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Social factors

Ellen Van Den Heuvel, Eric Manders, Ann Swillen, Inge Zink
BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a genetic condition associated with a highly variable phenotypic expression. During childhood speech and language deficits are commonly observed. Findings of cross-sectional studies suggest syndrome-specific and changing language profiles, but a longitudinal approach to identify developmental changes is still lacking to date. AIMS: The present study aimed to delineate language characteristics and trajectories by comparing the performance of Dutch-speaking school-aged children with 22q11...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
Helen Kerr, Jayne Price, Honor Nicholl, Peter O'Halloran
BACKGROUND: Improvements in care and treatment have led to more young adults with life-limiting conditions living beyond childhood, necessitating a transition from children's to adult services. Given the lack of evidence on interventions to promote transition, it is important that those creating and evaluating interventions develop a theoretical understanding of how such complex interventions may work. OBJECTIVES: To develop theory about the interventions, and organisational and human factors that help or hinder a successful transition from children's to adult services, drawing on the experience, knowledge, and insights of young adults with life-limiting conditions, their parents/carers, and service providers...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Lindsay A Taliaferro, Barbara J McMorris, Marla E Eisenberg
We examined associations between social connections and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among transgender/gender non-conforming (TGNC) youth. Data came from the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey (N = 2168). Logistic regression analyses determined connectedness factors associated with any past-year NSSI and repetitive NSSI, as well as moderating effects of significant connectedness factors on different risk factors. Almost 55% of TGNC students engaged in NSSI, and 40% of self-injurers reported repetitive self-injury...
July 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Jennifer Lochner, Robin Lankton, Kirsten Rindfleish, Brian Arndt, Jennifer Edgoose
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Improvement in population health has become a key goal of health systems and payers in the United States. Because 80% of health outcomes are driven by social determinants of health beyond medical care and health care access, such improvements require attention to factors outside of the conventional areas of expertise for clinicians. Yet primary care physicians often graduate from training programs with few skills in population and community health. METHODS: In 2011, the University of Wisconsin Department of Family Medicine began transformative work to become a Department of Family Medicine and Community Health (DFMCH)...
July 2018: Family Medicine
JoJo Yan Yan Kwok, Man Auyeung, Helen Yue Lai Chan
PURPOSE: Parkinson's disease (PD) results in a range of dysfunctions and disabilities as it progresses to later stages. All these not only affect a patient's physical well-being but also emotional, social, and spiritual well-being. To tailor interventions that can address these concerns, this study aimed to examine the impacts of PD on their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study with 123 PD patients. METHODS: Measures included the following: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Unified PD Rating Scale-Motor Examination, Hoehn and Yahr Stage, PD Questionnaire-8...
July 13, 2018: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
Nicholas Hertz, Eva Wiese
OBJECTIVE: The authors investigate whether nonhuman agents, such as computers or robots, produce a social conformity effect in human operators and examine to what extent potential conformist behavior varies as a function of the human-likeness of the group members and the type of task that has to be performed. BACKGROUND: People conform due to normative and/or informational motivations in human-human interactions, and conformist behavior is modulated by factors related to the individual as well as factors associated with the group, context, and culture...
July 1, 2018: Human Factors
R Zhang, S-J Zhang, X-J Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of postoperative functional exercise on patients who underwent percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy for lumbar disc herniation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January to May 2011, patients who had a lumbar disc herniation and then underwent percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy were divided randomly into two groups: the intervention group (n=46) and the control group (n=46). The intervention group conducted early functional exercises of passive and autonomic activities after their operations, while the control group conducted routine functional exercises after their operations...
July 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Suzanne D Thomas, Sandra C Mobley, Jodi L Hudgins, Donald E Sutherland, Sandra B Inglett, Brittany L Ange
The purpose of the study was to describe conditions and dynamics in the lives of high-risk, low-income, Southern United States prenatal-interconceptional women ( n = 37) in a home visiting program that promoted maternal health literacy progression. In the Life Course Health Development (LCHD) Model, conditions were risk and protective factors that impacted health. Dynamics drove the complex, epigenetic relationships between risk and protective factors. Maternal health literacy promotion helped participants address conditions and dynamics to create positive life changes...
July 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Akhil Soman ThekkePurakkal, Ashley I Naimi, Sreenath A Madathil, Shahul H Kumamangalam Puthiyannal, Gopalakrishnan Netuveli, Amanda Sacker, Nicolas F Schlecht, Belinda Nicolau
OBJECTIVES: The incidence of oral cancer has been rapidly increasing in India, calling for evidence contributing to a deeper understanding of its determinants. Although disadvantageous life-course socioeconomic position (SEP) is independently associated with the risk of these cancers, the explanatory mechanisms remain unclear. Possible pathways may be better understood by testing which life-course model most influences oral cancer risk. We estimated the association between life-course SEP and oral cancer risk under three life-course models: critical period, accumulation and social mobility...
July 13, 2018: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Oytun Erbas, Mümin Alper Erdogan, Asghar Khalilnezhad, Fulya Tuzcu Gürkan, Gürkan Yiğittürk, Ayfer Meral, Dilek Taskiran
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated an association between maternal metabolic conditions and general developmental disturbances of the offspring. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the influence of long-term maternal fructose intake during gestation and lactation on neurobehavioral development of rat offspring. METHODS: Twelve female Sprague Dawley rats were received either 30% fructose enriched water (n = 6) or regular tap water (control, n = 6) for 12 weeks...
July 9, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Markus Haacker, Charles Birungi
Understanding barriers to access to essential health services is critical for devising effective strategies to improve access and align such strategies with national health and development policy objectives. However, while considerable empirical evidence exists on correlates of HIV prevalence and populations at risk of contracting HIV, there is very little such evidence on access to antiretroviral therapy. This paper addresses this gap through a cross-sectional analysis of coverage of antiretroviral therapy and its correlates across 47 counties in Kenya...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Smart Z Mabweazara, Clemens Ley, Lloyd L Leach
Physical activity can be used for the effective and comprehensive management of HIV and AIDS. Social support and socio-economic status (SES) are two factors that shape physical activity behaviours. Individuals of low SES carry a disproportionate burden of the HIV and AIDS epidemic. In addition, limited resources constitute socio-ecological barriers predisposing such individuals to physical inactivity. The purpose of this narrative review is to examine the available literature on physical activity, social support and SES and to generate recommendations for designing and implementing physical activity interventions targeting people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) of low SES...
July 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Süleyman Yıldırım, Seher Nazlı Kazaz, Hüseyin Salih Semiz, Tuğba Yavuzşen, Işıl Somalı, Hülya Ellidokuz, İlhan Öztop
Patients followed up with a cancer diagnosis must be well-informed about cancer to be able to cope with it. Besides, informing the relatives of the cancer patients who are also experiencing the same process about the diagnosis and follow-up period of cancer is highly important. In the current study, it was aimed to evaluate the information sources about cancer which are referred to by relatives of cancer patients. Three hundred ninety-one cancer patient relatives were included in medical oncology clinic between May 1 and June 30, 2015...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Rikke Wesselhoeft, Argyris Stringaris, Christian Sibbersen, Rune Voss Kristensen, Anders Bo Bojesen, Ardesheer Talati
The symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), or oppositionality, seem to constitute a three-dimensional structure of angry/irritable, vindictiveness and argumentative behavior dimensions. Also, subjects with oppositionality are characterized by different comorbidity and longitudinal trajectories, suggesting that they could be divided into subtypes. This study is the first to examine the dimensions and subtypes of oppositionality in Nordic children. Study participants included 3435 children aged 7-10 years from the Danish National Birth Cohort...
July 12, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Jennifer L Moss, Jeanne Murphy, Virginia L Filiaci, Lari B Wenzel, Lori Minasian, Sarah M Temkin
PURPOSE: Social determinants may influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among women with ovarian cancer, potentially creating disparities in clinical outcomes. We investigated the relationship between HRQOL and social determinants of health, including travel distance to access cancer care and health insurance type, among women participating in a randomized trial of primary adjuvant treatment for advanced ovarian cancer. METHODS: The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Ovarian (FACT-O) questionnaire captured HRQOL (physical well-being, functional well-being, ovarian-specific, and trial outcome index [TOI]) prior to chemotherapy (baseline), during the trial, and 84 weeks after initiation of chemotherapy for women with advanced epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer...
July 12, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Sarah Browne, Tarweh Carter, Risa Eckes, Greg Grandits, Melvin Johnson, Irene Moore, Laura McNay
Introduction: This article describes a retrospective review of participant follow-up and retention strategies in the Partnership for Research on the Ebola Virus in Liberia (PREVAIL) I Vaccine Trial. It illustrates and analyzes strategies used to retain participants in an emergency clinical research response vaccine trial conducted during the 2014 Ebola outbreak in Liberia. Methods: An anecdotal review of participant retention strategies developed and employed during the PREVAIL I vaccine trial...
September 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Stacy Sterling, Felicia Chi, Constance Weisner, Richard Grant, Alix Pruzansky, Sandy Bui, Philip Madvig, Robert Pearl
A high proportion of U.S. health care costs are attributable to a relatively small proportion of patients. Understanding behavioral and social factors that predict initial and persistent high costs for these "high utilizers" is critical for health policy-makers. This prospective observational study was conducted at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), an integrated healthcare delivery system with 4.1 million members. A stratified random sample of high-cost vs. non-high-cost adult KPNC members matched by age, gender, race/ethnicity, type of health insurance, and medical severity ( N  = 378) was interviewed between 3/14/2013 and 3/20/2014...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Robert A Bednarczyk, Allison Chamberlain, Kara Mathewson, Daniel A Salmon, Saad B Omer
For adequate provision of preventive services, there is an interplay between activities at the healthcare practice, healthcare provider, and patient levels of the clinical encounter. Commonly used health promotion and behavior theoretical models address some of these three levels, but none fully account for all three. Building off of key components of many existing theoretical models, including the Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behavior/Theory of Reasoned Action, Social Cognitive Theory, Social Ecological Model, and the Systems Model of Clinical Preventive Care, we describe the development of the P3 (Practice-, Provider-, and Patient-level) Model for preventive care interventions...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Anne Purcell, Thomas Buckley, Jennie King, Wendy Moyle, Andrea P Marshall
Background: The physical, occupational, social and psychological impact of chronic leg ulcers (CLUs) on an individual is considerable. Wound-related pain (WRP), the most common symptom, is frequently reported as moderate to severe and mostly occurs at dressing change. WRP pain may not be alleviated by oral analgesics alone. Persistent poorly controlled leg ulcer pain can negatively impact wound healing and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods: A pilot, parallel group, non-blinded, randomised controlled trial was conducted in six procedure clinics located in a public community nursing service in New South Wales, Australia to evaluate eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA®) on painful CLUs when used as a primary dressing...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Kwamena Sekyi Dickson, Eugene Kofuor Maafo Darteh, Akwasi Kumi-Kyereme, Bright Opoku Ahinkorah
Background: The International Safe Motherhood initiative provides a focus for programmes and research to improve maternal health in low - income countries. Antenatal care is one of the key pillars of the initiative. This study sought to examine the association between background characteristics and choice of skilled providers of antenatal care services in Ghana. Methods: The study used data from the six rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Binary logistic regression models were applied to analyse the data...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
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