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Breastmilk, breastfeeding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659737/feeding-related-gut-microbial-composition-associates-with-peripheral-t-cell-activation-and-mucosal-gene-expression-in-african-infants
#1
Lianna F Wood, Bryan P Brown, Katie Lennard, Ulas Karaoz, Enock Havyarimana, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Anneke C Hesseling, Paul T Edlefsen, Louise Kuhn, Nicola Mulder, Eoin L Brodie, Donald L Sodora, Heather B Jaspan
Background: Exclusive breastfeeding reduces the rate of postnatal HIV transmission compared to non-exclusive breastfeeding, however the mechanisms of this protection are unknown. Our study was designed to interrogate the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Methods: A prospective, longitudinal study of infants from a high HIV prevalence, low-income setting in South Africa. We evaluated the role of any non-breastmilk feeds excluding prescribed medicines...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658618/implementation-of-the-international-code-of-marketing-of-breastmilk-substitutes-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region
#2
Ayoub Al Jawaldeh, Ghada Sayed
Background: Optimal breastfeeding practices and appropriate complementary feeding improve child health, survival and development. The countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region have made significant strides in formulation and implementation of legislation to protect and promote breastfeeding based on The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code) and subsequent relevant World Health Assembly resolutions. Aim: To assess the implementation of the Code in the Region...
April 5, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629818/prevalence-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-and-factors-associated-with-exclusive-breastfeeding-of-children-in-trongsa-district-bhutan
#3
Dolley Tshering, Mongal Singh Gurung, Neyzang Wangmo, Dorji Pelzom, Phudit Tejativaddhana, Laigden Dzed
The World Health Organization estimated that about 800 000 infant deaths could be prevented annually by exclusively breastfeeding infants for the first 6 months of life. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and its associated factors. A total of 192 mothers participated. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practice in Trongsa district was 97% at 1 month, declining to 58% at 6 months. Mothers who returned to formal work were less likely to exclusively breastfeed than those who were farmers or housewives...
April 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499686/variations-in-the-rancid-flavor-compounds-of-human-breastmilk-under-general-frozen-storage-conditions
#4
Hsiao-Ying Hung, Yu-Yun Hsu, Pei-Fang Su, Ying-Ju Chang
BACKGROUND: Human breastmilk provides the best nutrition for infants. When women or infants have difficulties in breastfeeding directly, breastmilk is usually pumped and frozen for later use. However, while frozen, breastmilk may develop a rancid flavor, which induces infant feeding stress and raises the mothers' concerns about the quality of frozen breastmilk. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the variations in the compounds that cause the rancid flavor of breastmilk during frozen storage...
March 2, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482183/maternal-use-of-personal-care-products-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-testicular-germ-cell-tumors-in-sons
#5
Armen A Ghazarian, Britton Trabert, Kim Robien, Barry I Graubard, Katherine A McGlynn
BACKGROUND: The etiology of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) is poorly understood, however, exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be related to increased risk. Personal care products, some of which contain EDCs, are widely used on a daily basis and are known to cross the placenta, be present in breastmilk, and are capable of inducing reproductive tract abnormalities. To determine the association between personal care product use during pregnancy and breastfeeding and TGCT risk, an analysis among mothers of TGCT cases and controls was conducted...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423183/does-postnatal-care-have-a-role-in-improving-newborn-feeding-a-study-in-15-sub-saharan-african-countries
#6
Shane M Khan, Ilene S Speizer, Kavita Singh, Gustavo Angeles, Nana Ay Twum-Danso, Pierre Barker
Background: Breastfeeding is known as a key intervention to improve newborn health and survival while prelacteal feeds (liquids other than breastmilk within 3 days of birth) represents a departure from optimal feeding practices. Recent programmatic guidelines from the WHO and UNICEF outline the need to improve newborn feeding and points to postnatal care (PNC) as a potential mechanism to do so. This study examines if PNC and type of PNC provider are associated with key newborn feeding practices: breastfeeding within 1 day and prelacteal feeds...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411152/drugs-in-lactation
#7
REVIEW
Philip O Anderson
One impediment to breastfeeding is the lack of information on the use of many drugs during lactation, especially newer ones. The principles of drug passage into breastmilk are well established, but have often not been optimally applied prospectively. Commonly used preclinical rodent models for determining drug excretion into milk are very unreliable because of marked differences in milk composition and transporters compared to those of humans. Measurement of drug concentrations in humans remains the gold standard, but computer modeling is promising...
February 6, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410699/initiation-of-breastfeeding-within-one-hour-of-birth-among-mothers-with-infants-younger-than-or-equal-to-6%C3%A2-months-of-age-attending-public-health-institutions-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#8
Meseret Ekubay, Aster Berhe, Engida Yisma
Background: Breast milk is comprised of the essential nutrients that an infant needs in the first six months of life. Timely initiation of breastfeeding guarantees that infants receive the colostrum, 'the first breastmilk', which contains antibodies that protect the newborn against diseases. Breastfeeding within the first hour of life prevents newborn death due to sepsis, pneumonia, diarrhea and hypothermia. Although breastfeeding is a common practice in sub-Saharan Africa, evidence show that early initiation of breastfeeding is low...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371876/-the-mum-has-to-live-with-the-decision-much-more-than-the-dad-a-qualitative-study-of-men-s-perceptions-of-their-influence-on-breastfeeding-decision-making
#9
Luke Hounsome, Sally Dowling
Background: Although breastfeeding is widely acknowledged as the normal method of infant feeding, there are large variations in rates of initiation and duration. Several factors are linked to the likelihood of breastfeeding initiation, including the influence and opinion of the child's father. There is limited research into men's perception of their influence, or if they feel it appropriate to be involved in deciding how to feed their children. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a qualitative methodology, fathers' perceptions of their influence on the decision to feed their child breastmilk or formula...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351750/associations-of-land-cattle-and-food-security-with-infant-feeding-practices-among-a-rural-population-living-in-manyara-tanzania
#10
Bailey Hanselman, Ramya Ambikapathi, Estomih Mduma, Erling Svensen, Laura E Caulfield, Crystal L Patil
BACKGROUND: Livelihoods strategies and food security experiences can positively and negatively affect infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices. This study contributes to this literature by exploring how variation in household economics among rural farmers in Tanzania relates to IYCF patterns over the first 8 months of an infant's life. METHODS: These data were produced from a longitudinal study in which a cohort of mother-infant dyads was followed from birth to 24 months...
January 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323435/soluble-cd14-levels-in-plasma-and-breastmilk-of-malawian-hiv-women-lack-of-association-with-morbidity-and-mortality-in-their-exposed-infants
#11
Silvia Baroncelli, Clementina M Galluzzo, Giuseppe Liotta, Mauro Andreotti, Fausto Ciccacci, Sandro Mancinelli, Victor T Tolno, Jane Gondwe, Roberta Amici, Maria C Marazzi, Stefano Vella, Marina Giuliano, Leonardo Palombi, Lucia Palmisano
PROBLEM: Data on soluble CD14 (sCD14) during pregnancy and lactation are scarce. We assessed the levels of sCD14 in plasma and breastmilk of Malawian HIV-positive women and evaluated the possible association with morbidity and mortality in the HIV-exposed children. METHOD OF STUDY: One hundred and forty-nine mother/child pairs were studied. Women received antiretroviral therapy from 26 weeks of gestation to at least 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. sCD14 concentrations were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
March 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246382/promote-breastfeeding-in-the-outpatient-setting-it-s-easy
#12
Natasha K Sriraman
The numerous benefits for both mother and baby of breastfeeding are evidence-based and well-defined. Breastmilk is the physiologic norm for infant nutrition, offering multiple health benefits and protections for mothers and babies. Although major medical and health organizations, which represent the health of women and children, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG), American Academy of Family Practice (AAFP), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), UNICEF, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Public Health Service (NPHS), all recommend exclusive breastfeeding, few women meet the recommended goals for duration and exclusivity, despite high initiation rates...
December 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246381/the-nuts-and-bolts-of-breastfeeding-anatomy-and-physiology-of-lactation
#13
Natasha K Sriraman
Breastmilk is the physiologic norm for infant nutrition. Despite recommendations from major health organizations, many women in the U.S. are not achieving this metric. Understanding breast anatomy and lactation physiology will allow physicians to gain knowledge of the processes, which control lactation enabling physicians to appropriately manage the breastfeeding dyad. The interplay of hormones involved in lactation and milk management affect milk initiation, as well as ongoing milk production (galactopoesis)...
December 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241518/influence-of-anthropometric-parameters-on-breastmilk-provision-in-preterm-infants
#14
Sharon G Casavant, Michelle Judge, Jacqueline McGrath
OBJECTIVE: To explore how growth trends may relate to maternal provision of breastmilk to preterm infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). DESIGN: Non-experimental, retrospective, descriptive. SETTING: Level III, 40-bed suburban neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). PARTICIPANTS: 94 preterm infants (<37 post-menstrual age) admitted to the NICU between September 2011 and May 2013. METHODS: This retrospective chart review explored the relationship between infant growth during hospitalization and maternal provision of breastmilk at discharge...
December 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234457/predictors-and-barriers-to-breastfeeding-in-north-of-jordan-could-we-do-better
#15
Wasim Khasawneh, Ayat Abdelrahman Khasawneh
Background: Despite the ongoing recommendations for breastfeeding, we continue to see a decrease in exclusive breastfeeding among Jordanian women during infant follow up visits at the pediatric outpatient clinic. The purpose of our study is to determine the prevalence, predictors and barriers to exclusive breastfeeding in north of Jordan. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey involving mothers with infants six to twelve months old, at two hospitals in Irbid city in north of Jordan, between December 2016 and March 2017...
2017: International Breastfeeding Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211383/perspectives-of-key-stakeholders-and-experts-in-infant-feeding-on-the-implementation-of-the-australian-national-breastfeeding-strategy-2010-2015
#16
Naomi S Hull, Lisa C Schubert, Julie P Smith
Breastfeeding is widely accepted as an important public health issue for babies and their mothers. Yet, despite this, Australia continues to struggle with reaching global targets for breastfeeding indicators. In 2007, the Best Start Parliamentary Inquiry Report was released and set the stage for the Australian National Breastfeeding Strategy [2010-2015), which was announced in November 2009, with the vision to increase Australia's breastfeeding rates of infants at 6 months of age and beyond. The aim of this research project was to explore the perspectives of key stakeholders in the field of infant feeding in Australia on the implementation of the strategy, barriers and enablers to its successful implementation and actions that were still needed...
March 2017: Breastfeeding Review: Professional Publication of the Nursing Mothers' Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127805/prenatal-contribution-of-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-bde-47-to-total-body-burden-in-young-children
#17
Mi-Yeon Shin, Sunmi Kim, Sunggyu Lee, Hai-Joong Kim, Jeong Jae Lee, Gyuyeon Choi, Sooran Choi, Sungjoo Kim, Su Young Kim, Jeongim Park, Hyo-Bang Moon, Kyungho Choi, Sungkyoon Kim
Many scientists made estimates of the body burden of PBDEs from breastmilk and house dust. Interestingly, they have not included the prenatal contribution to the body burden in young children after birth. In order to address how the prenatal contribution is important in the risk assessment of PBDEs in infants up to five years old, we used the median measurements of BDE-47 as a model chemical in 108 neonates in Korea, and made simulations of its disposition out of body from birth to five years. During the simulation periods, the environmental exposure was considered for house dust, babyfood, breastmilk consumption, etc...
March 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936030/from-royal-wet-nurses-to-facebook-the-evolution-of-breastmilk-sharing
#18
Kelley L Baumgartel, Larissa Sneeringer, Susan M Cohen
Wet-nursing was an essential practice that allowed for infant survival after many mothers died in childbirth. The story of wet-nursing is complicated by both religious pressures and cultural expectations of women. It is likely that these historical practices have shaped our current social, political and legislative environments regarding breastfeeding. The aim of this article is to provide a historical perspective on the practice of wet-nursing, with a focus on: 1) social views of wet nurses, 2) breastmilk evaluation and 3) the ideal wet nurse...
November 2016: Breastfeeding Review: Professional Publication of the Nursing Mothers' Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903109/does-breastfeeding-shape-food-preferences-links-to-obesity
#19
Alison K Ventura
The first 2 years of life have been recognized as a critical window for obesity prevention efforts. This period is characterized by rapid growth and development and, in a relatively short period of time, a child transitions from a purely milk-based diet to a more varied solid-food diet. Much learning about food and eating occurs during this critical window, and it is well-documented that early feeding and dietary exposures predict later food preferences, eating behaviors, and dietary patterns. The focus of this review will be on the earliest feeding experiences - breast- and formula-feeding - and the unique role of breastfeeding in shaping children's food preferences...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902319/-performance-based-regulation-a-strategy-to-increase-breastfeeding-rates
#20
Fernanda Cobo-Armijo, Sofía Charvel, Mauricio Hernández-Ávila
The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory approach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breastmilk substitutes market is an oligopoly, hence it is easy to identify the contribution of each market participant; the regulation's target population is clearly defined; it has a clear regulatory standard which can be easily evaluated, and sanctions to infringement can be defined under objective parameters...
May 2017: Salud Pública de México
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