended from both domestic swine and Eurasian wild boar that was introduced to North America during the early 1500s. Wild pigs have since become the most abundant free-ranging exotic ungulate in the United States. Large and ever-increasing populations of wild pigs negatively impact agriculture, sport hunting, and native ecosystems with costs estimated to exceed $1.5 billion/year within the United States. Wild pigs are recognized as generalist feeders, able to exploit a broad array of locally available food resources, yet their feeding behaviors remain poorly understood as partially digested material is often unidentifiable through traditional stomach content analyses...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316931/nutritional-adequacy-of-a-novel-human-milk-fortifier-from-donkey-milk-in-feeding-preterm-infants-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#7
Alessandra Coscia, Enrico Bertino, Paola Tonetto, Chiara Peila, Francesco Cresi, Sertac Arslanoglu, Guido E Moro, Elena Spada, Silvano Milani, Marzia Giribaldi, Sara Antoniazzi, Amedeo Conti, Laura Cavallarin
BACKGROUND: Fortification of human milk is a standard practice for feeding very low birth weight infants. However, preterm infants often still experience suboptimal growth and feeding intolerance. New fortification strategies and different commercially available fortifiers have been developed. Commercially available fortifiers are constituted by a blend of ingredients from different sources, including plant oils and bovine milk proteins, thus presenting remarkable differences in the quality of macronutrients with respect to human milk...
January 9, 2018: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307323/quality-of-eggs-from-lohmann-brown-classic-laying-hens-fed-black-soldier-fly-meal-as-substitute-for-soya-bean
#8
G Secci, F Bovera, S Nizza, N Baronti, L Gasco, G Conte, A Serra, A Bonelli, G Parisi
Soya bean is the main protein source in poultry feed but rising prices make an alternative protein source necessary. Insects, such as the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens), may be an attractive solution for hens, although little information is available on their effect on egg quality. The present study aims to fill this gap by testing the effect of 100% replacement of soya bean with H. illucens larva meal in the diet of Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens for 21 weeks. At the end of the trial, the eggs were characterized for parameters such as weight, colour, proximate composition of albumen and yolk, and content of carotenoids, tocopherols and cholesterol...
January 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305990/effect-of-yeast-xanthophyllomyces-dendrorhous-and-plant-saint-john-s-wort-lemon-balm-and-rosemary-extract-based-functional-diets-on-antioxidant-and-immune-status-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-subjected-to-crowding-stress
#9
Sebastián Reyes-Cerpa, Eva Vallejos-Vidal, María José Gonzalez-Bown, Jonathan Morales-Reyes, Diego Pérez-Stuardo, Deborah Vargas, Mónica Imarai, Víctor Cifuentes, Eugenio Spencer, Ana María Sandino, Felipe E Reyes-López
Salmon farming may face stress due to the intensive culture conditions with negative impacts on overall performance. In this aspect, functional feed improves not only the basic nutritional requirements but also the health status and fish growth. However, to date no studies have been carried out to evaluate the effect of functional diets in salmon subjected to crowding stress. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of yeast (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous; diet A) and the combination of plant extracts (common Saint John's wort, lemon balm, and rosemary; diet B) on the antioxidant and immune status of Atlantic salmon grown under normal cultured conditions and then subjected to crowding stress...
January 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305129/pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-home-vegetable-gardening-intervention-among-older-cancer-survivors-shows-feasibility-satisfaction-and-promise-in-improving-vegetable-and-fruit-consumption-reassurance-of-worth-and-the-trajectory-of-central-adiposity
#10
Wendy Demark-Wahnefried, Mallory G Cases, Alan B Cantor, Andrew D Frugé, Kerry P Smith, Julie Locher, Harvey J Cohen, Yuko Tsuruta, Michael Daniel, Rishabh Kala, Jennifer F De Los Santos
BACKGROUND: Holistic approaches are sought to improve lifestyle behaviors and health of cancer survivors long term. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to explore whether a home-based vegetable gardening intervention is feasible and whether it improves diet and other health-related outcomes among older cancer survivors. DESIGN: We conducted a feasibility trial in which cancer survivors were randomized to receive a year-long gardening intervention immediately or to a wait-list control arm...
January 2, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300121/expression-of-antisense-long-noncoding-rnas-as-potential-regulators-in-rainbow-trout-with-different-tolerance-to-plant-based-diets
#11
Jason Abernathy, Ken Overturf
Reformulation of aquafeeds in salmonid diets to include more plant proteins is critical for sustainable aquaculture. However, increasing plant proteins can lead to stunted growth and enteritis. Toward an understanding of the regulatory mechanisms behind plant protein utilization, directional RNA sequencing of liver tissues from a rainbow trout strain selected for growth on an all plant-protein diet and a control strain, both fed a plant diet for 12 weeks, were utilized to construct long noncoding RNAs. Antisense long noncoding RNAs were selected for differential expression and functional analyses since they have been shown to have regulatory actions within a genome...
January 4, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298318/experience-based-mediation-of-feeding-and-oviposition-behaviors-in-the-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#12
Pu Hu, Hui-Ling Li, Hong-Fei Zhang, Qian-Wen Luo, Xian-Ru Guo, Gao-Ping Wang, Wei-Zheng Li, Guohui Yuan
Experience is well known to affect sensory-guided behaviors in many herbivorous insects. Here, we investigated the effects of natural feeding experiences of Helicoverpa armigera larvae on subsequent preferences of larval approaching and feeding, as well as the effect of host-contacting experiences of mated females on subsequent ovipositional preference. The results show that the extent of experience-induced preference, expressed by statistical analysis, depended on the plant species paired with the experienced host plant...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288811/effects-of-dietary-oxidized-fish-oil-supplementation-on-oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-defense-system-in-juvenile-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#13
Stéphanie Fontagné-Dicharry, Laurence Larroquet, Karine Dias, Marianne Cluzeaud, Cécile Heraud, Dominique Corlay
The objective of the study was to characterize the response of the antioxidant defense system against dietary prooxidant conditions in rainbow trout juveniles. Fish (initial mean weight: 62 ± 1 g) were fed three fishmeal and plant-derived protein-based diets supplemented with 15% fresh fish oil (CTL diet), 15% fresh fish oil from tuna by-products (BYP diet) or 15% autooxidized fish oil (OX diet) over a 12-week growth trial at 17.5 ± 0.5 °C. No significant differences in growth performance were recorded between dietary groups...
December 27, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287408/hydroxycinnamic-acids-loaded-in-lipid-core-nanocapsules
#14
Giuseppe Granata, Grazia M L Consoli, Raffaella Lo Nigro, Corrada Geraci
Ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, and coumaric acids, belonging to the class of hydroxycinnamic acids (HAs), are bioactive polyphenols widespread in the plant kingdom and present in the human diet. Due to their biological properties and effects in the prevention of various diseases associated with oxidative stress, HAs can be exploited for attractive nutraceutical applications. Starting from this and in order to increase bioaccessibility, we encapsulated HAs in lipid-core nanocapsules (NCs) based on a biodegradable and biocompatible poly(ε-caprolactone) polymer...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287381/statistical-modelling-coupled-with-lc-ms-analysis-to-predict-human-upper-intestinal-absorption-of-phytochemical-mixtures
#15
Sophie N B Selby-Pham, Kate S Howell, Frank R Dunshea, Joel Ludbey, Adrian Lutz, Louise Bennett
A diet rich in phytochemicals confers benefits for health by reducing the risk of chronic diseases via regulation of oxidative stress and inflammation (OSI). For optimal protective bio-efficacy, the time required for phytochemicals and their metabolites to reach maximal plasma concentrations (Tmax) should be synchronised with the time of increased OSI. A statistical model has been reported to predict Tmax of individual phytochemicals based on molecular mass and lipophilicity. We report the application of the model for predicting the absorption profile of an uncharacterised phytochemical mixture, herein referred to as the 'functional fingerprint'...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282153/under-control-how-a-dietary-additive-can-restore-the-gut-microbiome-and-proteomic-profile-and-improve-disease-resilience-in-a-marine-teleostean-fish-fed-vegetable-diets
#16
María Carla Piazzon, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Belén Fouz, Itziar Estensoro, Paula Simó-Mirabet, Mónica Puyalto, Vasileios Karalazos, Oswaldo Palenzuela, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: The constant increase of aquaculture production and wealthy seafood consumption has forced the industry to explore alternative and more sustainable raw aquafeed materials, and plant ingredients have been used to replace marine feedstuffs in many farmed fish. The objective of the present study was to assess whether plant-based diets can induce changes in the intestinal mucus proteome, gut autochthonous microbiota and disease susceptibility of fish, and whether these changes could be reversed by the addition of sodium butyrate to the diets...
December 28, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274013/fermented-soybean-meal-increases-lactic-acid-bacteria-in-gut-microbiota-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#17
Natalia Catalán, Alejandro Villasante, Jurij Wacyk, Carolina Ramírez, Jaime Romero
The main goal of the present study was to address the effect of feeding fermented soybean meal-based diet to Atlantic salmon on gut microbiota. Further, expression of genes of interest, including cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (cath), mucin 2 (muc2), aquaporin (aqp8ab), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna), in proximal intestine of fish fed either experimental diet was analyzed. Three experimental diets, including a control fishmeal (30% FM), soybean meal (30% SBM), or fermented soybean meal diet (30% FSBM) were randomly assigned to triplicate tanks during a 50-day trial...
December 22, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240921/cry1-bt-susceptibilities-of-fall-armyworm-lepidoptera-noctuidae-host-strains
#18
David A Ingber, Charles E Mason, Lindsey Flexner
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a highly polyphagous, multivoltine pest of commercial crops including corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium spp. L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and pasture grasses. Fall armyworm has become a growing concern in agricultural communities across the Americas as field populations in many locales have evolved resistance to several Cry1 toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt). An often overlooked aspect of fall armyworm biology is the existence of two host strains, the 'rice' and 'corn' strains...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232626/targeted-isolation-and-identification-of-bioactive-compounds-lowering-cholesterol-in-the-crude-extracts-of-crabapples-using-uplc-dad-ms-spe-nmr-based-on-pharmacology-guided-pls-da
#19
Chao Wen, Dongshan Wang, Xing Li, Tao Huang, Cheng Huang, Kaifeng Hu
The anti-hyperlipidemic effects of crude crabapple extracts derived from Malus 'Red jade', Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. and Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. were evaluated on high-fat diet induced obese (HF DIO) mice. The results revealed that some of these extracts could lower serum cholesterol levels in HF DIO mice. The same extracts were also parallelly analyzed by LC-MS in both positive and negative ionization modes. Based on the pharmacological results, 22 LC-MS variables were identified to be correlated with the anti-hyperlipidemic effects using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and independent samples t-test...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225142/ethical-concerns-regarding-animal-use-mediate-the-relationship-between-variety-of-pets-owned-in-childhood-and-vegetarianism-in-adulthood
#20
Sydney Heiss, Julia M Hormes
Plant-based and vegetarian diets have been shown to have diverse health and environmental benefits and also serve to reduce farmed animal exploitation. It is therefore worthwhile to gain a better understanding of the factors that play a role in the decision to refrain from animal products. Past studies have shown that childhood pet ownership predicts the likelihood of adherence to a vegetarian diet in adulthood. Building on this research, we tested the hypothesis that the number of different types of pets owned in childhood is positively associated with degree of restriction of animal products in adulthood, and that this relationship is mediated by pro-animal attitudes...
December 7, 2017: Appetite
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