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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961639/on-the-road-to-universal-health-care-in-indonesia-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#1
Nafsiah Mboi, Indra Murty Surbakti, Indang Trihandini, Iqbal Elyazar, Karen Houston Smith, Pungkas Bahjuri Ali, Soewarta Kosen, Kristin Flemons, Sarah E Ray, Jackie Cao, Scott D Glenn, Molly K Miller-Petrie, Meghan D Mooney, Jeffrey L Ried, Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum, Fachmi Idris, Kemal N Siregar, Pandu Harimurti, Robert S Bernstein, Tikki Pangestu, Yuwono Sidharta, Mohsen Naghavi, Christopher J L Murray, Simon I Hay
BACKGROUND: As Indonesia moves to provide health coverage for all citizens, understanding patterns of morbidity and mortality is important to allocate resources and address inequality. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 study (GBD 2016) estimates sources of early death and disability, which can inform policies to improve health care. METHODS: We used GBD 2016 results for cause-specific deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), life expectancy at birth, healthy life expectancy, and risk factors for 333 causes in Indonesia and in seven comparator countries...
June 28, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944649/antibiotic-prophylaxis-preventing-severe-infections-and-saving-lives-in-poor-countries-with-very-high-mortality-risk
#2
Keith P Klugman, Rasa Izadnegahdar
In a Perspective, Keith P. Klugman and Rasa Izadnegahdar from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation discuss the potentials and risks of antibiotic prophylaxis interventions for infectious disease outbreaks in rural regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa with very high mortality rates, when primary prophylactic vaccination programs are not yet available.
June 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909069/antimalarial-activity-of-single-dose-dsm265-a-novel-plasmodium-dihydroorotate-dehydrogenase-inhibitor-in-patients-with-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-or-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-infection-a-proof-of-concept-open-label-phase-2a-study
#3
Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Martin Casapia, Raúl Chuquiyauri, Juan-Carlos Hinojosa, Nicola Kerr, Maria Rosario, Stephen Toovey, Robert H Arch, Margaret A Phillips, Felix D Rozenberg, Jade Bath, Caroline L Ng, Annie N Cowell, Elizabeth A Winzeler, David A Fidock, Mark Baker, Jörg J Möhrle, Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Nathalie Gobeau, Nada Araeipour, Nicole Andenmatten, Thomas Rückle, Stephan Duparc
BACKGROUND: DSM265 is a novel, long-duration inhibitor of plasmodium dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) with excellent selectivity over human DHODH and activity against blood and liver stages of Plasmodium falciparum. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of DSM265 in patients with P falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria infection. METHODS: This proof-of-concept, open-label, phase 2a study was conducted at the Asociación Civil Selva Amazónica in Iquitos, Peru...
June 13, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903377/morbidity-mortality-and-long-term-consequences-associated-with-diarrhoea-from-cryptosporidium-infection-in-children-younger-than-5-years-a-meta-analyses-study
#4
Ibrahim A Khalil, Christopher Troeger, Puja C Rao, Brigette F Blacker, Alexandria Brown, Thomas G Brewer, Danny V Colombara, Eugenio L De Hostos, Cyril Engmann, Richard L Guerrant, Rashidul Haque, Eric R Houpt, Gagandeep Kang, Poonum S Korpe, Karen L Kotloff, Aldo A M Lima, William A Petri, James A Platts-Mills, David A Shoultz, Mohammed H Forouzanfar, Simon I Hay, Robert C Reiner, Ali H Mokdad
BACKGROUND: The protozoan Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of diarrhoea morbidity and mortality in children younger than 5 years. However, the true global burden of Cryptosporidium infection in children younger than 5 years might have been underestimated in previous quantifications because it only took account of the acute effects of diarrhoea. We aimed to demonstrate whether there is a causal relation between Cryptosporidium and childhood growth and, if so, to quantify the associated additional burden...
July 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903376/burden-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-disease-in-children-in-the-era-of-conjugate-vaccines-global-regional-and-national-estimates-for-2000-15
#5
Brian Wahl, Katherine L O'Brien, Adena Greenbaum, Anwesha Majumder, Li Liu, Yue Chu, Ivana Lukšić, Harish Nair, David A McAllister, Harry Campbell, Igor Rudan, Robert Black, Maria Deloria Knoll
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine are now used in most countries. To monitor global and regional progress towards improving child health and to inform national policies for disease prevention and treatment, we prepared global, regional, and national disease burden estimates for these pathogens in children from 2000 to 2015. METHODS: Using WHO and Maternal and Child Epidemiology Estimation collaboration country-specific estimates of pneumonia and meningitis mortality and pneumonia morbidity from 2000 to 2015, we applied pneumococcal and Hib cause-specific proportions to estimate pathogen-specific deaths and cases...
July 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898870/subtype-c-alvac-hiv-and-bivalent-subtype-c-gp120-mf59-hiv-1-vaccine-in-low-risk-hiv-uninfected-south-african-adults-a-phase-1-2-trial
#6
Linda-Gail Bekker, Zoe Moodie, Nicole Grunenberg, Fatima Laher, Georgia D Tomaras, Kristen W Cohen, Mary Allen, Mookho Malahleha, Kathryn Mngadi, Brodie Daniels, Craig Innes, Carter Bentley, Nicole Frahm, Daryl E Morris, Lynn Morris, Nonhlanhla N Mkhize, David C Montefiori, Marcella Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Shannon Grant, Chenchen Yu, Vijay L Mehra, Michael N Pensiero, Sanjay Phogat, Carlos A DiazGranados, Susan W Barnett, Niranjan Kanesa-Thasan, Marguerite Koutsoukos, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, James G Kublin, Peter B Gilbert, Lawrence Corey, Glenda E Gray, M Juliana McElrath
BACKGROUND: Modest efficacy was reported for the HIV vaccine tested in the RV144 trial, which comprised a canarypox vector (ALVAC) and envelope (env) glycoprotein (gp120). These vaccine components were adapted to express HIV-1 antigens from strains circulating in South Africa, and the adjuvant was changed to increase immunogenicity. Furthermore, 12-month immunisation was added to improve durability. In the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) 100 trial, we aimed to assess this new regionally adapted regimen for advancement to efficacy testing...
June 8, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893224/measuring-performance-on-the-healthcare-access-and-quality-index-for-195-countries-and-territories-and-selected-subnational-locations-a-systematic-analysis-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#7
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: A key component of achieving universal health coverage is ensuring that all populations have access to quality health care. Examining where gains have occurred or progress has faltered across and within countries is crucial to guiding decisions and strategies for future improvement. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) to assess personal health-care access and quality with the Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) Index for 195 countries and territories, as well as subnational locations in seven countries, from 1990 to 2016...
June 2, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887371/risk-of-sudden-unexplained-death-after-use-of-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-for-malaria-a-systematic-review-and-bayesian-meta-analysis
#8
Xin Hui S Chan, Yan Naung Win, Laura J Mawer, Jireh Y Tan, Josep Brugada, Nicholas J White
BACKGROUND: Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is an effective and well tolerated artemisinin-based combination therapy that has been assessed extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria. Piperaquine, similar to several structurally related antimalarials currently used, can prolong cardiac ventricular repolarisation duration and the electrocardiographic QT interval, leading to concerns about its proarrhythmic potential. We aimed to assess the risk of potentially lethal iatrogenic ventricular arrhythmias in individuals receiving dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine...
June 7, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800857/conceptual-environmental-impact-assessment-of-a-novel-self-sustained-sanitation-system-incorporating-a-quantitative-microbial-risk-assessment-approach
#9
Aikaterini Anastasopoulou, Athanasios Kolios, Tosin Somorin, Ayodeji Sowale, Ying Jiang, Beatriz Fidalgo, Alison Parker, Leon Williams, Matt Collins, Ewan McAdam, Sean Tyrrel
In many developing countries, including South Africa, water scarcity has resulted in poor sanitation practices. The majority of the sanitation infrastructures in those regions fail to meet basic hygienic standards. This along with the lack of proper sewage/wastewater infrastructure creates significant environmental and public health concerns. A self-sustained, waterless "Nano Membrane Toilet" (NMT) design was proposed as a result of the "Reinvent the Toilet Challenge" funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753354/the-development-of-the-guide-to-economic-analysis-and-research-gear-online-resource-for-low-and-middle-income-countries-health-economics-practitioners-a-commentary
#10
Chiaki Urai Adeagbo, Waranya Rattanavipapong, Lorna Guinness, Yot Teerawattananon
Public health authorities around the world are increasingly using economic evaluation to set priorities and inform decision making in health policy, especially in the development of health benefit packages. Nevertheless, researchers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) encounter many barriers when conducting economic evaluations. In 2015, the Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program identified key technical and context-specific challenges faced in conducting and using health economic evaluations in LMICs...
May 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732397/causes-of-death-among-children-aged-5-14-years-in-the-who-european-region-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#11
Hmwe H Kyu, Claudia E Stein, Cynthia Boschi Pinto, Ivo Rakovac, Martin W Weber, Tina Dannemann Purnat, Joseph E Amuah, Scott D Glenn, Kelly Cercy, Stan Biryukov, Audra L Gold, Adrienne Chew, Meghan D Mooney, Kevin F O'Rourke, Amber Sligar, Christopher J L Murray, Ali H Mokdad, Mohsen Naghavi
Background: The mortality burden in children aged 5-14 years in the WHO European Region has not been comprehensively studied. We assessed the distribution and trends of the main causes of death among children aged 5-9 years and 10-14 years from 1990 to 2016, for 51 countries in the WHO European Region. Methods: We used data from vital registration systems, cancer registries, and police records from 1980 to 2016 to estimate cause-specific mortality using the Cause of Death Ensemble model...
May 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725148/design-and-commissioning-of-a-multi-mode-prototype-for-thermochemical-conversion-of-human-faeces
#12
Nelia Jurado, Tosin Somorin, Athanasios J Kolios, Stuart Wagland, Kumar Patchigolla, Beatriz Fidalgo, Alison Parker, Ewan McAdam, Leon Williams, Sean Tyrrel
This article describes the design and commissioning of a micro-combustor for energy recovery from human faeces, which can operate both in updraft and downdraft modes. Energy recovery from faecal matter via thermochemical conversion has recently been identified as a feasible solution for sanitation problems in low income countries and locations of high income countries where access to sewage infrastructures is difficult or not possible. This technology can be applied to waterless toilets with the additional outcome of generating heat and power that can be used to pre-treat the faeces before their combustion and to ensure that the entire system is self-sustaining...
May 1, 2018: Energy Conversion and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703707/reliability-of-hiv-rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-self-testing-compared-with-testing-by-health-care-workers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Carmen Figueroa, Cheryl Johnson, Nathan Ford, Anita Sands, Shona Dalal, Robyn Meurant, Irena Prat, Karin Hatzold, Willy Urassa, Rachel Baggaley
BACKGROUND: The ability of individuals to use HIV self-tests correctly is debated. To inform the 2016 WHO recommendation on HIV self-testing, we assessed the reliability and performance of HIV rapid diagnostic tests when used by self-testers. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, PopLine, and Embase, conference abstracts, and additional grey literature between Jan 1, 1995, and April 30, 2016, for observational and experimental studies reporting on HIV self-testing performance...
June 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703425/effect-of-generalised-access-to-early-diagnosis-and-treatment-and-targeted-mass-drug-administration-on-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-eastern-myanmar-an-observational-study-of-a-regional-elimination-programme
#14
Jordi Landier, Daniel M Parker, Aung Myint Thu, Khin Maung Lwin, Gilles Delmas, François H Nosten
BACKGROUND: Potentially untreatable Plasmodium falciparum malaria threatens the Greater Mekong subregion. A previous series of pilot projects in Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam suggested that mass drug administration was safe, and when added to provision of early diagnosis and treatment, could reduce the reservoir of P falciparum and interrupts transmission. We examined the effects of a scaled-up programme of this strategy in four townships of eastern Myanmar on the incidence of P falciparum malaria...
May 12, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700850/using-data-from-multiple-studies-to-develop-a-child-growth-correlation-matrix
#15
Craig Anderson, Luo Xiao, William Checkley
In many countries, the monitoring of child growth does not occur in a regular manner, and instead, we may have to rely on sporadic observations that are subject to substantial measurement error. In these countries, it can be difficult to identify patterns of poor growth, and faltering children may miss out on essential health interventions. The contribution of this paper is to provide a framework for pooling together multiple datasets, thus allowing us to overcome the issue of sparse data and provide improved estimates of growth...
April 26, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694816/azithromycin-to-reduce-childhood-mortality-in-sub-saharan-africa
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jeremy D Keenan, Robin L Bailey, Sheila K West, Ahmed M Arzika, John Hart, Jerusha Weaver, Khumbo Kalua, Zakayo Mrango, Kathryn J Ray, Catherine Cook, Elodie Lebas, Kieran S O'Brien, Paul M Emerson, Travis C Porco, Thomas M Lietman
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that mass distribution of a broad-spectrum antibiotic agent to preschool children would reduce mortality in areas of sub-Saharan Africa that are currently far from meeting the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. METHODS: In this cluster-randomized trial, we assigned communities in Malawi, Niger, and Tanzania to four twice-yearly mass distributions of either oral azithromycin (approximately 20 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo...
April 26, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678342/spending-on-health-and-hiv-aids-domestic-health-spending-and-development-assistance-in-188-countries-1995-2015
#17
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Comparable estimates of health spending are crucial for the assessment of health systems and to optimally deploy health resources. The methods used to track health spending continue to evolve, but little is known about the distribution of spending across diseases. We developed improved estimates of health spending by source, including development assistance for health, and, for the first time, estimated HIV/AIDS spending on prevention and treatment and by source of funding, for 188 countries...
May 5, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678341/trends-in-future-health-financing-and-coverage-future-health-spending-and-universal-health-coverage-in-188-countries-2016-40
#18
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) requires health financing systems that provide prepaid pooled resources for key health services without placing undue financial stress on households. Understanding current and future trajectories of health financing is vital for progress towards UHC. We used historical health financing data for 188 countries from 1995 to 2015 to estimate future scenarios of health spending and pooled health spending through to 2040. METHODS: We extracted historical data on gross domestic product (GDP) and health spending for 188 countries from 1995 to 2015, and projected annual GDP, development assistance for health, and government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private health spending from 2015 through to 2040 as a reference scenario...
May 5, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650424/implications-of-insecticide-resistance-for-malaria-vector-control-with-long-lasting-insecticidal-nets-a-who-coordinated-prospective-international-observational-cohort-study
#19
Immo Kleinschmidt, John Bradley, Tessa Bellamy Knox, Abraham Peter Mnzava, Hmooda Toto Kafy, Charles Mbogo, Bashir Adam Ismail, Jude D Bigoga, Alioun Adechoubou, Kamaraju Raghavendra, Jackie Cook, Elfatih M Malik, Zinga José Nkuni, Michael Macdonald, Nabie Bayoh, Eric Ochomo, Etienne Fondjo, Herman Parfait Awono-Ambene, Josiane Etang, Martin Akogbeto, Rajendra M Bhatt, Mehul Kumar Chourasia, Dipak K Swain, Teresa Kinyari, Krishanthi Subramaniam, Achille Massougbodji, Mariam Okê-Sopoh, Aurore Ogouyemi-Hounto, Celestin Kouambeng, Mujahid Sheikhedin Abdin, Philippa West, Khalid Elmardi, Sylvie Cornelie, Vincent Corbel, Neena Valecha, Evan Mathenge, Luna Kamau, Jonathan Lines, Martin James Donnelly
BACKGROUND: Scale-up of insecticide-based interventions has averted more than 500 million malaria cases since 2000. Increasing insecticide resistance could herald a rebound in disease and mortality. We aimed to investigate whether insecticide resistance was associated with loss of effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets and increased malaria disease burden. METHODS: This WHO-coordinated, prospective, observational cohort study was done at 279 clusters (villages or groups of villages in which phenotypic resistance was measurable) in Benin, Cameroon, India, Kenya, and Sudan...
June 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616236/effects-of-water-quality-sanitation-handwashing-and-nutritional-interventions-on-child-development-in-rural-kenya-wash-benefits-kenya-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Christine P Stewart, Patricia Kariger, Lia Fernald, Amy J Pickering, Charles D Arnold, Benjamin F Arnold, Alan E Hubbard, Holly N Dentz, Audrie Lin, Theodora J Meerkerk, Erin Milner, Jenna Swarthout, John M Colford, Clair Null
Background: Poor nutrition and infectious diseases can prevent children from reaching their developmental potential. We aimed to assess the effects of improvements in water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition on early child development in rural Kenya. Methods: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, we enrolled pregnant women in their second or third trimester from three counties (Kakamega, Bungoma, and Vihiga) in Kenya's western region, with an average of 12 households per cluster...
April 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
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