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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771736/the-role-of-diet-for-prevention-and-management-of-hypertension
#1
Cemal Ozemek, Deepika R Laddu, Ross Arena, Carl J Lavie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Regular consumption of a diet high in sodium, energy dense foods, fat content, refined carbohydrates, added sugar and low in fruits and vegetables contributes to an increased risk of developing hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease. This review aims to provide a synopsis of evidence-based dietary approaches that have been effective in lowering blood pressure (BP) in pre-HTN and individuals with HTN. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent dietary recommendations have emphasized overall dietary patterns and its relation between food and BP...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769291/key-transport-and-ammonia-recycling-genes-involved-in-aphid-symbiosis-respond-to-host-plant-specialization
#2
Dohyup Kim, Bushra F Minhas, Hongmei Li-Byarlay, Allison K Hansen
Microbes are known to influence insect-plant interactions; however, it is unclear if host-plant diet influences the regulation of nutritional insect symbioses. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum , requires its nutritional endosymbiont, Buchnera , for the production of essential amino acids. We hypothesize that key aphid genes that regulate the nutritional symbioses respond to host-plant diet when aphids feed on a specialized (alfalfa) compared to a universal host-plant diet (fava), which vary in amino acid profiles...
May 16, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767732/dietary-intake-of-alpha-linolenic-acid-is-not-appreciably-associated-with-the-risk-of-ischemic-stroke-among-middle-aged-danish-men-and-women
#3
Christian S Bork, Stine K Venø, Søren Lundbye-Christensen, Marianne U Jakobsen, Anne Tjønneland, Erik B Schmidt, Kim Overvad
Background: Intake of the plant-derived omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) may reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. Objective: We have investigated the associations between dietary intake of ALA and the risk of ischemic stroke and ischemic stroke subtypes. Methods: This was a follow-up study. A total of 57,053 participants aged 50-64 y were enrolled into the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort between 1993 and 1997. Intake of ALA was assessed by a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765663/categorizing-experience-based-foraging-plasticity-in-mites-age-dependency-primacy-effects-and-memory-persistence
#4
Peter Schausberger, Undarmaa Davaasambuu, Stéphanie Saussure, Inga C Christiansen
Behavioural plasticity can be categorized into activational (also termed contextual) and developmental plasticity. Activational plasticity allows immediate contextual behavioural changes, whereas developmental plasticity is characterized by time-lagged changes based on memory of previous experiences (learning). Behavioural plasticity tends to decline with age but whether this holds true for both plasticity categories and the effects of first-in-life experiences is poorly understood. We tackled this issue by assessing the foraging plasticity of plant-inhabiting predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii , on thrips and spider mites following age-dependent prey experience, i...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764806/temporal-efficacy-of-a-sulforaphane-based-broccoli-sprout-diet-in-prevention-of-breast-cancer-through-modulation-of-epigenetic-mechanisms
#5
Yuanyuan Li, Phillip Buckhaults, Shizhao Li, Trygve O Tollefsbol
Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among women. An important risk factor for breast cancer is individual genetic background which is initially generated early in human life; for example, during the processes of embryogenesis and fetal development in utero. Bioactive dietary components such as sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetables including broccoli sprouts (BSp), cabbage and kale, has been shown to reduce the risk of developing many common cancers through regulation of epigenetic mechanisms...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762522/dietary-pattern-and-plasma-bcaa-variations-in-healthy-men-and-women-results-from-the-karmen-study
#6
Benedikt Merz, Lara Frommherz, Manuela J Rist, Sabine E Kulling, Achim Bub, Bernhard Watzl
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in plasma are discussed as risk factors for the onset of several diseases. Information about the contribution of the overall diet to plasma BCAA concentrations is controversial. Our objective was to investigate which dietary pattern is associated with plasma BCAA concentrations and whether other additional nutrients besides BCAA further characterize this dietary pattern. Based on the cross-sectional KarMeN study, fasting plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations, as well as current and habitual dietary intake were assessed in 298 healthy individuals...
May 15, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757222/association-of-habitually-low-intake-of-dietary-calcium-with-blood-pressure-and-hypertension-in-a-population-with-predominantly-plant-based-diets
#7
Ziqi Liu, Aiping Fang, Jingjing He, Xin Shen, Rong Gao, Xintian Zhao, Keji Li
This study aimed to assess the association of habitually low dietary calcium intake with blood pressure or hypertensive risk using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in 2009. We included 6298 participants (2890 men and 3408 women) aged 18 years or older in this analysis. Food intakes were measured by 3-day 24-h individual recalls combined with a weighing and measuring of household food inventory. The participants were divided into normotensive, pre-hypertensive and hypertensive groups according to their mean blood pressure of three repeated measurements...
May 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752709/association-between-a-pro-plant-based-dietary-score-and-cancer-risk-in-the-prospective-nutrinet-sant%C3%A3-cohort
#8
Abou Kane-Diallo, Bernard Srour, Laury Sellem, Mélanie Deschasaux, Paule Latino-Martel, Serge Hercberg, Pilar Galan, Philippine Fassier, Françoise Guéraud, Fabrice H Pierre, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Benjamin Allès, Mathilde Touvier
Diverse plant products (e.g. fruits, vegetables, legumes) are associated with decreased cancer risk at several locations while red and processed meat were found to increase cancer risk. A pro plant-based dietary score reflecting the relative contribution of consumed plant vs animal products was developed, and was associated with lower overall mortality, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk, among omnivorous adults. For the first time, we investigated the prospective associations between this pro plant-based dietary score and cancer risk...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752697/biofortification-of-safflower-an-oil-seed-crop-engineered-for-ala-targeting-better-sustainability-and-plant-based-omega-3-fatty-acids
#9
Arti Rani, Asha Panwar, Manjary Sathe, Karunakara Alageri Chandrashekhara, Anil Kush
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) deficiency and a skewed n6:n3 fatty acid ratio in the diet is a major explanation for the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. There is mounting evidence of the health benefits associated with omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA's). Although present in abundance in fish, a number of factors limit our consumption of fish based omega-3 PUFA's. To name a few, overexploitation of wild fish stocks has reduced their sustainability due to increased demand of aquaculture for fish oil and meal; the pollution of marine food webs has raised concerns over the ingestion of toxic substances such as heavy metals and dioxins; vegetarians do not consider fish-based sources for supplemental nutrition...
May 11, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748650/how-empathic-are-vegan-medical-professionals-compared-to-others-leads-from-a-paper-pencil-survey
#10
Christian S Kessler, Andreas Michalsen, Sophie Holler, Vijayendra S Murthy, Holger Cramer
The aim of this survey was to examine differences in personality profiles among 198 vegan (n = 64; 32.3%), vegetarian (n = 78; 39.4%) and omnivore (n = 55; 27.8%) medical professionals. Outcomes were motives for the nutritional approaches, WHO QoL-BREF, Big Five SOEP Inventory, Portraits Value Questionnaire, and Empathizing Scale. Regarding motives for particular diets, omnivores rated influence of guardians (p < 0.001), physical health (p = 0.017) and food taste (p = 0.001) as more and love of animals as less important (p < 0...
May 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746001/evaluation-of-antioxidant-properties-phenolic-compounds-anthelmintic-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-various-extracts-isolated-from-nepeta-cadmea-an-endemic-plant-for-turkey
#11
Arzu Kaska, Nahide Deniz, Mehmet Çiçek, Ramazan Mammadov
Nepeta cadmea Boiss. is a species endemic to Turkey that belongs to the Nepeta genus. Several species of this genus are used in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the phenolic compounds, antioxidant, anthelmintic, and cytotoxic activities of various extracts (ethanol, methanol, acetone, and water) of N. cadmea. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were analyzed using scavenging methods (DPPH, ABTS, and H2 O2 scavenging activity), the β-carotene/linoleic acid test system, the phosphomolybdenum method, and metal chelating activity...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734966/accelerated-nutrition-transition-in-the-north-west-province-of-south-africa-results-from-the-prospective-urban-and-rural-epidemiology-pure-nwp-sa-cohort-study-2005-to-2010
#12
Edelweiss Wentzel-Viljoen, Sarie Lee, Ria Laubscher, Hester H Vorster
OBJECTIVE: South Africa (SA) is in the midst of a health transition characterized by a quadruple burden of diseases and a nutrition transition. The existing nutrition transition in SA, accompanied by the coexistence of under- and overnutrition in the population, motivated the present study. Its objectives were to measure and report the changes in nutrient intakes of rural and urban black Africans over time to assess the impact of urbanization and modernization of lifestyles on dietary intakes and non-communicable disease (NCD) risk...
May 8, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734769/novel-natural-products-for-healthy-ageing-from-the-mediterranean-diet-and-food-plants-of-other-global-sources-the-medihealth-project
#13
Birgit Waltenberger, Maria Halabalaki, Stefan Schwaiger, Nicolas Adamopoulos, Noureddine Allouche, Bernd L Fiebich, Nina Hermans, Pidder Jansen-Dürr, Victor Kesternich, Luc Pieters, Stefan Schönbichler, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Hung Tran, Ioannis P Trougakos, Alvaro Viljoen, Jean-Luc Wolfender, Christian Wolfrum, Nikos Xynos, Hermann Stuppner
There is a rapid increase in the percentage of elderly people in Europe. Consequently, the prevalence of age-related diseases will also significantly increase. Therefore, the main goal of MediHealth, an international research project, is to introduce a novel approach for the discovery of active agents of food plants from the Mediterranean diet and other global sources that promote healthy ageing. To achieve this goal, a series of plants from the Mediterranean diet and food plants from other origins are carefully selected and subjected to in silico, cell-based, in vivo (fly and mouse models), and metabolism analyses...
May 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734181/which-fruits-and-vegetables-should-be-excluded-from-a-low-salicylate-diet-an-analysis-of-salicylic-acid-in-foodstuffs-in-taiwan
#14
Hui-Ling Chiang, Carina Venter, Pai-Chi Syue, Kuo-Lung Ku, Cheng-Han Wu
BACKGROUND: Eliminating pseudoallergens is an important element of managing chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Salicylic acid (SA) is a primary pseudoallergen in plant-based foodstuffs. Current dietary recommendations are not applicable in East Asia because data on the SA content of many vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in this region are lacking. METHODS: We therefore determined the concentration of free SA in 79 popular vegetables and fruits frequently consumed in Taiwan using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
May 7, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733420/finishing-performance-and-diet-digestibility-for-feedlot-steers-fed-corn-distillers-grains-plus-solubles-and-distillers-solubles-with-and-without-oil-extraction
#15
M L Jolly-Breithaupt, B L Nuttelman, C J Schneider, D B Burken, J L Gramkow, A L Shreck, J C MacDonald, T J Klopfenstein, G E Erickson
Three experiments evaluated the effects of corn oil removal using centrifugation in ethanol plants, on animal performance and digestion characteristics by finishing cattle fed by-products. In Exp. 1, 225 crossbred steers (300 ± 9.1 kg) were utilized in a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors consisted of oil concentration [de-oiled (DO) or full fat (FF)] and by-product type [condensed distillers solubles (CDS) or modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS)] compared to a corn-based control...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725011/gut-microbiomes-of-wild-great-apes-fluctuate-seasonally-in-response-to-diet
#16
Allison L Hicks, Kerry Jo Lee, Mara Couto-Rodriguez, Juber Patel, Rohini Sinha, Cheng Guo, Sarah H Olson, Anton Seimon, Tracie A Seimon, Alain U Ondzie, William B Karesh, Patricia Reed, Kenneth N Cameron, W Ian Lipkin, Brent L Williams
The microbiome is essential for extraction of energy and nutrition from plant-based diets and may have facilitated primate adaptation to new dietary niches in response to rapid environmental shifts. Here we use 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbiota of wild western lowland gorillas and sympatric central chimpanzees and demonstrate compositional divergence between the microbiotas of gorillas, chimpanzees, Old World monkeys, and modern humans. We show that gorilla and chimpanzee microbiomes fluctuate with seasonal rainfall patterns and frugivory...
May 3, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721290/an-in-vitro-evaluation-of-browser-and-grazer-fermentation-efficiency-and-microbiota-using-european-moose-spring-and-summer-foods
#17
Sophie J Krizsan, Alejandro Mateos-Rivera, Stefan Bertilsson, Annika Felton, Anne Anttila, Mohammad Ramin, Merko Vaga, Helena Gidlund, Pekka Huhtanen
Evolutionary morphological and physiological differences between browsers and grazers contribute to species-specific digestion efficiency of food resources. Rumen microbial community structure of browsers is supposedly adapted to characteristic nutrient composition of the diet source. If this assumption is correct, domesticated ruminants, or grazers, are poor model animals for assessing the nutritional value of food consumed by browsing game species. In this study, typical spring and summer foods of the European moose ( Alces alces ) were combined with rumen fluid collected from both dairy cows ( Bos taurus ) and from moose, with the aim of comparing fermentation efficiency and microbial community composition...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721273/within-trophic-level-shifts-in-collagen-carbonate-stable-carbon-isotope-spacing-are-propagated-by-diet-and-digestive-physiology-in-large-mammal-herbivores
#18
Daryl Codron, Marcus Clauss, Jacqueline Codron, Thomas Tütken
Stable carbon isotope analyses of vertebrate hard tissues such as bones, teeth, and tusks provide information about animal diets in ecological, archeological, and paleontological contexts. There is debate about how carbon isotope compositions of collagen and apatite carbonate differ in terms of their relationship to diet, and to each other. We evaluated relationships between δ13 Ccollagen and δ13 Ccarbonate among free-ranging southern African mammals to test predictions about the influences of dietary and physiological differences between species...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720927/association-of-dietary-patterns-and-hyperuricemia-a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-yi-ethnic-group-in-china
#19
Xirun Liu, Shanshan Huang, Wangdong Xu, Aijing Zhou, Hui Li, Rong Zhang, Ya Liu, Yan Yang, Hong Jia
Background: Diet plays an important role in the development of hyperuricemia (HUA), but evidence for association between overall dietary patterns and HUA is scarce and inconsistent. The present study aims to explore association of dietary patterns and HUA among the Yi ethnic group of China. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving people aged more than 18 years. Principal component factor analysis (PCFA) on food groups from a semi-quantitative 52-item food frequency questionnaire was applied to identify dietary patterns...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714359/corrigendum-environmental-impacts-of-plant-based-diets-how-does-organic-food-consumption-contribute-to-environmental-sustainability
#20
Camille Lacour, Louise Seconda, Benjamin Allès, Serge Hercberg, Brigitte Langevin, Philippe Pointereau, Denis Lairon, Julia Baudry, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot
[This corrects the article on p. 8 in vol. 5, PMID: 29479530.].
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
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