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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338876/meeting-report-global-vaccine-and-immunization-research-forum
#1
Andrew Q Ford, Nancy Touchette, B Fenton Hall, Angela Hwang, Joachim Hombach
Building on the success of the first Global Vaccine and Immunization Research Forum (GVIRF), the World Health Organization, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health in the United States of America, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation convened the second GVIRF in March 2016. Leading scientists, vaccine developers, and public health officials from around the world discussed scientific advances and innovative technologies to design and deliver vaccines as well as novel tools and approaches to increase the uptake of vaccines throughout the world...
January 12, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304793/impact-of-the-urban-reproductive-health-initiative-on-family-planning-uptake-at-facilities-in-kenya-nigeria-and-senegal
#2
Jennifer Winston, Lisa M Calhoun, Meghan Corroon, David Guilkey, Ilene Speizer
BACKGROUND: The 2012 London Summit on Family Planning set ambitious goals to enable 120 million more women and adolescent girls to use modern contraceptives by 2020. The Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (URHI) was a Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded program designed to help contribute to these goals in urban areas in India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. URHI implemented a range of country-specific demand and supply side interventions, with supply interventions generally focused on improved service quality, provider training, outreach to patients, and commodity stock management...
January 5, 2018: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236628/outcomes-of-a-coaching-based-who-safe-childbirth-checklist-program-in-india
#3
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Katherine E A Semrau, Lisa R Hirschhorn, Megan Marx Delaney, Vinay P Singh, Rajiv Saurastri, Narender Sharma, Danielle E Tuller, Rebecca Firestone, Stuart Lipsitz, Neelam Dhingra-Kumar, Bhalachandra S Kodkany, Vishwajeet Kumar, Atul A Gawande
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of facility-based childbirth in low-resource settings has increased dramatically during the past two decades, yet gaps in the quality of care persist and mortality remains high. The World Health Organization (WHO) Safe Childbirth Checklist, a quality-improvement tool, promotes systematic adherence to practices that have been associated with improved childbirth outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a matched-pair, cluster-randomized, controlled trial in 60 pairs of facilities across 24 districts of Uttar Pradesh, India, testing the effect of the BetterBirth program, an 8-month coaching-based implementation of the Safe Childbirth Checklist, on a composite outcome of perinatal death, maternal death, or maternal severe complications within 7 days after delivery...
December 14, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229440/post-exposure-prophylaxis-with-doxycycline-to-prevent-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-an-open-label-randomised-substudy-of-the-anrs-ipergay-trial
#4
Jean-Michel Molina, Isabelle Charreau, Christian Chidiac, Gilles Pialoux, Eric Cua, Constance Delaugerre, Catherine Capitant, Daniela Rojas-Castro, Julien Fonsart, Béatrice Bercot, Cécile Bébéar, Laurent Cotte, Olivier Robineau, François Raffi, Pierre Charbonneau, Alexandre Aslan, Julie Chas, Laurence Niedbalski, Bruno Spire, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Diane Carette, Soizic Le Mestre, Veronique Doré, Laurence Meyer
BACKGROUND: Increased rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been reported among men who have sex with men. We aimed to assess whether post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with doxycycline could reduce the incidence of STIs. METHODS: All participants attending their scheduled visit in the open-label extension of the ANRS IPERGAY trial in France (men aged 18 years or older having condomless sex with men and using pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine) were eligible for inclusion in this open-label randomised study...
December 8, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226448/better-measurement-for-performance-improvement-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-the-primary-health-care-performance-initiative-phcpi-experience-of-conceptual-framework-development-and-indicator-selection
#5
Jeremy Veillard, Krycia Cowling, Asaf Bitton, Hannah Ratcliffe, Meredith Kimball, Shannon Barkley, Laure Mercereau, Ethan Wong, Chelsea Taylor, Lisa R Hirschhorn, Hong Wang
Policy Points: Strengthening accountability through better measurement and reporting is vital to ensure progress in improving quality primary health care (PHC) systems and achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) provides national decision makers and global stakeholders with opportunities to benchmark and accelerate performance improvement through better performance measurement. Results from the initial PHC performance assessments in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are helping guide PHC reforms and investments and improve the PHCPI's instruments and indicators...
December 2017: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223583/the-global-burden-of-tuberculosis-results-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#6
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: An understanding of the trends in tuberculosis incidence, prevalence, and mortality is crucial to tracking of the success of tuberculosis control programmes and identification of remaining challenges. We assessed trends in the fatal and non-fatal burden of tuberculosis over the past 25 years for 195 countries and territories. METHODS: We analysed 10 691 site-years of vital registration data, 768 site-years of verbal autopsy data, and 361 site-years of mortality surveillance data using the Cause of Death Ensemble model to estimate tuberculosis mortality rates...
December 6, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217374/modern-contraceptive-use-unmet-need-and-demand-satisfied-among-women-of-reproductive-age-who-are-married-or-in-a-union-in-the-focus-countries-of-the-family-planning-2020-initiative-a-systematic-analysis-using-the-family-planning-estimation-tool
#7
Niamh Cahill, Emily Sonneveldt, John Stover, Michelle Weinberger, Jessica Williamson, Chuchu Wei, Win Brown, Leontine Alkema
BACKGROUND: The London Summit on Family Planning in 2012 inspired the Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) initiative and the 120×20 goal of having an additional 120 million women and adolescent girls become users of modern contraceptives in 69 of the world's poorest countries by the year 2020. Working towards achieving 120 × 20 is crucial for ultimately achieving the Sustainable Development Goals of universal access and satisfying demand for reproductive health. Thus, a performance assessment is required to determine countries' progress...
December 4, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198911/xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-rifampicin-resistance-a-prospective-multicentre-diagnostic-accuracy-study
#8
Susan E Dorman, Samuel G Schumacher, David Alland, Pamela Nabeta, Derek T Armstrong, Bonnie King, Sandra L Hall, Soumitesh Chakravorty, Daniela M Cirillo, Nestani Tukvadze, Nino Bablishvili, Wendy Stevens, Lesley Scott, Camilla Rodrigues, Mubin I Kazi, Moses Joloba, Lydia Nakiyingi, Mark P Nicol, Yonas Ghebrekristos, Irene Anyango, Wilfred Murithi, Reynaldo Dietze, Renata Lyrio Peres, Alena Skrahina, Vera Auchynka, Kamal Kishore Chopra, Mahmud Hanif, Xin Liu, Xing Yuan, Catharina C Boehme, Jerrold J Ellner, Claudia M Denkinger
BACKGROUND: The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is an automated molecular test that has improved the detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance, but its sensitivity is inadequate in patients with paucibacillary disease or HIV. Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) was developed to overcome this limitation. We compared the diagnostic performance of Xpert Ultra with that of Xpert for detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. METHODS: In this prospective, multicentre, diagnostic accuracy study, we recruited adults with pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms presenting at primary health-care centres and hospitals in eight countries (South Africa, Uganda, Kenya, India, China, Georgia, Belarus, and Brazil)...
November 30, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198909/hiv-1-drug-resistance-before-initiation-or-re-initiation-of-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-regression-analysis
#9
Ravindra K Gupta, John Gregson, Neil Parkin, Hiwot Haile-Selassie, Amilcar Tanuri, Liliana Andrade Forero, Pontiano Kaleebu, Christine Watera, Avelin Aghokeng, Nicholus Mutenda, Janet Dzangare, San Hone, Zaw Zaw Hang, Judith Garcia, Zully Garcia, Paola Marchorro, Enrique Beteta, Amalia Giron, Raph Hamers, Seth Inzaule, Lisa M Frenkel, Michael H Chung, Tulio de Oliveira, Deenan Pillay, Kogie Naidoo, Ayesha Kharsany, Ruthiran Kugathasan, Teresa Cutino, Gillian Hunt, Santiago Avila Rios, Meg Doherty, Michael R Jordan, Silvia Bertagnolio
BACKGROUND: Pretreatment drug resistance in people initiating or re-initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) might compromise HIV control in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to assess the scale of this problem and whether it is associated with the intiation or re-initiation of ART in people who have had previous exposure to antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: This study was a systematic review and meta-regression analysis...
November 30, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174323/pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-13-delivered-as-one-primary-and-one-booster-dose-1%C3%A2-%C3%A2-1-compared-with-two-primary-doses-and-a-booster-2%C3%A2-%C3%A2-1-in-uk-infants-a-multicentre-parallel-group-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
David Goldblatt, Jo Southern, Nick J Andrews, Polly Burbidge, Jo Partington, Lucy Roalfe, Marta Valente Pinto, Vasilli Thalasselis, Emma Plested, Hayley Richardson, Matthew D Snape, Elizabeth Miller
BACKGROUND: Infants in the UK were first offered a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2006, given at 2 and 4 months of age and a booster dose at 13 months (2 + 1 schedule). A 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in 2010. We aimed to compare the post-booster antibody response in UK infants given a reduced priming schedule of PCV13 (ie, a 1 + 1 schedule) versus the current 2 + 1 schedule and to assess the potential effect on population protection. METHODS: In this multicentre, parallel group, randomised controlled trial, we recuited infants due to receive their primary immunisations aged up to 13 weeks on first vaccinations by information booklets mailed out via the NHS Child Health Information Service and the UK National Health Application and Infrastructure Services...
November 22, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174084/cost-effectiveness-of-public-health-policy-options-in-the-presence-of-pretreatment-nnrti-drug-resistance-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-modelling-study
#11
Andrew N Phillips, Valentina Cambiano, Fumiyo Nakagawa, Paul Revill, Michael R Jordan, Timothy B Hallett, Meg Doherty, Andrea De Luca, Jens D Lundgren, Mutsa Mhangara, Tsitsi Apollo, John Mellors, Brooke Nichols, Urvi Parikh, Deenan Pillay, Tobias Rinke de Wit, Kim Sigaloff, Diane Havlir, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Anton Pozniak, David van de Vijver, Marco Vitoria, Mark A Wainberg, Elliot Raizes, Silvia Bertagnolio
BACKGROUND: There is concern over increasing prevalence of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance in people initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low-income and middle-income countries. We assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative public health responses in countries in sub-Saharan Africa where the prevalence of pretreatment drug resistance to NNRTIs is high. METHODS: The HIV Synthesis Model is an individual-based simulation model of sexual HIV transmission, progression, and the effect of ART in adults, which is based on extensive published data sources and considers specific drugs and resistance mutations...
November 22, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167839/early-life-exposure-to-indoor-air-pollution-or-tobacco-smoke-and-lower-respiratory-tract-illness-and-wheezing-in-african-infants-a-longitudinal-birth-cohort-study
#12
Aneesa Vanker, Whitney Barnett, Lesley Workman, Polite M Nduru, Peter D Sly, Robert P Gie, Heather J Zar
Background: Indoor air pollution (IAP) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are associated with lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) or wheezing in children. However, the effect of the timing of these exposures, specifically antenatal versus postnatal, and of alternate fuel sources such as the increasingly used volatile organic compounds have not been well studied. We longitudinally investigated the effect of antenatal or postnatal IAP and ETS on LRTI or wheezing prevalence and severity in African infants...
November 2017: Lancet. Planetary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150201/nations-within-a-nation-variations-in-epidemiological-transition-across-the-states-of-india-1990-2016-in-the-global-burden-of-disease-study
#13
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: 18% of the world's population lives in India, and many states of India have populations similar to those of large countries. Action to effectively improve population health in India requires availability of reliable and comprehensive state-level estimates of disease burden and risk factors over time. Such comprehensive estimates have not been available so far for all major diseases and risk factors. Thus, we aimed to estimate the disease burden and risk factors in every state of India as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016...
November 13, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132614/early-childhood-linear-growth-faltering-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-as-a-whole-population-condition-analysis-of-179-demographic-and-health-surveys-from-64-countries-1993-2015
#14
Daniel E Roth, Aditi Krishna, Michael Leung, Joy Shi, Diego G Bassani, Aluisio J D Barros
BACKGROUND: The causes of early childhood linear growth faltering (known as stunting) in low-income and middle-income countries remain inadequately understood. We aimed to determine if the progressive postnatal decline in mean height-for-age Z score (HAZ) in low-income and middle-income countries is driven by relatively slow growth of certain high-risk children versus faltering of the entire population. METHODS: Distributions of HAZ (based on WHO growth standards) were analysed in 3-month age intervals from 0 to 36 months of age in 179 Demographic and Health Surveys from 64 low-income and middle-income countries (1993-2015)...
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132613/identification-and-management-of-shigella-infection-in-children-with-diarrhoea-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Kirkby D Tickell, Rebecca L Brander, Hannah E Atlas, Jeffrey M Pernica, Judd L Walson, Patricia B Pavlinac
BACKGROUND: Shigella infections are a leading cause of diarrhoeal death among children in low-income and middle-income countries. WHO guidelines reserve antibiotics for treating children with dysentery. Reliance on dysentery for identification and management of Shigella infection might miss an opportunity to reduce Shigella-associated morbidity and mortality. We aimed to systematically review and evaluate Shigella-associated and dysentery-associated mortality, the diagnostic value of dysentery for the identification of Shigella infection, and the efficacy of antibiotics for children with Shigella or dysentery, or both...
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126600/effect-of-treatment-delay-on-the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-antifibrinolytics-in-acute-severe-haemorrhage-a-meta-analysis-of-individual-patient-level-data-from-40%C3%A2-138-bleeding-patients
#16
Angèle Gayet-Ageron, David Prieto-Merino, Katharine Ker, Haleema Shakur, François-Xavier Ageron, Ian Roberts
BACKGROUND: Antifibrinolytics reduce death from bleeding in trauma and post-partum haemorrhage. We examined the effect of treatment delay on the effectiveness of antifibrinolytics. METHODS: We did an individual patient-level data meta-analysis of randomised trials done with more than 1000 patients that assessed antifibrinolytics in acute severe bleeding. We identified trials done between Jan 1, 1946, and April 7, 2017, from MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, PubMed, Popline, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform...
November 7, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116890/a-test-and-not-treat-strategy-for-onchocerciasis-in-loa-loa-endemic-areas
#17
Joseph Kamgno, Sébastien D Pion, Cédric B Chesnais, Matthew H Bakalar, Michael V D'Ambrosio, Charles D Mackenzie, Hugues C Nana-Djeunga, Raceline Gounoue-Kamkumo, Guy-Roger Njitchouang, Philippe Nwane, Jules B Tchatchueng-Mbouga, Samuel Wanji, Wilma A Stolk, Daniel A Fletcher, Amy D Klion, Thomas B Nutman, Michel Boussinesq
Background Implementation of an ivermectin-based community treatment strategy for the elimination of onchocerciasis or lymphatic filariasis has been delayed in Central Africa because of the occurrence of serious adverse events, including death, in persons with high levels of circulating Loa loa microfilariae. The LoaScope, a field-friendly diagnostic tool to quantify L. loa microfilariae in peripheral blood, enables rapid, point-of-care identification of persons at risk for serious adverse events. Methods A test-and-not-treat strategy was used in the approach to ivermectin treatment in the Okola health district in Cameroon, where the distribution of ivermectin was halted in 1999 after the occurrence of fatal events related to L...
November 23, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112742/getting-to-zero-new-tuberculosis-infections-insights-from-the-national-institutes-of-health-us-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-bill-melinda-gates-foundation-workshop-on-research-needs-for-halting-tuberculosis-transmission
#18
N Sarita Shah, Peter Kim, Bavesh Davandra Kana, Roxana Rustomjee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047019/challenges-for-nationwide-vaccine-delivery-in-african-countries
#19
Mario Songane
Vaccines are very effective in providing individual and community (herd) immunity against a range of diseases. In addition to protection against a range of diseases, vaccines also have social and economic benefits. However, for vaccines to be effective, routine immunization programmes must be undertaken regularly to ensure individual and community protection. Nonetheless, in many countries in Africa, vaccination coverage is low because governments struggle to deliver vaccines to the most remote areas, thus contributing to constant outbreaks of various vaccine-preventable diseases...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Health Economics and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031848/local-national-and-regional-viral-haemorrhagic-fever-pandemic-potential-in-africa-a-multistage-analysis
#20
David M Pigott, Aniruddha Deshpande, Ian Letourneau, Chloe Morozoff, Robert C Reiner, Moritz U G Kraemer, Shannon E Brent, Isaac I Bogoch, Kamran Khan, Molly H Biehl, Roy Burstein, Lucas Earl, Nancy Fullman, Jane P Messina, Adrian Q N Mylne, Catherine L Moyes, Freya M Shearer, Samir Bhatt, Oliver J Brady, Peter W Gething, Daniel J Weiss, Andrew J Tatem, Luke Caley, Tom De Groeve, Luca Vernaccini, Nick Golding, Peter Horby, Jens H Kuhn, Sandra J Laney, Edmond Ng, Peter Piot, Osman Sankoh, Christopher J L Murray, Simon I Hay
BACKGROUND: Predicting when and where pathogens will emerge is difficult, yet, as shown by the recent Ebola and Zika epidemics, effective and timely responses are key. It is therefore crucial to transition from reactive to proactive responses for these pathogens. To better identify priorities for outbreak mitigation and prevention, we developed a cohesive framework combining disparate methods and data sources, and assessed subnational pandemic potential for four viral haemorrhagic fevers in Africa, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Ebola virus disease, Lassa fever, and Marburg virus disease...
December 16, 2017: Lancet
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