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Social factors

David Lawi, Grégory Berra, Jean-Paul Janssens, Paola M Soccal, Dan Adler
Patients with chronic respiratory failure, especially COPD, suffer from a multi-systemic disease with organic, behavioral and social consequences that impact largely beyond the respiratory system. Cognitive impairment is associated with decreased quality of life and increased mortality in the general population, but remains underestimated and poorly studied in chronic respiratory diseases despite their increased prevalence. However, there is growing interest in research on the association between cognitive impairment and chronic respiratory diseases...
November 14, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Mariana Fernandes Souza Gomes, Simone Cardoso Lisboa Pereira, Mery Natali Silva Abreu
The scope of this paper was to evaluate the self-rated health among elderly frequenters of low-budget community restaurants (RP) in Belo Horizonte (BH) and the factors associated with this outcome. It involved a cross-sectional study in all RP and BH cafeteria. The self-rated health was classified as bad and very bad; average; good and very good. Sociodemographic and economic variables were considered to be possible associated factors, as well as those related to physical health and social resources. In the univariate analysis, the Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney tests were used...
November 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Nádia Cristina Pinheiro Rodrigues, Regina Paiva Daumas, Andréa Sobral de Almeida, Gisele O'Dwyer, Mônica Kramer de Noronha Andrade, Matthew Brian Flynn, Valéria Teresa Saraiva Lino
This study describes the spatial-temporal changes of the proportion of ill-defined causes of death in Brazil (1998-2012) and investigates which demographic and socioeconomic factors affect this proportion. We collected information of the proportion of ill-defined causes of death by age (15-59 years), sex, period, locality, and socioeconomic data. We used a multilevel Poisson model to investigate which factors affect the risk of ill-defined causes of death. Unlike states located in the South and Midwest, we detected clusters with high proportional levels of these deaths in states in the North and Northeast regions...
November 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Samuel Völz Lopes, Marcelo Cozzensa da Silva
The aim of the study was to verify the prevalence of stress and associated factors in technical-administrative employees of a federal university of the south of Brazil. The sample was comprised of 371 civil servants. Sociodemographic, behavioral and occupational variables were collected. The occupational stress was measured by the Job Stress Scale (JSS). Data analysis was performed using descriptive and inferential statistics, through bivariate and multivariate analysis. Most subjects were female (57.4%) and the average age and education of the sample were, respectively, 45...
November 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Anderson Siqueira Pereira, Alice Rodrigues Willhelm, Silvia Helena Koller, Rosa Maria Martins de Almeida
The aim of this study was to investigate the risk and protective factors for suicide attempt in emerging adulthood. 189 individuals (18 to 30 years old) participated in the study: 63 had already attempted suicide, 63 had a history of suicidal ideation, and 63 have never had suicidal ideation. They all completed an online research protocol about suicidal attempt and ideation, anxiety, self-esteem, self-efficacy, developmental stressors; social expression, and friendship. Those participants with no history of suicidal attempt showed higher scores of self-efficacy (M = 35...
November 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
János Kállai, Sándor Rózsa, Ernö Hupuczi, Rita Hargitai, Béla Birkás, István Hartung, László Martin, Róbert Herold, Mária Simon
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the Schizotypy Personality Questionnaire - Brief Revised (SPQ-BR) is to help the diagnosis of schizotypial personality disorders within the framework of the DSM-5 and identification of people with an increased vulnerability towards schizophrenia related symptoms. The aim of our current study is twofold; validation of the SPQ-BR's Hungarian adaptation and investigating it's latent structure. METHODS: The sample consisted of 1702 Hungarian university students and university graduated persons...
2018: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
Mary L Held, Kelly Anderson, Daniel Kennedy, Elizabeth Vernon, Jennifer Wilkins, Lisa C Lindley
OBJECTIVE: This study compared maternal risk factors by country of origin for 4,188 Mexican and Guatemalan unauthorized immigrants. METHOD: Data were drawn from 2007 to 2011 public birth certificate records of unauthorized immigrant mothers residing in Nebraska at the time of delivery. The study sample included 4,188 women ages 18 years or older and originating from either Mexico or Guatemala. Risk factors, including age risk, preexisting health risks, pregnancy health risks, and prior pregnancy risks, were examined by country of origin...
November 14, 2018: Hispanic Health Care International: the Official Journal of the National Association of Hispanic Nurses
Sashia Bak-Nielsen, Cecilia H Ramlau-Hansen, Anders Ivarsen, Oleguer Plana-Ripoll, Jesper Hjortdal
PURPOSE: To study sociodemographic factors, associated diseases and survival of Danish keratoconus patients. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with keratoconus 1977-2015 (n = 2679) were matched to 10 persons who had not been diagnosed with keratoconus (n = 26 790). Conditional logistic regression assessed whether sociodemographic factors and specific systemic diseases were associated with the odds of keratoconus. Mortality was assessed with time-to-event analysis...
November 13, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Yuan Wang, Jia Huo, Dingwei Zhang, Gang Hu, Yanfei Zhang
Psoriasis is a chronic disease which carries the emotional and social burden, promotes joint disability and raises comorbidity possibility in patients. Obesity is closely correlated with the occurrence of psoriasis and adipokines produced by adipose tissues were found to be critical culprits. Chemerin is one of them and its expression was increased in patients with psoriatic arthritis. In our hypothesis, chemerin might act on keratinocytes and promote an inflammatory response, which plays an essential role in psoriatic epidermis...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Kaja Tulatz
Since overweight and obesity have been framed as one of the main contemporary health challenges in industrialized countries, it has become a matter of public health efforts. While the belief that obese individuals are personally responsible for their body weight prevails in public opinion, evidence-based health science widely acknowledges that obesity is significantly influenced by socio-economic factors and thus that prevention requires structural changes. This constellation bears the chance of politicizing an issue formerly conceived of as private which really is dependent on societal contingencies, such as the particular availability of food...
November 13, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Aracelis Z Torres, Darcy Phelan-Emrick, Carlos Castillo-Salgado
Introduction: Though cancer research has traditionally centered on individual-level exposures, there is growing interest in the geography of both cancer and its risk factors. This geographic and epidemiological research has consistently shown that cancer outcomes and their known causal exposures exhibit geographic variation that coincide with area-level socioeconomic status and the composition of neighborhoods. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate geospatial variation for female breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer incidence in Baltimore City...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Anis Sfendla, Dina Lemrani, Britt Hedman Ahlström, Meftaha Senhaji, Nóra Kerekes
Background: Substance use is linked to biological, environmental, and social factors. This study provides insights on protective and risk factors for drug dependence in two Moroccan, high-risk, male samples. Methods: Data from the "Mental and Somatic Health without borders" (MeSHe) survey were utilized in the present study. The MeSHe survey assesses somatic and mental health parameters by self-report from prison inmates ( n = 177) and outpatients from an addiction institution ( n = 54)...
2018: PeerJ
Maria Vittoria Dieci, Francesco Massari, Raffaele Giusti, Alessandro Inno, Giuseppe Lombardi, Laura Noto, Antonio Passaro, Filippo Pietrantonio, Francesca Spada, Monica Valente, Massimo Di Maio, Valter Torri
Background: The professional gender gap is increasingly recognised in oncology. We explored gender issues perception and gender influence on professional satisfaction/gratification among young Italian oncologists. Methods: Italian oncologists aged ≤40 years and members of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology were invited to participate in an online survey addressing workload/burnout, satisfaction in professional abilities and relations, relevant factors for professional gratification, and gender barriers...
2018: ESMO Open
Mildren Del Sueldo, Nieves Martell-Claros, María Abad-Cardiel, Judith M Zilberman, Raul Marchegiani, Cristina Fernández-Pérez
Aim: The aim of this study is to find whether the worsening of health perception was related to the menopausal (MNP) state or to its negative consequences on cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF) and the presence of depression/anxiety. Methods: In this study, 2,562 women, 1,357 (53%) MNP and 1,205 (47%) non-MNP, were analyzed. Blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index, waist circumference, and depression/anxiety screening using the Hospital Depression/Anxiety Scale (HADS) were measured...
2018: International Journal of Women's Health
Astrid Fjell, Berit Seiger Cronfalk, Nina Carstens, Arvid Rongve, Lars M Rosseland Kvinge, Åke Seiger, Knut Skaug, Anne-Marie Boström
Background: Preventive home visits (PHV) may contribute to identify risks and needs in older people, and thereby delay the onset of functional decline and illness, otherwise often followed by home care or admission to hospital or nursing homes. There is a need to increase knowledge about which factors are associated with different risk areas among older people, so that the PHV questionnaire focuses on relevant tests and questions to make the PHV more specific and have a clear focus and purpose...
2018: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Cyril C Grueter, Andrew M Robbins, Didier Abavandimwe, Veronica Vecellio, Felix Ndagijimana, Tara S Stoinski, Martha M Robbins
The effect of feeding competition on foraging efficiency is an important link between ecological factors and the social organization of gregarious species. We examined the effects of group size on daily travel distances, activity budgets, and energy intake of mountain gorillas in Rwanda. We measured daily travel distances of five groups, activity budgets of 79 gorillas in nine groups, and energy intake data for 23 adult females in three groups over a 16-month period. Travel distances and the proportion of time spent traveling increased with size for most groups, which would be expected if their foraging efficiency is limited by intragroup feeding competition...
November 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maike G Sweegers, Laurien M Buffart, Wouke M van Veldhuizen, Edwin Geleijn, Henk M W Verheul, Johannes Brug, Mai J M Chinapaw, Teatske M Altenburg
BACKGROUND: Previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses demonstrated beneficial effects of exercise during or following cancer treatment on quality of life (QoL). Aiming to understand how exercise contributes to a patient's QoL, we examined patients' perspectives via a process called concept mapping. This unique method provides structure and objectivity to rich qualitative data. METHODS: Patients with cancer who were participating in an exercise program were invited to enroll...
November 13, 2018: Oncologist
Sarah Larkins, Karen Johnston, John C Hogenbirk, Sara Willems, Salwa Elsanousi, Marykutty Mammen, Kaatje Van Roy, Jehu Iputo, Fortunato L Cristobal, Jennene Greenhill, Charlie Labarda, Andre-Jacques Neusy
BACKGROUND: Understanding the impact of selection and medical education on practice intentions and eventual practice is an essential component of training a fit-for-purpose health workforce distributed according to population need. Existing evidence comes largely from high-income settings and neglects contextual factors. This paper describes the practice intentions of entry and exit cohorts of medical students across low and high income settings and the correlation of student characteristics with these intentions...
November 13, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Ha Kyun Chang, Sang-Soo Seo, Jun-Pyo Myong, Jung-Wan Koo, Jinhee Jeong
Background. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with the national cervical cancer screening behaviors of married female immigrants living in South Korea. Methods. The present study dataset was collected by the National Health Insurance Services in 2014⁻2015. A final study population of 15,935 was considered eligible for inclusion in this study if they met the criteria for participation in the national cervical cancer screening program in 2014⁻2015. Results. Of the 15,935 subjects, 7837 (49%) participated in cervical cancer screening...
November 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Janette Leroux, Kathryn Morrison, Mark Rosenberg
Background : Food insecurity research has been mainly examined among young people. The root causes of food insecurity are closely linked to poverty, and social policies and income supplements, including public and private pensions, have been shown to sharply curb food insecurity into later life. However, social, economic, and political trends that are closely connected to social and health inequalities threaten to undermine the conditions that have limited food insecurity among older people until now. Exploring the prevalence and predictors of food insecurity among older people across Canada has important implications for domestic policies concerning health, healthcare, and social welfare...
November 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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