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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449529/do-hospitals-need-oncological-critical-care-units
#1
EDITORIAL
Abby Koch, William Checkley
Since the inception of critical care as a formal discipline in the late 1950s, we have seen rapid specialization to many types of intensive care units (ICUs) to accommodate evolving life support technologies and novel therapies in various disciplines of medicine. Indeed, the field has expanded such that specialized ICUs currently exist to address critical care problems in medicine, cardiology, neurology and neurosurgery, trauma, burns, organ transplant and cardiothoracic surgeries. Specialization does not only need new infrastructure, but also training and staffing of health care providers, ancillary staff, and development and implementation of processes of care...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448753/road-traffic-injury-in-sub-saharan-african-countries-a-systematic-review-and-summary-of-observational-studies
#2
João Ricardo N Vissoci, Daniel J Shogilev, Elizabeth Krebs, Luciano de Andrade, Igor Fiorese Vieira, Nicole Toomey, Adelia Portero Batilana, Michael Haglund, Catherine A Staton
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate, through a systematic review of hospital based studies, the proportion of road traffic injuries and fatalities in SSA. METHODS: In accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines we searched the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Africa-Wide Information, Global Health, and Web of Science. Articles were eligible if they measured proportion of RTIs in SSA by using hospital based studies. In addition, a reference and citation analysis was conducted as well as a data quality assessment...
April 27, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448460/assessing-greenhouse-gas-emissions-and-health-co-benefits-a-structured-review-of-lifestyle-related-climate-change-mitigation-strategies
#3
REVIEW
Vivian G M Quam, Joacim Rocklöv, Mikkel B M Quam, Rebekah A I Lucas
This is the first structured review to identify and summarize research on lifestyle choices that improve health and have the greatest potential to mitigate climate change. Two literature searches were conducted on: (1) active transport health co-benefits, and (2) dietary health co-benefits. Articles needed to quantify both greenhouse gas emissions and health or nutrition outcomes resulting from active transport or diet changes. A data extraction tool (PRISMA) was created for article selection and evaluation...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448328/hospice-or-community-network-choices-in-end-of-life-care-in-jamaica
#4
Roger Lee Mendoza
AIM: National and international healthcare agencies and organizations typically attribute slow or haphazard growth in hospice and palliative care in developing countries to various resource constraints. This study provides evidence of the substantial and widening gap between policy advocacy and individual decision-making concerning end-of-life care. It does so by establishing the incentives and risks that underlie choices of patients and providers against the relative scarcity of hospices in these countries...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Evidence-based Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448200/better-together-the-making-and-maturation-of-the-palliative-care-research-cooperative-group
#5
Christine L Ritchie, Kathryn I Pollak, Karen A Kehl, Jeri L Miller, Jean S Kutner
OBJECTIVE: To describe the growth and outcomes of the Palliative Care Research Cooperative Group (PCRC). BACKGROUND: Despite advances, significant gaps remain in the evidence base to inform care for people with serious illness. To generate this needed evidence and bolster research capacity, the Palliative Care Research Cooperative (PCRC) group was formed. METHODS: The PCRC supports investigators in the conduct of multisite clinical studies...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448003/standardized-method-for-measuring-collection-efficiency-from-wipe-sampling-of-trace-explosives
#6
Jennifer R Verkouteren, Jeffrey A Lawrence, Matthew E Staymates, Edward Sisco
One of the limiting steps to detecting traces of explosives at screening venues is effective collection of the sample. Wipe-sampling is the most common procedure for collecting traces of explosives, and standardized measurements of collection efficiency are needed to evaluate and optimize sampling protocols. The approach described here is designed to provide this measurement infrastructure, and controls most of the factors known to be relevant to wipe-sampling. Three critical factors (the applied force, travel distance, and travel speed) are controlled using an automated device...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447316/mining-and-environmental-health-disparities-in-native-american-communities
#7
REVIEW
Johnnye Lewis, Joseph Hoover, Debra MacKenzie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: More than a century of hard rock mining has left a legacy of >160,000 abandoned mines in the Western USA that are home to the majority of Native American lands. This article describes how abrogation of treaty rights, ineffective policies, lack of infrastructure, and a lack of research in Native communities converge to create chronic exposure, ill-defined risks, and tribal health concerns. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent results show that Native Americans living near abandoned uranium mines have an increased likelihood for kidney disease and hypertension, and an increased likelihood of developing multiple chronic diseases linked to their proximity to the mine waste and activities bringing them in contact with the waste...
April 26, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447120/case-studies-in-modelling-control-in-food-processes
#8
J Glassey, A Barone, G A Montague, V Sabou
This chapter discusses the importance of modelling and control in increasing food process efficiency and ensuring product quality. Various approaches to both modelling and control in food processing are set in the context of the specific challenges in this industrial sector and latest developments in each area are discussed. Three industrial case studies are used to demonstrate the benefits of advanced measurement, modelling and control in food processes. The first case study illustrates the use of knowledge elicitation from expert operators in the process for the manufacture of potato chips (French fries) and the consequent improvements in process control to increase the consistency of the resulting product...
April 27, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446725/comprehensive-analysis-of-interleukin-8-gene-polymorphisms-and-periodontitis-susceptibility
#9
Xiao-Bing Ni, Cheng Jia, He-Dong Yu, Yan-Qin Li, Xian-Tao Zeng, Wei-Dong Leng
BACKGROUND: Associations between interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene polymorphisms and periodontitis susceptibility have been investigated in many published studies, but the conclusions are still inconsistent. Therefore, we performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to review which polymorphisms have been researched and to obtain a precise result of the same polymorphism from different studies. RESULTS: Finally 10 publications involving 1938 patients and 1569 controls were yielded, including 12 polymorphisms...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446682/smartphone-controlled-optogenetically-engineered-cells-enable-semiautomatic-glucose-homeostasis-in-diabetic-mice
#10
REVIEW
Jiawei Shao, Shuai Xue, Guiling Yu, Yuanhuan Yu, Xueping Yang, Yu Bai, Sucheng Zhu, Linfeng Yang, Jianli Yin, Yidan Wang, Shuyong Liao, Sanwei Guo, Mingqi Xie, Martin Fussenegger, Haifeng Ye
With the increasingly dominant role of smartphones in our lives, mobile health care systems integrating advanced point-of-care technologies to manage chronic diseases are gaining attention. Using a multidisciplinary design principle coupling electrical engineering, software development, and synthetic biology, we have engineered a technological infrastructure enabling the smartphone-assisted semiautomatic treatment of diabetes in mice. A custom-designed home server SmartController was programmed to process wireless signals, enabling a smartphone to regulate hormone production by optically engineered cells implanted in diabetic mice via a far-red light (FRL)-responsive optogenetic interface...
April 26, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446574/the-use-of-genexpert-remnants-for-drug-resistance-profiling-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-libreville-gabon
#11
Amel Kévin Alame-Emane, Catherine Pierre-Audigier, Oriane Cordelia Aboumegone-Biyogo, Amandine Nzoghe-Mveang, Véronique Cadet-Daniel, Christophe Sola, Joël Fleury Djoba-Siawaya, Brigitte Gicquel, Howard E Takiff
Multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis are major problems in global health. The GeneXpertMTB/RIF (Xpert) rapidly detects resistance to rifampicin (RIF-R), but detection of the additional resistance that defines MDR and XDR-TB, and for molecular epidemiology, specimen cultures and biosafe infrastructure are generally required. We sought to determine whether the remnants of sputa prepared for Xpert could be used directly to find mutations associated with drug resistance and for molecular epidemiology, and thus provide a precise characterization of MDR-TB cases in countries lacking BSL3 facilities for M...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445651/herbicide-targets-and-detoxification-proteins-in-sugarcane-from-gene-assembly-to-structure-modelling
#12
Dyfed Lloyd Evans, Shailesh Vinay Joshi
In a genome context, sugarcane is a classic orphan crop, in that no genome and only very few genes have been assembled. We have devised a novel exome assembly methodology that has allowed us to assemble and characterize 49 genes that serve as herbicide targets, safener interacting proteins and members of herbicide detoxification pathways within the sugarcane genome. We have structurally modelled the products of each of these genes, as well as determining allelic, genomic and RNA-Seq based polymorphisms for each gene...
April 26, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445642/the-predictive-power-of-clean-bed-filtration-theory-for-fecal-indicator-bacteria-removal-in-stormwater-biofilters
#13
Emily Parker, Megan A Rippy, Andrew Mehring, Brandon Winfrey, Richard F Ambrose, Lisa A Levin, Stanley B Grant
Green infrastructure (also referred to as low impact development, or LID) has the potential to transform urban stormwater runoff from an environmental threat to a valuable water resource. In this paper we focus on the removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB, a pollutant responsible for runoff-associated inland and coastal beach closures) in stormwater biofilters (a common type of green infrastructure). Drawing on a combination of previously published and new laboratory studies of FIB removal in biofilters, we find that 66% of the variance in FIB removal rates can be explained by clean bed filtration theory (CBFT, 31%), antecedent dry period (14%), study effect (8%), biofilter age (7%), and the presence or absence of shrubs (6%)...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445546/a-coral-algal-phase-shift-in-mesoamerica-not-driven-by-changes-in-herbivorous-fish-abundance
#14
Jesús Ernesto Arias-González, Tak Fung, Robert M Seymour, Joaquín Rodrigo Garza-Pérez, Gilberto Acosta-González, Yves-Marie Bozec, Craig R Johnson
Coral-algal phase shifts in which coral cover declines to low levels and is replaced by algae have often been documented on coral reefs worldwide. This has motivated coral reef management responses that include restriction and regulation of fishing, e.g. herbivorous fish species. However, there is evidence that eutrophication and sedimentation can be at least as important as a reduction in herbivory in causing phase shifts. These threats arise from coastal development leading to increased nutrient and sediment loads, which stimulate algal growth and negatively impact corals respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445398/consensus-based-cooperative-control-based-on-pollution-sensing-and-traffic-information-for-urban-traffic-networks
#15
Antonio Artuñedo, Raúl M Del Toro, Rodolfo E Haber
Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks...
April 26, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445279/promoter-hypermethylation-of-mgmt-gene-may-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-gastric-cancer-a-prisma-compliant-meta-analysis
#16
Zongxin Zhang, Shaojun Xin, Min Gao, Yunxiang Cai
BECKGROUND: The association of MGMT (O-methyguanine deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase) promoter hypermethylation with gastric cancer (GC) risk has been studied extensively, but the results remained unclear. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate whether promoter hypermethylation of the MGMT gene contributed to gastric pathogenesis. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified by retrieving the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445270/pooled-analysis-on-the-necessity-of-random-4-quadrant-cervical-biopsies-and-endocervical-curettage-in-women-with-positive-screening-but-negative-colposcopy
#17
Shang-Ying Hu, Wen-Hua Zhang, Shu-Min Li, Nan Li, Man-Ni Huang, Qin-Jing Pan, Xun Zhang, Ying Han, Fang-Hui Zhao, Wen Chen, You-Lin Qiao
Controversy remains over whether random cervical biopsies and endocervical curettage (ECC) should be used in women with positive screening but negative colposcopy. Our paper aims to determine the indications for random biopsies and ECC among these screened positive women.Three thousand two hundred thirteen women with any positive screening test result but negative colposcopy, who received random 4-quadrant biopsies, were pooled from 17 population-based cervical cancer screening studies done in China from 1999 to 2008...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445263/acupuncture-for-enhancing-early-recovery-of-bowel-function-in-cancer-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#18
Yi-Hua Liu, Yang Ye, Jia-Bin Zheng, Xue-Qian Wang, Ying Zhang, Hong-Sheng Lin
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients undergoing surgical procedure often suffer from bowel dysfunction and postoperative ileus (POI). Cancer management for early recovery of bowel function is still a challenging topic. Acupuncture has been commonly used in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of acupuncture therapy to reduce the duration of POI and enhance bowel function in cancer patients. METHODS: We will systematically screen all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published through electronically and hand searching...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445260/association-of-caga-epiya-d-or-epiya-c-phosphorylation-sites-with-peptic-ulcer-and-gastric-cancer-risks-a-meta-analysis
#19
Qiuping Li, Jingwei Liu, Yuehua Gong, Yuan Yuan
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, studies have focused on the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) cytotoxin associated gene A protein (CagA) Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA)-D motifs or multiple EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) or gastric cancer (GC) risk. However, the conclusions have been inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate whether 1 CagA EPIYA-D motif or multiple EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites were associated with PUD or GC risk...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445160/association-between-mmp2-1306-c-t-polymorphism-and-prostate-cancer-susceptibility-a-meta-analysis-based-on-3906-subjects
#20
Kaiping Zhang, Xianguo Chen, Jun Zhou, Cheng Yang, Meng Zhang, Min Chao, Li Zhang, Chaozhao Liang
Numerous investigations have addressed the correlation between MMP2-1306C/T polymorphism and prostate cancer (PCa) susceptibility. However, these conclusions were controversial. Thus, we conducted this current meta-analysis based on six studies from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China Biology Medicine disc (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) up to October 21st, 2016. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the strength of the correlations. Additionally, different subgroup analyses and publication bias tests were performed...
April 8, 2017: Oncotarget
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