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Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Previous efforts to report estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in India and its different parts include the National Cancer Registry Programme Reports, Sample Registration System cause of death findings, Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Series, and GLOBOCAN. We present a comprehensive picture of the patterns and time trends of the burden of total cancer and specific cancer types in each state of India estimated as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 because such a systematic compilation is not readily available...
September 11, 2018: Lancet Oncology
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: A systematic understanding of suicide mortality trends over time at the subnational level for India's 1·3 billion people, 18% of the global population, is not readily available. Thus, we aimed to report time trends of suicide deaths, and the heterogeneity in its distribution between the states of India from 1990 to 2016. METHODS: As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016, we estimated suicide death rates (SDRs) for both sexes in each state of India from 1990 to 2016...
September 11, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The burden of cardiovascular diseases is increasing in India, but a systematic understanding of its distribution and time trends across all the states is not readily available. In this report, we present a detailed analysis of how the patterns of cardiovascular diseases and major risk factors have changed across the states of India between 1990 and 2016. METHODS: We analysed the prevalence and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to cardiovascular diseases and the major component causes in the states of India from 1990 to 2016, using all accessible data sources as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016...
September 11, 2018: Lancet Global Health
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: India has 18% of the global population and an increasing burden of chronic respiratory diseases. However, a systematic understanding of the distribution of chronic respiratory diseases and their trends over time is not readily available for all of the states of India. Our aim was to report the trends in the burden of chronic respiratory diseases and the heterogeneity in their distribution in all states of India between 1990 and 2016. METHODS: Using all accessible data from multiple sources, we estimated the prevalence of major chronic respiratory diseases and the deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) caused by them for every state of India from 1990 to 2016 as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016...
September 11, 2018: Lancet Global Health
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The burden of diabetes is increasing rapidly in India but a systematic understanding of its distribution and time trends is not available for every state of India. We present a comprehensive analysis of the time trends and heterogeneity in the distribution of diabetes burden across all states of India between 1990 and 2016. METHODS: We analysed the prevalence and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of diabetes in the states of India from 1990 to 2016 using all available data sources that could be accessed as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, and assessed heterogeneity across the states...
September 11, 2018: Lancet Global Health
S Septien, J Pocock, L Teba, K Velkushanova, C A Buckley
This work aims at characterizing the rheological properties of faecal sludge from Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP) latrines and their implication on pit emptying. Faecal sludge was sampled from 3 pit latrines located in the eThekwini Municipality (Durban, South Africa). Samples were taken at different positions within the pit. For each of the samples, measurements in the rheometer in triplicates were performed in order to determine their rheological properties, and their moisture and ash content were measured also in triplicates...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Margaret E Kruk, Anna D Gage, Naima T Joseph, Goodarz Danaei, Sebastián García-Saisó, Joshua A Salomon
BACKGROUND: Universal health coverage has been proposed as a strategy to improve health in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, this is contingent on the provision of good-quality health care. We estimate the excess mortality for conditions targeted in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) that are amenable to health care and the portion of this excess mortality due to poor-quality care in 137 LMICs, in which excess mortality refers to deaths that could have been averted in settings with strong health systems...
September 5, 2018: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Over the past few decades, social and economic changes have had substantial effects on health and wellbeing in Russia. We aimed to use data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) to evaluate trends in mortality, causes of death, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and associated risk factors in Russia from 1980 to 2016. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by use of a multistage modelling process that synthesised data from vital registration systems, surveys, and censuses...
August 30, 2018: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) mandate systematic monitoring of the health and wellbeing of all children to achieve optimal early childhood development. However, global epidemiological data on children with developmental disabilities are scarce. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs) for development disabilities among children younger than 5 years in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016...
August 29, 2018: Lancet Global Health
Isobel M Blake, Margarita Pons-Salort, Natalie A Molodecky, Ousmane M Diop, Paul Chenoweth, Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Michel Zaffran, Roland W Sutter, Nicholas C Grassly
BACKGROUND: Mass campaigns with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) have brought the world close to the eradication of wild poliovirus. However, to complete eradication, OPV must itself be withdrawn to prevent outbreaks of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV). Synchronized global withdrawal of OPV began with serotype 2 OPV (OPV2) in April 2016, which presented the first test of the feasibility of eradicating all polioviruses. METHODS: We analyzed global surveillance data on the detection of serotype 2 Sabin vaccine (Sabin-2) poliovirus and serotype 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV2, defined as vaccine strains that are at least 0...
August 30, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, but its overall association with health remains complex given the possible protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on some conditions. With our comprehensive approach to health accounting within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we generated improved estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 195 locations from 1990 to 2016, for both sexes and for 5-year age groups between the ages of 15 years and 95 years and older...
August 23, 2018: Lancet
Molly F Franke, Ralph Ternier, J Gregory Jerome, Wilfredo R Matias, Jason B Harris, Louise C Ivers
BACKGROUND: No study of long-term protection following killed oral cholera vaccination has been done outside of the historically cholera-endemic areas of south Asia, or has examined protection after a single-dose vaccination regimen. To address this, we examined the duration of protection of the standard two-dose regimen and an incomplete regimen of one dose up to 4 years after vaccination in Haiti. METHODS: In the setting of two-dose vaccination campaigns with a killed, bivalent, whole-cell oral cholera vaccination, we did a case-control study from October, 2012 through November, 2016...
September 2018: Lancet Global Health
Craig Anderson, Ryan Hafen, Oleg Sofrygin, Louise Ryan
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Healthy Birth, Growth and Development knowledge integration project aims to improve the overall health and well-being of children across the world. The project aims to integrate information from multiple child growth studies to allow health professionals and policy makers to make informed decisions about interventions in lower and middle income countries. To achieve this goal, we must first understand the conditions that impact on the growth and development of children, and this requires sensible models for characterising different growth patterns...
August 9, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Rita C Silveira, Eliane Wagner Mendes, Rubia Nascimento Fuentefria, Nadia Cristina Valentini, Renato S Procianoy
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are high risk for delayed neurodevelopment. The main goal is to develop a program of early intervention for very preterm infants that allows families to apply it continuously at home, and quantify the results of early parental stimulation on improvement of cognition and motor skills. METHODS: Randomized clinical Trial including inborn preterm infants with gestational age less than 32 weeks or birth weight less than 1500 g at 48 h after birth...
August 9, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Daniel E Roth, Shaun K Morris, Stanley Zlotkin, Alison D Gernand, Tahmeed Ahmed, Shaila S Shanta, Eszter Papp, Jill Korsiak, Joy Shi, M Munirul Islam, Ishrat Jahan, Farhana K Keya, Andrew R Willan, Rosanna Weksberg, Minhazul Mohsin, Qazi S Rahman, Prakesh S Shah, Kellie E Murphy, Jennifer Stimec, Lisa G Pell, Huma Qamar, Abdullah Al Mahmud
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and lactation improves fetal and infant growth in regions where vitamin D deficiency is common. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Bangladesh to assess the effects of weekly prenatal vitamin D supplementation (from 17 to 24 weeks of gestation until birth) and postpartum vitamin D supplementation on the primary outcome of infants' length-for-age z scores at 1 year according to World Health Organization (WHO) child growth standards...
August 9, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Josef Schmidhuber, Patrick Sur, Kairsten Fay, Bethany Huntley, Joseph Salama, Alexander Lee, Leslie Cornaby, Masako Horino, Christopher Murray, Ashkan Afshin
BACKGROUND: Few data are available on the supply and consumption of nutrients at the country level. To address this data gap, we aimed to create a database that provides information on availability (ie, supply) of 156 nutrients across 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2013. METHODS: We matched 394 food and agricultural commodities from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Supply and Utilization Accounts (SUAs) to food items in the United States Department of Agriculture Food Composition Database and obtained data on nutrient composition of the SUAs' food items...
August 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Nathaniel Lee, Julie Makani, Furahini Tluway, Abel Makubi, Andrew E Armitage, Sant-Rayn Pasricha, Hal Drakesmith, Andrew M Prentice, Sharon E Cox
BACKGROUND: The contribution of hepcidin as a regulator of iron metabolism & erythropoiesis on the severity of anemia in sickle cell disease (SCD) remains poorly characterized, especially in Sub-Saharan African populations. The aims of the study were to determine if hepcidin is associated with severity of steady-state anemia in SCD and to investigate factors associated with hepcidin and anemia in SCD. METHODS: Archived samples from 199 Tanzanian children, 56% boys aged 3-18 with laboratory-confirmed SCD were analysed based on recorded averaged steady-state hemoglobin (ASSH) quartiles (lowest vs...
August 2018: EBioMedicine
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Following the economic crisis in Greece in 2010, the country's ongoing austerity measures include a substantial contraction of health-care expenditure, with reports of subsequent negative health consequences. A comprehensive evaluation of mortality and morbidity is required to understand the current challenges of public health in Greece. METHODS: We used the results of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 to describe the patterns of death and disability among those living in Greece from 2000 to 2010 (pre-austerity) and 2010 to 2016 (post-austerity), and compared trends in health outcomes and health expenditure to those in Cyprus and western Europe...
August 2018: Lancet. Public Health
Neil Spicer, Yashua Alkali Hamza, Della Berhanu, Meenakshi Gautham, Joanna Schellenberg, Feker Tadesse, Nasir Umar, Deepthi Wickremasinghe
BACKGROUND: Donors often fund projects that develop innovative practices in low and middle-income countries, hoping recipient governments will adopt and scale them within existing systems and programmes. Such innovations frequently end when project funding ends, limiting longer term potential in countries with weak health systems and pressing health needs. This paper aims to identify critical actions for externally funded project implementers to enable scale-up of maternal and newborn child health innovations originally funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation ('the foundation'), or influenced by innovations that were originally funded by the foundation in three low-income settings: Ethiopia, the state of Uttar Pradesh in India and northeast Nigeria...
July 27, 2018: Globalization and Health
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Political, economic, and epidemiological changes in Brazil have affected health and the health system. We used the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 (GBD 2016) results to understand changing health patterns and inform policy responses. METHODS: We analysed GBD 2016 estimates for life expectancy at birth (LE), healthy life expectancy (HALE), all-cause and cause-specific mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and risk factors for Brazil, its 26 states, and the Federal District from 1990 to 2016, and compared these with national estimates for ten comparator countries...
September 1, 2018: Lancet
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