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Ischemic Stroke cytokine

Xiao-Fan Zhang, Wei Zou, Yuan Yang
Depression is an important post-stroke sequela with negative impact on mortality, functional outcome and quality of life. Changes in cytokines have been hypothesized to be associated with the etiology of post-stroke depression (PSD). The altere dhypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning is associated with the onset of depression. The activity of HPA could induce the fluctuations of cortisol levels. In this study, we prospectively checked interleukin 6 (IL-6) and cortisol levels in patients with early ischemic stroke...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Ruihe Lin, Jingli Cai, Eric W Kostuk, Robert Rosenwasser, Lorraine Iacovitti
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), working via its metabolite monomethylfumarate (MMF), acts as a potent antioxidant and immunomodulator in animal models of neurologic disease and in patients with multiple sclerosis. These properties and their translational potential led us to investigate whether DMF/MMF could also protect at-risk and/or dying neurons in models of ischemic stroke in vitro and in vivo. Although the antioxidant effects have been partially addressed, the benefits of DMF immunomodulation after ischemic stroke still need to be explored...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Jing Qiu, Zhongjun Yan, Kai Tao, Yansong Li, Yuqian Li, Jingchen Li, Yushu Dong, Dayun Feng, Huisheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Astrocyte-mediated neuroinflammation plays a critical role in ischemic stroke-induced secondary cerebral injury. Previous studies have suggested that the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) acts as a key target in regulating the neuroinflammatory response. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown, and effective DRD2 agonists are lacking. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of sinomenine (Sino), a monomeric compound with potential immunoregulatory properties in nervous system...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Chin-Yi Cheng, Yu-Chen Lee
Inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke. In the ischemic cascade, resident microglia are rapidly activated in the brain parenchyma and subsequently trigger inflammatory mediator release, which facilitates leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in inflammation. Activated leukocytes invade the endothelial cell junctions and destroy the blood-brain barrier integrity, leading to brain edema. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) stimulation in microglia/macrophages through the activation of intercellular signaling pathways secretes various proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes and then aggravates cerebral ischemic injury...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Hai M Nguyen, Eva M Grössinger, Makoto Horiuchi, Kyle W Davis, Lee-Way Jin, Izumi Maezawa, Heike Wulff
Microglia are highly plastic cells that can assume different phenotypes in response to microenvironmental signals. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) promote differentiation into classically activated M1-like microglia, which produce high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide and are thought to contribute to neurological damage in ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease. IL-4 in contrast induces a phenotype associated with anti-inflammatory effects and tissue repair. We here investigated whether these microglia subsets vary in their K(+) channel expression by differentiating neonatal mouse microglia into M(LPS) and M(IL-4) microglia and studying their K(+) channel expression by whole-cell patch-clamp, quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry...
October 3, 2016: Glia
Whitney S Gibbs, Rachel A Weber, Rick G Schnellmann, DeAnna L Adkins
AIMS: Determine the subacute time course of mitochondria disruption, cell death, and inflammation in a rat model of unilateral motor cortical ischemic stroke. MAIN METHODS: Rats received unilateral ischemia of the motor cortex and were tested on behavioral tasks to determine impairments. Animals were euthanized at 24h, 72h and 144h and mRNA expression of key mitochondria proteins and indicators of inflammation, apoptosis and potential regenerative processes in ipsilesion cortex and striatum, using RT-qPCR...
September 27, 2016: Life Sciences
Mohammad Ashafaq, Heena Tabassum, Suhel Parvez
Oxidative stress and inflammatory responses play a critical contributing factor in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion, which lead to lipid peroxidation and neuronal dysfunction that may represent a target for therapeutic intervention. The present study was aimed to elucidate the neuroprotective effect of tannic acid (TA), a natural polyphenol with potential antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties on middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats. To test this hypothesis, male Wistar rats were pretreated with TA (50 mg/kg b...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Yamila Rodríguez Cruz, Manon Strehaiano, Teresita Rodríguez Obaya, Julío César García Rodríguez, Tangui Maurice
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a cytokine known to have effective cytoprotective action in the brain, particularly in ischemic, traumatic, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative conditions. We previously reported the neuroprotective effect of a low sialic form of EPO, Neuro-EPO, applied intranasally in rodent models of stroke or cerebellar ataxia and in a non-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we analyzed the protective effect of Neuro-EPO in APPSwe mice, a reference transgenic mouse model of AD...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jin Hwan Lee, Zheng Z Wei, Wenyuan Cao, Soonmi Won, Xiaohuan Gu, Megan Winter, Thomas A Dix, Ling Wei, Shan Ping Yu
Stroke is a leading threat to human life and health in the US and around the globe, while very few effective treatments are available for stroke patients. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a potential treatment for stroke. Using novel neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) agonists, we have demonstrated pharmacologically induced hypothermia and protective effects against brain damages after ischemic stroke, hemorrhage stroke, and traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rodent models...
September 19, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Keren Zhou, Ligen Shi, Yan Wang, Sheng Chen, Jianmin Zhang
Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that trigger the activation of caspases-1 and subsequently the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and interleukin-18. These cytokines play a critical role in mediating inflammation and innate immunity response. Among various inflammasome complexes, the NLRP3 inflammasome is the best characterized, which has been demonstrated as a crucial role in various diseases. Here, we review recently described mechanisms that are involved in the activation and regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Ana Lucía Rodríguez-Perea, Johanna Gutierrez-Vargas, Gloria Patricia Cardona-Gómez, Carlos Julio Montoya Guarin, Mauricio Rojas, Paula Andrea Velilla Hernández
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) inhibit the activation of the immune response which could down-regulate the systemic and focal activation observed during ischemic stroke. In fact, in animal models, Tregs infiltrate the infarcted brain and reduce the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and infarct volume, mainly in late stages of ischemia. Recently, an expansion and greater suppressive capacity of circulating Tregs after treatment with statins was observed, in addition to their cardio- and neuroprotective actions demonstrated previously...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Roberta Caorsi, Federica Penco, Francesca Schena, Marco Gattorno
The deficiency of Adenosine Deaminase 2 (DADA2) is a new autoinflammatory disease characterised by an early onset vasculopathy with livedoid skin rash associated with systemic manifestations, CNS involvement and mild immunodeficiency.This condition is secondary to autosomal recessive mutations of CECR1 (Cat Eye Syndrome Chromosome Region 1) gene, mapped to chromosome 22q11.1, that encodes for the enzymatic protein adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2). By now 19 different mutations in CECR1 gene have been detected...
2016: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Weiying Xie, Lili Fang, Shuyuan Gan, Haojun Xuan
Stroke causes brain injury with neuroinflammation which exacerbates the neuronal damage. Recent studies show that anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-19 (IL-19) plays a critical part in the inflammatory and ischemic vascular diseases, yet its potential role in ischemic stroke is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that IL-19 exerts protective effects against brain ischemia by modulating inflammation after stroke. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with 10ng/g per day recombinant mouse IL-19 starting pre-stroke, and were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
Thuy-Vi V Nguyen, Jennifer B Frye, Jacob C Zbesko, Kristina Stepanovic, Megan Hayes, Alex Urzua, Geidy Serrano, Thomas G Beach, Kristian P Doyle
This study provides a parallel characterization of the cytokine and chemokine response to stroke in the human and mouse brain at different stages of infarct resolution. The study goal was to address the hypothesis that chronic inflammation may contribute to stroke-related dementia. We used C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice to control for strain related differences in the mouse immune response. Our data indicate that in both mouse strains, and humans, there is increased granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-12 p70 (IL-12p70), interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10), keratinocyte chemoattractant/interleukin-8 (KC/IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the infarct core during the acute time period...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Lauren J Simmons, Monique C Surles-Zeigler, Yonggang Li, Gregory D Ford, Gale D Newman, Byron D Ford
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) was neuroprotective in rats following ischemic stroke. Neuroprotection by NRG-1 was associated with the suppression of pro-inflammatory gene expression in brain tissues. Over-activation of brain microglia can induce pro-inflammatory gene expression by activation of transcriptional regulators following stroke. Here, we examined how NRG-1 transcriptionally regulates inflammatory gene expression by computational bioinformatics and in vitro using microglial cells...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Mohammad Ejaz Ahmed, Donovan Tucker, Yan Dong, Yujiao Lu, Ningjun Zhao, Ruimin Wang, Quanguang Zhang
Ischemic stroke in rodents stimulates neurogenesis in the adult brain and the proliferation of newborn neurons that migrate into the penumbra zone. The present study investigated the effect of Methylene Blue (MB) on neurogenesis and functional recovery in a photothrombotic (PT) model of ischemic stroke in rats. PT stroke model was induced by photo-activation of Rose Bengal dye in cerebral blood flow by cold fiber light. Rats received intraperitoneal injection of either MB (0.5mg/kg/day) from day 1 to day 5 after stroke or an equal volume of saline solution as a control...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Norio Fujiwara, Angel T Som, Loc-Duyen D Pham, Brian J Lee, Emiri T Mandeville, Eng H Lo, Ken Arai
A free radical scavenger edaravone is clinically used in Japan for acute stroke, and several basic researches have carefully examined the mechanisms of edaravone's protective effects. However, its actions on pro-inflammatory responses under stroke are still understudied. In this study, we subjected adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to 90-min middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion followed by reperfusion. Edaravone was treated twice via tail vein; after MCA occlusion and after reperfusion. As expected, edaravone-treated group showed less infarct volume and edema formation compared with control group at 24-h after an ischemic onset...
August 30, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Jian-Tong Jiao, Chao Cheng, Ying-Jun Ma, Jin Huang, Min-Chao Dai, Chen Jiang, Cheng Wang, Jun-Fei Shao
The association between inflammatory cytokines and the risk of post-stroke depression (PSD) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate this association and the effect of PSD on the outcomes of ischemic stroke patients. A total of 355 patients who had experienced ischemic stroke participated in inflammatory cytokine detection by ELISA, in addition to depression, quality of life (QOL) and body performance testing. Cox regression was used to evaluate the associations between PSD risk, inflammatory cytokines and the outcomes of patients...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Heng Huang, Qijuan Huang, Fuxin Wang, Richard Milner, Longxuan Li
BACKGROUND: The pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), is expressed in ischemic tissue and is known to modulate angiogenesis; however, the role of the two distinct TNF-α receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, in mediating angiogenic signaling after cerebral ischemic stroke is relatively unknown. METHODS: C57BL6 mice were subject to 90 min of ischemia by temporary occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) and given daily intra-cerebroventricular injections of antibodies against TNFR1, TNFR2 or control IgG (doses of 10, 50, and 100 ng/day) for 4 days following 90 min MCAO...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Fangzhe Chen, Weifeng Wang, Hongyan Ding, Qi Yang, Qiang Dong, Mei Cui
BACKGROUND: As the number of patients with cardioembolic ischemic stroke is predicted to be double by 2030, increased burden of warfarin-associated hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after cerebral ischemia is an expected consequence. However, thus far, no effective treatment strategy is available for HT prevention in routine clinical practice. While the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4) is known to protect against oxidative stress and neuronal cell death caused by ischemic brain damage, its effect on preventing warfarin-associated HT after cerebral ischemia is yet unknown...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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