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Ischemic Stroke cytokine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337840/targeted-temperature-management-at-33%C3%A2-c-or-36%C3%A2-c-produces-equivalent-neuroprotective-effects-in-the-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-rat-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#1
Jung Ho Lee, Jisoo Lim, Yong Eun Chung, Sung Phil Chung, Incheol Park, Chul Hoon Kim, Je Sung You
Targeted temperature management (TTM, 32°C to 36°C) is one of the most successful achievements in modern resuscitation medicine. It has become standard treatment for survivors of sudden cardiac arrest to minimize secondary brain damage. TTM at 36°C is just as effective as TTM at 33°C and is actually preferred because it reduces adverse TTM-associated effects. TTM also likely has direct neuroprotective effects in ischemic brains in danger of stroke. It remains unclear, however, whether higher temperature TTM is equally effective in protecting the brain from the effects of stroke...
January 15, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337240/prevention-of-the-severity-of-post-ischemic-inflammation-and-brain-damage-by-simultaneous-knockdown-of-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4
#2
Koteswara Rao Nalamolu, Nathan J Smith, Bharath Chelluboina, Jeffrey D Klopfenstein, David M Pinson, David Z Wang, Raghu Vemuganti, Krishna Kumar Veeravalli
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 belong to a family of highly conserved pattern recognition receptors and are well-known upstream sensors of signaling pathways of innate immunity. TLR2 and TLR4 upregulation is thought to be associated with poor outcome in stroke patients. We currently show that transient focal ischemia in adult rats induces TLR2 and TLR4 expression within hours and shRNA-mediated knockdown of TLR2 and TLR4 alone and in combination decreases the infarct size and swelling. We further show that TLR2 and TLR4 knockdown also prevented the induction of their downstream signaling molecules MyD88, IRAK1, and NFκB p65 as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335619/cytokine-mif-enhances-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-impact-for-therapy-in-ischemic-stroke
#3
Yu-Chuan Liu, Yung-Hsu Tsai, Sung-Chun Tang, Houng-Chi Liou, Kai-Hsiang Kang, Horng-Huei Liou, Jiann-Shing Jeng, Wen-Mei Fu
Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease with limited therapeutic options. It is very urgent to find a new target for drug development. Here we found that the blood level of MIF in ischemic stroke patients is upregulated. To figure out the pathological role of MIF in ischemic stroke, both in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted. For in vitro studies, primary cortical neuron cultures and adult rat brain endothelial cells (ARBECs) were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/reoxygenation. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) rodent models were used for in vivo studies...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331305/tigar-inhibits-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-inflammatory-response-of-astrocytes
#4
Jieyu Chen, Ding-Mei Zhang, Xing Feng, Jian Wang, Yuan-Yuan Qin, Tian Zhang, Qiao Huang, Rui Sheng, Zhong Chen, Mei Li, Zheng-Hong Qin
The inflammatory response of glial cells contributes to neuronal damage or repair after brain ischemia/reperfusion insult. We previously demonstrated a protective role of TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) in ischemic neuronal injury through increasing the flow of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The present study investigated the possible role of TIGAR in ischemia/reperfusion-induced inflammatory response of astrocytes. Male ICR mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by 24 h reperfusion and cultured primary astrocytes were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation for 9 h followed by 24 h reoxygenation (OGD/R)...
January 10, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328438/cynandione%C3%A2-a-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cell-adhesion-via-suppression-of-the-protein-expression-of-vcam%C3%A2-1-in-human-endothelial-cells
#5
Keun Hyung Park, Jiyoung Kim, Eunjoo H Lee, Tae Hoon Lee
Cynandione A (CA) is one of the most active compounds in the roots of Cynanchum wilfordii, the extracts of which have been used extensively in East Asia to treat various diseases including anti‑ischemic stroke. In the present study, the anti‑adherent activity of CA in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. CA markedly reduced the expression of vascular adhesion molecule‑1 (VCAM‑1) by LPS in HUVECs. The results also demonstrated that CA significantly reduced the expression of pro‑inflammatory and chemoattractant cytokines, including interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6, IL‑8, monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1 and tumor necrosis factor‑α, in LPS‑activated human endothelial cells...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328072/immunomodulatory-effect-of-cd200-positive-human-placenta-derived-stem-cells-in-the-early-phase-of-stroke
#6
TaeHo Kong, Ji-Min Park, Ji Hyon Jang, C-Yoon Kim, Sang-Hun Bae, Yuri Choi, Yun-Hwa Jeong, Chul Kim, Sung Woon Chang, Joopyung Kim, Jisook Moon
Human placenta amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) regulate immune responses, and this property can be exploited to treat stroke patients via cell therapy. We investigated the expression profile of AMSCs cultured under hypoxic conditions and observed interesting expression changes in various genes involved in immune regulation. CD200, an anti-inflammatory factor and positive regulator of TGF-β, was more highly expressed under hypoxic conditions than normoxic conditions. Furthermore, AMSCs exhibited inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in co-cultures with LPS-primed BV2 microglia, and this effect was decreased in CD200-silenced AMSCs...
January 12, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321396/-molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-underlying-the-sterile-inflammation-after-ischemic-stroke
#7
Takashi Shichita
Inflammation is an essential step for the pathology of ischemic stroke, and is also an important therapeutic target for developing novel therapeutic methods which have a wide therapeutic time window. Since there is no pathogen in the brain, the inflammation will be triggered by some endogenous molecules which are called as danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). So far two important DAMPs, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and peroxiredoxin (PRX), have been recently identified in the ischemic brain. HMGB1 exaggerates the disruption of blood brain barrier; on the other hand, PRX activates mononuclear phagocytes and induces the inflammatory cytokine production through the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317607/mirna-3473b-contributes-to-neuroinflammation-following-cerebral-ischemia
#8
Xiaoyu Wang, Shuangshuang Chen, Jingshu Ni, Jian Cheng, Jia Jia, Xuechu Zhen
MicroRNAs play an essential role in stroke pathology. Here, we investigated the role of a newly identified microRNA, miR-3473b, in stroke pathology. The expression of miR-3473b was upregulated in the cortex and striatum in mice following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Intracerebroventricular injection of the miR-3473b antagomir prior to MCAO remarkably attenuated ischemia-induced expression of miR-3473b and pro-inflammatory factors in the ischemic brain and decreased infarct volumes in mice following MCAO...
January 9, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313944/regulatory-b-cells-in-experimental-stroke
#9
REVIEW
Hilary A Seifert, Arthur A Vandenbark, Halina Offner
Current treatment options for human stroke are limited mainly to the modestly effective infusion of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), with additional improvement of functional independence and higher rates of angiographic revascularization observed after mechanical thrombectomy. However, new therapeutic strategies that address post-stroke immune-mediated inflammatory responses are urgently needed. Recent studies in experimental stroke have firmly implicated immune mechanisms in the propagation and partial resolution of CNS damage after the ischemic event...
January 3, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312645/serum-galectin-3-level-not-galectin-1-is-associated-with-the-clinical-feature-and-outcome-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#10
Han Dong, Zhi-Hao Wang, Na Zhang, Si-Da Liu, Jian-Jun Zhao, Song-Yan Liu
Aim: To study the diagnostic and prognostic role of serum galectin-1 (Gal-1) and -3 (Gal-3) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Methods: We enrolled 233 patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke and 252 healthy controls in this study. The AIS severity was evaluated by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores. The serum Gal-1 and -3 levels were determined. All patients were followed for 1 years and the functional outcome were evaluated by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298609/interferon-%C3%AE-promotes-neuronal-repair-by-transplanted-neural-stem-cells-in-ischemic-rats
#11
Guilong Zhang, Xiaoyuan Guo, Lukui Chen, Bingqian Li, Bin Gu, Hong Wang, Guojian Wu, Jun Kong, Wanghao Chen, Yongbo Yu
Ischemic stroke represents the leading cause of adult neurological disability, with no effective therapeutic strategy. Stem cell transplantation promises a new promising for treating stroke, via cell replacement and cytokines paracrine. However, due to the effect of hostile immune microenvironment, the survival and differentiation of stem cells is limited in vivo. Furthermore, the delayed inflammatory response to stroke induced secondary neurological injury. IFN-γ as pro-inflammatory cytokine has the potential to protect stem cell population during inflammatory response, as well stimulates neurogenesis of stem cells...
January 3, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278852/adipokines-in-neurovascular-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Radka Opatrilova, Martin Caprnda, Peter Kubatka, Vanda Valentova, Sona Uramova, Vladimir Nosal, Ludovit Gaspar, Lukas Zachar, Ioana Mozos, Daniel Petrovic, Jozef Dragasek, Slavomira Filipova, Dietrich Büsselberg, Anthony Zulli, Luis Rodrigo, Peter Kruzliak, Vladimir Krasnik
Adipose tissue is now described as an endocrine organ secreting a number of adipokines contributing to the development of inflammation and metabolic imbalance, but also endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling, atherosclerosis, and ischemic stroke. Leptin, adiponectin, and resistin are the most studied adipokines which play important roles in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Leptin and adiponectin mediate both proatherogenic and antiatherogenic responses. Leptin and adiponectin have been linked to the development of coronary heart disease and may be involved in the underlying biological mechanism of ischemic stroke...
December 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275013/reduced-release-of-tnf%C3%AE-and-ip-10-after-ex-vivo-blood-stimulation-with-endotoxin-is-associated-with-poor-outcome-after-stroke
#13
Elzbieta Klimiec, Katarzyna Kowalska, Paulina Pasinska, Joanna Pera, Agnieszka Slowik, Tomasz Dziedzic
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The immune response to acute cerebral ischemia plays an important role in the pathophysiology of stroke and could be a therapeutic target. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a master regulator of innate immunity. The aim of our study was to determine the association between selected cytokine release after TLR4 activation in blood cells and the outcome after ischemic stroke. METHODS: We included 156 ischemic stroke patients (median age: 69; 40.4% female)...
December 21, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246244/infiltration-and-persistence-of-lymphocytes-during-late-stage-cerebral-ischemia-in-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-and-photothrombotic-stroke-models
#14
Yan Feng, Shiwei Liao, Changjuan Wei, Dongmei Jia, Kristofer Wood, Qiang Liu, Xiaoying Wang, Fu-Dong Shi, Wei-Na Jin
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that brain infiltration of lymphocytes contributes to acute neural injury after cerebral ischemia. However, the spatio-temporal dynamics of brain-infiltrating lymphocytes during the late stage after cerebral ischemia remains unclear. METHODS: C57BL/6 (B6) mice were subjected to sham, photothrombosis, or 60-min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) procedures. Infarct volume, neurodeficits, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory factors, brain-infiltrating lymphocytes, and their activation as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ production were assessed...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239311/interferon-regulatory-factor-2-binding-protein-2-a-new-player-of-the-innate-immune-response-for-stroke-recovery
#15
REVIEW
Hsiao-Huei Chen, Alexandre F R Stewart
Ischemic brain injury triggers an inflammatory response. This response is necessary to clear damaged brain tissue but can also exacerbate brain injury. Microglia are the innate immune cells of the brain that execute this critical function. In healthy brain, microglia perform a housekeeping function, pruning unused synapses between neurons. However, microglia become activated to an inflammatory phenotype upon brain injury. Interferon regulatory factors modulate microglial activation and their production of inflammatory cytokines...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234571/measurement-of-elevated-il-37-levels-in-acute-ischemic-brain-injury-a-cross-sectional-pilot-study
#16
Atif Zafar, Asad Ikram, Dinesh V Jillella, Duraisamy Kempuraj, Mohammad Moshahid Khan, Saif Bushnaq, Harold Adam, Santiago Ortega-Gutierrez, Syed A Quadri, Mudassir Farooqui, Asgar Zaheer, Enrique C Leira
Interleukin (IL)-37 is a new member of the IL-1 cytokine family with a defined role as a negative feedback inhibitor of proinflammatory responses. IL-37 has yet to be evaluated in non-immune-mediated neurological diseases, such as ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes. This study aimed to measure urine and serum IL-37 levels in patients with ischemic stroke. Twelve patients consented for our study. Two sets of serum and urine samples were obtained and analyzed, one upon admission to the hospital and the second the next morning...
October 11, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212740/il-23-interleukin-23-producing-conventional-dendritic-cells-control-the-detrimental-il-17-interleukin-17-response-in-stroke
#17
Mathias Gelderblom, Mattia Gallizioli, Peter Ludewig, Vivien Thom, Priyadharshini Arunachalam, Björn Rissiek, Christian Bernreuther, Markus Glatzel, Thomas Korn, Thiruma Valavan Arumugam, Jan Sedlacik, Christian Gerloff, Eva Tolosa, Anna M Planas, Tim Magnus
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inflammatory mechanisms can exacerbate ischemic tissue damage and worsen clinical outcome in patients with stroke. Both αβ and γδ T cells are established mediators of tissue damage in stroke, and the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in inducing the early events of T cell activation and differentiation in stroke is not well understood. METHODS: In a murine model of experimental stroke, we defined the immune phenotype of infiltrating DC subsets based on flow cytometry of surface markers, the expression of ontogenetic markers, and cytokine levels...
December 6, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203245/klf4-protects-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-from-ischemic-stroke-induced-apoptosis-by-transcriptionally-activating-malat1
#18
Haojie Yang, Xixiang Xi, Bin Zhao, Zhenxi Su, Zhenyi Wang
In this study, we investigated the expression profile and functional role of Kruppel-like family of transcription factor 4 (KLF4) in mouse cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (MECs) after focal cerebral ischemia and in cultured b.End3 cells after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Its downstream regulation was also studied. Our data showed that KLF4 was significantly upregulated in the cerebral MECs after transient ischemic insult and in cultured b.End3 cells after 24 h OGD exposure. In in vitro b.End3 cell model, KLF4 shRNA significantly increased OGD-induced activation of caspase-3 and also increased OGD-induced b...
December 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201553/proinflammatory-cytokines-correlate-with-early-exercise-attenuating-anxiety-like-behavior-after-cerebral-ischemia
#19
Qi Zhang, Jingjun Zhang, Yuzhong Yan, Pengyue Zhang, Wei Zhang, Rong Xia
Background and Objective: Stroke may cause neuropsychiatric problems, which have negative effects on cognitive functions and behavior. Exercise plays an important role in reducing the occurrence and development of stroke, the concrete mechanism is not fully clarified. In this study, we attempted to determine whether early treadmill exercise attenuates anxiety-like behavior by regulation of inflammation after brain ischemia. Method: We subjected adult male rats to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min and trained rats started to run on a treadmill from postoperative day 1 to day 14...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196212/axl-activation-attenuates-neuroinflammation-by-inhibiting-the-tlr-traf-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-after-mcao-in-rats
#20
Guangyong Wu, Devin W McBride, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischemic stroke activates Toll-like receptors (TLRs), triggering rapid inflammatory cytokine production. Axl signaling has multiple roles, including regulating cytokine secretion, clearing apoptotic cells, and maintaining cell survival, however, its role in inflammation after ischemic stroke has not been examined. We hypothesized that activation of Axl by recombinant Growth-arrest-specific protein 6 (rGas6) attenuates neuroinflammation by inhibiting the TLR/TRAF/NF-κB pathway after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats...
November 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
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