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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330812/molecular-evidence-for-differential-long-term-outcomes-of-early-life-severe-acute-malnutrition
#1
Allan Sheppard, Sherry Ngo, Xiaoling Li, Michael Boyne, Debbie Thompson, Anthony Pleasants, Peter Gluckman, Terrence Forrester
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in infants may present as one of two distinct syndromic forms: non-edematous (marasmus), with severe wasting and no nutritional edema; or edematous (kwashiorkor) with moderately severe wasting. These differences may be related to developmental changes prior to the exposure to SAM and phenotypic changes appear to persist into adulthood with differences between the two groups. We examined whether the different response to SAM and subsequent trajectories may be explained by developmentally-induced epigenetic differences...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298279/the-potential-impact-of-animal-science-research-on-global-maternal-and-child-nutrition-and-health-a-landscape-review
#2
REVIEW
Jack Odle, Sheila K Jacobi, R Dean Boyd, Dale E Bauman, Russell V Anthony, Fuller W Bazer, Adam L Lock, Andrew C Serazin
High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low-income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288747/mobile-phone-delivered-reminders-and-incentives-to-improve-childhood-immunisation-coverage-and-timeliness-in-kenya-m-simu-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Dustin G Gibson, Benard Ochieng, E Wangeci Kagucia, Joyce Were, Kyla Hayford, Lawrence H Moulton, Orin S Levine, Frank Odhiambo, Katherine L O'Brien, Daniel R Feikin
BACKGROUND: As mobile phone access continues to expand globally, opportunities exist to leverage these technologies to support demand for immunisation services and improve vaccine coverage. We aimed to assess whether short message service (SMS) reminders and monetary incentives can improve immunisation uptake in Kenya. METHODS: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, villages were randomly and evenly allocated to four groups: control, SMS only, SMS plus a 75 Kenya Shilling (KES) incentive, and SMS plus 200 KES (85 KES = USD$1)...
April 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214093/educating-religious-leaders-to-promote-uptake-of-male-circumcision-in-tanzania-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#4
Jennifer A Downs, Agrey H Mwakisole, Alphonce B Chandika, Shibide Lugoba, Rehema Kassim, Evarist Laizer, Kinanga A Magambo, Myung Hee Lee, Samuel E Kalluvya, David J Downs, Daniel W Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Male circumcision is being widely deployed as an HIV prevention strategy in countries with high HIV incidence, but its uptake in sub-Saharan Africa has been below targets. We did a study to establish whether educating religious leaders about male circumcision would increase uptake in their village. METHODS: In this cluster randomised trial in northwest Tanzania, eligible villages were paired by proximity (<60 km) and the time that a free male circumcision outreach campaign from the Tanzanian Ministry of Health became available in their village...
March 18, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193400/levels-and-trends-in-contraceptive-prevalence-unmet-need-and-demand-for-family-planning-for-29-states-and-union-territories-in-india-a-modelling-study-using-the-family-planning-estimation-tool
#5
Jin Rou New, Niamh Cahill, John Stover, Yogender Pal Gupta, Leontine Alkema
BACKGROUND: Improving access to reproductive health services and commodities is central to development. Efforts to assess progress on this front have been largely focused on national estimates, but such analyses can mask local disparities. We assessed progress in reproductive health services subnationally in India. METHODS: We developed a statistical model to generate estimates and projections of levels and trends in family planning indicators for subpopulations...
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193398/incidence-of-invasive-salmonella-disease-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multicentre-population-based-surveillance-study
#6
Florian Marks, Vera von Kalckreuth, Peter Aaby, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Muna Ahmed El Tayeb, Mohammad Ali, Abraham Aseffa, Stephen Baker, Holly M Biggs, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Robert F Breiman, James I Campbell, Leonard Cosmas, John A Crump, Ligia Maria Cruz Espinoza, Jessica Fung Deerin, Denise Myriam Dekker, Barry S Fields, Nagla Gasmelseed, Julian T Hertz, Nguyen Van Minh Hoang, Justin Im, Anna Jaeger, Hyon Jin Jeon, Leon Parfait Kabore, Karen H Keddy, Frank Konings, Ralf Krumkamp, Benedikt Ley, Sandra Valborg Løfberg, Jürgen May, Christian G Meyer, Eric D Mintz, Joel M Montgomery, Aissatou Ahmet Niang, Chelsea Nichols, Beatrice Olack, Gi Deok Pak, Ursula Panzner, Jin Kyung Park, Se Eun Park, Henintsoa Rabezanahary, Raphaël Rakotozandrindrainy, Tiana Mirana Raminosoa, Tsiriniaina Jean Luco Razafindrabe, Emmanuel Sampo, Heidi Schütt-Gerowitt, Amy Gassama Sow, Nimako Sarpong, Hye Jin Seo, Arvinda Sooka, Abdramane Bassiahi Soura, Adama Tall, Mekonnen Teferi, Kamala Thriemer, Michelle R Warren, Biruk Yeshitela, John D Clemens, Thomas F Wierzba
BACKGROUND: Available incidence data for invasive salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Standardised, multicountry data are required to better understand the nature and burden of disease in Africa. We aimed to measure the adjusted incidence estimates of typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the causative agents. METHODS: We established a systematic, standardised surveillance of blood culture-based febrile illness in 13 African sentinel sites with previous reports of typhoid fever: Burkina Faso (two sites), Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar (two sites), Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania (two sites)...
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177954/global-immunizations-health-promotion-and-disease-prevention-worldwide
#7
Janelle L B Macintosh, Lacey M Eden, Karlen E Luthy, Aimee E Schouten
BACKGROUND: Immunizations are one of the most important health interventions of the 20th century, yet people in many areas of the world do not receive adequate immunizations. Approximately 3 million people worldwide die every year from vaccine-preventable diseases; about half of these deaths are young children and infants. Global travel is more common; diseases that were once localized now can be found in communities around the world. PROBLEM: Multiple barriers to immunizations have been identified...
February 7, 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161570/safety-of-a-killed-oral-cholera-vaccine-shanchol-in-pregnant-women-in-malawi-an-observational-cohort-study
#8
Mohammad Ali, Allyson Nelson, Francisco J Luquero, Andrew S Azman, Amanda K Debes, Maurice Mwesawina M'bang'ombe, Linly Seyama, Evans Kachale, Kingsley Zuze, Desire Malichi, Fatima Zulu, Kelias Phiri Msyamboza, Storn Kabuluzi, David A Sack
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy increases the risk of harmful effects from cholera for both mothers and their fetuses. A killed oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol (Shantha Biotechnics, Hydrabad, India), can protect against the disease for up to 5 years. However, cholera vaccination campaigns have often excluded pregnant women because of insufficient safety data for use during pregnancy. We did an observational cohort study to assess the safety of Shanchol during pregnancy. METHODS: This observational cohort study was done in two adjacent districts (Nsanje and Chikwawa) in Malawi...
February 1, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161569/the-spread-of-artemisinin-resistant-plasmodium-falciparum-in-the-greater-mekong-subregion-a-molecular-epidemiology-observational-study
#9
Mallika Imwong, Kanokon Suwannasin, Chanon Kunasol, Kreepol Sutawong, Mayfong Mayxay, Huy Rekol, Frank M Smithuis, Tin Maung Hlaing, Kyaw M Tun, Rob W van der Pluijm, Rupam Tripura, Olivo Miotto, Didier Menard, Mehul Dhorda, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that the PfKelch13 mutations that confer artemisinin resistance in falciparum malaria have multiple independent origins across the Greater Mekong subregion, which has motivated a regional malaria elimination agenda. We aimed to use molecular genotyping to assess antimalarial drug resistance selection and spread in the Greater Mekong subregion. METHODS: In this observational study, we tested Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Myanmar, northeastern Thailand, southern Laos, and western Cambodia for PfKelch13 mutations and for Pfplasmepsin2 gene amplification (indicating piperaquine resistance)...
February 1, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139255/who-pays-for-cooperation-in-global-health-a-comparative-analysis-of-who-the-world-bank-the-global-fund-to-fight-hiv-aids-tuberculosis-and-malaria-and-gavi-the-vaccine-alliance
#10
Chelsea Clinton, Devi Sridhar
In this report we assess who pays for cooperation in global health through an analysis of the financial flows of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. The past few decades have seen the consolidation of influence in the disproportionate roles the USA, UK, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have had in financing three of these four institutions. Current financing flows in all four case study institutions allow donors to finance and deliver assistance in ways that they can more closely control and monitor at every stage...
January 27, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043595/reaching-consensus-on-drug-resistance-conferring-mutations
#11
Daniela M Cirillo, Paolo Miotto, Elisa Tagliani
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Molecular-based, rapid drug-susceptibility tests are needed to guide the appropriate use of new drugs and new therapeutic regimens at the programmatic level, and to prevent a further increase in the incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Experts have recognized the need for a global, curated, and standardized analysis and data-sharing platform that provides a one-stop data source for clinically relevant genotypic and phenotypic information on Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012943/effectiveness-of-a-triple-drug-regimen-for-global-elimination-of-lymphatic-filariasis-a-modelling-study
#12
Michael A Irvine, Wilma A Stolk, Morgan E Smith, Swaminathan Subramanian, Brajendra K Singh, Gary J Weil, Edwin Michael, T Deirdre Hollingsworth
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis is targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2020. The principal approach used by current programmes is annual mass drug administration with two pairs of drugs with a good safety profile. However, one dose of a triple-drug regimen (ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and albendazole) has been shown to clear the transmissible stage of the helminth completely in treated individuals. The aim of this study was to use modelling to assess the potential value of mass drug administration with the triple-drug regimen for accelerating elimination of lymphatic filariasis in different epidemiological settings...
April 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007477/national-and-subnational-all-cause-and-cause-specific-child-mortality-in-china-1996-2015-a-systematic-analysis-with-implications-for-the-sustainable-development-goals
#13
Chunhua He, Li Liu, Yue Chu, Jamie Perin, Li Dai, Xiaohong Li, Lei Miao, Leni Kang, Qi Li, Robert Scherpbier, Sufang Guo, Igor Rudan, Peige Song, Kit Yee Chan, Yan Guo, Robert E Black, Yanping Wang, Jun Zhu
BACKGROUND: China has achieved Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce under-5 mortality rate by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In this study, we estimated the national and subnational levels and causes of child mortality in China annually from 1996 to 2015 to draw implications for achievement of the SDGs for China and other low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: In this systematic analysis, we adjusted empirical data on levels and causes of child mortality collected in the China Maternal and Child Health Surveillance System to generate representative estimates at the national and subnational levels...
February 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989591/expected-effects-of-adopting-a-9-month-regimen-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-population-modelling-analysis
#14
Emily A Kendall, Anthony T Fojo, David W Dowdy
BACKGROUND: In May, 2016, WHO endorsed a 9 month regimen for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis that is cheaper and potentially more effective than the conventional, longer (20-24 month) therapy. We aimed to investigate the population-level implications of scaling up this new regimen. METHODS: In this population modelling analysis, we developed a dynamic transmission model to simulate the introduction of this short-course regimen as an instantaneous switch in 2016...
March 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987641/the-international-decision-support-initiative-reference-case-for-economic-evaluation-an-aid-to-thought
#15
Thomas Wilkinson, Mark J Sculpher, Karl Claxton, Paul Revill, Andrew Briggs, John A Cairns, Yot Teerawattananon, Elias Asfaw, Ruth Lopert, Anthony J Culyer, Damian G Walker
BACKGROUND: Policymakers in high-, low-, and middle-income countries alike face challenging choices about resource allocation in health. Economic evaluation can be useful in providing decision makers with the best evidence of the anticipated benefits of new investments, as well as their expected opportunity costs-the benefits forgone of the options not chosen. To guide the decisions of health systems effectively, it is important that the methods of economic evaluation are founded on clear principles, are applied systematically, and are appropriate to the decision problems they seek to inform...
December 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956187/trends-in-the-burden-of-hiv-mortality-after-roll-out-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-an-observational-community-cohort-study
#16
Georges Reniers, Sylvia Blom, Clara Calvert, Alexandra Martin-Onraet, Abraham J Herbst, Jeffrey W Eaton, Jacob Bor, Emma Slaymaker, Zehang R Li, Samuel J Clark, Till Bärnighausen, Basia Zaba, Victoria Hosegood
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) substantially decreases morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV. In this study, we describe population-level trends in the adult life expectancy and trends in the residual burden of HIV mortality after the roll-out of a public sector ART programme in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, one of the populations with the most severe HIV epidemics in the world. METHODS: Data come from the Africa Centre Demographic Information System (ACDIS), an observational community cohort study in the uMkhanyakude district in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
December 9, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955769/11-years-of-tracking-aid-to-reproductive-maternal-newborn-and-child-health-estimates-and-analysis-for-2003-13-from-the-countdown-to-2015
#17
Christopher Grollman, Leonardo Arregoces, Melisa Martínez-Álvarez, Catherine Pitt, Anne Mills, Josephine Borghi
BACKGROUND: Tracking aid flows helps to hold donors accountable and to compare the allocation of resources in relation to health need. With the use of data reported by donors in 2015, we provided estimates of official development assistance and grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (collectively termed ODA+) to reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health for 2013 and complete trends in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health support for the period 2003-13. METHODS: We coded and analysed financial disbursements to reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health to all recipient countries from all donors reporting to the creditor reporting system database for the year 2013...
January 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884709/seeing-beyond-2020-an-economic-evaluation-of-contemporary-and-emerging-strategies-for-elimination-of-trypanosoma-brucei-gambiense
#18
C Simone Sutherland, Christopher M Stone, Peter Steinmann, Marcel Tanner, Fabrizio Tediosi
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma brucei (T b) gambiense is targeted to reach elimination as a public health problem by 2020 and full elimination by 2030. To achieve these goals, stakeholders need to consider strategies to accelerate elimination. Hence, we aimed to model several options related to current and emerging methods for case detection, treatment, and vector control across settings to assess cost-effectiveness and the probability of elimination. METHODS: Five intervention strategies were modelled over 30 years for low, moderate, and high transmission settings...
January 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865890/safety-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-repeated-doses-of-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-malaria-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Julie Gutman, Stephanie Kovacs, Grant Dorsey, Andy Stergachis, Feiko O Ter Kuile
BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for malaria is used in infants, children, adults, and pregnant women. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is an effective, well tolerated artemisinin-based combination therapy. The long half-life of piperaquine makes it attractive for IPT. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to establish the efficacy and safety of repeated treatment with DP. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched multiple databases on Sept 1, 2016, with the terms: "human" AND "dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine" OR "DHA-PPQ"...
February 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857449/an-experimental-investigation-of-the-combustion-performance-of-human-faeces
#20
Tosin Onabanjo, Athanasios J Kolios, Kumar Patchigolla, Stuart T Wagland, Beatriz Fidalgo, Nelia Jurado, Dawid P Hanak, Vasilije Manovic, Alison Parker, Ewan McAdam, Leon Williams, Sean Tyrrel, Elise Cartmell
Poor sanitation is one of the major hindrances to the global sustainable development goals. The Reinvent the Toilet Challenge of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is set to develop affordable, next-generation sanitary systems that can ensure safe treatment and wide accessibility without compromise on sustainable use of natural resources and the environment. Energy recovery from human excreta is likely to be a cornerstone of future sustainable sanitary systems. Faeces combustion was investigated using a bench-scale downdraft combustor test rig, alongside with wood biomass and simulant faeces...
November 15, 2016: Fuel
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