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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753354/the-development-of-the-guide-to-economic-analysis-and-research-gear-online-resource-for-low-and-middle-income-countries-health-economics-practitioners-a-commentary
#1
Chiaki Urai Adeagbo, Waranya Rattanavipapong, Lorna Guinness, Yot Teerawattananon
Public health authorities around the world are increasingly using economic evaluation to set priorities and inform decision making in health policy, especially in the development of health benefit packages. Nevertheless, researchers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) encounter many barriers when conducting economic evaluations. In 2015, the Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program identified key technical and context-specific challenges faced in conducting and using health economic evaluations in LMICs...
May 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732397/causes-of-death-among-children-aged-5-14-years-in-the-who-european-region-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#2
Hmwe H Kyu, Claudia E Stein, Cynthia Boschi Pinto, Ivo Rakovac, Martin W Weber, Tina Dannemann Purnat, Joseph E Amuah, Scott D Glenn, Kelly Cercy, Stan Biryukov, Audra L Gold, Adrienne Chew, Meghan D Mooney, Kevin F O'Rourke, Amber Sligar, Christopher J L Murray, Ali H Mokdad, Mohsen Naghavi
Background: The mortality burden in children aged 5-14 years in the WHO European Region has not been comprehensively studied. We assessed the distribution and trends of the main causes of death among children aged 5-9 years and 10-14 years from 1990 to 2016, for 51 countries in the WHO European Region. Methods: We used data from vital registration systems, cancer registries, and police records from 1980 to 2016 to estimate cause-specific mortality using the Cause of Death Ensemble model...
May 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725148/design-and-commissioning-of-a-multi-mode-prototype-for-thermochemical-conversion-of-human-faeces
#3
Nelia Jurado, Tosin Somorin, Athanasios J Kolios, Stuart Wagland, Kumar Patchigolla, Beatriz Fidalgo, Alison Parker, Ewan McAdam, Leon Williams, Sean Tyrrel
This article describes the design and commissioning of a micro-combustor for energy recovery from human faeces, which can operate both in updraft and downdraft modes. Energy recovery from faecal matter via thermochemical conversion has recently been identified as a feasible solution for sanitation problems in low income countries and locations of high income countries where access to sewage infrastructures is difficult or not possible. This technology can be applied to waterless toilets with the additional outcome of generating heat and power that can be used to pre-treat the faeces before their combustion and to ensure that the entire system is self-sustaining...
May 1, 2018: Energy Conversion and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703707/reliability-of-hiv-rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-self-testing-compared-with-testing-by-health-care-workers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Carmen Figueroa, Cheryl Johnson, Nathan Ford, Anita Sands, Shona Dalal, Robyn Meurant, Irena Prat, Karin Hatzold, Willy Urassa, Rachel Baggaley
BACKGROUND: The ability of individuals to use HIV self-tests correctly is debated. To inform the 2016 WHO recommendation on HIV self-testing, we assessed the reliability and performance of HIV rapid diagnostic tests when used by self-testers. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, PopLine, and Embase, conference abstracts, and additional grey literature between Jan 1, 1995, and April 30, 2016, for observational and experimental studies reporting on HIV self-testing performance...
April 24, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703425/effect-of-generalised-access-to-early-diagnosis-and-treatment-and-targeted-mass-drug-administration-on-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-eastern-myanmar-an-observational-study-of-a-regional-elimination-programme
#5
Jordi Landier, Daniel M Parker, Aung Myint Thu, Khin Maung Lwin, Gilles Delmas, François H Nosten
BACKGROUND: Potentially untreatable Plasmodium falciparum malaria threatens the Greater Mekong subregion. A previous series of pilot projects in Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam suggested that mass drug administration was safe, and when added to provision of early diagnosis and treatment, could reduce the reservoir of P falciparum and interrupts transmission. We examined the effects of a scaled-up programme of this strategy in four townships of eastern Myanmar on the incidence of P falciparum malaria...
April 24, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700850/using-data-from-multiple-studies-to-develop-a-child-growth-correlation-matrix
#6
Craig Anderson, Luo Xiao, William Checkley
In many countries, the monitoring of child growth does not occur in a regular manner, and instead, we may have to rely on sporadic observations that are subject to substantial measurement error. In these countries, it can be difficult to identify patterns of poor growth, and faltering children may miss out on essential health interventions. The contribution of this paper is to provide a framework for pooling together multiple datasets, thus allowing us to overcome the issue of sparse data and provide improved estimates of growth...
April 26, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694816/azithromycin-to-reduce-childhood-mortality-in-sub-saharan-africa
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jeremy D Keenan, Robin L Bailey, Sheila K West, Ahmed M Arzika, John Hart, Jerusha Weaver, Khumbo Kalua, Zakayo Mrango, Kathryn J Ray, Catherine Cook, Elodie Lebas, Kieran S O'Brien, Paul M Emerson, Travis C Porco, Thomas M Lietman
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that mass distribution of a broad-spectrum antibiotic agent to preschool children would reduce mortality in areas of sub-Saharan Africa that are currently far from meeting the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. METHODS: In this cluster-randomized trial, we assigned communities in Malawi, Niger, and Tanzania to four twice-yearly mass distributions of either oral azithromycin (approximately 20 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo...
April 26, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678342/spending-on-health-and-hiv-aids-domestic-health-spending-and-development-assistance-in-188-countries-1995-2015
#8
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Comparable estimates of health spending are crucial for the assessment of health systems and to optimally deploy health resources. The methods used to track health spending continue to evolve, but little is known about the distribution of spending across diseases. We developed improved estimates of health spending by source, including development assistance for health, and, for the first time, estimated HIV/AIDS spending on prevention and treatment and by source of funding, for 188 countries...
April 17, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678341/trends-in-future-health-financing-and-coverage-future-health-spending-and-universal-health-coverage-in-188-countries-2016-40
#9
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) requires health financing systems that provide prepaid pooled resources for key health services without placing undue financial stress on households. Understanding current and future trajectories of health financing is vital for progress towards UHC. We used historical health financing data for 188 countries from 1995 to 2015 to estimate future scenarios of health spending and pooled health spending through to 2040. METHODS: We extracted historical data on gross domestic product (GDP) and health spending for 188 countries from 1995 to 2015, and projected annual GDP, development assistance for health, and government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private health spending from 2015 through to 2040 as a reference scenario...
April 17, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650424/implications-of-insecticide-resistance-for-malaria-vector-control-with-long-lasting-insecticidal-nets-a-who-coordinated-prospective-international-observational-cohort-study
#10
Immo Kleinschmidt, John Bradley, Tessa Bellamy Knox, Abraham Peter Mnzava, Hmooda Toto Kafy, Charles Mbogo, Bashir Adam Ismail, Jude D Bigoga, Alioun Adechoubou, Kamaraju Raghavendra, Jackie Cook, Elfatih M Malik, Zinga José Nkuni, Michael Macdonald, Nabie Bayoh, Eric Ochomo, Etienne Fondjo, Herman Parfait Awono-Ambene, Josiane Etang, Martin Akogbeto, Rajendra M Bhatt, Mehul Kumar Chourasia, Dipak K Swain, Teresa Kinyari, Krishanthi Subramaniam, Achille Massougbodji, Mariam Okê-Sopoh, Aurore Ogouyemi-Hounto, Celestin Kouambeng, Mujahid Sheikhedin Abdin, Philippa West, Khalid Elmardi, Sylvie Cornelie, Vincent Corbel, Neena Valecha, Evan Mathenge, Luna Kamau, Jonathan Lines, Martin James Donnelly
BACKGROUND: Scale-up of insecticide-based interventions has averted more than 500 million malaria cases since 2000. Increasing insecticide resistance could herald a rebound in disease and mortality. We aimed to investigate whether insecticide resistance was associated with loss of effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets and increased malaria disease burden. METHODS: This WHO-coordinated, prospective, observational cohort study was done at 279 clusters (villages or groups of villages in which phenotypic resistance was measurable) in Benin, Cameroon, India, Kenya, and Sudan...
April 9, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616236/effects-of-water-quality-sanitation-handwashing-and-nutritional-interventions-on-child-development-in-rural-kenya-wash-benefits-kenya-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Christine P Stewart, Patricia Kariger, Lia Fernald, Amy J Pickering, Charles D Arnold, Benjamin F Arnold, Alan E Hubbard, Holly N Dentz, Audrie Lin, Theodora J Meerkerk, Erin Milner, Jenna Swarthout, John M Colford, Clair Null
Background: Poor nutrition and infectious diseases can prevent children from reaching their developmental potential. We aimed to assess the effects of improvements in water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition on early child development in rural Kenya. Methods: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, we enrolled pregnant women in their second or third trimester from three counties (Kakamega, Bungoma, and Vihiga) in Kenya's western region, with an average of 12 households per cluster...
April 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616235/effect-of-water-quality-sanitation-hand-washing-and-nutritional-interventions-on-child-development-in-rural-bangladesh-wash-benefits-bangladesh-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Fahmida Tofail, Lia Ch Fernald, Kishor K Das, Mahbubur Rahman, Tahmeed Ahmed, Kaniz K Jannat, Leanne Unicomb, Benjamin F Arnold, Sania Ashraf, Peter J Winch, Patricia Kariger, Christine P Stewart, John M Colford, Stephen P Luby
Background: Poor nutrition and hygiene make children vulnerable to delays in growth and development. We aimed to assess the effects of water quality, sanitation, handwashing, and nutritional interventions individually or in combination on the cognitive, motor, and language development of children in rural Bangladesh. Methods: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, we enrolled pregnant women in their first or second trimester from rural villages of Gazipur, Kishoreganj, Mymensingh, and Tangail districts of central Bangladesh, with an average of eight women per cluster...
April 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615240/rapid-improvements-to-rural-ugandan-housing-and-their-association-with-malaria-from-intense-to-reduced-transmission-a-cohort-study
#13
John C Rek, Victor Alegana, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Ewan Cameron, Moses R Kamya, Agaba Katureebe, Steve W Lindsay, Maxwell Kilama, Sarah G Staedke, Jim Todd, Grant Dorsey, Lucy S Tusting
BACKGROUND: Rapid population growth in Africa requires an urgent expansion and improvement of housing options. Improving housing presents a promising opportunity for malaria control by reducing indoor exposure to mosquitoes. We measured recent changes in house design in rural Uganda and evaluated their association with malaria in relation to a mass scale-up of control efforts. METHODS: This analysis was part of a cohort study designed to compare temporal changes in malaria incidence from a cohort of children and adults with temporal changes in malaria test positivity rate from health facility surveillance...
February 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574065/genetic-sequencing-for-surveillance-of-drug-resistance-in-tuberculosis-in-highly-endemic-countries-a-multi-country-population-based-surveillance-study
#14
Matteo Zignol, Andrea Maurizio Cabibbe, Anna S Dean, Philippe Glaziou, Natavan Alikhanova, Cecilia Ama, Sönke Andres, Anna Barbova, Angeli Borbe-Reyes, Daniel P Chin, Daniela Maria Cirillo, Charlotte Colvin, Andrei Dadu, Andries Dreyer, Michèle Driesen, Christopher Gilpin, Rumina Hasan, Zahra Hasan, Sven Hoffner, Alamdar Hussain, Nazir Ismail, S M Mostofa Kamal, Faisal Masood Khanzada, Michael Kimerling, Thomas Andreas Kohl, Mikael Mansjö, Paolo Miotto, Ya Diul Mukadi, Lindiwe Mvusi, Stefan Niemann, Shaheed V Omar, Leen Rigouts, Marco Schito, Ivita Sela, Mehriban Seyfaddinova, Girts Skenders, Alena Skrahina, Sabira Tahseen, William A Wells, Alexander Zhurilo, Karin Weyer, Katherine Floyd, Mario C Raviglione
BACKGROUND: In many countries, regular monitoring of the emergence of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs is hampered by the limitations of phenotypic testing for drug susceptibility. We therefore evaluated the use of genetic sequencing for surveillance of drug resistance in tuberculosis. METHODS: Population-level surveys were done in hospitals and clinics in seven countries (Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa, and Ukraine) to evaluate the use of genetic sequencing to estimate the resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to rifampicin, isoniazid, ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, pyrazinamide, kanamycin, amikacin, and capreomycin...
March 21, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553146/defining-success-in-open-science
#15
Sarah E Ali-Khan, Antoine Jean, Emily MacDonald, E Richard Gold
Mounting evidence indicates that worldwide, innovation systems are increasing unsustainable. Equally, concerns about inequities in the science and innovation process, and in access to its benefits, continue. Against a backdrop of growing health, economic and scientific challenges global stakeholders are urgently seeking to spur innovation and maximize the just distribution of benefits for all. Open Science collaboration (OS) - comprising a variety of approaches to increase open, public, and rapid mobilization of scientific knowledge - is seen to be one of the most promising ways forward...
2018: MNI open research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550406/efficacy-of-a-single-dose-regimen-of-inactivated-whole-cell-oral-cholera-vaccine-results-from-2-years-of-follow-up-of-a-randomised-trial
#16
Firdausi Qadri, Mohammad Ali, Julia Lynch, Fahima Chowdhury, Ashraful Islam Khan, Thomas F Wierzba, Jean-Louis Excler, Amit Saha, Md Taufiqul Islam, Yasmin A Begum, Taufiqur R Bhuiyan, Farhana Khanam, Mohiul I Chowdhury, Iqbal Ansary Khan, Alamgir Kabir, Baizid Khoorshid Riaz, Afroza Akter, Arifuzzaman Khan, Muhammad Asaduzzaman, Deok Ryun Kim, Ashraf U Siddik, Nirod C Saha, Alejandro Cravioto, Ajit P Singh, John D Clemens
BACKGROUND: A single-dose regimen of inactivated whole-cell oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is attractive because it reduces logistical challenges for vaccination and could enable more people to be vaccinated. Previously, we reported the efficacy of a single dose of an OCV vaccine during the 6 months following dosing. Herein, we report the results of 2 years of follow-up. METHODS: In this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial done in Dhaka, Bangladesh, individuals aged 1 year or older with no history of receipt of OCV were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of inactivated OCV or oral placebo...
March 14, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502905/mapping-the-burden-of-cholera-in-sub-saharan-africa-and-implications-for-control-an-analysis-of-data-across-geographical-scales
#17
Justin Lessler, Sean M Moore, Francisco J Luquero, Heather S McKay, Rebecca Grais, Myriam Henkens, Martin Mengel, Jessica Dunoyer, Maurice M'bangombe, Elizabeth C Lee, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey, Bertrand Sudre, Didier Bompangue, Robert S M Fraser, Abdinasir Abubakar, William Perea, Dominique Legros, Andrew S Azman
BACKGROUND: Cholera remains a persistent health problem in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. Cholera can be controlled through appropriate water and sanitation, or by oral cholera vaccination, which provides transient (∼3 years) protection, although vaccine supplies remain scarce. We aimed to map cholera burden in sub-Saharan Africa and assess how geographical targeting could lead to more efficient interventions. METHODS: We combined information on cholera incidence in sub-Saharan Africa (excluding Djibouti and Eritrea) from 2010 to 2016 from datasets from WHO, Médecins Sans Frontières, ProMED, ReliefWeb, ministries of health, and the scientific literature...
March 1, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498187/cervical-dilatation-over-time-is-a-poor-predictor-of-severe-adverse-birth-outcomes-a-diagnostic-accuracy-study
#18
J P Souza, O T Oladapo, B Fawole, K Mugerwa, R Reis, F Barbosa-Junior, L Oliveira-Ciabati, D Alves, A M Gülmezoglu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of the World Health Organization (WHO) partograph alert line and other candidate predictors in the identification of women at risk of developing severe adverse birth outcomes. DESIGN: A facility-based, multicentre, prospective cohort study. SETTING: Thirteen maternity hospitals located in Nigeria and Uganda. POPULATION: A total of 9995 women with spontaneous onset of labour presenting at cervical dilatation of ≤6 cm or undergoing induction of labour...
March 2, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490875/migration-and-risk-of-hiv-acquisition-in-rakai-uganda-a-population-based-cohort-study
#19
Oluwasolape Olawore, Aaron A R Tobian, Joseph Kagaayi, Jeremiah M Bazaale, Betty Nantume, Grace Kigozi, Justine Nankinga, Fred Nalugoda, Gertrude Nakigozi, Godfrey Kigozi, Ronald H Gray, Maria J Wawer, Robert Ssekubugu, John S Santelli, Steven J Reynolds, Larry W Chang, David Serwadda, Mary K Grabowski
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, migrants typically have higher HIV prevalence than non-migrants; however, whether HIV acquisition typically precedes or follows migration is unknown. We aimed to investigate the risk of HIV after migration in Rakai District, Uganda. METHODS: In a prospective population-based cohort of HIV-negative participants aged 15-49 years in Rakai, Uganda, between April 6, 1999, and Jan 30, 2015, we assessed the association between migration and HIV acquisition...
April 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474934/design-and-statistical-considerations-for-studies-evaluating-the-efficacy-of-a-single-dose-of-the-human-papillomavirus-hpv-vaccine
#20
Joshua N Sampson, Allan Hildesheim, Rolando Herrero, Paula Gonzalez, Aimee R Kreimer, Mitchell H Gail
Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 cause about 70% of all cervical cancers. Clinical trials have demonstrated that three doses of either commercially available HPV vaccine, Cervarix ® or Gardasil ®, prevent most new HPV 16/18 infections and associated precancerous lesions. Based on evidence of immunological non-inferiority, 2-dose regimens have been licensed for adolescents in the United States, European Union, and elsewhere...
May 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
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