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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150201/nations-within-a-nation-variations-in-epidemiological-transition-across-the-states-of-india-1990-2016-in-the-global-burden-of-disease-study
#1
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: 18% of the world's population lives in India, and many states of India have populations similar to those of large countries. Action to effectively improve population health in India requires availability of reliable and comprehensive state-level estimates of disease burden and risk factors over time. Such comprehensive estimates have not been available so far for all major diseases and risk factors. Thus, we aimed to estimate the disease burden and risk factors in every state of India as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016...
November 13, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132614/early-childhood-linear-growth-faltering-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-as-a-whole-population-condition-analysis-of-179-demographic-and-health-surveys-from-64-countries-1993-2015
#2
Daniel E Roth, Aditi Krishna, Michael Leung, Joy Shi, Diego G Bassani, Aluisio J D Barros
BACKGROUND: The causes of early childhood linear growth faltering (known as stunting) in low-income and middle-income countries remain inadequately understood. We aimed to determine if the progressive postnatal decline in mean height-for-age Z score (HAZ) in low-income and middle-income countries is driven by relatively slow growth of certain high-risk children versus faltering of the entire population. METHODS: Distributions of HAZ (based on WHO growth standards) were analysed in 3-month age intervals from 0 to 36 months of age in 179 Demographic and Health Surveys from 64 low-income and middle-income countries (1993-2015)...
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132613/identification-and-management-of-shigella-infection-in-children-with-diarrhoea-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Kirkby D Tickell, Rebecca L Brander, Hannah E Atlas, Jeffrey M Pernica, Judd L Walson, Patricia B Pavlinac
BACKGROUND: Shigella infections are a leading cause of diarrhoeal death among children in low-income and middle-income countries. WHO guidelines reserve antibiotics for treating children with dysentery. Reliance on dysentery for identification and management of Shigella infection might miss an opportunity to reduce Shigella-associated morbidity and mortality. We aimed to systematically review and evaluate Shigella-associated and dysentery-associated mortality, the diagnostic value of dysentery for the identification of Shigella infection, and the efficacy of antibiotics for children with Shigella or dysentery, or both...
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126600/effect-of-treatment-delay-on-the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-antifibrinolytics-in-acute-severe-haemorrhage-a-meta-analysis-of-individual-patient-level-data-from-40%C3%A2-138-bleeding-patients
#4
Angèle Gayet-Ageron, David Prieto-Merino, Katharine Ker, Haleema Shakur, François-Xavier Ageron, Ian Roberts
BACKGROUND: Antifibrinolytics reduce death from bleeding in trauma and post-partum haemorrhage. We examined the effect of treatment delay on the effectiveness of antifibrinolytics. METHODS: We did an individual patient-level data meta-analysis of randomised trials done with more than 1000 patients that assessed antifibrinolytics in acute severe bleeding. We identified trials done between Jan 1, 1946, and April 7, 2017, from MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, PubMed, Popline, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform...
November 7, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116890/a-test-and-not-treat-strategy-for-onchocerciasis-in-loa-loa-endemic-areas
#5
Joseph Kamgno, Sébastien D Pion, Cédric B Chesnais, Matthew H Bakalar, Michael V D'Ambrosio, Charles D Mackenzie, Hugues C Nana-Djeunga, Raceline Gounoue-Kamkumo, Guy-Roger Njitchouang, Philippe Nwane, Jules B Tchatchueng-Mbouga, Samuel Wanji, Wilma A Stolk, Daniel A Fletcher, Amy D Klion, Thomas B Nutman, Michel Boussinesq
Background Implementation of an ivermectin-based community treatment strategy for the elimination of onchocerciasis or lymphatic filariasis has been delayed in Central Africa because of the occurrence of serious adverse events, including death, in persons with high levels of circulating Loa loa microfilariae. The LoaScope, a field-friendly diagnostic tool to quantify L. loa microfilariae in peripheral blood, enables rapid, point-of-care identification of persons at risk for serious adverse events. Methods A test-and-not-treat strategy was used in the approach to ivermectin treatment in the Okola health district in Cameroon, where the distribution of ivermectin was halted in 1999 after the occurrence of fatal events related to L...
November 8, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112742/getting-to-zero-new-tuberculosis-infections-insights-from-the-national-institutes-of-health-us-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-bill-melinda-gates-foundation-workshop-on-research-needs-for-halting-tuberculosis-transmission
#6
N Sarita Shah, Peter Kim, Bavesh Davandra Kana, Roxana Rustomjee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047019/challenges-for-nationwide-vaccine-delivery-in-african-countries
#7
Mario Songane
Vaccines are very effective in providing individual and community (herd) immunity against a range of diseases. In addition to protection against a range of diseases, vaccines also have social and economic benefits. However, for vaccines to be effective, routine immunization programmes must be undertaken regularly to ensure individual and community protection. Nonetheless, in many countries in Africa, vaccination coverage is low because governments struggle to deliver vaccines to the most remote areas, thus contributing to constant outbreaks of various vaccine-preventable diseases...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Health Economics and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031848/local-national-and-regional-viral-haemorrhagic-fever-pandemic-potential-in-africa-a-multistage-analysis
#8
David M Pigott, Aniruddha Deshpande, Ian Letourneau, Chloe Morozoff, Robert C Reiner, Moritz U G Kraemer, Shannon E Brent, Isaac I Bogoch, Kamran Khan, Molly H Biehl, Roy Burstein, Lucas Earl, Nancy Fullman, Jane P Messina, Adrian Q N Mylne, Catherine L Moyes, Freya M Shearer, Samir Bhatt, Oliver J Brady, Peter W Gething, Daniel J Weiss, Andrew J Tatem, Luke Caley, Tom De Groeve, Luca Vernaccini, Nick Golding, Peter Horby, Jens H Kuhn, Sandra J Laney, Edmond Ng, Peter Piot, Osman Sankoh, Christopher J L Murray, Simon I Hay
BACKGROUND: Predicting when and where pathogens will emerge is difficult, yet, as shown by the recent Ebola and Zika epidemics, effective and timely responses are key. It is therefore crucial to transition from reactive to proactive responses for these pathogens. To better identify priorities for outbreak mitigation and prevention, we developed a cohesive framework combining disparate methods and data sources, and assessed subnational pandemic potential for four viral haemorrhagic fevers in Africa, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Ebola virus disease, Lassa fever, and Marburg virus disease...
October 11, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025635/how-ethiopia-achieved-millennium-development-goal-4-through-multisectoral-interventions-a-countdown-to-2015-case-study
#9
Jenny Ruducha, Carlyn Mann, Neha S Singh, Tsegaye D Gemebo, Negussie S Tessema, Angela Baschieri, Ingrid Friberg, Taddese A Zerfu, Mohammed Yassin, Giovanny A Franca, Peter Berman
BACKGROUND: 3 years before the 2015 deadline, Ethiopia achieved Millennium Development Goal 4. The under-5 mortality decreased 69%, from 205 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 1990 to 64 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 2013. To understand the underlying factors that contributed to the success in achieving MDG4, Ethiopia was selected as a Countdown to 2015 case study. METHODS: We used a set of complementary methods to analyse progress in child health in Ethiopia between 1990 and 2014...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025634/catastrophic-costs-potentially-averted-by-tuberculosis-control-in-india-and-south-africa-a-modelling-study
#10
Stéphane Verguet, Carlos Riumallo-Herl, Gabriela B Gomez, Nicolas A Menzies, Rein M G J Houben, Tom Sumner, Marek Lalli, Richard G White, Joshua A Salomon, Ted Cohen, Nicola Foster, Susmita Chatterjee, Sedona Sweeney, Inés Garcia Baena, Knut Lönnroth, Diana E Weil, Anna Vassall
BACKGROUND: The economic burden on households affected by tuberculosis through costs to patients can be catastrophic. WHO's End TB Strategy recognises and aims to eliminate these potentially devastating economic effects. We assessed whether aggressive expansion of tuberculosis services might reduce catastrophic costs. METHODS: We estimated the reduction in tuberculosis-related catastrophic costs with an aggressive expansion of tuberculosis services in India and South Africa from 2016 to 2035, in line with the End TB Strategy...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978417/detection-and-treatment-of-fiebig-stage-i-hiv-1-infection-in-young-at-risk-women-in-south-africa-a-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Krista L Dong, Amber Moodley, Douglas S Kwon, Musie S Ghebremichael, Mary Dong, Nasreen Ismail, Zaza M Ndhlovu, Jenniffer M Mabuka, Daniel M Muema, Karyn Pretorius, Nina Lin, Bruce D Walker, Thumbi Ndung'u
BACKGROUND: HIV incidence among young women in sub-Saharan Africa remains high and their inclusion in vaccine and cure efforts is crucial. We aimed to establish a cohort of young women detected during Fiebig stage I acute HIV infection in whom treatment was initiated immediately after diagnosis to advance research in this high-risk group. METHODS: 945 women aged 18-23 years in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, who were HIV uninfected and sexually active consented to HIV-1 RNA testing twice a week and biological sampling and risk assessment every 3 months during participation in a 48-96 week life-skills and job-readiness programme...
September 29, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965718/efficacy-and-immunogenicity-of-a-vi-tetanus-toxoid-conjugate-vaccine-in-the-prevention-of-typhoid-fever-using-a-controlled-human-infection-model-of-salmonella-typhi-a-randomised-controlled-phase-2b-trial
#12
Celina Jin, Malick M Gibani, Maria Moore, Helene B Juel, Elizabeth Jones, James Meiring, Victoria Harris, Jonathan Gardner, Anna Nebykova, Simon A Kerridge, Jennifer Hill, Helena Thomaides-Brears, Christoph J Blohmke, Ly-Mee Yu, Brian Angus, Andrew J Pollard
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) is responsible for an estimated 20 million infections and 200 000 deaths each year in resource poor regions of the world. Capsular Vi-polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (Vi-conjugate vaccines) are immunogenic and can be used from infancy but there are no efficacy data for the leading candidate vaccine being considered for widespread use. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed the efficacy of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine using an established human infection model of S Typhi...
September 28, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964756/differences-in-health-related-quality-of-life-between-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-people-in-zambia-and-south-africa-a-cross-sectional-baseline-survey-of-the-hptn-071-popart-trial
#13
Ranjeeta Thomas, Ronelle Burger, Abigail Harper, Sarah Kanema, Lawrence Mwenge, Nosivuyile Vanqa, Nomtha Bell-Mandla, Peter C Smith, Sian Floyd, Peter Bock, Helen Ayles, Nulda Beyers, Deborah Donnell, Sarah Fidler, Richard Hayes, Katharina Hauck
BACKGROUND: The life expectancy of HIV-positive individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approaching that of HIV-negative people. However, little is known about how these populations compare in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We aimed to compare HRQoL between HIV-positive and HIV-negative people in Zambia and South Africa. METHODS: As part of the HPTN 071 (PopART) study, data from adults aged 18-44 years were gathered between Nov 28, 2013, and March 31, 2015, in large cross-sectional surveys of random samples of the general population in 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958464/mapping-under-5-and-neonatal-mortality-in-africa-2000-15-a-baseline-analysis-for-the-sustainable-development-goals
#14
Nick Golding, Roy Burstein, Joshua Longbottom, Annie J Browne, Nancy Fullman, Aaron Osgood-Zimmerman, Lucas Earl, Samir Bhatt, Ewan Cameron, Daniel C Casey, Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Tamer H Farag, Abraham D Flaxman, Maya S Fraser, Peter W Gething, Harry S Gibson, Nicholas Graetz, L Kendall Krause, Xie Rachel Kulikoff, Stephen S Lim, Bonnie Mappin, Chloe Morozoff, Robert C Reiner, Amber Sligar, David L Smith, Haidong Wang, Daniel J Weiss, Christopher J L Murray, Catherine L Moyes, Simon I Hay
BACKGROUND: During the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era, many countries in Africa achieved marked reductions in under-5 and neonatal mortality. Yet the pace of progress toward these goals substantially varied at the national level, demonstrating an essential need for tracking even more local trends in child mortality. With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015, which established ambitious targets for improving child survival by 2030, optimal intervention planning and targeting will require understanding of trends and rates of progress at a higher spatial resolution...
September 25, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941561/the-global-burden-of-scabies-a-cross-sectional-analysis-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#15
Chante Karimkhani, Danny V Colombara, Aaron M Drucker, Scott A Norton, Roderick Hay, Daniel Engelman, Andrew Steer, Margot Whitfeld, Mohsen Naghavi, Robert P Dellavalle
BACKGROUND: Numerous population-based studies have documented high prevalence of scabies in overcrowded settings, particularly among children and in tropical regions. We provide an estimate of the global burden of scabies using data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2015. METHODS: We identified scabies epidemiological data sources from an extensive literature search and hospital insurance data and analysed data sources with a Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR 2·1, to yield prevalence estimates...
September 20, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931491/global-regional-and-national-burden-of-neurological-disorders-during-1990-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#16
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Comparable data on the global and country-specific burden of neurological disorders and their trends are crucial for health-care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study provides such information but does not routinely aggregate results that are of interest to clinicians specialising in neurological conditions. In this systematic analysis, we quantified the global disease burden due to neurological disorders in 2015 and its relationship with country development level...
November 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927420/erratum-to-composition-of-anopheles-mosquitoes-their-blood-meal-hosts-and-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-rates-in-three-islands-with-disparate-bed-net-coverage-in-lake-victoria-kenya
#17
Edwin Ogola, Jandouwe Villinger, Danspaid Mabuka, David Omondi, Benedict Orindi, James Mutunga, Vincent Owino, Daniel K Masiga
After publication of the article [1], it has been brought to our attention that a funding acknowledgement has been omitted from the original article. The authors would like to include the following, "The study was undertaken as part of the Target Malaria consortium, which receives core funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation & from the Open Philanthropy Project Fund, an advised fund of Silicon Valley Community Foundation."
September 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919119/global-regional-and-national-comparative-risk-assessment-of-84-behavioural-environmental-and-occupational-and-metabolic-risks-or-clusters-of-risks-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#18
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. METHODS: We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919118/global-regional-and-national-disability-adjusted-life-years-dalys-for-333-diseases-and-injuries-and-healthy-life-expectancy-hale-for-195-countries-and-territories-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#19
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE)...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919117/global-regional-and-national-incidence-prevalence-and-years-lived-with-disability-for-328-diseases-and-injuries-for-195-countries-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#20
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. METHODS: We estimated prevalence and incidence for 328 diseases and injuries and 2982 sequelae, their non-fatal consequences...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
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