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Ami Klin

Domenic V Cicchetti, Ami Klin, Fred R Volkmar
Cohen's (Educ Psychol Meth. 1960;23:37-40) kappa statistic has been criticized recently for providing low chance-corrected coefficients (<0.40) despite high levels of examiner agreement (e.g., ≥85%). The AC1 statistic (Series. 2002;2:1-9; BMC Med Res Methodol. 2013;13:61), the alpha statistic (J Clin Epidemiol. 1996;49:775-782), the B statistic (BMC Med Res Methodol. 2013;13:97), and the delta statistic (Commun Statist Theory Meth. 2008;37:760-772) were developed to "correct" this "problem." Each of these statistics produces inaccurate results because they either derive from levels of chance agreement that are incorrect (Gwet's AC1 statistic) or fail to correct for chance levels of agreement (the alpha, B, and delta approaches)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Rebecca Burger-Caplan, Celine Saulnier, Warren Jones, Ami Klin
The Social Attribution Task, Multiple Choice is introduced as a measure of implicit social cognitive ability in children, addressing a key challenge in quantification of social cognitive function in autism spectrum disorder, whereby individuals can often be successful in explicit social scenarios, despite marked social adaptive deficits. The 19-question Social Attribution Task, Multiple Choice, which presents ambiguous stimuli meant to elicit social attribution, was administered to children with autism spectrum disorder (N = 23) and to age-matched and verbal IQ-matched typically developing children (N = 57)...
November 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Ami Klin, Amy M Wetherby, Juliann Woods, Celine Saulnier, Jennifer Stapel-Wax, Cheryl Klaiman, Warren Jones, Emily Rubin, Lawrence Scahill, Nathan Call, Karen Bearss, Chris Gunter, Charles J Courtemanche, Anthony Lemieux, James C Cox, David S Mandell, James P Van Decar, Ronald A Miller, Cherri L Shireman
The burdens faced by military families who have a child with autism are unique. The usual challenges of securing diagnostic, treatment, and educational services are compounded by life circumstances that include the anxieties of war, frequent relocation and separation, and a demand structure that emphasizes mission readiness and service. Recently established military autism-specific health care benefits set the stage for community-viable and cost-effective solutions that can achieve better outcomes for children and greater well-being for families...
March 2015: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Ami Klin, Cheryl Klaiman, Warren Jones
Autism spectrum disorder (autism) is a highly prevalent and heterogeneous family of neurodevelopmental disorders of genetic origins with potentially devastating implications for child, family, health and educational systems. Despite advances in paper-and-pencil screening and in standardization of diagnostic procedures, diagnosis of autism in the US still hovers around the ages of four or five years, later still in disadvantaged communities, and several years after the age of two to three years when the condition can be reliably diagnosed by expert clinicians...
February 25, 2015: Revista de Neurologia
Natasha Marrus, Anne L Glowinski, Theodore Jacob, Ami Klin, Warren Jones, Caroline E Drain, Kieran E Holzhauer, Vaishnavi Hariprasad, Robert T Fitzgerald, Erika L Mortenson, Sayli M Sant, Lyndsey Cole, Satchel A Siegel, Yi Zhang, Arpana Agrawal, Andrew C Heath, John N Constantino
BACKGROUND: Reciprocal social behavior (RSB) is a developmental prerequisite for social competency, and deficits in RSB constitute a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although clinical screeners categorically ascertain risk of ASD in early childhood, rapid methods for quantitative measurement of RSB in toddlers are not yet established. Such measurements are critical for tracking developmental trajectories and incremental responses to intervention. METHODS: We developed and validated a 20-min video-referenced rating scale, the video-referenced rating of reciprocal social behavior (vrRSB), for untrained caregivers to provide standardized ratings of quantitative variation in RSB...
December 2015: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Katarzyna Chawarska, Frederick Shic, Suzanne Macari, Daniel J Campbell, Jessica Brian, Rebecca Landa, Ted Hutman, Charles A Nelson, Sally Ozonoff, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Gregory S Young, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Ira L Cohen, Tony Charman, Daniel S Messinger, Ami Klin, Scott Johnson, Susan Bryson
OBJECTIVE: Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk (HR) for developing ASD as well as features of the broader autism phenotype. Although this complicates early diagnostic considerations in this cohort, it also provides an opportunity to examine patterns of behavior associated specifically with ASD compared to other developmental outcomes. METHOD: We applied Classification and Regression Trees (CART) analysis to individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in 719 HR siblings to identify behavioral features at 18 months that were predictive of diagnostic outcomes (ASD, atypical development, and typical development) at 36 months...
December 2014: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Ami Klin, Sarah Shultz, Warren Jones
Efforts to determine and understand the causes of autism are currently hampered by a large disconnect between recent molecular genetics findings that are associated with the condition and the core behavioral symptoms that define the condition. In this perspective piece, we propose a systems biology framework to bridge that gap between genes and symptoms. The framework focuses on basic mechanisms of socialization that are highly-conserved in evolution and are early-emerging in development. By conceiving of these basic mechanisms of socialization as quantitative endophenotypes, we hope to connect genes and behavior in autism through integrative studies of neurodevelopmental, behavioral, and epigenetic changes...
March 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Domenic V Cicchetti, Catherine Lord, Kathy Koenig, Ami Klin, Fred R Volkmar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Domenic V Cicchetti, Catherine Lord, Kathy Koenig, Ami Klin, Fred R Volkmar
In an earlier investigation, the authors assessed the reliability of the ADI-R when multiple clinicians evaluated a single case, here a female 3 year old toddler suspected of having an autism spectrum disorder (Cicchetti et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 38:764-770, 2008). Applying the clinical criteria of Cicchetti and Sparrow (Am J Men Def 86:127-137, 1981); and those of Cicchetti et al. (Child Neuropsychol 126-137, 1995): 74 % of the ADI-R items showed 100 % agreement; 6 % showed excellent agreement; 7 % showed good agreement; 3 % manifested average agreement; and the remaining 10 % evidenced poor agreement...
December 2014: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Warren Jones, Ami Klin
Deficits in eye contact have been a hallmark of autism since the condition's initial description. They are cited widely as a diagnostic feature and figure prominently in clinical instruments; however, the early onset of these deficits has not been known. Here we show in a prospective longitudinal study that infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) exhibit mean decline in eye fixation from 2 to 6 months of age, a pattern not observed in infants who do not develop ASD. These observations mark the earliest known indicators of social disability in infancy, but also falsify a prior hypothesis: in the first months of life, this basic mechanism of social adaptive action--eye looking--is not immediately diminished in infants later diagnosed with ASD; instead, eye looking appears to begin at normative levels prior to decline...
December 19, 2013: Nature
William G Sharp, Rashelle C Berry, Courtney McCracken, Nadrat N Nuhu, Elizabeth Marvel, Celine A Saulnier, Ami Klin, Warren Jones, David L Jaquess
We conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of research regarding feeding problems and nutrient status among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The systematic search yielded 17 prospective studies involving a comparison group. Using rigorous meta-analysis techniques, we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) with standard error and corresponding odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Results indicated children with ASD experienced significantly more feeding problems versus peers, with an overall SMD of 0...
September 2013: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Amanda Mossman Steiner, Grace W Gengoux, Ami Klin, Katarzyna Chawarska
Presently there is limited research to suggest efficacious interventions for infants at-risk for autism. Pivotal response treatment (PRT) has empirical support for use with preschool children with autism, but there are no reports in the literature utilizing this approach with infants. In the current study, a developmental adaptation of PRT was piloted via a brief parent training model with three infants at-risk for autism. Utilizing a multiple baseline design, the data suggest that the introduction of PRT resulted in increases in the infants' frequency of functional communication and parents' fidelity of implementation of PRT procedures...
January 2013: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Suzanne L Macari, Daniel Campbell, Grace W Gengoux, Celine A Saulnier, Ami J Klin, Katarzyna Chawarska
The study examined whether performance profiles on individual items of the Toddler Module of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule at 12 months are associated with developmental status at 24 months in infants at high and low risk for developing Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A nonparametric decision-tree learning algorithm identified sets of 12-month predictors of developmental status at 24 months. Results suggest that identification of infants who are likely to exhibit symptoms of ASD at 24 months is complicated by variable patterns of symptom emergence...
December 2012: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Katherine Rice, Jennifer M Moriuchi, Warren Jones, Ami Klin
OBJECTIVE: To examine patterns of variability in social visual engagement and their relationship to standardized measures of social disability in a heterogeneous sample of school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). METHOD: Eye-tracking measures of visual fixation during free-viewing of dynamic social scenes were obtained for 109 children with ASD (mean age, 10.2 ± 3.2 years), 37 of whom were matched with 26 typically-developing (TD) children (mean age, 9...
March 2012: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Sarah Shultz, Ami Klin, Warren Jones
Spontaneous eye blinking serves a critical physiological function, but it also interrupts incoming visual information. This tradeoff suggests that the inhibition of eye blinks might constitute an adaptive reaction to minimize the loss of visual information, particularly information that a viewer perceives to be important. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the timing of blink inhibition, during natural viewing, is modulated between as well as within tasks, and also whether the timing of blink inhibition varies as a function of viewer engagement and stimulus event type...
December 27, 2011: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Catherine Lord, Eva Petkova, Vanessa Hus, Weijin Gan, Feihan Lu, Donna M Martin, Opal Ousley, Lisa Guy, Raphael Bernier, Jennifer Gerdts, Molly Algermissen, Agnes Whitaker, James S Sutcliffe, Zachary Warren, Ami Klin, Celine Saulnier, Ellen Hanson, Rachel Hundley, Judith Piggot, Eric Fombonne, Mandy Steiman, Judith Miles, Stephen M Kanne, Robin P Goin-Kochel, Sarika U Peters, Edwin H Cook, Stephen Guter, Jennifer Tjernagel, Lee Anne Green-Snyder, Somer Bishop, Amy Esler, Katherine Gotham, Rhiannon Luyster, Fiona Miller, Jennifer Olson, Jennifer Richler, Susan Risi
CONTEXT: Best-estimate clinical diagnoses of specific autism spectrum disorders (autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, and Asperger syndrome) have been used as the diagnostic gold standard, even when information from standardized instruments is available. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the relationships between behavioral phenotypes and clinical diagnoses of different autism spectrum disorders vary across 12 university-based sites...
March 2012: Archives of General Psychiatry
Katarzyna Chawarska, Daniel Campbell, Lisha Chen, Frederick Shic, Ami Klin, Joseph Chang
CONTEXT: Multiple studies have reported an overgrowth in head circumference (HC) in the first year of life in autism. However, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is independent of overall body growth and whether it is associated with specific social or cognitive features. OBJECTIVES: To examine the trajectory of early HC growth in autism compared with control groups; to assess whether HC growth in autism is independent of height and weight growth during infancy; and to examine HC growth from birth to 24 months in relationship to social, verbal, cognitive, and adaptive functioning levels...
October 2011: Archives of General Psychiatry
James C McPartland, Jia Wu, Christopher A Bailey, Linda C Mayes, Robert T Schultz, Ami Klin
The social motivation hypothesis posits that aberrant neural response to human faces in autism is attributable to atypical social development and consequently reduced exposure to faces. The specificity of deficits in neural specialization remains unclear, and alternative theories suggest generalized processing difficulties. The current study contrasted neural specialization for social information versus nonsocial information in 36 individuals with autism and 18 typically developing individuals matched for age, race, sex, handedness, and cognitive ability...
2011: Social Neuroscience
Pamela Ventola, Celine A Saulnier, Elizabeth Steinberg, Katarzyna Chawarska, Ami Klin
Individuals with ASD have significant impairments in adaptive skills, particularly adaptive socialization skills. The present study examined the extent to which 20 items from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Socialization Domain differentiated between ASD and developmentally delayed (DD) groups. Participants included 108 toddlers with ASD or DD under the age of 3 years. Nine of the 20 items significantly distinguished the groups. The ASD group demonstrated significantly weaker socialization skills, including deficits in basic social behaviors...
February 2014: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Frederick Shic, Jessica Bradshaw, Ami Klin, Brian Scassellati, Katarzyna Chawarska
This study used eye-tracking to examine how 20-month-old toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n=28), typical development (TD) (n=34), and non-autistic developmental delays (DD) (n=16) monitored the activities occurring in a context of an adult-child play interaction. Toddlers with ASD, in comparison to control groups, showed less attention to the activities of others and focused more on background objects (e.g., toys). In addition, while all groups spent the same time overall looking at people, toddlers with ASD looked less at people's heads and more at their bodies...
March 22, 2011: Brain Research
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