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Breastmilk, breastfeeding

Jing-Ran Ma, Dan-Hua Wang
Breastfeeding is well-known for its benefits of preventing communicable and non-communicable diseases. Human breastmilk consists not only of nutrients, but also of bioactive substances. What's more, the epigenetic effects of human breast milk may also play an important role. Alterations in the epigenetic regulation of genes may lead to profound changes in phenotype. Clarifying the role of human breast milk on genetic expression can potentially benefit the infant's health and his later life. This review article makes a brief summary of the epigenetic mechanism of breast milk, and its epigenetic effects on neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diseases, metabolism syndrome, cognitive function and anaphylactic diseases...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Cecilia Tomori, Aunchalee E L Palmquist, Sally Dowling
Recent public health breastfeeding promotion efforts have galvanized media debates about breastfeeding in wealthy, Euro-American settings. A growing body of research demonstrates that while breastfeeding is increasingly viewed as important for health, mothers continue to face significant structural and cultural barriers. Concerns have been raised about the moralizing aspects of breastfeeding promotion and its detrimental effects on those who do not breastfeed. Far less, however, is known about the moral experiences of those who pursue breastfeeding...
November 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Bobak A Ghaheri, Melissa Cole, Sarah C Fausel, Maria Chuop, Jess C Mace
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Numerous symptoms may arise that prevent mother-infant dyads from maintaining desired breastfeeding intervals. Investigations into treatments that positively influence breastfeeding outcomes allow for improved patient counseling for treatment decisions to optimize breastfeeding quality. This investigation aimed to determine the impact of surgical tongue-tie/lip-tie release on breastfeeding impairment. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cohort study from June 2014 to April 2015 in a private practice setting...
September 19, 2016: Laryngoscope
María Eugenia Flores-Quijano, Solange Heller-Rouassant
During pregnancy and breastfeeding the demand for nutrients that promote the growth and development of the fetus, maternal tissues and breastmilk production is increased. Milk and dairy products provide energy, proteins, fatty acids, carbohydrates, calcium, phosphorus, vitamins D and B12, therefore their importance during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The energy through food supply allows the development and growth from the conception; protein promotes the rapid growth of the maternal and fetal tissues: fatty acids stimulate the development of the fetus central nervous system; carbohydrates are essential to support fetal brain growth; calcium is essential for the formation and mineralization of the fetus skeleton, while vitamin D promotes calcium absorption and the development of the nervous and immune systems...
September 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
Jennifer M Nelson, Ruowei Li, Cria G Perrine, Kelley S Scanlon
BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first 6 months of life. However, many barriers to breastfeeding exist. We examine public opinions about the benefits of breastfeeding and the infant health risks associated with formula feeding. METHODS: A national public opinion survey was conducted in 2013. Participants indicated their level of agreement with four breastfeeding-related statements. Except for the last one, all statements were positively worded with agreement representing positive opinions toward breastfeeding...
August 28, 2016: Birth
Nour Baïz, Patricia Macchiaverni, Meri K Tulic, Akila Rekima, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, Valérie Verhasselt
Elevated levels of House Dust Mite allergens in breastmilk are associated with an increased risk of atopic sensitization and respiratory allergy in children. This observation highlights a yet unexplored factor that may contribute to allergy development and interfere with prevention of allergy by breastfeeding .
August 23, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jane Scott, Kristina Davey, Ellen Ahwong, Gemma Devenish, Diep Ha, Loc Do
Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary...
2016: Nutrients
Sody A Naimer, William F Silverman
BACKGROUND: It is well recognized that breastmilk provides optimal nutrition and immunological protection for infants. Many women, however, experience nipple pain while breastfeeding, leading to premature cessation of nursing. To overcome these difficulties, timely diagnosis is crucial to effectively treat the underlying pathology and permit resumption of breastfeeding. Examination of the superficial breast plays a key role in accurate diagnosis. Traditional direct inspection is clearly inadequate for this task...
September 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Eric E Calloway, Katie L Stern, Daniel J Schober, Amy L Yaroch
Objectives To understand the process by which early childhood education (ECE) providers effectively used an existing intervention to facilitate the creation or strengthening of a written breastfeeding policy, understand the factors important to this process, and present a logic model to guide future intervention design and evaluation. Methods A purposive sample of interviewees who recently completed an ECE nutrition and physical activity intervention and reported positive pre-post scores for breastfeeding support were recruited to complete semi-structured interviews...
August 13, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Aritra Das, Rahul Chatterjee, Morchan Karthick, Tanmay Mahapatra, Indrajit Chaudhuri
BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) during the first six months of life is considered a high impact but low-cost measure for reducing the morbidity and mortality among children. The current study investigated the association of seasonality and frontline worker(FLW) provided counselling with practice of EBF in Bihar, India. METHODS: We used the 'Lot Quality Assurance Sampling' technique to conduct a multi-stage sampling survey in 8 districts of Bihar. Regarding EBF, mothers of 0-5 (completed) months old children were asked if they had given only breastmilk to their children during the previous day, while mothers of 6-8 (completed) months old children were inquired about the total duration of EBF...
2016: PloS One
Nicole L Davis, William C Miller, Michael G Hudgens, Charles S Chasela, Dorothy Sichali, Dumbani Kayira, Julie A E Nelson, Susan A Fiscus, Gerald Tegha, Deborah D Kamwendo, Joseph Rigdon, Jeffrey S A Stringer, Jonathan J Juliano, Sascha R Ellington, Athena P Kourtis, Denise J Jamieson, Charles Van Der Horst
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral interventions are used to reduce HIV viral replication and prevent mother-to-child transmission. Viral suppression relies on adherence to antiretrovirals. METHODS: A two-phase study was conducted using data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition study. We included mothers randomized to 28 weeks of postpartum antiretrovirals with ≥1 plasma or breastmilk specimen. All mothers who transmitted HIV to their infants from 2-28 weeks (n=31) and 15% of mothers who did not (n=232) were included...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Nicola Crossland, Gill Thomson, Heather Morgan, Graeme MacLennan, Marion Campbell, Fiona Dykes, Pat Hoddinott
Increasing breastfeeding rates would improve maternal and child health, but multiple barriers to breastfeeding persist. Breast pump provision has been used as an incentive for breastfeeding, although effectiveness is unclear. Women's use of breast pumps is increasing and a high proportion of mothers express breastmilk. No research has yet reported women's and health professionals' perspectives on breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. In the Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking cessation in pregnancy (BIBS) study, mixed methods research explored women's and professionals' views of breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding...
October 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Hannah Woolhouse, Jennifer James, Deirdre Gartland, Ellie McDonald, Stephanie J Brown
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding to six months postpartum, but most women in developed countries do not breastfeed this long. Prior studies exploring the relationship between breastfeeding duration and maternal depression show ambiguous findings. AIM: To explore associations between maternal depressive symptoms at three months postpartum, and breastfeeding status over the first six months postpartum. METHODS: Prospective pregnancy cohort study of nulliparous women...
August 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Lael Ridgway, Rhian Cramer, Helen L McLachlan, Della A Forster, Méabh Cullinane, Touran Shafiei, Lisa H Amir
BACKGROUND: The Supporting breastfeeding In Local Communities (SILC) cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a home visit focussed on infant feeding early in the postpartum period increased the percentage of infants breastfeeding at 4 months in low socioeconomic areas of Victoria, Australia. The visits were offered to women identified as at risk of early breastfeeding cessation after discharge home with a new baby. This paper describes the content of the home visits. METHODS: SILC visited 1,043 women from September 2012 to March 2013, and completed a data sheet for each visit documenting topics discussed, as well as what support and resources were offered...
July 15, 2016: Birth
Arthur I Eidelman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Bradley A Drayton, Jillian A Patterson, Tanya A Nippita, Jane B Ford
BACKGROUND: Recently released patient blood management guidelines for maternity patients in Australia highlighted the lack of evidence on functional outcomes post-transfusion. AIM: This study aimed to determine the association between red blood cell transfusion and breastmilk feeding at discharge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Population-based cohort study of all births (n = 522 534) of at least 20 weeks gestation or 400 g birthweight in New South Wales, 2007-2012...
June 15, 2016: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Veronika Scherbaum, M Leila Srour
Breastfeeding has an important role in the prevention of different forms of childhood malnutrition, including wasting, stunting, over- and underweight and micronutrient deficiencies. This chapter reviews research that demonstrates how improved breastfeeding rates have the potential to improve childhood nutrition, with associated impacts on infectious and noninfectious disease prevention. The unique composition of breastmilk, the importance of breastfeeding in infectious disease prevention, the iron status of breastfed infants, and breastfeeding's protective effect on overweight and obesity are discussed based on currently available research...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Victor Mogre, Michael Dery, Patience K Gaa
BACKGROUND: The practice of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is influenced by maternal knowledge and attitudes as well as socio-demographic and cultural factors. This study assessed knowledge, attitudes and practice of EBF among rural lactating mothers with infants aged 0-6 months. Factors associated to the practice of EBF were also investigated. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 190 rural lactating mothers with infants aged 0-6 months seeking postnatal care at a health centre in Ghana...
2016: International Breastfeeding Journal
Jason P Bentley, Judy M Simpson, Jenny R Bowen, Jonathan M Morris, Christine L Roberts, Natasha Nassar
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a leading cause of infectious morbidity in childhood. Clinical studies have implicated caesarean section, early birth and formula feeding in modifying normal gut microbiota development and immune system homeostasis in early life. Rates of early birth and cesarean delivery are also increasing worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the independent and combined associations of the mode and timing of birth and breastmilk feeding with AGE hospitalisations in early childhood...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
Josip Grgurić, Irena Zakarija-Grković, Anita Pavičić Bošnjak, Milan Stanojević
The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched in Croatia in 1993. By 1998, 15 of 34 maternity facilities were designated "Baby-Friendly." Introduction of hospital bags, violating the International Code of the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, led to a standstill in the BFHI. The aim of this article is to describe the successful reintroduction of the BFHI in Croatia between 2007 and 2015. After hospital bags were abolished in 2007, UNICEF Croatia undertook an assessment of BFHI implementation...
August 2016: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
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