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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656244/human-organoid-cultures-transformative-new-tools-for-human-virus-studies
#1
REVIEW
Sasirekha Ramani, Sue E Crawford, Sarah E Blutt, Mary K Estes
Studies of human infectious diseases have been limited by the paucity of functional models that mimic normal human physiology and pathophysiology. Recent advances in the development of multicellular, physiologically active organotypic cultures produced from embryonic and pluripotent stem cells, as well as from stem cells isolated from biopsies and surgical specimens are allowing unprecedented new studies and discoveries about host-microbe interactions. Here, we summarize recent developments in the use of organoids for studying human viral pathogens, including intestinal infections with human rotavirus, norovirus, enteroviruses and adenoviruses (intestinal organoids and enteroids), neuronal infections with Zika virus (cerebral organoids) and respiratory infections with respiratory syncytial virus in (lung bud organoids)...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629394/organotypic-explants-of-the-embryonic-rodent-hippocampus-an-accessible-system-for-transgenesis
#2
Archana Iyer, Lakshmi Subramanian, Shubha Tole
This protocol describes the technique of ex-vivo electroporation to target embryonic hippocampal progenitors in an organotypic slice preparation. This technique allows gene perturbation for examining developmental processes in the embryonic hippocampus while retaining the environment and connectivity of the cells. Gene perturbation can include Cre-mediated recombination, RNAi-mediated knockdown, gene overexpression, or a combination of any of these. Ex-vivo electroporation can be performed at a wide range of embryonic stages, giving temporal control to the experimenter...
March 20, 2018: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625013/successful-establishment-of-primary-type-2-alveolar-epithelium-with-3d-organotypic-co-culture
#3
Jennifer M S Sucre, Christopher S Jetter, Holli Loomans, Janice Williams, Erin J Plosa, John T Benjamin, Lisa R Young, Jonathan A Kropski, Carla L Calvi, Seunghyi Kook, Ping Wang, Linda Gleaves, Adel Eskaros, Laura Goetzl, Timothy S Blackwell, Susan H Guttentag, Andries Zijlstra
Alveolar type 2 (AT2) epithelial cells are uniquely specialized to produce surfactant in the lung and act as progenitor cells in the process of repair after lung injury. AT2 cell injury has been implicated in several lung diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The inability to maintain primary AT2 cells in culture has been a significant barrier in the investigation of pulmonary biology. We have addressed this knowledge gap by developing a 3-dimensional organotypic co-culture using primary human fetal AT2 cells and pulmonary fibroblasts...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622082/retinal-organotypic-culture-a-candidate-for-research-on-retinas
#4
REVIEW
Ying Li, Yan Zhang, Shounan Qi, Guanfang Su
Reliable disease models are essential for investigations on mechanisms and therapies. The Retinal organotypic culture can maintain the architecture and cellular connections within the tissue in vitro. The system is a refined retinal experiment platform. It narrows the gap between cell line studies and in vivo models and is flexible enough for sophisticated experimental procedures. It greatly reduces the consumption of time or resources. Retinas of many species in various development stages have been used for diverse explorations based on their morphologies and physical characteristics...
April 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619452/microsensor-systems-for-cell-metabolism-from-2d-culture-to-organ-on-chip
#5
REVIEW
Jochen Kieninger, Andreas Weltin, Hubert Flamm, Gerald A Urban
Microsensor systems for cell metabolism are essential tools for investigation and standardization in cell culture. Electrochemical and optical read-out schemes dominate, which enable the marker-free, continuous, online recording of transient effects and deliver information beyond microscopy and end-point tests. There has been much progress in microfluidics and microsensors, but the translation of both into standard cell culture procedures is still limited. Within this critical review, we discuss different cell culture formats ranging from standard culture vessels to dedicated microfluidic platforms...
April 5, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603432/in-vitro-epidermis-model-mimicking-igf-1-specific-age-related-decline
#6
Carine Mainzer, Noëlle Remoué, Jennifer Molinari, Patricia Rousselle, Carla Barricchello, Juliana C Lago, Pascal Sommer, Dominique Sigaudo-Roussel, Romain Debret
Aging is a complex multifaceted process affecting skin functionality and structure. Several 3D organotypic skin culture models have reproduced aging by inducing replicative senescence, glycation or oxidative stress. Yet, very few models have focused on hormonal aging and especially the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway, which has been associated to longevity in animal studies and is necessary in the early stages of skin development. In this study, we built an organotypic epidermis model with targeted IGF-1 receptor knockdown to reproduce some aspects of hormonal aging on skin...
March 30, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588162/aminochrome-decreases-ngf-gdnf-and-induces-neuroinflammation-in-organotypic-midbrain-slice-cultures
#7
Fillipe M de Araújo, Rafael S Ferreira, Cleide S Souza, Cleonice Creusa Dos Santos, Tácio L R S Rodrigues, Juliana Helena C E Silva, Juciano Gasparotto, Daniel Pens Gelain, Ramon S El-Bachá, Maria de Fátima D Costa, José Claudio M Fonseca, Juan Segura-Aguilar, Silvia L Costa, Victor Diogenes A Silva
Recent evidence shows that aminochrome induces glial activation related to neuroinflammation. This dopamine derived molecule induces formation and stabilization of alpha-synuclein oligomers, mitochondria dysfunction, oxidative stress, dysfunction of proteasomal and lysosomal systems, endoplasmic reticulum stress and disruption of the microtubule network, but until now there has been no evidence of effects on production of cytokines and neurotrophic factors, that are mechanisms involved in neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease (PD)...
March 24, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587663/development-of-primary-human-pancreatic-cancer-organoids-matched-stromal-and-immune-cells-and-3d-tumor-microenvironment-models
#8
Susan Tsai, Laura McOlash, Katie Palen, Bryon Johnson, Christine Duris, Qiuhui Yang, Michael B Dwinell, Bryan Hunt, Douglas B Evans, Jill Gershan, Michael A James
BACKGROUND: Patient-derived tumor models are the new standard for pre-clinical drug testing and biomarker discovery. However, the emerging technology of primary pancreatic cancer organoids has not yet been broadly implemented in research, and complex organotypic models using organoids in co-culture with stromal and immune cellular components of the tumor have yet to be established. In this study, our objective was to develop and characterize pancreatic cancer organoids and multi-cell type organotypic co-culture models to demonstrate their applicability to the study of pancreatic cancer...
March 27, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581545/microglia-remodel-synapses-by-presynaptic-trogocytosis-and-spine-head-filopodia-induction
#9
Laetitia Weinhard, Giulia di Bartolomei, Giulia Bolasco, Pedro Machado, Nicole L Schieber, Urte Neniskyte, Melanie Exiga, Auguste Vadisiute, Angelo Raggioli, Andreas Schertel, Yannick Schwab, Cornelius T Gross
Microglia are highly motile glial cells that are proposed to mediate synaptic pruning during neuronal circuit formation. Disruption of signaling between microglia and neurons leads to an excess of immature synaptic connections, thought to be the result of impaired phagocytosis of synapses by microglia. However, until now the direct phagocytosis of synapses by microglia has not been reported and fundamental questions remain about the precise synaptic structures and phagocytic mechanisms involved. Here we used light sheet fluorescence microscopy to follow microglia-synapse interactions in developing organotypic hippocampal cultures, complemented by a 3D ultrastructural characterization using correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM)...
March 26, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578527/adult-mouse-drg-explant-and-dissociated-cell-models-to-investigate-neuroplasticity-and-responses-to-environmental-insults-including-viral-infection
#10
Michele Fornaro, Harsh Sharthiya, Vaibhav Tiwari
This protocol describes an ex vivo model of mouse-derived dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explant and in vitro DRG-derived co-culture of dissociated sensory neurons and glial satellite cells. These are useful and versatile models to investigate a variety of biological responses associated with physiological and pathological conditions of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) ranging from neuron-glial interaction, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation, and viral infection. The usage of DRG explant is scientifically advantageous compared to simplistic single cells models for multiple reasons...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568511/a-novel-method-for-the-collection-of-nanoscopic-vesicles-from-an-organotypic-culture-model
#11
Alexandra Iordachescu, Philippa Hulley, Liam M Grover
Nanovesicles, exosomes and other membrane bound particles excreted by cells are currently gaining research attention since they have been shown to play a significant role in many biologically related processes. Vesicles are now thought to mediate cellular communication, transmission of some diseases and pathologically mediated calcification. Matrix vesicles have long been proposed to be central to the controlled mineralisation of bone. They remain relatively poorly studied, however, since they are challenging to extract from biological media...
February 13, 2018: RSC Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566770/stem-cell-properties-of-human-clonal-salivary-gland-stem-cells-are-enhanced-by-three-dimensional-priming-culture-in-nanofibrous-microwells
#12
Hyun-Soo Shin, Songyi Lee, Hye Jin Hong, Young Chang Lim, Won-Gun Koh, Jae-Yol Lim
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) cultures recapitulate the microenvironment of tissue-resident stem cells and enable them to modulate their properties. We determined whether salivary gland-resident stem cells (SGSCs) are primed by a 3D spheroid culture prior to treating irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction using in-vitro coculture and in-vivo transplant models. METHODS: 3D spheroid-derived SGSCs (SGSCs3D ) were obtained from 3D culture in microwells consisting of a nanofiber bottom and cell-repellent hydrogel walls, and were examined for salivary stem or epithelial gene/protein expression, differentiation potential, and paracrine secretory function compared with monolayer-cultured SGSCs (SGSCs2D ) in vitro and in vivo...
March 22, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566083/targeted-deletion-of-the-aquaglyceroporin-aqp9-is-protective-in-a-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Katja Stahl, Soulmaz Rahmani, Agnete Prydz, Nadia Skauli, Nanna MacAulay, Maria N Mylonakou, Reidun Torp, Øivind Skare, Torill Berg, Trygve B Leergaard, Ragnhild E Paulsen, Ole P Ottersen, Mahmood Amiry-Moghaddam
More than 90% of the cases of Parkinson's disease have unknown etiology. Gradual loss of dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra is the main cause of morbidity in this disease. External factors such as environmental toxins are believed to play a role in the cell loss, although the cause of the selective vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons remains unknown. We have previously shown that aquaglyceroporin AQP9 is expressed in dopaminergic neurons and astrocytes of rodent brain. AQP9 is permeable to a broad spectrum of substrates including purines, pyrimidines, and lactate, in addition to water and glycerol...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563067/paraquat-initially-damages-cochlear-support-cells-leading-to-anoikis-like-hair-cell-death
#14
Jianhui Zhang, Hong Sun, Richard Salvi, Dalian Ding
Paraquat (PQ), one of the most widely used herbicides, is extremely dangerous because it generates the highly toxic superoxide radical. When paraquat was applied to cochlear organotypic cultures, it not only damaged the outer hair cells (OHCs) and inner hair cells (IHCs), but also caused dislocation of the hair cell rows. We hypothesized that the dislocation arose from damage to the support cells (SCs) that anchors hair cells within the epithelium. To test this hypothesis, rat postnatal cochlear cultures were treated with PQ...
March 13, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560127/neoadjuvant-photodynamic-therapy-augments-immediate-and-prolonged-oxaliplatin-efficacy-in-metastatic-pancreatic-cancer-organoids
#15
Mans Broekgaarden, Imran Rizvi, Anne-Laure Bulin, Ljubica Petrovic, Ruth Goldschmidt, Iqbal Massodi, Jonathan P Celli, Tayyaba Hasan
Effective treatment of advanced metastatic disease remains the primary challenge in the management of inoperable pancreatic cancer. Current therapies such as oxaliplatin (OxPt)-based chemotherapy regimens (FOLFIRINOX) provide modest short-term survival improvements, yet with significant toxicity. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a light-activated cancer therapy, demonstrated clinical promise for pancreatic cancer treatment and enhances conventional chemotherapies with non-overlapping toxicities. This study investigates the capacity of neoadjuvant PDT using a clinically-approved photosensitizer, benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD, verteporfin), to enhance OxPt efficacy in metastatic pancreatic cancer...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560079/fluorogold-labeled-organotypic-retinal-explant-culture-for-neurotoxicity-screening-studies
#16
Adrian Smedowski, Marita Pietrucha-Dutczak, Ruchi Maniar, Michael Ajeleti, Iwona Matuszek, Joanna Lewin-Kowalik
Preclinical toxicity screening of the new retinal compounds is an absolute requirement in the pathway of further drug development. Since retinal neuron cultivation and in vivo studies are relatively expensive and time consuming, we aimed to create a fast and reproducible ex vivo system for retinal toxicity screening. For this purpose, we used rat retinal explant culture that was retrogradely labeled with the FluoroGold before the isolation. Explants were exposed to a toxic concentration of gentamicin and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a known neuroprotective agent...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559915/circadian-atp-release-in-organotypic-cultures-of-the-rat-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-is-dependent-on-p2x7-and-p2y-receptors
#17
Irena Svobodova, Anirban Bhattaracharya, Milorad Ivetic, Zdenka Bendova, Hana Zemkova
The circadian rhythms in physiological and behavioral functions are driven by a pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The rhythms continue in constant darkness and depend on cell-cell communication between neurons and glia. The SCN astrocytes generate also a circadian rhythm in extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) accumulation, but molecular mechanisms that regulate ATP release are poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ATP is released via the plasma membrane purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) and P2Y receptors (P2YRs) which have been previously shown to be expressed in the SCN tissue at transcriptional level...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559382/investigations-into-the-cancer-stem-cell-niche-using-in-vitro-3-d-tumor-models-and-microfluidics
#18
REVIEW
M Sreepadmanabh, Bhushan J Toley
The concept of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) and the CSC Niche/Tumor Microenvironment (TME) as the central driving force behind tumor progression and maintenance has garnered much attention in recent years. Concomitantly, the widespread adoption of 3D tissue models, organotypic co-cultures, and the revolutionary microfluidic technology has resulted in a plethora of ground-breaking fundamental discoveries and has enabled investigations which were previously unfeasible. A large number of existing review papers concern themselves with either a broad look at the TME and CSC Niche, or on the studies undertaken on a particular niche component alone...
March 17, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556825/breast-organotypic-cancer-models
#19
Pilar Carranza-Rosales, Nancy Elena Guzmán-Delgado, Irma Edith Carranza-Torres, Ezequiel Viveros-Valdez, Javier Morán-Martínez
Breast cancer is the most common cancer type diagnosed in women, it represents a critical public health problem worldwide, with 1,671,149 estimated new cases and nearly 571,000 related deaths. Research on breast cancer has mainly been conducted using two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures and animal models. The usefulness of these models is reflected in the vast knowledge accumulated over the past decades. However, considering that animal models are three-dimensional (3D) in nature, the validity of the studies using 2D cell cultures has recently been questioned...
March 20, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548944/dispersing-movement-of-tangential-neuronal-migration-in-superficial-layers-of-the-developing-chick-optic-tectum
#20
Yuji Watanabe, Chie Sakuma, Hiroyuki Yaginuma
During embryonic brain development, groups of particular neuronal cells migrate tangentially to participate in the formation of a laminated structure. Two distinct types of tangential migration in the middle and superficial layers have been reported in the development of the avian optic tectum. Here we show the dynamics of tangential cell movement in superficial layers of developing chick optic tectum. Confocal time-lapse microscopy in organotypic slice cultures and flat-mount cultures revealed that vigorous cell migration continued during E6...
March 13, 2018: Developmental Biology
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