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Ischemic Stroke cytokine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298836/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-c509t-g800a-and-t869c-gene-polymorphisms-and-risk-of-ischemic-stroke-in-north-indian-population-a-hospital-based-case-control-study
#1
Pradeep Kumar, Shubham Misra, Amit Kumar, Mohammad Faruq, Sunil Shakya, Gyan Vardhan, Subiah Vivekanandhan, Achal Kumar Srivastava, Kameshwar Prasad
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a multifunctional pleiotropic cytokine involved in inflammation and pathogenesis of cerebrovascular diseases. There is limited information on the association between variations within the TGF-β1 gene polymorphisms and risk of ischemic stroke (IS). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the TGF-β1 gene (C509T, G800A, and T869C) polymorphisms, and their haplotypes with the risk of IS in North Indian population...
January 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263009/multipotent-adult-progenitor-cells-enhance-recovery-after-stroke-by-modulating-the-immune-response-from-the-spleen
#2
Bing Yang, Jason A Hamilton, Krystal S Valenzuela, Annelies Bogaerts, XiaoPei Xi, Jaroslaw Aronowski, Robert W Mays, Sean I Savitz
Stem cell therapy modulates not only the local microenvironment of the brain but also the systemic immune responses. We explored the impact of human multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) modulating splenic activation and peripheral immune responses after ischemic stroke. Hundred twenty-six Long-Evans adult male rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Twenty-four hours later, they received IV MAPC or saline treatment. At 3 days after infusion, RNA was isolated from the injured cortex and spleen for microarray analysis...
March 6, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260801/regulation-of-microglial-activation-in-stroke
#3
REVIEW
Shou-Cai Zhao, Ling-Song Ma, Zhao-Hu Chu, Heng Xu, Wen-Qian Wu, Fudong Liu
When ischemic stroke occurs, oxygen and energy depletion triggers a cascade of events, including inflammatory responses, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and apoptosis that result in a profound brain injury. The inflammatory response contributes to secondary neuronal damage, which exerts a substantial impact on both acute ischemic injury and the chronic recovery of the brain function. Microglia are the resident immune cells in the brain that constantly monitor brain microenvironment under normal conditions...
March 6, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255762/semax-an-analog-of-acth-4-7-regulates-expression-of-immune-response-genes-during-ischemic-brain-injury-in-rats
#4
Ekaterina V Medvedeva, Veronika G Dmitrieva, Svetlana A Limborska, Nikolay F Myasoedov, Lyudmila V Dergunova
Brain stroke continues to claim the lives of million people every year. To build the effective strategies for stroke treatment it is necessary to understand the neuroprotective mechanisms that are able to prevent the ischemic injury. Consisting of the ACTH(4-7) fragment and the tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP), the synthetic peptide Semax effectively protects brain against ischemic stroke. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its neuroprotection and participation of PGP in them are still needed to be clarified...
March 2, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245468/raf-kinase-inhibitor-protein-attenuates-ischemic-induced-microglia-cell-apoptosis-and-activation-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#5
Li Su, Rongrong Zhang, Yuanyuan Chen, Zhenyu Zhu, Chao Ma
BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke is one of the most important factors leading to disability and death with the characterization of accumulated neuron death and injured supportive neurovascular structures. Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is a key molecule in cell response to survival or death stimuli. However, the role of RKIP in stroke is worthy to be further studied. METHODS: We used lentivirus mediated RKIP knockdown and overexpression to investigate the effect of RKIP on animal models of focal cerebral ischemia...
February 28, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243165/m2-phenotype-microglia-derived-cytokine-stimulates-proliferation-and-neuronal-differentiation-of-endogenous-stem-cells-in-ischemic-brain
#6
Ja Yong Choi, Jong Youl Kim, Jae Young Kim, Joohyun Park, Won Taek Lee, Jong Eun Lee
Microglia play a key role in the immune response and inflammatory reaction that occurs in response to ischemic stroke. Activated microglia promote neuronal damage or protection in injured brain tissue. Extracellular signals polarize the microglia towards the M1/M2 phenotype. The M1/M2 phenotype microglia released pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines which induce the activation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). In this study, we investigated how the cytokines released by microglia affect the activation of NSPCs...
February 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236616/nuclear-factor-kb-and-inhibitor-of-kb-acupuncture-protection-against-acute-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rodents
#7
Wei Huang, Zhongyu Zhou, Bijiang Wan, Guang Chen, Jia Li
Context • Acute, focal, cerebral ischemic stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Acupuncture is an emerging alternative therapy for treatment of acute brain ischemia. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture has not been elucidated. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cell inhibitor alpha (IκB-α) are involved in cerebral inflammation. However, the involvement of NF-κB and IκB-α in the protective effects of acupuncture on ischemic tolerance remains unknown...
February 27, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223241/transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-differential-activation-of-microglial-genes-after-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#8
Akbar Khan, Furong Ju, Wenguang Xie, Muhammad Tariq Hafeez, Xiaofeng Cheng, Zhijie Yang, Lirui Zhu, Ting Li, Shengxiang Zhang
Microglia are immune cells in the brain and play a pivotal role in the progression of ischemic injury, but the gene expression and signaling pathways related to the activation of microglia following ischemia remain unclear. In our experiment, we used digital gene expression (DGE) analysis to profile the transcriptome of ischemic tissue in a photothrombosis model. DGE analysis identified that a total of 749 genes were differentially regulated (643 up-regulated and 106 down-regulated) after 2days and 7days following stroke...
February 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215748/long-non-coding-rna-snhg14-promotes-microglia-activation-by-regulating-mir-145-5p-pla2g4a-in-cerebral-infarction
#9
Xu Qi, Ming Shao, Hongjing Sun, Yue Shen, Delong Meng, Wei Huo
Activated microglia cells (MCs) are able to release a large amount of inflammatory cytokines after ischemic stroke, which exacerbates neuron damage. In this study, we explored the functional involvement of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) SNHG14 and its potential regulatory mechanism in the activation of MCs. The mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and microglia cell model of oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) were made. The expression of SNHG14, miR-145-5p and PLA2G4A protein expression was determined by quantitative real time PCR and western blot, respectively...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210215/tryptanthrin-suppresses-the-activation-of-the-lps-treated-bv2-microglial-cell-line-via-nrf2-ho-1-antioxidant-signaling
#10
Young-Won Kwon, So Yeong Cheon, Sung Yun Park, Juhyun Song, Ju-Hee Lee
Microglia are the resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and play essential roles in neuronal homeostasis and neuroinflammatory pathologies. Recently, microglia have been shown to contribute decisively to neuropathologic processes after ischemic stroke. Furthermore, natural compounds have been reported to attenuate inflammation and pathologies associated with neuroinflammation. Tryptanthrin (indolo[2,1-b]quinazoline-6,12-dione) is a phytoalkaloid with known anti-inflammatory effects in cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199737/inhibition-of-trpv1-confers-neuroprotection-reduces-tnf-%C3%AE-and-increases-il-10-in-a-rat-stroke-model
#11
Elham Hakimizadeh, Ali Shamsizadeh, Ali Roohbakhsh, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh, Mehdi Shariati, Mohammad Reza Rahmani, Mohammad Allahtavakoli
Stroke is a major cause of mortality and long-term disability in adults. TRPV1 plays a crucial role in neuroinflammation. In the current study, the effects of TRPV1 agonist (capsaicin) and antagonist (AMG9810) on cerebral ischemia were investigated. Forty male Wistar rats were assigned to the following experimental groups: sham, vehicle) ischemic), AMG9810 (selective TRPV1 antagonist, 0.5 mg/kg; 3 h after stroke), and capsaicin (1 mg/kg; 3 h after stroke). Stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and neurological deficits were evaluated 1, 3, and 7 days after stroke...
February 15, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192099/role-of-interleukin-10-in-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-the-angiotensin-type-2-receptor-agonist-compound-21-after-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#12
Abdelrahman Y Fouda, Bindu Pillai, Krishnan M Dhandapani, Adviye Ergul, Susan C Fagan
INTRODUCTION: We and others have shown that the angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor agonist, compound 21 (C21), provides neuroprotection and enhances recovery in rodent stroke models yet the mechanism involved is not known. Moreover, C21 treatment is associated with an anti-inflammatory response. Here we tested the hypothesis that C21 mediates neuroprotection by upregulating the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to 3h-middle cerebral artery suture occlusion and treated at reperfusion with C21 (0...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188764/modulation-of-cerebral-rage-expression-following-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibition-in-rats-subjected-to-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#13
Rosaria Greco, Chiara Demartini, Anna Maria Zanaboni, Fabio Blandini, Diana Amantea, Cristina Tassorelli
The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a key mediator of neuroinflammation following cerebral ischemia. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a dualistic role in cerebral ischemia, depending on whether it originates from neuronal, inducible or endothelial synthase. Although a dynamic interplay between RAGE and NO pathways exists, its relevance in ischemic stroke has not been investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibition on RAGE expression in rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo)...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183800/tnfsf15-inhibits-vegf-stimulated-vascular-hyperpermeability-by-inducing-vegfr2-dephosphorylation
#14
Gui-Li Yang, Zilong Zhao, Ting-Ting Qin, Dong Wang, Lijuan Chen, Rong Xiang, Zhen Xi, Rongcai Jiang, Zhi-Song Zhang, Jianning Zhang, Lu-Yuan Li
Vascular hyperpermeability is critical in ischemic diseases, including stroke and myocardial infarction, as well as in inflammation and cancer. It is well known that the VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling pathways are pivotal in promoting vascular permeability; however, counterbalancing mechanisms that restrict vascular permeability to maintain the integrity of blood vessels, are not yet fully understood. We report that TNF superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15), a cytokine largely produced by vascular endothelial cells and a specific inhibitor of the proliferation of these same cells, can inhibit VEGF-induced vascular permeability in vitro and in vivo, and that death receptor 3 (DR3), a cell surface receptor of TNFSF15, mediates TNFSF15-induced dephosphorylation of VEGFR2...
February 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164443/low-level-light-emitting-diode-led-therapy-suppresses-inflammasome-mediated-brain-damage-in-experimental-ischemic-stroke
#15
Hae In Lee, Sae-Won Lee, Nam Gyun Kim, Kyoung-Jun Park, Byung Tae Choi, Yong-Il Shin, Hwa Kyoung Shin
Use of photostimulation including low-level light emitting diode (LED) therapy has broadened greatly in recent years because it is compact, portable, and easy to use. Here, the effects of photostimulation by LED (610 nm) therapy on ischemic brain damage was investigated in mice in which treatment started after a stroke in a clinically relevant setting. The mice underwent LED therapy (20 min) twice a day for 3 days, commencing at 4 hours post-ischemia. LED therapy group generated a significantly smaller infarct size and improvements in neurological function based on neurologic test score...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155611/galectins-a-potential-target-for-cardiovascular-therapy
#16
Ghulam Md Ashraf, Asma Perveen, Syed Kashif Zaidi, Ausaf Ahmad, Shazi Shakil, Chelapram Kandy Firoz, Nasimudeen R Jabir, Iftekhar Hassan, Taqi Ahmad Khan, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Shams Tabrez
Cells constantly adapt to external humoral cues like cytokines and hormones, but practically most cellular behavior is under locally guided control via cell-cell interactions. Galectins (Gals) are one of the most prominent members of the group of molecules involved in this intercellular signaling. They are the family of β-galactoside specific lectins and consist of 15 different types, each with a specific function. They play crucial role in the immune system, inflammation, wound healing and carcinogenesis...
February 1, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132912/involvement-of-arterial-baroreflex-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-%C3%AE-7-subunit-pathway-in-the-protection-of-metformin-against-stroke-in-stroke-prone-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#17
Jin-Min Guo, Li Zhang, Xue-Cai Niu, He Shu, Lei Wang, Ding-Feng Su, Ying Zhang, Ai-Jun Liu, De-Qiu Zhu, Jian-Jiang Xu
Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide. There is growing evidence that metformin (Met) has potent neuroprotective effects; however, its mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the role of the arterial baroreflex and cholinergic-α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) anti-inflammory pathway in the beneficial effects of Met against stroke. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were used to observe stroke development indicated by lifespan of SHRSP and the ischemic injury induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
January 26, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132764/3h-1-2-dithiole-3-thione-as-a-novel-therapeutic-agent-for-the-treatment-of-ischemic-stroke-through-nrf2-defense-pathway
#18
Ping-Chang Kuo, I-Chen Yu, Barbara A Scofield, Dennis A Brown, Eric T Curfman, Hallel C Paraiso, Fen-Lei Chang, Jui-Hung Yen
Cerebral ischemic stroke accounts for more than 80% of all stroke cases. During cerebral ischemia, reactive oxygen species produced in brain tissue induce oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. D3T, the simplest compound of the cyclic, sulfur-containing dithiolethiones, is found in cruciferous vegetables, and has been reported to induce anti-oxidant genes and glutathione biosynthesis through activation of Nrf2. In addition to anti-oxidant activity, D3T was also reported to possess anti-inflammatory effects...
January 26, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115719/immunoinhibitory-checkpoint-deficiency-in-medium-and-large-vessel-vasculitis
#19
Hui Zhang, Ryu Watanabe, Gerald J Berry, Augusto Vaglio, Yaping Joyce Liao, Kenneth J Warrington, Jörg J Goronzy, Cornelia M Weyand
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) causes autoimmune inflammation of the aorta and its large branches, resulting in aortic arch syndrome, blindness, and stroke. CD4(+) T cells and macrophages form organized granulomatous lesions in the walls of affected arteries, destroy the tunica media, and induce ischemic organ damage through rapid intimal hyperplasia and luminal occlusion. Pathogenic mechanisms remain insufficiently understood; specifically, it is unknown whether the unopposed activation of the immune system is because of deficiency of immunoinhibitory checkpoints...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115020/cerebral-ischemic-damage-in-diabetes-an-inflammatory-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Vibha Shukla, Akhalesh Kumar Shakya, Miguel A Perez-Pinzon, Kunjan R Dave
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. A strong inflammatory response characterized by activation and release of cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and proteolytic enzymes contributes to brain damage following stroke. Stroke outcomes are worse among diabetics, resulting in increased mortality and disabilities. Diabetes involves chronic inflammation manifested by reactive oxygen species generation, expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and activation/expression of other inflammatory mediators...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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