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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630651/improving-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-in-resource-limited-settings-at-scale-a-discussion-of-interventions-and-recommendations
#1
Jessica E Haberer, Lora Sabin, K Rivet Amico, Catherine Orrell, Omar Galárraga, Alexander C Tsai, Rachel C Vreeman, Ira Wilson, Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Terrence F Blaschke, Bernard Vrijens, Claude A Mellins, Robert H Remien, Sheri D Weiser, Elizabeth Lowenthal, Michael J Stirratt, Papa Salif Sow, Bruce Thomas, Nathan Ford, Edward Mills, Richard Lester, Jean B Nachega, Bosco Mwebesa Bwana, Fred Ssewamala, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Paula Munderi, Elvin Geng, David R Bangsberg
Introduction: Successful population-level antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence will be necessary to realize both the clinical and prevention benefits of antiretroviral scale-up and, ultimately, the end of AIDS. Although many people living with HIV are adhering well, others struggle and most are likely to experience challenges in adherence that may threaten virologic suppression at some point during lifelong therapy. Despite the importance of ART adherence, supportive interventions have generally not been implemented at scale...
2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625793/comparison-of-sputum-collection-methods-for-tuberculosis-diagnosis-a-systematic-review-and-pairwise-and-network-meta-analysis
#2
Sumona Datta, Lena Shah, Robert H Gilman, Carlton A Evans
BACKGROUND: The performance of laboratory tests to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis is dependent on the quality of the sputum sample tested. The relative merits of sputum collection methods to improve tuberculosis diagnosis are poorly characterised. We therefore aimed to investigate the effects of sputum collection methods on tuberculosis diagnosis. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether non-invasive sputum collection methods in people aged at least 12 years improve the diagnostic performance of laboratory testing for pulmonary tuberculosis...
June 15, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619229/cost-effectiveness-of-xpert-mtb-rif-for-tuberculosis-diagnosis-in-south-africa-a-real-world-cost-analysis-and-economic-evaluation
#3
Anna Vassall, Mariana Siapka, Nicola Foster, Lucy Cunnama, Lebogang Ramma, Katherine Fielding, Kerrigan McCarthy, Gavin Churchyard, Alison Grant, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: In 2010 a new diagnostic test for tuberculosis, Xpert MTB/RIF, received a conditional programmatic recommendation from WHO. Several model-based economic evaluations predicted that Xpert would be cost-effective across sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the cost-effectiveness of Xpert in the real world during national roll-out in South Africa. METHODS: For this real-world cost analysis and economic evaluation, we applied extensive primary cost and patient event data from the XTEND study, a pragmatic trial examining Xpert introduction for people investigated for tuberculosis in 40 primary health facilities (20 clusters) in South Africa enrolled between June 8, and Nov 16, 2012, to estimate the costs and cost per disability-adjusted life-year averted of introducing Xpert as the initial diagnostic test for tuberculosis, compared with sputum smear microscopy (the standard of care)...
July 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619228/effect-of-community-health-clubs-on-child-diarrhoea-in-western-rwanda-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Sheela S Sinharoy, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Ronald Wendt, Leodomir Mfura, Erin Crossett, Karen A Grépin, William Jack, Bernard Ngabo Rwabufigiri, James Habyarimana, Thomas Clasen
BACKGROUND: Community health clubs are multi-session village-level gatherings led by trained facilitators and designed to promote healthy behaviours mainly related to water, sanitation, and hygiene. They have been implemented in several African and Asian countries but have never been evaluated rigorously. We aimed to evaluate the effect of two versions of the community health club model on child health and nutrition outcomes. METHODS: We did a cluster-randomised trial in Rusizi district, western Rwanda...
July 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604169/health-effects-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-195-countries-over-25-years
#5
(no author information available yet)
Background Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. Methods We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015...
June 12, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601421/impact-of-the-introduction-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-on-pneumonia-in-the-gambia-population-based-surveillance-and-case-control-studies
#6
Grant A Mackenzie, Philip C Hill, Shah M Sahito, David J Jeffries, Ilias Hossain, Christian Bottomley, Uchendu Uchendu, David Ameh, Malick Ndiaye, Chidebereh D Osuorah, Oyedeji Adeyemi, Jayani Pathirana, Yekini Olatunji, Bade Abatan, Ebirim Ahameefula, Bilquees S Muhammad, Augustin E Fombah, Debasish Saha, Roslyn Mackenzie, Ian Plumb, Aliu Akano, Bernard Ebruke, Readon C Ideh, Bankole Kuti, Peter Githua, Emmanuel Olutunde, Ogochukwu Ofordile, Edward Green, Effua Usuf, Henry Badji, Usman N A Ikumapayi, Ahmad Manjang, Rasheed Salaudeen, E David Nsekpong, Sheikh Jarju, Martin Antonio, Sana Sambou, Lamin Ceesay, Yamundow Lowe-Jallow, Dawda Sowe, Momodou Jasseh, Kim Mulholland, Maria Knoll, Orin S Levine, Stephen R Howie, Richard A Adegbola, Brian M Greenwood, Tumani Corrah
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are used in many low-income countries but their impact on the incidence of pneumonia is unclear. The Gambia introduced PCV7 in August, 2009, and PCV13 in May, 2011. We aimed to measure the impact of the introduction of these vaccines on pneumonia incidence. METHODS: We did population-based surveillance and case-control studies. The primary endpoint was WHO-defined radiological pneumonia with pulmonary consolidation...
June 7, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579627/carriage-of-sub-microscopic-sexual-and-asexual-plasmodium-falciparum-stages-in-the-dry-season-at-navrongo-ghana
#7
Geoffrey R Atelu, Nancy O Duah, Michael D Wilson
BACKGROUND: We investigated the prevalence of sub-microscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections and gametocyte carriage in asymptomatic individuals in Navrongo in northern Ghana, an area of seasonal malaria transmission. DESIGN: A cross sectional study of 209 randomly selected participants of all age-groups was conducted in February and March, 2015. METHODS: Capillary blood samples collected from these individuals were used for the detection of both asexual and gametocyte stage parasites by microscopy, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and conventional nested PCR methods...
December 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579426/estimates-of-global-regional-and-national-morbidity-mortality-and-aetiologies-of-diarrhoeal-diseases-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#8
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) provides an up-to-date analysis of the burden of diarrhoeal diseases. This study assesses cases, deaths, and aetiologies spanning the past 25 years and informs the changing picture of diarrhoeal disease worldwide. METHODS: We estimated diarrhoeal mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm), a modelling platform shared across most causes of death in the GBD 2015 study...
June 1, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575353/perch-in-perspective-what-can-it-teach-us-about-pneumonia-etiology-in-children
#9
Keith P Klugman, Gail L Rodgers
The pneumonia team at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation congratulates the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study on delivering on their grant to collect high-quality data from thousands of children with World Health Organization-defined severe and very severe pneumonia and from controls in 9 diverse sites in 7 low- and middle-income countries. This supplement sets the foundation to understanding this complex study by providing an in-depth description of the study methodology, including discussion of key aspects such as antibiotic pretreatment, chest radiograph interpretation, utility of induced sputum in children, measurement of pathogen density, and use of C-reactive protein, and how these affect pneumonia etiology...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566213/role-of-mass-drug-administration-in-elimination-of-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-a-consensus-modelling-study
#10
Oliver J Brady, Hannah C Slater, Peter Pemberton-Ross, Edward Wenger, Richard J Maude, Azra C Ghani, Melissa A Penny, Jaline Gerardin, Lisa J White, Nakul Chitnis, Ricardo Aguas, Simon I Hay, David L Smith, Erin M Stuckey, Emelda A Okiro, Thomas A Smith, Lucy C Okell
BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration for elimination of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is recommended by WHO in some settings. We used consensus modelling to understand how to optimise the effects of mass drug administration in areas with low malaria transmission. METHODS: We collaborated with researchers doing field trials to establish a standard intervention scenario and standard transmission setting, and we input these parameters into four previously published models...
July 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528753/healthcare-access-and-quality-index-based-on-mortality-from-causes-amenable-to-personal-health-care-in-195-countries-and-territories-1990-2015-a-novel-analysis-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#11
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on high-income countries and faced several methodological challenges. In the present analysis, we use the highly standardised cause of death and risk factor estimates generated through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) to improve and expand the quantification of personal health-care access and quality for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015...
May 18, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522338/year-round-influenza-immunisation-during-pregnancy-in-nepal-a-phase-4-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#12
Mark C Steinhoff, Joanne Katz, Janet A Englund, Subarna K Khatry, Laxman Shrestha, Jane Kuypers, Laveta Stewart, Luke C Mullany, Helen Y Chu, Steven C LeClerq, Naoko Kozuki, Monica McNeal, Adriana M Reedy, James M Tielsch
BACKGROUND: Influenza immunisation during pregnancy is recommended but not widely implemented in some low-income regions. We assessed the safety and efficacy in mothers and infants of year-round maternal influenza immunisation in Nepal, where influenza viruses circulate throughout the year. METHODS: In this phase 4, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled two consecutive sequential annual cohorts of pregnant women from the Sarlahi district in southern Nepal...
May 15, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495264/community-engagement-and-integrated-health-and-polio-immunisation-campaigns-in-conflict-affected-areas-of-pakistan-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Muhammad Atif Habib, Sajid Soofi, Simon Cousens, Saeed Anwar, Najib Ul Haque, Imran Ahmed, Noshad Ali, Rehman Tahir, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Pakistan faces huge challenges in eradicating polio due to widespread poliovirus transmission and security challenges. Innovative interventions are urgently needed to strengthen community buy-in, to increase the coverage of oral polio vaccine (OPV) and other routine immunisations, and to enhance immunity through the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in combination with OPV. We aimed to evaluate the acceptability and effect on immunisation coverage of an integrated strategy for community engagement and maternal and child health immunisation campaigns in insecure and conflict-affected polio-endemic districts of Pakistan...
June 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483414/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-parenteral-p2-vp8-p-8-subunit-rotavirus-vaccine-in-toddlers-and-infants-in-south-africa-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
Michelle J Groome, Anthonet Koen, Alan Fix, Nicola Page, Lisa Jose, Shabir A Madhi, Monica McNeal, Len Dally, Iksung Cho, Maureen Power, Jorge Flores, Stanley Cryz
BACKGROUND: Efficacy of live oral rotavirus vaccines is reduced in low-income compared with high-income settings. Parenteral non-replicating rotavirus vaccines might offer benefits over oral vaccines. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the P2-VP8-P[8] subunit rotavirus vaccine at different doses in South African toddlers and infants. METHODS: This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial was done at a single research unit based at a hospital in South Africa in healthy HIV-uninfected toddlers (aged 2 to <3 years) and term infants (aged 6 to <8 weeks, without previous rotavirus vaccination)...
May 5, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456509/effect-of-early-tranexamic-acid-administration-on-mortality-hysterectomy-and-other-morbidities-in-women-with-post-partum-haemorrhage-woman-an-international-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#15
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Post-partum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Early administration of tranexamic acid reduces deaths due to bleeding in trauma patients. We aimed to assess the effects of early administration of tranexamic acid on death, hysterectomy, and other relevant outcomes in women with post-partum haemorrhage. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited women aged 16 years and older with a clinical diagnosis of post-partum haemorrhage after a vaginal birth or caesarean section from 193 hospitals in 21 countries...
May 27, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454674/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-three-aluminium-hydroxide-adjuvanted-vaccines-with-reduced-doses-of-inactivated-polio-vaccine-ipv-al-compared-with-standard-ipv-in-young-infants-in-the-dominican-republic-a-phase-2-non-inferiority-observer-blinded-randomised-and
#16
Luis Rivera, Rasmus S Pedersen, Lourdes Peña, Klaus J Olsen, Lars V Andreasen, Ingrid Kromann, Pernille I Nielsen, Charlotte Sørensen, Jes Dietrich, Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Birgit Thierry-Carstensen
BACKGROUND: Cost and supply constraints are key challenges in the use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). Dose reduction through adsorption to aluminium hydroxide (Al) is a promising option, and establishing its effectiveness in the target population is a crucial milestone in developing IPV-Al. The aim of this clinical trial was to show the non-inferiority of three IPV-Al vaccines to standard IPV. METHODS: In this phase 2, non-inferiority, observer-blinded, randomised, controlled, single-centre trial in the Dominican Republic, healthy infants aged 6 weeks, not previously polio vaccinated, were allocated after computer-generated randomisation by block-size of four, to receive one of four IPV formulations (three-times reduced dose [1/3 IPV-Al], five-times reduced dose [1/5 IPV-Al], ten-times reduced dose [1/10 IPV-Al], or IPV) intramuscularly in the thigh at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age...
April 25, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433260/future-and-potential-spending-on-health-2015-40-development-assistance-for-health-and-government-prepaid-private-and-out-of-pocket-health-spending-in-184-countries
#17
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The amount of resources, particularly prepaid resources, available for health can affect access to health care and health outcomes. Although health spending tends to increase with economic development, tremendous variation exists among health financing systems. Estimates of future spending can be beneficial for policy makers and planners, and can identify financing gaps. In this study, we estimate future gross domestic product (GDP), all-sector government spending, and health spending disaggregated by source, and we compare expected future spending to potential future spending...
May 20, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433256/evolution-and-patterns-of-global-health-financing-1995-2014-development-assistance-for-health-and-government-prepaid-private-and-out-of-pocket-health-spending-in-184-countries
#18
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: An adequate amount of prepaid resources for health is important to ensure access to health services and for the pursuit of universal health coverage. Previous studies on global health financing have described the relationship between economic development and health financing. In this study, we further explore global health financing trends and examine how the sources of funds used, types of services purchased, and development assistance for health disbursed change with economic development...
May 20, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408086/estimates-and-25-year-trends-of-the-global-burden-of-disease-attributable-to-ambient-air-pollution-an-analysis-of-data-from-the-global-burden-of-diseases-study-2015
#19
Aaron J Cohen, Michael Brauer, Richard Burnett, H Ross Anderson, Joseph Frostad, Kara Estep, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Bert Brunekreef, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Valery Feigin, Greg Freedman, Bryan Hubbell, Amelia Jobling, Haidong Kan, Luke Knibbs, Yang Liu, Randall Martin, Lidia Morawska, C Arden Pope, Hwashin Shin, Kurt Straif, Gavin Shaddick, Matthew Thomas, Rita van Dingenen, Aaron van Donkelaar, Theo Vos, Christopher J L Murray, Mohammad H Forouzanfar
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution increases morbidity and mortality, and is a leading contributor to global disease burden. We explored spatial and temporal trends in mortality and burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution from 1990 to 2015 at global, regional, and country levels. METHODS: We estimated global population-weighted mean concentrations of particle mass with aerodynamic diameter less than 2·5 μm (PM2·5) and ozone at an approximate 11 km × 11 km resolution with satellite-based estimates, chemical transport models, and ground-level measurements...
May 13, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396264/causal-pathways-from-enteropathogens-to-environmental-enteropathy-findings-from-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort-study
#20
Margaret N Kosek
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteropathy (EE), the adverse impact of frequent and numerous enteric infections on the gut resulting in a state of persistent immune activation and altered permeability, has been proposed as a key determinant of growth failure in children in low- and middle-income populations. A theory-driven systems model to critically evaluate pathways through which enteropathogens, gut permeability, and intestinal and systemic inflammation affect child growth was conducted within the framework of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) birth cohort study that included children from eight countries...
April 2017: EBioMedicine
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