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albumin creatinine ratio

Muhammad Ali Khalid, Inamullah Khan Achakzai, Shoaib Ahmed Khan, Zain Majid, Farina M Hanif, Javed Iqbal, Syed Mudassir Laeeq, Nasir Hassan Luck
Aim: Is Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) a predictor of 3 month post discharge mortality in cirrhotic patients? Background: Cirrhotic patients often experience an abrupt decline in their health, which often leads to frequent hospitalization and can cause morbidity and mortality. Various models are currently used to predict mortality in cirrhotics however these have their limitations. The Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) being one of the oldest performance status scales, is a health care provider-administered assessment that has been validated to predict mortality across the elderly and in the chronic disease populations...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Diamantina Marouli, Kostas Stylianou, Eleftherios Papadakis, Nikolaos Kroustalakis, Stavroula Kolyvaki, Georgios Papadopoulos, Christos Ioannou, Alexandra Papaioannou, Eugene Daphnis, Dimitris Georgopoulos, Helen Askitopoulou
BACKGROUND: Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality. While several pre- and intra-operative risk factors for AKI have been recognized in cardiac surgery patients, relatively few data are available regarding the incidence and risk factors for perioperative AKI in other surgical operations. The aim of the present study was to determine the risk factors for perioperative AKI in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Pierre Delanaye
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) clearly depends on its definition, and the definition used most often is the one proposed by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines in 2012: 'CKD is defined as abnormalities of kidney structure or function, present for >3 months, with implications for health.' Abnormality of kidney function is a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and the most frequently used marker of kidney damage is the presence of albuminuria [albumin excretion rate >30 mg/24 h or albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) >30 mg/g (or 3 mg/mmol)]...
November 12, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Julio Rosenstock, Vlado Perkovic, Odd Erik Johansen, Mark E Cooper, Steven E Kahn, Nikolaus Marx, John H Alexander, Michael Pencina, Robert D Toto, Christoph Wanner, Bernard Zinman, Hans Juergen Woerle, David Baanstra, Egon Pfarr, Sven Schnaidt, Thomas Meinicke, Jyothis T George, Maximillian von Eynatten, Darren K McGuire
Importance: Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. Prior trials have demonstrated CV safety of 3 dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors but have included limited numbers of patients with high CV risk and chronic kidney disease. Objective: To evaluate the effect of linagliptin, a selective DPP-4 inhibitor, on CV outcomes and kidney outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk of CV and kidney events. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter noninferiority trial conducted from August 2013 to August 2016 at 605 clinic sites in 27 countries among adults with type 2 diabetes, hemoglobin A1c of 6...
November 9, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
O J Molefe-Baikai, M Molefi, F Cainelli, G M Rwegerera
Background: Microalbuminuria (MA) has been established as an early marker of both diabetic nephropathy and vascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Aims: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of MA and associated factors among patients with type 2 DM in Botswana. Settings and Design: Outpatient tertiary clinic. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 289 patients with type 2DM was conducted from January 2013 to June 2013 in Block 6 Reference Clinic, a tertiary clinic in Gaborone, Botswana...
November 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Takashi Kadowaki, Masaomi Nangaku, Stefan Hantel, Tomoo Okamura, Maximilian von Eynatten, Christoph Wanner, Audrey Koitka-Weber
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial, empagliflozin added to standard of care improved clinically relevant kidney outcomes by 39%, slowed progression of chronic kidney disease, and reduced albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease. This exploratory analysis investigated kidney effects of empagliflozin in Asian patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants in EMPA-REG OUTCOME® were randomized (1:1:1) to empagliflozin 10 mg, 25 mg, or placebo...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Ryan Eyn Kidd Man, Alfred Tau Liang Gan, Eva Katie Fenwick, Preeti Gupta, Mark Yu Zheng Wong, Tien Yin Wong, Gavin Siew Wei Tan, Boon Wee Teo, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Ecosse Luc Lamoureux
This study examined the associations of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in a clinical sample of Asian patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM); substantiated with a meta-analysis of the above associations. We recruited 405 patients with T2DM (mean (standard deviation (SD)) age: 58 (7.5) years; 277 (68.4%) male; 203 (50.1%) with DKD) from a tertiary care centre in Singapore. DKD was defined as urinary albumin-creatinine ratio >3...
November 5, 2018: Nutrients
Jiahui Zhao, Qingli Cheng, Yang Liu, Guang Yang, Xiaohua Wang
This study aimed to examine the effects of atorvastatin on early hypertensive renal damage and explored the underlying mechanisms. 12-week-old salt-loaded spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) were divided into four groups: atorvastatin (AVT), losartan potassium (LP), atorvastatin combined with peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) inhibitor (AVT + GW9662), and saline. During 10 weeks administration blood pressure and urea albumin creatinine ratio were determined. We also examined the renal function, pathological changes of kidney, inflammatory cytokines in the serum and the association of the change of inflammatory factors in the kidney tissue...
November 3, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Catherine Kim, Ana C Ricardo, Edward J Boyko, Costas A Christophi, Marinella Temprosa, Karol E Watson, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Rita R Kalyani
Context: Despite sex differences in the onset and progression of CKD, it is unclear whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with kidney function among persons without chronic kidney disease (CKD). Research Design and Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and its follow-up observational study, the DPP Outcomes Study (DPPOS), over an 11-year period. Participants included overweight and glucose-intolerant men (n=889) and premenopausal and postmenopausal women (n=1281) not using exogenous sex hormones and who had urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) < 30 mg/g and normal estimated glomerular filtration ratio (eGFR)>60 ml/min/1...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Randall Lou-Meda, Brigitte Stiller, Zenaida L Antonio, Ewa Zielinska, Hui-Kim Yap, Hee Gyung Kang, Monique Tan, Robert D Glazer, Michele A Valentin, Linda Wang
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to assess the long-term safety and tolerability of valsartan in hypertensive children aged 6-17 years, with or without chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: This was an 18-month, open-label, multicentre, prospective study conducted in 150 patients with history of hypertension with or without CKD. The primary endpoint was long-term safety and tolerability of valsartan and valsartan-based treatments, assessed in terms of adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, laboratory measurements, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinalysis and electrocardiogram...
November 5, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Flaviu Bob, Adalbert Schiller, Romulus Timar, Daniel Lighezan, Oana Schiller, Bogdan Timar, Cristiana Georgeta Bujor, Mircea Munteanu, Florica Gadalean, Adelina Mihaescu, Iulia Grosu, Andreea Hategan, Lazar Chisavu, Agneta-Maria Pusztai, Adrian Covic
BACKGROUND: Klotho is found in two forms: a transmembrane form and a soluble form (s-Klotho). In order to be excreted, s-Klotho, that is too large to be filtered, will probably reach the proximal convoluted tubule by a transcytosis process. The aim of our study was to show the relationship between the levels of s-Klotho and tubular injury in patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD), using as tubular injury marker the kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1). METHODS: Our study included 63 DKD patients (stages 1-5, mean eGFR 65...
November 2, 2018: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
Jun Hamano, Ayano Takeuchi, Takuhiro Yamaguchi, Mika Baba, Kengo Imai, Masayuki Ikenaga, Yoshihisa Matsumoto, Ryuichi Sekine, Takashi Yamaguchi, Takeshi Hirohashi, Tsukasa Tajima, Ryohei Tatara, Hiroaki Watanabe, Hiroyuki Otani, Hiroka Nagaoka, Masanori Mori, Yo Tei, Shuji Hiramoto, Tatsuya Morita
INTRODUCTION: There have been no reports about predicting survival of patients with advanced cancer constructed entirely with objective variables. We aimed to develop a prognostic model based on laboratory findings and vital signs using a fractional polynomial (FP) model. METHODS: A multicentre prospective cohort study was conducted at 58 specialist palliative care services in Japan from September 2012 to April 2014. Eligible patients were older than 20 years and had advanced cancer...
November 1, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Sascha Reiff, Stephen Fava
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased mortality. There is some data that sulphonylurea therapy may contribute to this. AIMS: To compare all-cause 3-year mortality of patients on sulphonylurea monotherapy with of patients on metformin monotherapy after adjusting for potential confounders. METHODS: We searched the Maltese national electronic database for diabetes treatment in April 2014. This is an electronic database of all treatment that patients are prescribed through the local National Health Service...
October 30, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Iratxe López-Pelayo, María Auxiliadora Mazuecos Blanca, María Victoria García Palacios, Fátima Galán Sánchez, Francisca López Rodríguez, María Angeles Bailén García
OBJECTIVES: Management of renal transplant recipients involves measuring glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria; however, data are conflicting on the use of estimating equations or creatinine clearance and albumin-creatinine ratio in early morning urine or albumin excretion in 24-hour urine. We aimed to determine the performance of creatinine clearance and 3 estimated creatinine-based formulas and compare the usefulness of albumin-creatinine ratio related to albumin excretion in kidney transplant patients...
October 24, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Yuanyuan Shi, Yifeng Wang, Shuai Ma, Tingyan Liu, Huajun Tian, Qiuyu Zhu, Wenji Wang, Yulin Li, Feng Ding
Protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) accumulate at high plasma levels and cause various deleterious effects in end-stage renal disease patients because their removal by conventional hemodialysis is severely limited by their low free-fraction levels in plasma. Here, we assessed the extent to which solute removal can be increased by adding liposomes to the dialysate. The uptake of liposomes by direct incubation in vitro showed an obvious dose-response relationship for p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) but not for hippuric acid (HA)...
October 30, 2018: Artificial Organs
Allison Dart, Barry Lavallee, Caroline Chartrand, Lorraine McLeod, Thomas W Ferguson, Navdeep Tangri, Audrey Gordon, Tom Blydt-Hansen, Claudio Rigatto, Paul Komenda
Background: Indigenous populations are disproportionately affected by kidney failure at younger ages than other ethnic groups in Canada. As symptoms do not occur until disease is advanced, early kidney disease risk is often unrecognized. Objectives: We sought to evaluate the yield of community-based screening for early risk factors for kidney disease in youth from rural Indigenous communities in Canada. Methods: The FINISHED project screened 11 rural First Nations communities in Manitoba, Canada after community and school engagement...
November 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
Eunyup Lee, Young Kyung Lee, Hee Jung Kang
Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) is an early marker for kidney injury. To explore the utility of urinary NAG in assessing kidney damage associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), we investigated associations between urinary NAG levels and MetS factors. The study included 95 healthy controls, 51 hypertension (HTN) outpatients, 96 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and 80 with comorbidity of HTN and DM. We measured the NAG/creatinine (Cr), albumin/Cr, and protein/Cr ratios in urine, and collected data for MetS factors from the medical records...
September 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Kazuo Kobayashi, Masao Toyoda, Moritsugu Kimura, Nobuo Hatori, Takayuki Furuki, Hiroyuki Sakai, Masahiro Takihata, Tomoya Umezono, Shun Ito, Daisuke Suzuki, Hiroshi Takeda, Akira Kanamori, Hisakazu Degawa, Hareaki Yamamoto, Hideo Machimura, Atsuko Mokubo, Keiichi Chin, Mitsuo Obana, Toshimasa Hishiki, Kouta Aoyama, Shinichi Nakajima, Shinichi Umezawa, Hidetoshi Shimura, Togo Aoyama, Kazuyoshi Sato, Masaaki Miyakawa
Decrease in blood pressure contributes to the reno-protective effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors; however, its relationship with home monitoring of blood pressure is unclear. We retrospectively analyzed 101 visiting members of the Kanagawa Physicians Association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease who were taking sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and who monitored blood pressure at home for a median treatment period of 14 months. At baseline, the mean value of HbA1c was 59...
October 29, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Faruk Ertas, Eyup Avci, Tuncay Kiris
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is acute kidney failure that occurs after exposure to contrast agent. There is no sensitive biomarker to predict the development of CIN. In a retrospective study, we investigated the predictive value of the fibrinogen to albumin ratio (FAR) to determine the risk of CIN in patients (N = 246) who underwent carotid angiography. Contrast-induced nephropathy was defined as a 0.5 mg/dL or 25% increase in serum creatinine levels 48 to 72 hours following exposure to a radiocontrast agent...
October 29, 2018: Angiology
Yiting Xu, Xiaojing Ma, Yun Shen, Qin Xiong, Xueli Zhang, Yuqian Bao
OBJECTIVE: The presence of low-grade albuminuria (LGA) suggested that the pathophysiology of vascular dysfunction has been initiated. Clear evidence support a role for osteocalcin in energy metabolism and great incidence of pathological cardiovascular changes. The observational community-based study aims to examine the association of osteocalcin with LGA, which may provide new insight into potential involvement of osteocalcin in cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: A total of 1951 adults [58...
October 29, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
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