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Adel Mesbah, Nicolas Clavier, M Janeth Lozano-Rodriguez, Stephanie Szenknect, Nicolas Dacheux
Pure powdered compounds with a general formula Th1-xErx(SiO4)1-x(PO4)x belonging to the zircon-xenotime family were successfully synthesized under hydrothermal conditions (250 °C, 7 days) as recently reported for the preparation of coffinite. Therefore, a thorough, combined PXRD, EDX, EXAFS, Raman, and FTIR analysis showed the formation of a solid solution in agreement with Vegard's law. Moreover, the examination of the local structure shows that the Th-O distances remain close to those found in ThSiO4, whereas the Er-O distances show a significant decrease from 2...
October 17, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Binbin Yue, Fang Hong, Sébastien Merkel, Dayong Tan, Jinyuan Yan, Bin Chen, Ho-Kwang Mao
The pressure effects on plastic deformation and phase transformation mechanisms of materials are of great importance to both Earth science and technological applications. Zircon-type materials are abundant in both nature and the industrial field; however, there is still no in situ study of their deformation behavior. Here, by employing radial x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell, we investigate the dislocation-induced texture evolution of zircon-type gadolinium vanadate (GdVO_{4}) in situ under pressure and across its phase transitions to its high-pressure polymorphs...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Daniel Ryan Clark, Huayang Zhu, David R Diercks, Sandrine Ricote, Robert J Kee, Ali Almansoori, Brian P Gorman, Ryan P O'Hayre
A laser-assisted atom-probe-tomographic (LAAPT) method has been developed and applied to measure and characterize the three-dimensional atomic and electronic nanostructure at an yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BaZr0.9Y0.1O3-δ, BZY10) grain boundary. Proton-conducting perovskites, such as BZY10, are attracting intense interest for a variety of energy conversion applications. However, their implementation has been hindered, in part, because of high grain-boundary (GB) resistance that is attributed to a positive GB space-charge layer (SCL)...
October 3, 2016: Nano Letters
B Yu, B M Ding, C H Fan, Q D Liu, L Ding, B S Wang, J Wang, H D Zhang, F Zhang
Objective: To investigate the health status of workers exposed to zircon sand and silica dust in a precision casting enterprise, and to provide a basis for the development of prevention and control measures. Methods: Occupational health examination, questionnaire survey, and field investigation of occupational health were performed for 176 male workers (18 workers in the zirconium dust exposure group, 109 in the non-zirconium dust exposure group, and 49 in the non-dust exposure group) in a precision casting enterprise, and a statistical analysis was performed for the data obtained...
July 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Emily M Peterman, Steven M Reddy, David W Saxey, David R Snoeyenbos, William D A Rickard, Denis Fougerouse, Andrew R C Kylander-Clark
Isotopic discordance is a common feature in zircon that can lead to an erroneous age determination, and it is attributed to the mobilization and escape of radiogenic Pb during its post-crystallization geological evolution. The degree of isotopic discordance measured at analytical scales of ~10 μm often differs among adjacent analysis locations, indicating heterogeneous distributions of Pb at shorter length scales. We use atom probe microscopy to establish the nature of these sites and the mechanisms by which they form...
September 2016: Science Advances
A M Ferrari-Lima, A C Ueda, E A Bergamo, R G Marques, E A V Ferri, C S Pinto, C A A Pereira, P H Yassue-Cordeiro, R P Souza
Calcium titanate zirconate, Ca(Ti(1-x)Zrx)O3 (CZT), powders have been synthesised by the polymeric precursor method. The structural analysis of the CZT powders was monitored by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and textural analysis. The photocatalytic properties were evaluated by methylene blue (MB) decomposition and real textile wastewater (RTW) combined treatment (coagulation/flocculation/photocatalysis). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) of RTW was successfully reduced from 6195 mg L(-1) (untreated) to 662 mg L(-1) after coagulation/flocculation with a tannin-based coagulant (Tanfloc®) and finally to 471 mg L(-1) after combined treatment (coagulation/flocculation/photocatalysis) applying ultraviolet radiation and CaTiO3 as photocatalyst...
September 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lan Zhang, Jian Lu, Ryohei Takei, Natsumi Makimoto, Toshihiro Itoh, Takeshi Kobayashi
We have developed a Si-based microelectromechanical systems sensor with high sensitivity for specific low-frequency vibration-sensing and energy-harvesting applications. The low-frequency vibration sensor contains a disk proof mass attached to two or three lead zirconate titanate (PZT) S-shape spring flexures. To obtain a faster and less expensive prototype, the design and optimization of the sensor structure are studied via finite-element method analysis. To validate the sensor structure to detect low-frequency vibration, the effects of geometrical dimensions, including the width and diameter of the S-shape spring of the proof mass, were analyzed and measured...
August 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Tianyong Jiang, Qingzhao Kong, Wenxi Wang, Linsheng Huo, Gangbing Song
A post-tensioning tendon duct filled with grout can effectively prevent corrosion of the reinforcement, maintain bonding behavior between the reinforcement and concrete, and enhance the load bearing capacity of concrete structures. In practice, grouting of the post-tensioning tendon ducts always causes quality problems, which may reduce structural integrity and service life, and even cause accidents. However, monitoring of the grouting compactness is still a challenge due to the invisibility of the grout in the duct during the grouting process...
2016: Sensors
Hujun Gong, Junsheng Nie, Zhao Wang, Wenbin Peng, Rui Zhang, Yunxiang Zhang
Single grain zircon U-Pb geochronology has demonstrated great potentials in extracting tectonic and atmospheric circulation signal carried by aeolian, fluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments. A routine in this sort of studies is analyzing 100-150 grains and then compares zircon U-Pb age spectra between the measured sample and the potential sources. Here we compared the zircon U-Pb age results of the late Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence of two neighboring sites from the Chinese Loess Plateau where similar provenance signal is expected...
2016: Scientific Reports
Elody Aiem, Violaine Smaïl-Faugeron, Michèle Muller-Bolla
BACKGROUND: Different aesthetic preformed crowns (APC) are proposed to restore decayed and damaged primary teeth because the stainless steel crowns (SSCs) do not satisfy parents concerned about aesthetic. AIM: The objective was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of all types of APC for restoring primary teeth compared with conventional filling materials or other types of crowns. DESIGN: Relevant articles were searched in electronic databases of PubMed via MEDLINE and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials...
August 17, 2016: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
Nouamane Laanait, Zhan Zhang, Christian M Schlepütz
We present a novel methodology based on machine learning to extract lattice variations in crystalline materials, at the nanoscale, from an x-ray Bragg diffraction-based imaging technique. By employing a full-field microscopy setup, we capture real space images of materials, with imaging contrast determined solely by the x-ray diffracted signal. The data sets that emanate from this imaging technique are a hybrid of real space information (image spatial support) and reciprocal lattice space information (image contrast), and are intrinsically multidimensional (5D)...
September 16, 2016: Nanotechnology
L M O Martins, M E P Gomes, R J S Teixeira, A J S C Pereira, L J P F Neves
At Vila Pouca de Aguiar area, northern Portugal, crops out a post-tectonic Variscan granite pluton, related with the Régua-Vila Real-Verín fault zone, comprising three types of biotite granites. Among these granites, PSG granite yield the highest average contents of U, probably due to its enrichment in accessory U-bearing minerals such as zircon. In the proximity of faults and joints, these granites are often affected by different degrees of hydrothermal alteration, forming reddish altered rocks, commonly known as "episyenites"...
November 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Lucas Karperien, Ribal Georges Sabat
Real-time surface plasmon modulation was achieved by electrically varying the pitch of a nanoscale surface relief diffraction grating inscribed on an azobenzene thin film covered with a layer of silver. The azobenzene film was spin coated on an electrostrictive Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate (PLZT) ceramic substrate and a combination of DC bias and AC electric fields were applied longitudinally on the PLZT ceramic causing a change in the grating's pitch as well as the surface plasmon's resonance wavelength...
June 13, 2016: Optics Express
Zhi-Hao Jiang, Jian-Ping Zhao, Xiu-Ming Ma, Sheng-Di Bai
In the Zr(IV) complex anion of the title complex salt, [(C4H9)HNC(C6H5)NH2]2[ZrCl6]·2CH2Cl2, the Zr(IV) cation, located on an inversion centre, is coordinated by six Cl(-) anions in a distorted octa-hedral geometry with Zr-Cl distances in the range 2.433 (2)-2.4687 (19) Å; in the amidinium cation, the dihedral angle between the aromatic ring and [NCN] plane is 43.3 (4)°. In the crystal, the amidinium cations and [ZrCl6](2-) anions are linked by N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network extending along the b axis; two di-chloro-methane solvent mol-ecules are linked by a pair of weak C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming a centrosymmetric [CHCl]2 six-membered ring...
April 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Weitao Wang, Peizhen Zhang, Jingxing Yu, Yizhou Wang, Dewen Zheng, Wenjun Zheng, Huiping Zhang, Jianzhang Pang
The Cenozoic basins and ranges form the high topography of the northeastern Tibet that resulted from the India-Eurasia collision. Sedimentary rocks in the basins provide direct insight into the exhumation history of the ranges and the tectonic processes that led to the northeastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we analyzed and compared detrital zircon U-Pb ages from sands of modern rivers draining the Bei Shan, and North Qilian Shan and sandstones from the Yumen Basin. The zircon age distributions indicate that the strata dated to 24...
2016: Scientific Reports
Iwaki Akiyama, Shigemi Saito, Akihisa Ohya
PURPOSE: We constructed an ultra-broadband ultrasonic transducer in a mechanical sector device, and prototyped a system to generate real-time images with higher harmonics. The potential of the system to reduce speckle was also studied. METHODS: To efficiently detect the higher harmonic components in echo signals, in addition to the transmitting transducer, another transducer only for broadband reception is necessary. We constructed a receiving transducer by bonding a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) high-polymer piezofilm to the radiation surface of the transmitting lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducer...
June 2006: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
Alexander Tselev, Pu Yu, Ye Cao, Liv R Dedon, Lane W Martin, Sergei V Kalinin, Petro Maksymovych
Ferroelectric domain walls are of great interest as elementary building blocks for future electronic devices due to their intrinsic few-nanometre width, multifunctional properties and field-controlled topology. To realize the electronic functions, domain walls are required to be electrically conducting and addressable non-destructively. However, these properties have been elusive because conducting walls have to be electrically charged, which makes them unstable and uncommon in ferroelectric materials. Here we reveal that spontaneous and recorded domain walls in thin films of lead zirconate and bismuth ferrite exhibit large conductance at microwave frequencies despite being insulating at d...
2016: Nature Communications
Gautier Nicoli, Jean-François Moyen, Gary Stevens
The evolution and the growth of the continental crust is inextricably linked to the evolution of Earth's geodynamic processes. The detrital zircon record within the continental crust, as well as the isotopic composition of this crust, indicates that the amount of juvenile felsic material decreased with time and that in geologically recent times, the generation of new crust is balanced by recycling of the crust back into the mantle within subduction zones. However it cannot always have been so; yet the nature of the crust and the processes of crustal reworking in the Precambrian Earth are not well constrained...
2016: Scientific Reports
Teng Lu, Andrew J Studer, David Cortie, Kenny Lau, Dehong Yu, Yujun Feng, Hua Chen, Zhuo Xu, Ray L Withers, Garry J McIntyre, Yun Liu
This work systematically investigated the structure and property of the near-surface and bulk regions of Pb0.99(Nb0.02Zr0.73Sn0.21Ti0.04)O3 ceramics using a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction, piezoresponse force microscopy, and conventional ferroelectric/piezoelectric characterization. It is found that mechanical force can induce an antiferroelectric/ferroelectric phase transition within micrometers of the surface. Such a phase transition is strongly dependent on the processing scenario, leading to differences from the bulk region...
June 15, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hao Cheng, Huaiyang Zhou, Qunhui Yang, Lingmin Zhang, Fuwu Ji, Henry Dick
The existence of ancient rocks in present mid-ocean ridges have long been observed but received less attention. Here we report the discovery of zircons with both reasonably young ages of about 5 Ma and abnormally old ages of approximate 180 Ma from two evolved gabbroic rocks that were dredged from the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) in the Gallieni fracture zone. U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses of zircons were made using ion probe and conventional laser abrasion directly in petrographic thin sections. Young zircons and their host oxide gabbro have positive Hf isotope compositions (εHf = +15...
2016: Scientific Reports
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