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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335405/synapsin-isoforms-regulating-gaba-release-from-hippocampal-interneurons
#1
Sang-Ho Song, George J Augustine
UNLABELLED: Although synapsins regulate GABA release, it is unclear which synapsin isoforms are involved. We identified the synapsin isoforms that regulate GABA release via rescue experiments in cultured hippocampal neurons from synapsin I, II, and III triple knock-out (TKO) mice. In situ hybridization indicated that five different synapsin isoforms are expressed in hippocampal interneurons. Evoked IPSC amplitude was reduced in TKO neurons compared with triple wild-type neurons and was rescued by introducing any of the five synapsin isoforms...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26860403/triple-tendon-transfer-for-correction-of-foot-deformity-in-common-peroneal-nerve-palsy
#2
Mohsen Movahedi Yeganeh
BACKGROUND: Anterior transfer of posterior tibial tendon (PTT) is the most common technique to correct foot drop in patients with common peroneal nerve palsy. It does not address the loss of toe extension or "toe drop." This may affect the gait pattern, and patients may not tolerate it. Described here is a technique that addresses toe drop associated with common peroneal nerve palsy. METHOD: A new technique of tendon transfer using the PTT, flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon, and flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon was performed on 15 patients (13 males and 2 females) with complete common peroneal nerve palsy from 2009 to 2013...
June 2016: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26797699/epidemiology-of-medial-ulnar-collateral-ligament-reconstruction-a-10-year-study-in-new-york-state
#3
Justin L Hodgins, Mark Vitale, Raymond R Arons, Christopher S Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Despite an increase in the prevalence of medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction of the elbow in professional baseball and popularity within the media, there are no population-based studies examining the incidence of UCL reconstruction. PURPOSE: To examine the epidemiological trends of UCL reconstruction on a statewide level over a 10-year period. The primary endpoint was the yearly rate of UCL reconstruction over time; secondary endpoints included patient demographics, institution volumes, and concomitant procedures on the ulnar nerve...
March 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25736062/activation-of-neuroimmune-pathways-increases-therapeutic-effects-of-radiotherapy-on-poorly-differentiated-breast-carcinoma
#4
Nuray Erin, Aylin F Korcum, Gamze Tanrıöver, Şule Kale, Necdet Demir, Sadi Köksoy
Recent studies document the importance of neuronal dysfunction in cancer development and metastasis. We reported previously that both depletion of neuropeptides in capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerve endings and vagotomy increases metastasis of triple negative breast carcinoma. Of the sensory neuropeptides, Substance P (SP) is distributed widely for regulation of immune functions. We therefore examined the affects of continuous exposure to low doses of SP on brain metastatic cells of the mouse breast carcinoma (4TBM) in the presence of radiotherapy (RT) thought to increase antigenicity of cancer cells...
August 2015: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25084101/colocalization-of-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-with-kisspeptin-and-neurokinin-b-in-the-human-infundibular-region
#5
Katalin Skrapits, Beáta Á Borsay, László Herczeg, Philippe Ciofi, Stephen R Bloom, Mohammad A Ghatei, Waljit S Dhillo, Zsolt Liposits, Erik Hrabovszky
Kisspeptin (KP)- and neurokinin B (NKB)- synthesizing neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus play a pivotal role in the regulation of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Unlike in rodents and sheep, the homologous KP and NKB neurons in the human infundibular region rarely express dynorphin- but often exhibit Substance P (SP) immunoreactivity, indicating remarkable species differences in the neurochemical phenotype of these neurons. In search for additional neuropeptides in human KP and NKB neurons, we carried out immunofluorescent studies on hypothalamic sections obtained from five postmenopausal women...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25063391/upper-limb-reinnervation-in-c6-tetraplegia-using-a-triple-nerve-transfer-case-report
#6
Natasha van Zyl, Jodie B Hahn, Catherine A Cooper, Michael D Weymouth, Stephen J Flood, Mary P Galea
Restoration of elbow extension, grasp, key pinch, and release are major goals in low-level tetraplegia. Traditionally, these functions are achieved using tendon transfers. In this case these goals were achieved using nerve transfers. We present a 21-year-old man with a C6 level of tetraplegia. The left upper limb was treated 6 months after injury with a triple nerve transfer. A teres minor nerve branch to long head of triceps nerve branch, brachialis nerve branch to anterior interosseous nerve, and supinator nerve branch to posterior interosseous nerve transfer were used successfully to reconstruct elbow extension, key pinch, grasp, and release simultaneously...
September 2014: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25006589/reprogramming-of-mice-primary-hepatocytes-into-insulin-producing-cells-by-transfection-with-multicistronic-vectors
#7
Haizhao Luo, Rongping Chen, Rui Yang, Yan Liu, Youping Chen, Yi Shu, Hong Chen
The neogenesis of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from non-beta-cells has emerged as a potential method for treating diabetes mellitus (DM). Many groups have documented that activation of pancreatic transcription factor(s) in hepatocytes can improve the hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. In the present study, we explored a novel protocol that reprogrammed primary hepatocytes into functional IPCs by using multicistronic vectors carrying pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx1), neurogenin 3 (Ngn3), and v-musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA)...
2014: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24275468/corticotropin-releasing-factor-like-peptide-modifies-the-ampa-nmda-dependent-and-gabab-ergic-properties-of-synaptic-transmissions-in-vitro
#8
Anatoly A Mokrushin
The aim of this study was to investigate the neurotrophic effects of the mystixin-7 mini-peptide (MTX, a synthetic corticotrophin-releasing-factor-like peptide-like peptide) using a slice-based system. The technique on-line monitoring of electrophysiological parameters (excitatory glutamatergic AMPAR-, NMDAR-dependent and inhibitory GABAB-ergic postsynaptic mechanisms) in the olfactory cortex slices of the rat brain exposed to varied amounts of MTX was used. MTX in a dose-dependent manner inhibited both the AMPAR- and NMDAR-mediated postsynaptic processes...
January 10, 2014: Regulatory Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23409977/ca-2-dependent-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-correlates-with-astrogliosis-in-oligomeric-amyloid-%C3%AE-treated-astrocytes-and-in-a-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Elena Alberdi, Ane Wyssenbach, María Alberdi, M V Sánchez-Gómez, Fabio Cavaliere, José J Rodríguez, Alexei Verkhratsky, Carlos Matute
Neurotoxic effects of amyloid β peptides are mediated through deregulation of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and signaling, but relatively little is known about amyloid β modulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis and its pathological influence on glia. Here, we found that amyloid β oligomers caused a cytoplasmic Ca(2+) increase in cultured astrocytes, which was reduced by inhibitors of PLC and ER Ca(2+) release. Furthermore, amyloid β peptides triggered increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), as well as oxidative and ER stress, as indicated by eIF2α phosphorylation and overexpression of chaperone GRP78...
April 2013: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23408105/synergistic-effect-of-the-%C3%AE-secretase-inhibitor-pf-03084014-and-docetaxel-in-breast-cancer-models
#10
Cathy C Zhang, Zhengming Yan, Qing Zong, Douglas D Fang, Cory Painter, Qin Zhang, Enhong Chen, Maruja E Lira, Annette John-Baptiste, James G Christensen
Notch signaling mediates breast cancer cell survival and chemoresistance. In this report, we aimed to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of PF-03084014 in combination with docetaxel in triple-negative breast cancer models. The mechanism of action was investigated. PF-03084014 significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of docetaxel in multiple xenograft models including HCC1599, MDA-MB-231Luc, and AA1077. Docetaxel activated the Notch pathway by increasing the cleaved Notch1 intracellular domain and suppressing the endogenous Notch inhibitor NUMB...
March 2013: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23252894/active-zones-of-mammalian-neuromuscular-junctions-formation-density-and-aging
#11
REVIEW
Hiroshi Nishimune
Presynaptic active zones are synaptic vesicle release sites that play essential roles in the function and pathology of mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The molecular mechanisms of active zone organization use presynaptic voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) in NMJs as scaffolding proteins. VDCCs interact extracellularly with the muscle-derived synapse organizer, laminin β2 and interact intracellularly with active zone-specific proteins, such as Bassoon, CAST/Erc2/ELKS2alpha, ELKS, Piccolo, and RIMs...
December 2012: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23090753/immunohistochemical-evidence-for-the-relationship-between-microglia-and-gnrh-neurons-in-the-preoptic-area-of-ovariectomized-rats-with-and-without-steroid-replacement
#12
Hitomi Fujioka, Chiaki Kakehashi, Toshiya Funabashi, Tatsuo Akema
Prostaglandins (PGs), whose synthesis is catalyzed by the rate-limiting enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) including COX-1 and COX-2, are among the important mediators involved in the regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. However, the cellular origin of PGs remains obscure in terms of its relationship to GnRH neurons. The present study was therefore aimed to clarify the anatomical relationship between COX-1-producing microglia and GnRH neurons in the preoptic area (POA), and to examine possible influence of ovarian steroids...
2013: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22933803/synapsins-contribute-to-the-dynamic-spatial-organization-of-synaptic-vesicles-in-an-activity-dependent-manner
#13
Eugenio F Fornasiero, Andrea Raimondi, Fabrizia C Guarnieri, Marta Orlando, Riccardo Fesce, Fabio Benfenati, Flavia Valtorta
The precise subcellular organization of synaptic vesicles (SVs) at presynaptic sites allows for rapid and spatially restricted exocytotic release of neurotransmitter. The synapsins (Syns) are a family of presynaptic proteins that control the availability of SVs for exocytosis by reversibly tethering them to each other and to the actin cytoskeleton in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Syn ablation leads to reduction in the density of SV proteins in nerve terminals and increased synaptic fatigue under high-frequency stimulation, accompanied by the development of an epileptic phenotype...
August 29, 2012: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22786532/splinting-for-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Matthew J Page, Nicola Massy-Westropp, Denise O'Connor, Veronica Pitt
BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a condition where one of two main nerves in the wrist is compressed, which can lead to pain in the hand, wrist and sometimes arm, and numbness and tingling in the thumb, index and long finger. Splinting is usually offered to people with mild to moderate symptoms. However, the effectiveness and duration of the benefit of splinting for this condition remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of splinting for carpal tunnel syndrome with no treatment, placebo or another non-surgical intervention...
2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22771086/are-tendon-transfers-justified-in-very-old-hand-radial-palsies
#15
G Martínez-Villén, J Muñoz-Marín, P Pérez-Barrero
There have been very few reports about results of tendon transfers carried out in very old radial palsies affecting the hand. We present two cases of radial palsy operated 52 and 30 years after the original injury, which also had after-effects in pronosupination due to elbow injuries. In the first patient, with high radial-nerve palsy, we made a triple transfer of the pronator teres to the extensor carpi radialis brevis, the flexor carpi ulnaris to the extensor digitorum communis and the palmaris longus to the extensor pollicis longus...
October 2012: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22732530/cervical-stimulation-activates-a1-and-locus-coeruleus-neurons-that-project-to-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#16
Maristela O Poletini, De'Nise T McKee, Raphael E Szawka, Richard Bertram, Cleyde V V Helena, Marc E Freeman
In female rats, stimulation of the uterine cervix during mating induces two daily surges of prolactin. Inhibition of hypothalamic dopamine release and stimulation of oxytocin neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are required for prolactin secretion. We aim to better understand how stimulation of the uterine cervix is translated into two daily prolactin surges. We hypothesize that noradrenergic neurons in the A1, A2, and locus coeruleus (LC) are responsible for conveying the peripheral stimulus to the PVN...
September 1, 2012: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22507072/cardiac-sympathetic-hyperinnervation-in-deoxycorticosterone-acetate-salt-hypertensive-rats
#17
Tsung-Ming Lee, Chien-Chang Chen, Nen-Chung Chang
Sympathetic activities are elevated in the central SNSs (sympathetic nervous systems) of hypertensive animals, but it is not known whether sympathetic innervation is also elevated in the heart. Sympathetic hyper-responsiveness in hypertension may result from oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate sympathetic hyperinnervation in DOCA (deoxycorticosterone acetate)-salt hypertensive rats with established hypertension. At 4 weeks after the start of DOCA-salt treatment and uninephrectomization, male Wistar rats were randomized into three groups for 8 weeks: vehicle, NAC (N-acetylcysteine) and triple therapy (hydralazine, hydrochlorothiazide and reserpine)...
October 2012: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21938311/obturator-nerve-impingement-as-a-severe-late-complication-of-bilateral-triple-pelvic-osteotomy
#18
K Tong, K Hayashi
A four-year-old female spayed Labrador Retriever, which had undergone bilateral triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) at the age of eight months, was presented with severe progressive shifting pelvic limb lameness for a duration of three months prior to presentation. The dog had multiple episodes of showing signs of excruciating pain, as well as an inability to rise or ambulate, inappetance, and lethargy. Orthopaedic examination revealed severe bilateral pelvic limb muscular atrophy, and signs of severe pain on abduction of the pelvic limbs, on rectal palpation ventrally, and on palpation of the region of the iliopsoas and pectineus muscles bilaterally...
2012: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21584207/triangle-tilt-and-steel-osteotomy-similar-approaches-to-common-problems
#19
Rahul K Nath, Chandra Somasundaram, Faiz Mahmooduddin
BACKGROUND: Each year, thousands of children worldwide suffer obstetric brachial plexus nerve injuries resulting not only in primary nerve injury, but also in development of secondary muscle and bone deformities of the shoulder. The triangle tilt surgery has been developed and shown to effectively address these deformities. The triangle tilt procedure was initially designed by the lead author (RKN) to follow the concepts of joint normalization featured in the Steel pelvic osteotomy used to correct developmental dysplasia of the hip joint, and indeed ultimately bears a striking resemblance to the Steel osteotomy...
2011: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21515261/amygdalar-peptidergic-circuits-regulating-noradrenergic-locus-coeruleus-neurons-linking-limbic-and-arousal-centers
#20
B A S Reyes, A F Carvalho, K Vakharia, E J Van Bockstaele
The endogenous opioid peptides, met- or leu-enkephalin, and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) regulate noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) in a convergent manner via projections from distinct brain areas. In contrast, the opioid peptide dynorphin (DYN) has been shown to serve as a co-transmitter with CRF in afferents to the LC. To further define anatomical substrates targeting noradrenergic neurons by DYN afferents originating from limbic sources, anterograde tract-tracing of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) from the central amygdaloid complex was combined with immunocytochemical detection of DYN and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the same section of tissue...
July 2011: Experimental Neurology
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