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Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884709/seeing-beyond-2020-an-economic-evaluation-of-contemporary-and-emerging-strategies-for-elimination-of-trypanosoma-brucei-gambiense
#1
C Simone Sutherland, Christopher M Stone, Peter Steinmann, Marcel Tanner, Fabrizio Tediosi
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma brucei (T b) gambiense is targeted to reach elimination as a public health problem by 2020 and full elimination by 2030. To achieve these goals, stakeholders need to consider strategies to accelerate elimination. Hence, we aimed to model several options related to current and emerging methods for case detection, treatment, and vector control across settings to assess cost-effectiveness and the probability of elimination. METHODS: Five intervention strategies were modelled over 30 years for low, moderate, and high transmission settings...
November 21, 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865890/safety-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-repeated-doses-of-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-malaria-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Julie Gutman, Stephanie Kovacs, Grant Dorsey, Andy Stergachis, Feiko O Ter Kuile
BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for malaria is used in infants, children, adults, and pregnant women. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is an effective, well tolerated artemisinin-based combination therapy. The long half-life of piperaquine makes it attractive for IPT. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to establish the efficacy and safety of repeated treatment with DP. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched multiple databases on Sept 1, 2016, with the terms: "human" AND "dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine" OR "DHA-PPQ"...
November 16, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857449/an-experimental-investigation-of-the-combustion-performance-of-human-faeces
#3
Tosin Onabanjo, Athanasios J Kolios, Kumar Patchigolla, Stuart T Wagland, Beatriz Fidalgo, Nelia Jurado, Dawid P Hanak, Vasilije Manovic, Alison Parker, Ewan McAdam, Leon Williams, Sean Tyrrel, Elise Cartmell
Poor sanitation is one of the major hindrances to the global sustainable development goals. The Reinvent the Toilet Challenge of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is set to develop affordable, next-generation sanitary systems that can ensure safe treatment and wide accessibility without compromise on sustainable use of natural resources and the environment. Energy recovery from human excreta is likely to be a cornerstone of future sustainable sanitary systems. Faeces combustion was investigated using a bench-scale downdraft combustor test rig, alongside with wood biomass and simulant faeces...
November 15, 2016: Fuel
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855873/household-transmission-of-neisseria-meningitidis-in-the-african-meningitis-belt-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#4
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Information on transmission of meningococcal infection in the African meningitis belt is scarce. We aimed to describe transmission patterns of Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) in households in the African meningitis belt. METHODS: Cross-sectional carriage surveys were done in seven African meningitis belt countries (Chad, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal) between Aug 1, 2010, and Oct 15, 2012. Meningococcal carriers identified in these surveys and all available people in their households were recruited into this longitudinal cohort study...
December 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852523/anemia-offers-stronger-protection-than-sickle-cell-trait-against-the-erythrocytic-stage-of-falciparum-malaria-and-this-protection-is-reversed-by-iron-supplementation
#5
M M Goheen, R Wegmüller, A Bah, B Darboe, E Danso, M Affara, D Gardner, J C Patel, A M Prentice, C Cerami
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency causes long-term adverse consequences for children and is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. Observational studies suggest that iron deficiency anemia protects against Plasmodiumfalciparum malaria and several intervention trials have indicated that iron supplementation increases malaria risk through unknown mechanism(s). This poses a major challenge for health policy. We investigated how anemia inhibits blood stage malaria infection and how iron supplementation abrogates this protection...
November 9, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818095/genetic-markers-associated-with-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-failure-in-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-cambodia-a-genotype-phenotype-association-study
#6
Roberto Amato, Pharath Lim, Olivo Miotto, Chanaki Amaratunga, Dalin Dek, Richard D Pearson, Jacob Almagro-Garcia, Aaron T Neal, Sokunthea Sreng, Seila Suon, Eleanor Drury, Dushyanth Jyothi, Jim Stalker, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, Rick M Fairhurst
BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria increases in the Greater Mekong subregion, emerging resistance to partner drugs in artemisinin combination therapies seriously threatens global efforts to treat and eliminate this disease. Molecular markers that predict failure of artemisinin combination therapy are urgently needed to monitor the spread of partner drug resistance, and to recommend alternative treatments in southeast Asia and beyond. METHODS: We did a genome-wide association study of 297 P falciparum isolates from Cambodia to investigate the relationship of 11 630 exonic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 43 copy number variations (CNVs) with in-vitro piperaquine 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s), and tested whether these genetic variants are markers of treatment failure with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine...
November 3, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793073/private-actors-global-health-and-learning-the-lessons-of-history
#7
Jeremy Youde
Private business and philanthropic organizations have played a prominent role in the response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the support of global health governance more broadly. While this involvement may appear to be novel or unprecedented, this article argues that this active role for private actors and philanthropies actually mirrors the historical experience of cross-border health governance in the first half of the twentieth century. By examining the experiences, roles and criticisms of the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, it is possible to identify potential opportunities for better cooperation between public and private actors in global health governance...
October 28, 2016: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777030/the-geography-of-imported-malaria-to-non-endemic-countries-a-meta-analysis-of-nationally-reported-statistics
#8
Andrew J Tatem, Peng Jia, Dariya Ordanovich, Michael Falkner, Zhuojie Huang, Rosalind Howes, Simon I Hay, Peter W Gething, David L Smith
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a problem for many countries classified as malaria free through cases imported from endemic regions. Imported cases to non-endemic countries often result in delays in diagnosis, are expensive to treat, and can sometimes cause secondary local transmission. The movement of malaria in endemic countries has also contributed to the spread of drug resistance and threatens long-term eradication goals. Here we focused on quantifying the international movements of malaria to improve our understanding of these phenomena and facilitate the design of mitigation strategies...
October 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771231/evaluating-strategies-to-improve-hiv-care-outcomes-in-kenya-a-modelling-study
#9
Jack J Olney, Paula Braitstein, Jeffrey W Eaton, Edwin Sang, Monicah Nyambura, Sylvester Kimaiyo, Ellen McRobie, Joseph W Hogan, Timothy B Hallett
BACKGROUND: With expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV mortality has decreased, yet life-years are still lost to AIDS. Strengthening of treatment programmes is a priority. We examined the state of an HIV care programme in Kenya and assessed interventions to improve the impact of ART programmes on population health. METHODS: We created an individual-based mathematical model to describe the HIV epidemic and the experiences of care among adults infected with HIV in Kenya...
December 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760489/geneva-seattle-collaboration-in-support-of-developing-country-vaccine-manufacturing
#10
Michael A Stevenson
Vaccines were once produced almost exclusively by state-supported entities. While they remain essential tools for public health protection, the majority of the world's governments have allowed industry to assume responsibility for this function. This is significant because while the international harmonisation of quality assurance standards have effectively increased vaccine safety, they have also reduced the number of developing country vaccine producers, and Northern multinational pharmaceutical companies have shown little interest in offering the range of low-priced products needed in low and middle-income-country contexts...
October 19, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746226/efficacy-of-a-russian-backbone-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-among-young-children-in-bangladesh-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
W Abdullah Brooks, K Zaman, Kristen D C Lewis, Justin R Ortiz, Doli Goswami, Jodi Feser, Amina Tahia Sharmeen, Kamrun Nahar, Mustafizur Rahman, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Burc Barin, Muhammad Yunus, Alicia M Fry, Joseph Bresee, Tasnim Azim, Kathleen M Neuzil
BACKGROUND: The rates of influenza illness and associated complications are high among children in Bangladesh. We assessed the clinical efficacy and safety of a Russian-backbone live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) at two field sites in Bangladesh. METHODS: Between Feb 27 and April 9, 2013, children aged 2-4 years in urban Kamalapur and rural Matlab, Bangladesh, were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio, according to a computer-generated schedule, to receive one intranasal dose of LAIV or placebo...
December 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746224/efficacy-of-a-russian-backbone-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-among-children-in-senegal-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#12
John C Victor, Kristen D C Lewis, Aldiouma Diallo, Mbayame N Niang, Bou Diarra, Ndongo Dia, Justin R Ortiz, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Jodi Feser, Rebecca Hoagland, Shannon L Emery, Kathryn E Lafond, Kathleen M Neuzil
BACKGROUND: Live attenuated influenza vaccines have been shown to significantly reduce influenza in diverse populations of children, but no efficacy studies have been done in resource-poor tropical settings. In Senegal, we assessed the efficacy and safety of a live attenuated influenza vaccine based on Russian-derived master donor viruses and licensed as a single dose. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, single-centre trial done near Niakhar, Senegal, generally healthy children aged 2-5 years were randomly allocated (2:1) to receive a single intranasal dose of masked trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine or placebo...
December 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733286/global-regional-and-national-levels-of-maternal-mortality-1990-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#13
COMMENT
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: In transitioning from the Millennium Development Goal to the Sustainable Development Goal era, it is imperative to comprehensively assess progress toward reducing maternal mortality to identify areas of success, remaining challenges, and frame policy discussions. We aimed to quantify maternal mortality throughout the world by underlying cause and age from 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We estimated maternal mortality at the global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2015 for ages 10-54 years by systematically compiling and processing all available data sources from 186 of 195 countries and territories, 11 of which were analysed at the subnational level...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733285/global-regional-national-and-selected-subnational-levels-of-stillbirths-neonatal-infant-and-under-5-mortality-1980-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#14
COMMENT
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Established in 2000, Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) catalysed extraordinary political, financial, and social commitments to reduce under-5 mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. At the country level, the pace of progress in improving child survival has varied markedly, highlighting a crucial need to further examine potential drivers of accelerated or slowed decreases in child mortality. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides an analytical framework to comprehensively assess these trends for under-5 mortality, age-specific and cause-specific mortality among children under 5 years, and stillbirths by geography over time...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733284/global-regional-and-national-comparative-risk-assessment-of-79-behavioural-environmental-and-occupational-and-metabolic-risks-or-clusters-of-risks-1990-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and subnational assessments spanning the past 25 years, this study can inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. METHODS: We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate attributable deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and trends in exposure by age group, sex, year, and geography for 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733283/global-regional-and-national-disability-adjusted-life-years-dalys-for-315-diseases-and-injuries-and-healthy-life-expectancy-hale-1990-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#16
COMMENT
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and monitor progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aimed to provide updated HALE and DALYs for geographies worldwide and evaluate how disease burden changes with development...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733282/global-regional-and-national-incidence-prevalence-and-years-lived-with-disability-for-310-diseases-and-injuries-1990-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#17
COMMENT
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733281/global-regional-and-national-life-expectancy-all-cause-mortality-and-cause-specific-mortality-for-249-causes-of-death-1980-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#18
COMMENT
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723434/mapping-plasmodium-falciparum-mortality-in-africa-between-1990-and-2015
#19
Peter W Gething, Daniel C Casey, Daniel J Weiss, Donal Bisanzio, Samir Bhatt, Ewan Cameron, Katherine E Battle, Ursula Dalrymple, Jennifer Rozier, Puja C Rao, Michael J Kutz, Ryan M Barber, Chantal Huynh, Katya A Shackelford, Matthew M Coates, Grant Nguyen, Maya S Fraser, Rachel Kulikoff, Haidong Wang, Mohsen Naghavi, David L Smith, Christopher J L Murray, Simon I Hay, Stephen S Lim
Background Malaria control has not been routinely informed by the assessment of subnational variation in malaria deaths. We combined data from the Malaria Atlas Project and the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate malaria mortality across sub-Saharan Africa on a grid of 5 km(2) from 1990 through 2015. Methods We estimated malaria mortality using a spatiotemporal modeling framework of geolocated data (i.e., with known latitude and longitude) on the clinical incidence of malaria, coverage of antimalarial drug treatment, case fatality rate, and population distribution according to age...
October 10, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720689/cost-effectiveness-and-resource-implications-of-aggressive-action-on-tuberculosis-in-china-india-and-south-africa-a-combined-analysis-of-nine-models
#20
Nicolas A Menzies, Gabriela B Gomez, Fiammetta Bozzani, Susmita Chatterjee, Nicola Foster, Ines Garcia Baena, Yoko V Laurence, Sun Qiang, Andrew Siroka, Sedona Sweeney, Stéphane Verguet, Nimalan Arinaminpathy, Andrew S Azman, Eran Bendavid, Stewart T Chang, Ted Cohen, Justin T Denholm, David W Dowdy, Philip A Eckhoff, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert, Andreas Handel, Grace H Huynh, Marek Lalli, Hsien-Ho Lin, Sandip Mandal, Emma S McBryde, Surabhi Pandey, Joshua A Salomon, Sze-Chuan Suen, Tom Sumner, James M Trauer, Bradley G Wagner, Christopher C Whalen, Chieh-Yin Wu, Delia Boccia, Vineet K Chadha, Salome Charalambous, Daniel P Chin, Gavin Churchyard, Colleen Daniels, Puneet Dewan, Lucica Ditiu, Jeffrey W Eaton, Alison D Grant, Piotr Hippner, Mehran Hosseini, David Mametja, Carel Pretorius, Yogan Pillay, Kiran Rade, Suvanand Sahu, Lixia Wang, Rein M G J Houben, Michael E Kimerling, Richard G White, Anna Vassall
BACKGROUND: The post-2015 End TB Strategy sets global targets of reducing tuberculosis incidence by 50% and mortality by 75% by 2025. We aimed to assess resource requirements and cost-effectiveness of strategies to achieve these targets in China, India, and South Africa. METHODS: We examined intervention scenarios developed in consultation with country stakeholders, which scaled up existing interventions to high but feasible coverage by 2025. Nine independent modelling groups collaborated to estimate policy outcomes, and we estimated the cost of each scenario by synthesising service use estimates, empirical cost data, and expert opinion on implementation strategies...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
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