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Ischemic Stroke cytokine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817120/the-erythropoietin-derived-peptide-mk-x-and-erythropoietin-have-neuroprotective-effects-against-ischemic-brain-damage
#1
Seung-Jun Yoo, Bongki Cho, Deokho Lee, Gowoon Son, Yeong-Bae Lee, Hyung Soo Han, Eunjoo Kim, Chanil Moon, Cheil Moon
Erythropoietin (EPO) has been well known as a hematopoietic cytokine over the past decades. However, recent reports have demonstrated that EPO plays a neuroprotective role in the central nervous system, and EPO has been considered as a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases such as ischemic stroke. Despite the neuroprotective effect of EPO, clinical trials have shown its unexpected side effects, including undesirable proliferative effects such as erythropoiesis and tumor growth. Therefore, the development of EPO analogs that would confer neuroprotection without adverse effects has been attempted...
August 17, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808202/-borneol-is-neuroprotective-against-permanent-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats-by-suppressing-production-of-proinflammatory-cytokines
#2
Lei Chang, Chun-Yu Yin, Hai-Yin Wu, Bin-Bin Tian, Yan Zhu, Chun-Xia Luo, Dong-Ya Zhu
Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and death globally. It occurs when a major artery is occluded in the brain and leads to death of cells within the injured tissue. (+)-Borneol, a simple bicyclic monoterpene extracted from traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used in various types of diseases. However, no study has proved the effects of (+)-borneol on functional recovery from permanent ischemic stroke and the mechanism is still unknown. Here, we report that in the rat model of permanent cerebral ischemia, we found that (+)-borneol (1...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769762/loss-of-irf2bp2-in-microglia-increases-inflammation-and-functional-deficits-after-focal-ischemic-brain-injury
#3
Shelly A Cruz, Aswin Hari, Zhaohong Qin, Pascal Couture, Hua Huang, Diane C Lagace, Alexandre F R Stewart, Hsiao-Huei Chen
Ischemic stroke causes neuronal cell death and triggers a cascade of inflammatory signals that contribute to secondary brain damage. Microglia, the brain-resident macrophages that remove dead neurons, play a critical role in the brain's response to ischemic injury. Our previous studies showed that IRF2 binding protein 2 (IRF2BP2) regulates peripheral macrophage polarization, limits their inflammatory response and reduces susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Here, we show that loss of IRF2BP2 in microglia leads to increased inflammatory cytokine expression in response to lipopolysaccharide challenge and impaired activation of anti-inflammatory markers in response to interleukin-4 (IL4) stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761425/electroacupuncture-regulates-the-stress-injury-repair-chain-of-events-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#4
Peng Shi, Lin-Lin Sun, Yi-Shuo Lee, Ya Tu
Inflammation after stroke is the main cause of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Cascading events after injury can lead to cell death. Heat shock protein 70 and other endogenous injury-signaling molecules are released by damaged cells, which can lead to systemic stress reactions. Protecting the brain through repair begins with the stress-injury-repair signaling chain. This study aimed to verify whether acupuncture acts through this chain to facilitate effective treatment of ischemic stroke. Rat models of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were established by Zea Longa's method, and injury sites were identified by assessing neurological function, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, and hematoxylin-eosin staining...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760594/s-oxiracetam-protect-against-ischemic-stroke-via-alleviating-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-in-rats
#5
Liangliang Huang, Erxin Shang, Wenxiang Fan, Xiang Li, Binbin Li, Shucheng He, Yuxin Fu, Yizhi Zhang, Yunman Li, Weirong Fang
The blood brain barrier (BBB) maintains the basic stability of the brain tissue under physiological conditions, while destroys and exaggerates brain edema and inflammatory response after ischemic stroke. In this study, we researched S-oxiracetam (S-ORC), a nootropic drug, alleviates BBB dysfunction and protects against ischemic stroke in rats. Middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)/reperfusion in rats is applied to mimic ischemic stroke. One hour after reperfusion, rats are administered intravenously with different dose (0...
July 29, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752032/potassium-2-l-hydroxypentyl-benzoate-attenuates-neuroinflammatory-responses-and-upregulates-heme-oxygenase-1-in-systemic-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammation-in-mice
#6
Chunyang Zhao, Weizhen Hou, Hui Lei, Longjian Huang, Shan Wang, Dandan Cui, Changhong Xing, Xiaoliang Wang, Ying Peng
A neuroinflammatory response is commonly involved in the progression of many neurodegenerative diseases. Potassium 2-(1-hydroxypentyl)-benzoate (PHPB), a novel neuroprotective compound, has shown promising effects in the treatment of ischemic stroke and Alzheimer׳s disease (AD). In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of PHPB were investigated in the plasma and brain of C57BL/6 mice administered a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Levels of iNOS and the cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-10 were elevated in plasma, cerebral cortex and hippocampus after LPS injection and the number of microglia and astrocytes in cortex and hippocampus were increased...
July 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751018/deletion-of-the-p2x4-receptor-is-neuroprotective-acutely-but-induces-a-depressive-phenotype-during-recovery-from-ischemic-stroke
#7
Rajkumar Verma, Chunxia G Cronin, Jacob Hudobenko, Venugopal R Venna, Louise D McCullough, Bruce T Liang
INTRODUCTION: Acute ischemic injury leads to severe neuronal loss. One of the key mechanisms responsible for this effect is inflammation, which is characterized by the activation of myeloid cells, including resident microglia and infiltrating monocytes/macrophages. P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) present on these immune cells modulate the inflammatory response. For example, excessive release of adenosine triphosphate during acute ischemic stroke triggers stimulation of P2X4Rs, leading to myeloid cell activation and proliferation and further exacerbating post-ischemic inflammation...
July 24, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745660/-influence-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-on-angiogenesis-and-neurogenesis
#8
A S Rud'ko, M Kh Efendieva, M V Budzinskaya, M A Karpilova
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known as a key mediator of angiogenesis, but there is also evidence of its broad significance in neurogenesis and neuroprotection. Cytokines of the VEGF family affect neovascularization and neural development in the brain, particularly during cerebral ischemia, in which there is a coordinated interaction of angiogenesis and neurogenesis that contributes to rapid functional recovery. This review examines the involvement of VEGF family members and their receptors in physiological and pathophysiological processes as well as the relationship between VEGF-A plasma levels and ischemic stroke...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736035/propane-2-sulfonic-acid-octadec-9-enyl-amide-a-novel-ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-dual-agonist-protects-against-ischemia-induced-brain-damage-in-mice-by-inhibiting-inflammatory-responses
#9
Ying Li, Lanxi Xu, Kaiyue Zeng, Zhentian Xu, Daqin Suo, Lu Peng, Tong Ren, Zhiheng Sun, Wushuang Yang, Xin Jin, Lichao Yang
Propane-2-sulfonic acid octadec-9-enyl-amide (N15), an analogue of oleoylethanolamide (OEA), is a novel PPARα/γ dual agonist. Our previous studies verified the positive effects of OEA on the acute and delayed stages of cerebral ischemia. However, it is not clear whether N15 is effective against ischemic cerebral injury. In the present study, male Kunming mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). To evaluate its preventive effects, N15 (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg, ip) was administered for 3 days before ischemia...
July 20, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729134/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-levels-in-serum-from-patients-with-acute-intracerebral-hemorrhage-potential-contribution-to-prognosis
#10
Qun Lin, Jian-Yong Cai, Chuan Lu, Jun Sun, Hua-Jun Ba, Mao-Hua Chen, Xian-Dong Chen, Jun-Xia Dai, Jian-Hu Lin
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) pathophysiology involves inflammation. Macrophage migration inhibition factor (MIF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is related to prognosis of ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate whether serum MIF levels are associated with severity and outcomes in patients with acute ICH. METHODS: We enrolled a total of 120 consecutive ICH patients and 120 healthy controls and sampled blood on admission and at study entry respectively...
July 17, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725658/mesenchymal-stem-cells-overexpressing-interleukin-10-promote-neuroprotection-in-experimental-acute-ischemic-stroke
#11
Masataka Nakajima, Chikako Nito, Kota Sowa, Satoshi Suda, Yasuhiro Nishiyama, Aki Nakamura-Takahashi, Yuko Nitahara-Kasahara, Kiwamu Imagawa, Tohru Hirato, Masayuki Ueda, Kazumi Kimura, Takashi Okada
Interleukin (IL)-10 is a contributing factor to neuroprotection of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation after ischemic stroke. Our aim was to increase therapeutic effects by combining MSCs and ex vivo IL-10 gene transfer with an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector using a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 90 min MCAO followed by intravenous administration of MSCs alone or IL-10 gene-transferred MSCs (MSC/IL-10) at 0 or 3 hr after ischemia reperfusion...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659854/role-of-interleukin-10-in-acute-brain-injuries
#12
REVIEW
Joshua M Garcia, Stephanie A Stillings, Jenna L Leclerc, Harrison Phillips, Nancy J Edwards, Steven A Robicsek, Brian L Hoh, Spiros Blackburn, Sylvain Doré
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an important anti-inflammatory cytokine expressed in response to brain injury, where it facilitates the resolution of inflammatory cascades, which if prolonged causes secondary brain damage. Here, we comprehensively review the current knowledge regarding the role of IL-10 in modulating outcomes following acute brain injury, including traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the various stroke subtypes. The vascular endothelium is closely tied to the pathophysiology of these neurological disorders and research has demonstrated clear vascular endothelial protective properties for IL-10...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648389/stress-primes-microglial-polarization-after-global-ischemia-therapeutic-potential-of-progesterone
#13
Claudia Espinosa-Garcia, Iqbal Sayeed, Seema Yousuf, Fahim Atif, Elena G Sergeeva, Gretchen N Neigh, Donald G Stein
Despite the fact stress is associated with increased risk of stroke and worsened outcome, most preclinical studies have ignored this comorbid factor, especially in the context of testing neuroprotective treatments. Preclinical research suggests that stress primes microglia, resulting in an enhanced reactivity to a subsequent insult and potentially increasing vulnerability to stroke. Ischemia-induced activated microglia can be polarized into a harmful phenotype, M1, which produces pro-inflammatory cytokines, or a protective phenotype, M2, which releases anti-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors...
June 22, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634890/ccl11-eotaxin-1-levels-predict-long-term-functional-outcomes-in-patients-following-ischemic-stroke
#14
Meaghan Roy-O'Reilly, Rodney M Ritzel, Sarah E Conway, Ilene Staff, Gilbert Fortunato, Louise D McCullough
Circulating levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine C-C motif chemokine 11 (CCL11, also known as eotaxin-1) are increased in several animal models of neuroinflammation, including traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer's disease. Increased levels of CCL11 have also been linked to decreased neurogenesis in mice. We hypothesized that circulating CCL11 levels would increase following ischemic stroke in mice and humans, and that higher CCL11 levels would correlate with poor long-term recovery in patients. As predicted, circulating levels of CCL11 in both young and aged mice increased significantly 24 h after experimental stroke...
June 21, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629771/chemokines-play-complex-roles-in-cerebral-ischemia
#15
REVIEW
Chen Chen, Shi-Feng Chu, Dan-Dan Liu, Zhao Zhang, Ling-Lei Kong, Xin Zhou, Nai-Hong Chen
Ischemic stroke (IS) is a disease caused by deficiency of blood and oxygen in focal or complete brain, followed by inflammation cascade and other pathological reactions, which finally lead to irreversible damage to the cerebrum. For the inflammation is a key progress at the initiation of ischemia and poststroke, and chemokines work as vital cytokines in inflammation, we focus the roles of chemokines in IS. Studies have shown cerebral ischemia is associated with marked induction of both CXC and CC chemokines which resulting in extensive leukocyte infiltration in the ischemic brain, and neutrophil infiltration may increase cerebral edema inducing injury in the ischemic area...
June 16, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624878/a-combination-of-three-repurposed-drugs-administered-at-reperfusion-as-a-promising-therapy-for-postischemic-brain-injury
#16
I-Chen Yu, Ping-Chang Kuo, Jui-Hung Yen, Hallel C Paraiso, Eric T Curfman, Benecia C Hong-Goka, Robert D Sweazey, Fen-Lei Chang
Cerebral ischemia leads to multifaceted injury to the brain. A polytherapeutic drug that can be administered immediately after reperfusion may increase protection to the brain by simultaneously targeting multiple deleterious cascades. This study evaluated efficacy of the combination of three clinically approved drugs: lamotrigine, minocycline, and lovastatin, using two mouse models: global and focal cerebral ischemia induced by transient occlusion of the common carotid arteries or the middle cerebral artery, respectively...
June 17, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602832/fumarate-decreases-edema-volume-and-improves-functional-outcome-after-experimental-stroke
#17
Bettina Hjelm Clausen, Louise Lundberg, Minna Yli-Karjanmaa, Nellie Anne Martin, Martina Svensson, Maria Zeiler Alfsen, Simon Bertram Flæng, Kristina Lyngsø, Antonio Boza-Serrano, Helle H Nielsen, Pernille B Hansen, Bente Finsen, Tomas Deierborg, Zsolt Illes, Kate Lykke Lambertsen
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation exacerbate tissue damage in the brain after ischemic stroke. Dimethyl-fumarate (DMF) and its metabolite monomethyl-fumarate (MMF) are known to stimulate anti-oxidant pathways and modulate inflammatory responses. Considering these dual effects of fumarates, we examined the effect of MMF treatment after ischemic stroke in mice. METHODS: Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was performed using adult, male C57BL/6 mice...
September 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596509/serum-galectin-3-level-not-galectin-1-is-associated-with-the-clinical-feature-and-outcome-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#18
Han Dong, Zhi-Hao Wang, Na Zhang, Si-Da Liu, Jian-Jun Zhao, Song-Yan Liu
AIM: To study the diagnostic and prognostic role of serum galectin-1 (Gal-1) and -3 (Gal-3) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. METHODS: We enrolled 233 patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke and 252 healthy controls in this study. The AIS severity was evaluated by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores. The serum Gal-1 and -3 levels were determined. All patients were followed for 1 years and the functional outcome were evaluated by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores...
May 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588054/sustained-neurological-recovery-after-stroke-in-aged-rats-treated-with-a-novel-prostacyclin-analog
#19
Changjun Yang, Kelly M DeMars, Jon C Alexander, Marcelo Febo, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Targeting the prostaglandin I2 prostanoid (IP) receptor to reduce stroke injury has been hindered by the lack of selective drugs. MRE-269 is the active metabolite of selexipag showing a high selectivity toward the IP receptor. Selexipag has been recently approved for clinical use in pulmonary hypertension. We hypothesized that postischemic treatment with MRE-269 provides long-lasting neuroprotection with improved neurological outcomes in a clinically relevant rat stroke model...
July 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578514/the-beneficial-effects-of-hmg-coa-reductase-inhibitors-in-the-processes-of-neurodegeneration
#20
REVIEW
Seyed Soheil Saeedi Saravi, Seyed Sobhan Saeedi Saravi, Alireza Arefidoust, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Statins, cholesterol lowering drugs, have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects in other conditions such as primary and progressing neurodegenerative diseases beyond their original role. Observation that statins ameliorate the neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and cerebral ischemic stroke, the neuroprotective effects of these drugs are thought to be linked to their anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-excitotoxic properties...
August 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
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