keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043595/reaching-consensus-on-drug-resistance-conferring-mutations
#1
Daniela M Cirillo, Paolo Miotto, Elisa Tagliani
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Molecular-based, rapid drug-susceptibility tests are needed to guide the appropriate use of new drugs and new therapeutic regimens at the programmatic level, and to prevent a further increase in the incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Experts have recognized the need for a global, curated, and standardized analysis and data-sharing platform that provides a one-stop data source for clinically relevant genotypic and phenotypic information on Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012943/effectiveness-of-a-triple-drug-regimen-for-global-elimination-of-lymphatic-filariasis-a-modelling-study
#2
Michael A Irvine, Wilma A Stolk, Morgan E Smith, Swaminathan Subramanian, Brajendra K Singh, Gary J Weil, Edwin Michael, T Deirdre Hollingsworth
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis is targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2020. The principal approach used by current programmes is annual mass drug administration with two pairs of drugs with a good safety profile. However, one dose of a triple-drug regimen (ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and albendazole) has been shown to clear the transmissible stage of the helminth completely in treated individuals. The aim of this study was to use modelling to assess the potential value of mass drug administration with the triple-drug regimen for accelerating elimination of lymphatic filariasis in different epidemiological settings...
December 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007477/national-and-subnational-all-cause-and-cause-specific-child-mortality-in-china-1996-2015-a-systematic-analysis-with-implications-for-the-sustainable-development-goals
#3
Chunhua He, Li Liu, Yue Chu, Jamie Perin, Li Dai, Xiaohong Li, Lei Miao, Leni Kang, Qi Li, Robert Scherpbier, Sufang Guo, Igor Rudan, Peige Song, Kit Yee Chan, Yan Guo, Robert E Black, Yanping Wang, Jun Zhu
BACKGROUND: China has achieved Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce under-5 mortality rate by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In this study, we estimated the national and subnational levels and causes of child mortality in China annually from 1996 to 2015 to draw implications for achievement of the SDGs for China and other low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: In this systematic analysis, we adjusted empirical data on levels and causes of child mortality collected in the China Maternal and Child Health Surveillance System to generate representative estimates at the national and subnational levels...
December 19, 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989591/expected-effects-of-adopting-a-9-month-regimen-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-population-modelling-analysis
#4
Emily A Kendall, Anthony T Fojo, David W Dowdy
BACKGROUND: In May, 2016, WHO endorsed a 9 month regimen for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis that is cheaper and potentially more effective than the conventional, longer (20-24 month) therapy. We aimed to investigate the population-level implications of scaling up this new regimen. METHODS: In this population modelling analysis, we developed a dynamic transmission model to simulate the introduction of this short-course regimen as an instantaneous switch in 2016...
December 16, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987641/the-international-decision-support-initiative-reference-case-for-economic-evaluation-an-aid-to-thought
#5
Thomas Wilkinson, Mark J Sculpher, Karl Claxton, Paul Revill, Andrew Briggs, John A Cairns, Yot Teerawattananon, Elias Asfaw, Ruth Lopert, Anthony J Culyer, Damian G Walker
BACKGROUND: Policymakers in high-, low-, and middle-income countries alike face challenging choices about resource allocation in health. Economic evaluation can be useful in providing decision makers with the best evidence of the anticipated benefits of new investments, as well as their expected opportunity costs-the benefits forgone of the options not chosen. To guide the decisions of health systems effectively, it is important that the methods of economic evaluation are founded on clear principles, are applied systematically, and are appropriate to the decision problems they seek to inform...
December 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956187/trends-in-the-burden-of-hiv-mortality-after-roll-out-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-an-observational-community-cohort-study
#6
Georges Reniers, Sylvia Blom, Clara Calvert, Alexandra Martin-Onraet, Abraham J Herbst, Jeffrey W Eaton, Jacob Bor, Emma Slaymaker, Zehang R Li, Samuel J Clark, Till Bärnighausen, Basia Zaba, Victoria Hosegood
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) substantially decreases morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV. In this study, we describe population-level trends in the adult life expectancy and trends in the residual burden of HIV mortality after the roll-out of a public sector ART programme in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, one of the populations with the most severe HIV epidemics in the world. METHODS: Data come from the Africa Centre Demographic Information System (ACDIS), an observational community cohort study in the uMkhanyakude district in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
December 9, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955769/11-years-of-tracking-aid-to-reproductive-maternal-newborn-and-child-health-estimates-and-analysis-for-2003-13-from-the-countdown-to-2015
#7
Christopher Grollman, Leonardo Arregoces, Melisa Martínez-Álvarez, Catherine Pitt, Anne Mills, Josephine Borghi
BACKGROUND: Tracking aid flows helps to hold donors accountable and to compare the allocation of resources in relation to health need. With the use of data reported by donors in 2015, we provided estimates of official development assistance and grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (collectively termed ODA+) to reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health for 2013 and complete trends in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health support for the period 2003-13. METHODS: We coded and analysed financial disbursements to reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health to all recipient countries from all donors reporting to the creditor reporting system database for the year 2013...
January 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884709/seeing-beyond-2020-an-economic-evaluation-of-contemporary-and-emerging-strategies-for-elimination-of-trypanosoma-brucei-gambiense
#8
C Simone Sutherland, Christopher M Stone, Peter Steinmann, Marcel Tanner, Fabrizio Tediosi
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma brucei (T b) gambiense is targeted to reach elimination as a public health problem by 2020 and full elimination by 2030. To achieve these goals, stakeholders need to consider strategies to accelerate elimination. Hence, we aimed to model several options related to current and emerging methods for case detection, treatment, and vector control across settings to assess cost-effectiveness and the probability of elimination. METHODS: Five intervention strategies were modelled over 30 years for low, moderate, and high transmission settings...
January 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865890/safety-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-repeated-doses-of-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-malaria-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Julie Gutman, Stephanie Kovacs, Grant Dorsey, Andy Stergachis, Feiko O Ter Kuile
BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for malaria is used in infants, children, adults, and pregnant women. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is an effective, well tolerated artemisinin-based combination therapy. The long half-life of piperaquine makes it attractive for IPT. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to establish the efficacy and safety of repeated treatment with DP. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched multiple databases on Sept 1, 2016, with the terms: "human" AND "dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine" OR "DHA-PPQ"...
November 17, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857449/an-experimental-investigation-of-the-combustion-performance-of-human-faeces
#10
Tosin Onabanjo, Athanasios J Kolios, Kumar Patchigolla, Stuart T Wagland, Beatriz Fidalgo, Nelia Jurado, Dawid P Hanak, Vasilije Manovic, Alison Parker, Ewan McAdam, Leon Williams, Sean Tyrrel, Elise Cartmell
Poor sanitation is one of the major hindrances to the global sustainable development goals. The Reinvent the Toilet Challenge of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is set to develop affordable, next-generation sanitary systems that can ensure safe treatment and wide accessibility without compromise on sustainable use of natural resources and the environment. Energy recovery from human excreta is likely to be a cornerstone of future sustainable sanitary systems. Faeces combustion was investigated using a bench-scale downdraft combustor test rig, alongside with wood biomass and simulant faeces...
November 15, 2016: Fuel
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855873/household-transmission-of-neisseria-meningitidis-in-the-african-meningitis-belt-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#11
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Information on transmission of meningococcal infection in the African meningitis belt is scarce. We aimed to describe transmission patterns of Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) in households in the African meningitis belt. METHODS: Cross-sectional carriage surveys were done in seven African meningitis belt countries (Chad, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal) between Aug 1, 2010, and Oct 15, 2012. Meningococcal carriers identified in these surveys and all available people in their households were recruited into this longitudinal cohort study...
December 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852523/anemia-offers-stronger-protection-than-sickle-cell-trait-against-the-erythrocytic-stage-of-falciparum-malaria-and-this-protection-is-reversed-by-iron-supplementation
#12
M M Goheen, R Wegmüller, A Bah, B Darboe, E Danso, M Affara, D Gardner, J C Patel, A M Prentice, C Cerami
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency causes long-term adverse consequences for children and is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. Observational studies suggest that iron deficiency anemia protects against Plasmodium falciparum malaria and several intervention trials have indicated that iron supplementation increases malaria risk through unknown mechanism(s). This poses a major challenge for health policy. We investigated how anemia inhibits blood stage malaria infection and how iron supplementation abrogates this protection...
December 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818095/genetic-markers-associated-with-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-failure-in-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-cambodia-a-genotype-phenotype-association-study
#13
Roberto Amato, Pharath Lim, Olivo Miotto, Chanaki Amaratunga, Dalin Dek, Richard D Pearson, Jacob Almagro-Garcia, Aaron T Neal, Sokunthea Sreng, Seila Suon, Eleanor Drury, Dushyanth Jyothi, Jim Stalker, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, Rick M Fairhurst
BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria increases in the Greater Mekong subregion, emerging resistance to partner drugs in artemisinin combination therapies seriously threatens global efforts to treat and eliminate this disease. Molecular markers that predict failure of artemisinin combination therapy are urgently needed to monitor the spread of partner drug resistance, and to recommend alternative treatments in southeast Asia and beyond. METHODS: We did a genome-wide association study of 297 P falciparum isolates from Cambodia to investigate the relationship of 11 630 exonic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 43 copy number variations (CNVs) with in-vitro piperaquine 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s), and tested whether these genetic variants are markers of treatment failure with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine...
November 3, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793073/private-actors-global-health-and-learning-the-lessons-of-history
#14
Jeremy Youde
Private business and philanthropic organizations have played a prominent role in the response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the support of global health governance more broadly. While this involvement may appear to be novel or unprecedented, this article argues that this active role for private actors and philanthropies actually mirrors the historical experience of cross-border health governance in the first half of the twentieth century. By examining the experiences, roles and criticisms of the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, it is possible to identify potential opportunities for better cooperation between public and private actors in global health governance...
July 2016: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777030/the-geography-of-imported-malaria-to-non-endemic-countries-a-meta-analysis-of-nationally-reported-statistics
#15
Andrew J Tatem, Peng Jia, Dariya Ordanovich, Michael Falkner, Zhuojie Huang, Rosalind Howes, Simon I Hay, Peter W Gething, David L Smith
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a problem for many countries classified as malaria free through cases imported from endemic regions. Imported cases to non-endemic countries often result in delays in diagnosis, are expensive to treat, and can sometimes cause secondary local transmission. The movement of malaria in endemic countries has also contributed to the spread of drug resistance and threatens long-term eradication goals. Here we focused on quantifying the international movements of malaria to improve our understanding of these phenomena and facilitate the design of mitigation strategies...
January 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771231/evaluating-strategies-to-improve-hiv-care-outcomes-in-kenya-a-modelling-study
#16
Jack J Olney, Paula Braitstein, Jeffrey W Eaton, Edwin Sang, Monicah Nyambura, Sylvester Kimaiyo, Ellen McRobie, Joseph W Hogan, Timothy B Hallett
BACKGROUND: With expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV mortality has decreased, yet life-years are still lost to AIDS. Strengthening of treatment programmes is a priority. We examined the state of an HIV care programme in Kenya and assessed interventions to improve the impact of ART programmes on population health. METHODS: We created an individual-based mathematical model to describe the HIV epidemic and the experiences of care among adults infected with HIV in Kenya...
December 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760489/geneva-seattle-collaboration-in-support-of-developing-country-vaccine-manufacturing
#17
Michael A Stevenson
Vaccines were once produced almost exclusively by state-supported entities. While they remain essential tools for public health protection, the majority of the world's governments have allowed industry to assume responsibility for this function. This is significant because while the international harmonisation of quality assurance standards have effectively increased vaccine safety, they have also reduced the number of developing country vaccine producers, and Northern multinational pharmaceutical companies have shown little interest in offering the range of low-priced products needed in low and middle-income-country contexts...
October 19, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746226/efficacy-of-a-russian-backbone-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-among-young-children-in-bangladesh-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#18
W Abdullah Brooks, K Zaman, Kristen D C Lewis, Justin R Ortiz, Doli Goswami, Jodi Feser, Amina Tahia Sharmeen, Kamrun Nahar, Mustafizur Rahman, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Burc Barin, Muhammad Yunus, Alicia M Fry, Joseph Bresee, Tasnim Azim, Kathleen M Neuzil
BACKGROUND: The rates of influenza illness and associated complications are high among children in Bangladesh. We assessed the clinical efficacy and safety of a Russian-backbone live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) at two field sites in Bangladesh. METHODS: Between Feb 27 and April 9, 2013, children aged 2-4 years in urban Kamalapur and rural Matlab, Bangladesh, were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio, according to a computer-generated schedule, to receive one intranasal dose of LAIV or placebo...
December 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746224/efficacy-of-a-russian-backbone-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-among-children-in-senegal-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
John C Victor, Kristen D C Lewis, Aldiouma Diallo, Mbayame N Niang, Bou Diarra, Ndongo Dia, Justin R Ortiz, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Jodi Feser, Rebecca Hoagland, Shannon L Emery, Kathryn E Lafond, Kathleen M Neuzil
BACKGROUND: Live attenuated influenza vaccines have been shown to significantly reduce influenza in diverse populations of children, but no efficacy studies have been done in resource-poor tropical settings. In Senegal, we assessed the efficacy and safety of a live attenuated influenza vaccine based on Russian-derived master donor viruses and licensed as a single dose. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, single-centre trial done near Niakhar, Senegal, generally healthy children aged 2-5 years were randomly allocated (2:1) to receive a single intranasal dose of masked trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine or placebo...
December 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733286/global-regional-and-national-levels-of-maternal-mortality-1990-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#20
COMMENT
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: In transitioning from the Millennium Development Goal to the Sustainable Development Goal era, it is imperative to comprehensively assess progress toward reducing maternal mortality to identify areas of success, remaining challenges, and frame policy discussions. We aimed to quantify maternal mortality throughout the world by underlying cause and age from 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We estimated maternal mortality at the global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2015 for ages 10-54 years by systematically compiling and processing all available data sources from 186 of 195 countries and territories, 11 of which were analysed at the subnational level...
8, 2016: Lancet
keyword
keyword
108179
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"