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Social factors

Bryce J Renninger
This article complicates the popular contention that "Grindr is killing the gay bar" by using qualitative interviews with Grindr users and a diverse literature on urban development. To better understand the factors that have gone into the changing face of the gayborhood and the closing of gay bars, this article encourages stakeholders to focus on a democratic approach to these technologies and considers Grindr and similar apps along with many other factors that affect urban development.
September 17, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
John L Oliffe, Alex Broom, Michaela Popa, Emily K Jenkins, Simon M Rice, Olivier Ferlatte, Emma Rossnagel
Social isolation has featured as a significant and oftentimes all-encompassing risk factor for male suicide, yet, as an explanatory mechanism, it has not been unpacked in terms of what it constitutes in everyday life. The current photovoice study explores the various dimensions of the lived experience of social isolation, as embedded in accounts of suicidality drawn from 35 Canadian men. Study participants narrated the following factors as underpinning their social isolation: (a) family dysfunction and estrangement, (b) marginality and feeling like misfits at school and work, (c) alienation and provisional acceptance of health care, (d) ineffectual and self-harming management, (e) intrusive dislocating thoughts, and (f) society's burdensome and immoral subjects...
September 15, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Interpersonal emotion regulation: Implications for affiliation, perceived support, relationships, and well-being" by W. Craig Williams, Sylvia A. Morelli, Desmond C. Ong and Jamil Zaki ( Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 2018[Aug], Vol 115[2], 224-254). In the article, there were several errors in Appendices A and B. The formatting of Appendix A rendered it inaccessible to the reader, the volume and page range for the Williams et al. citation was not updated to reflect final publication information, and two e-mail addresses were not correct...
October 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
David J Johnson, Joseph Cesario, Timothy J Pleskac
Social psychologists have relied on computerized shooting tasks to test whether race influences decisions to shoot. These studies reveal that under some conditions untrained individuals shoot unarmed Black men more than unarmed White men. We modeled the decision to shoot as a sequential sampling process in which people start out with prior biases and accumulate evidence over time until a threshold is reached, prompting a decision. We used this approach to test how prior information (a proxy for police dispatch information) and police experience influence racial bias in shooting decisions...
October 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Jennifer Strafford Stevens, Tanja Jovanovic
Social functioning is a key component of recovery after a potentially traumatic experience, and the buffering role of the social support in trauma resilience and recovery has been very well documented. Factors contributing to resilience and recovery are notable because although most people will experience a traumatic event during their lifetimes, only 6-10% are diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The relationship between an individual and their social environment is determined both by the quality of the social environment itself, and by the individual's perception and understanding of information conveyed by the other people around them...
September 16, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Md Sahab Uddin, Abdullah Al Mamun, Shinya Takeda, Md Shahid Sarwar, Mst Marium Begum
AIM: Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, representing 60-80% of cases, and ageing is the primary risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this study was to examine the chance of developing dementia (i.e. mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease) among geriatric people in Bangladesh. METHODS: This study included 390 adult citizens of Bangladesh (age range: 60-70 years). The Takeda Three Colors Combination (TTCC) test was used to detect the prevalence of MCI and mild dementia among the subjects, and then the Clinical Dementia Rating was used to determine the level of dementia...
September 16, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Silvia Corchón, Irene Carrillo-López, Omar Cauli
Patients with a neurodevelopmental disorder such as Rett syndrome (RS), as well as their families, have complex needs that affect their quality of life (QoL). Therefore, both families and patients with RS must be provided with multidisciplinary health care that can identify the clinical features that most affect their QoL and mental health risks. The main objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the QoL subdimensions of families affected by RS, including both the parents and children...
September 16, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Abigail Moore, Caroline Croxson, Sara McKelvie, Dan Lasserson, Gail Hayward
Background: The world has an ageing population. Infection is common in older adults; serious infection has a high mortality rate and is associated with unplanned admissions. In the UK, general practitioners (GPs) must identify which older patients require admission to hospital and provide appropriate care and support for those staying at home. Objectives: To explore attitudes of UK GPs towards referring older patients with suspected infection to hospital, how they weigh up the decision to admit against the alternatives and how alternatives to admission could be made more effective...
September 14, 2018: Family Practice
Alexandra D Crosswell, Madhuvanthi Suresh, Eli Puterman, Tara Gruenewald, Jinkook Lee, Elissa S Epel
Objectives: The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) was designed as an interdisciplinary study with a strong focus on health, retirement, and socioeconomic environment, to study their dynamic relationships over time in a sample of mid-life adults. The study includes validated self-report measures and individual items that capture the experiences of stressful events (stressor exposures) and subjective assessments of stress (perceived stress) within specific life domains. Methods: This paper reviews and catalogs the peer-reviewed publications that have used the HRS to examine associations between psychological stress measures and psychological, physical health, and economic outcomes...
September 14, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Alan Shiell, Penelope Hawe, Shane Kavanagh
In the 21 years since social capital first appeared in the public health literature, the evidence base has grown enormously, now reaching 28 systematic reviews encompassing more than 850 individual studies. We summarise this evidence and explain why conclusions relating to both the relationship between social capital and health, and the effectiveness of interventions to promote population health remain elusive and contradictory. A critical factor is the inadequate way that context is treated in the research, and especially how context interacts with efforts to promote health in a dynamic fashion...
September 8, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Mario Morales, Claudia Rafful, Tommi L Gaines, Javier A Cepeda, Daniela Abramovitz, Irina Artamonova, Pieter Baker, Erika Clairgue, Maria Luisa Mittal, Teresita Rocha-Jimenez, Jaime Arredondo, Thomas Kerr, Arnulfo Bañuelos, Steffanie A Strathdee, Leo Beletsky
BACKGROUND: Mexican law permits syringe purchase and possession without prescription. Nonetheless, people who inject drugs (PWID) frequently report arrest for syringe possession. Extrajudicial arrests not only violate human rights, but also significantly increase the risk of blood-borne infection transmission and other health harms among PWID and police personnel. To better understand how police practices contribute to the PWID risk environment, prior research has primarily examined drug user perspectives and experiences...
September 15, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Snehal M Pinto Pereira, Chris Power
BACKGROUND: To identify whether changes in adult health and social factors are associated with simultaneous changes in inactivity. METHODS: Health, social factors and leisure-time inactivity (activity frequency < 1/week) were self-reported at 33y and 50y in the 1958 British birth cohort (N = 12,271). Baseline (33y) health and social factors and also patterns of change in factors 33y-to-50y were related to inactivity 33y-to-50y (never inactive, persistently inactive, deteriorating to inactivity, or improving from inactivity) using multinomial logistic regression...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Hannah M O'Rourke, Laura Collins, Souraya Sidani
BACKGROUND: Older adults are at risk for loneliness, and interventions to promote social connectedness are needed to directly address this problem. The nature of interventions aimed to affect the distinct, subjective concepts of loneliness/social connectedness has not been clearly described. The purpose of this review was to map the literature on interventions and strategies to affect loneliness/social connectedness for older adults. METHODS: A comprehensive scoping review was conducted...
September 15, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Linda A Liang, Ursula Berger, Christian Brand
BACKGROUND: Abundant evidence highlights single parenthood as a common risk factor for depression, anxiety and stress but few studies have comprehensively examined psychosocial factors (adversities), particularly during early parenting. We investigated symptom prevalence and potential risk factors among mothers with very young children. METHODS: Data stem from the 2015 National Psychosocial Burdens Prevalence Study (KiD 0-3). Mothers with children up to 3 years of age (n = 6925) were recruited from random probability-sampled paediatric clinics (n = 271) across Germany and reported on depression or anxiety, general and parenting stress using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4) and Parenting Stress Index (PSI)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Travis W Rusch, Michael W Sears, Michael J Angilletta
Hormones such as glucocorticoids and androgens enable animals to respond adaptively to environmental stressors. For this reason, circulating glucocorticoids became a popular biomarker for estimating the quality of an environment, and circulating androgens are frequently used to indicate social dominance. Here, we show that access to thermal resources influence the hormones and behavior of male lizards (Sceloporus jarrovi). We exposed isolated and paired males to different thermal landscapes, ranging from one large patch of shade to sixteen smaller patches...
September 12, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Piotr Gałecki, Monika Talarowska
Brain diseases are one of the most socially and economically burdening diseases in Europe. Among all brain diseases, more than 60% of social and economic costs are generated by mental disorders (mainly depressive disorders and anxiety disorders). Recurrent depressive disorders have been a significant civilizational problem in recent times. Among the biological and psychological theories explaining the causes of depression, the hypothesis involving an active inflammatory process taking place in a human organism is becoming increasingly important...
June 30, 2018: Psychiatria Polska
Jill A McDonald, Christopher Sroka, Elizabeth Olivares, Merranda Marin, Maria Gurrola, Joseph R Sharkey
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity is 26% among Hispanic children and teenagers and 47% among Hispanic adults. One contributor to obesity is sedentary behavior, such as using electronic screen devices (ie, screens). Low-income and Hispanic youths spend more time using such devices than other youths. METHODS: We interviewed 202 parents of Mexican-origin children aged 6 to 10 years in 2 rural communities near the US-Mexico border to determine screen use among children...
September 13, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Cuicui Li, Jinlin Miao, Xi Gao, Linhong Zheng, Xiangni Su, Hui Hui, Jing Hu
BACKGROUND Primary caregivers for patients with scoliosis suffer from considerable distress and burden. However, a few studies have examined the factors related to burden of caregivers of patients with adolescent scoliosis, particularly in China. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify patient and caregiver characteristics associated with caregiver burden. MATERIAL AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample comprising 87 pairs of patients with adolescent scoliosis and their primary caregivers from July 2014 to October 2016 in Xi'an, China...
September 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Solomon L Woldu, Justin T Matulay, Timothy N Clinton, Nirmish Singla, Yuval Freifeld, Oner Sanli, Laura-Maria Krabbe, Ryan C Hutchinson, Yair Lotan, Hans Hammers, Raquibul Hannan, James Brugarolas, Aditya Bagrodia, Vitaly Margulis
BACKGROUND: The optimal timing of targeted therapy (TT) initiation for metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC) is not clear. We used a nationwide cancer registry to determine clinical and social factors associated with delayed TT and to evaluate the association of a delayed approach with overall survival (OS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study utilizing the National Cancer Data Base from 2006 to 2012 for patients diagnosed with mRCC (clear-cell histology) treated with cytoreductive nephrectomy and TT...
August 25, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Julie Lasselin, Predrag Petrovic, Mats J Olsson, Sofie Paues-Göranson, Mats Lekander, Karin B Jensen, John Axelsson
BACKGROUND: People react very differently when sick, and there are only poor correlations between the intensity of the immune response and sickness behavior. Yet, alternative predictors of the individual differences in sickness are under-investigated. Based on the predictive coding model of placebo responses, where health outcomes are function of bottom-up sensory information and top-down expectancies, we hypothesized that individual differences in behavioral changes during sickness could be explained by individual top-down expectancies and prediction errors...
September 11, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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