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Harriet Mortimer, Haytham Kubba
The National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death recently conducted a large, robust study investigating tracheostomy care for patients in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. They found up to 31% of tracheostomy patients experience a complication at some stage in their care, many of which were serious. This study aims to explore the nature of adverse events and complications affecting tracheostomy patients across the diverse hospitals of NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde (NHSGGC) including both adult and paediatric populations over a 6-year period between 2008 and 2014...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Jorge Mejia, Ana Claudia Camargo Miranda, Ana Claudia Ranucci Durante, Larissa Rolim de Oliveira, Marycel Rosa Felisa Figols de Barboza, Katerin Taboada Rosell, Daniele Pereira Jardim, Alexandre Holthausen Campos, Marilia Alves Dos Reis, Marcela Forli Catanoso, Orfa Yineth Galvis-Alonso, Francisco Romero Cabral
Objective: To present the result of upgrading a clinical gamma-camera to be used to obtain in vivo tomographic images of small animal organs, and its application to register cardiac, renal and neurological images. Methods: An updated version of the miniSPECT upgrading device was built, which is composed of mechanical, electronic and software subsystems. The device was attached to a Discovery VH (General Electric Healthcare) gamma-camera, which was retired from the clinical service and installed at the Centro de Imagem Pré-Clínica of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein...
July 2016: Einstein
Yan-Yan Xu, Yu-Han Tang, Xiao-Ping Guo, Jing Wang, Ping Yao
Studies examining the association of hemochromatosis (HFE) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) yielded inconsistent results. Thus, we performed a metaanalysis to investigate whether the variations in HFE gene increase the risk of ALD. The studies published up to Feb. 2014 were identified by searching PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, which was complemented by screening the references of the retrieved studies. For all genotypes and alleles, the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to the heterogeneity were pooled using fixed-effect model...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Racha Fadlallah, Fadi El-Jardali, Farah Annan, Hayat Azzam, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: A recent systematic review suggested that drug registrations and onsite quality inspections may be effective in reducing the prevalence of counterfeit and substandard drugs. However, simply replicating the most effective interventions is problematic, as it denotes implementing the intervention without further adaptation. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to systematically review the evidence beyond effectiveness for systems-level interventions to combat or prevent drug counterfeiting...
2016: Pharmaceutical Medicine
Sanjeev Kumar Ujjain, Pritam Kumar Roy, Sumana Kumar, Subhash Singha, Krishnacharya Khare
Alloys, specifically steel, are considered as the workhorse of our society and are inimitable engineering materials in the field of infrastructure, industry and possesses significant applications in our daily life. However, creating a robust synthetic metallic surface that repels various liquids has remained extremely challenging. The wettability of a solid surface is known to be governed by its geometric nano-/micro structure and the chemical composition. Here, we are demonstrating a facile and economical way to generate copper oxide micro-nano structures with spherical (0D), needle (1D) and hierarchical cauliflower (3D) morphologies on galvanized steel substrates using a simple chemical bath deposition method...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wolfgang Kuchinke, Christian Krauth, René Bergmann, Töresin Karakoyun, Astrid Woollard, Irene Schluender, Benjamin Braasch, Martin Eckert, Christian Ohmann
BACKGROUND: In an unprecedented rate data in the life sciences is generated and stored in many different databases. An ever increasing part of this data is human health data and therefore falls under data protected by legal regulations. As part of the BioMedBridges project, which created infrastructures that connect more than 10 ESFRI research infrastructures (RI), the legal and ethical prerequisites of data sharing were examined employing a novel and pragmatic approach. METHODS: We employed concepts from computer science to create legal requirement clusters that enable legal interoperability between databases for the areas of data protection, data security, Intellectual Property (IP) and security of biosample data...
July 7, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Sarah Brudler, Karsten Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Michael Zwicky Hauschild, Martin Rygaard
Expected increases in pluvial flooding, due to climatic changes, require large investments in the retrofitting of cities to keep damage at an acceptable level. Many cities have investigated the possibility of implementing stormwater management (SWM) systems which are multi-functional and consist of different elements interacting to achieve desired safety levels. Typically, an economic assessment is carried out in the planning phase, while environmental sustainability is given little or no attention. In this paper, life cycle assessment is used to quantify environmental impacts of climate change adaptation strategies...
October 11, 2016: Water Research
Kegong Diao, Chris Sweetapple, Raziyeh Farmani, Guangtao Fu, Sarah Ward, David Butler
Evaluating and enhancing resilience in water infrastructure is a crucial step towards more sustainable urban water management. As a prerequisite to enhancing resilience, a detailed understanding is required of the inherent resilience of the underlying system. Differing from traditional risk analysis, here we propose a global resilience analysis (GRA) approach that shifts the objective from analysing multiple and unknown threats to analysing the more identifiable and measurable system responses to extreme conditions, i...
October 4, 2016: Water Research
M H Romero, L F Uribe-Velásquez, J A Sánchez, A A Rayas-Amor, G C Miranda-de la Lama
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of abattoir type (conventional abattoir -CA- versus modern abattoir -MA-) on stress parameters and risk factors for high muscle pH in Colombia. A total of 522 Zebu young bulls were studied in two groups: 285 at CA, and 237 at MA. Blood samples were taken to measure cortisol, glucose, lactate, creatine kinase, β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea, haematocrit, leukocytes and N/L ratio. Cattle were monitored during the unloading, lairage, handling and stunning...
October 11, 2016: Meat Science
Hongbin Huang, Cong Peng, Yong Liu, Xu Liu, Qicong Chen, Zunnan Huang
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. Previous publications have investigated the association of NOS1 and ABCB1 polymorphisms with PD risk. However, those studies have provided some contradictory results. METHODS: Literature searches were performed using PubMed, Embase, PDgene, China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, and Google Scholar. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to evaluate the strength of association...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ji-Huang Li, Zi-Xian Chen, Xiao-Guang Zhang, Yan Li, Wen-Ting Yang, Xia-Wei Zheng, Shuang Chen, Lin Lu, Yong Gu, Guo-Qing Zheng
BACKGROUND: Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used to treat stroke for thousands of years. The objective of the study is to assess the current evidence for bioactive components of CHM as neurogenesis agent in animal models of ischemic stroke. METHODS: We searched PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WanFang Database, and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals published from the inception up to November 2015. The primary measured outcome was one of neurogenesis biomarker, including Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), Nestin, doublecortin (DCX), polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jie Zhang, Taiqiang Zhao, Chengjie Xu, Jiang Huang, Hua Yu
BACKGROUND: The effects of the programed cell death 1 (PDCD1) gene polymorphisms on cancer risk have been investigated in some studies; however, the results were conflicting and ambiguous. Therefore, we aimed to do a meta-analysis to investigate the association of PDCD1 polymorphisms with cancer risk from all eligible case-control studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic search of the PubMed, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases was performed...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Andrew Petrosoniak, Marc Auerbach, Ambrose H Wong, Christopher M Hicks
In situ simulation (ISS), a point of care training strategy that occurs within the patient care environment involving actual healthcare team members, provides additional benefits to centre-based simulation. ISS can serve several roles within emergency medicine (EM): improves provider/team performance, identifies and mitigates threats to patient safety and improves systems and infrastructure. The effective use of ISS fosters inter-professional team training and a culture of safety essential for high performance EM teams and resilient systems...
October 17, 2016: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Jonathan Howland, Nicole J Treadway, Alyssa A Taylor, Elizabeth W Peterson
BACKGROUND: The Massachusetts (MA) Department of Public Health engaged the Injury Prevention Center at Boston Medical Center to develop a statewide baseline (2012) inventory of evidence-based (EB) community falls prevention programs for community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: A web-based survey of organizations (n = 825) serving older adults was deployed in two parts. The Directors' survey determined if a falls prevention program had been offered in 2012, the salience (rating of importance) of falls prevention for the organization, and intention to offer future falls prevention programming...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Dominic Girardi, Josef Küng, Raimund Kleiser, Michael Sonnberger, Doris Csillag, Johannes Trenkler, Andreas Holzinger
Established process models for knowledge discovery find the domain-expert in a customer-like and supervising role. In the field of biomedical research, it is necessary to move the domain-experts into the center of this process with far-reaching consequences for both their research output and the process itself. In this paper, we revise the established process models for knowledge discovery and propose a new process model for domain-expert-driven interactive knowledge discovery. Furthermore, we present a research infrastructure which is adapted to this new process model and demonstrate how the domain-expert can be deeply integrated even into the highly complex data-mining process and data-exploration tasks...
September 2016: Brain Informatics
M Amber Sajjad, Kara L Holloway, Mark A Kotowicz, Patricia M Livingston, Mustafa Khasraw, Sharon Hakkennes, Trisha L Dunning, Susan Brumby, Richard S Page, Daryl Pedler, Alasdair Sutherland, Svetha Venkatesh, Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, Lana J Williams, Julie A Pasco
Background: An increasing burden of chronic disease and associated health service delivery is expected due to the ageing Australian population. Injuries also affect health and wellbeing and have a long-term impact on health service utilisation. There is a lack of comprehensive data on disease and injury in rural and regional areas of Australia. The aim of the Ageing, Chronic Disease and Injury study is to compile data from various sources to better describe the patterns of chronic disease and injury across western Victoria...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Public Health Research
Wenyi Tang, James Yeh, Jian Chen, Mao Liu, Jianting Ke, Guangyi Tan, Xiufang Lin, Wei Wu
BACKGROUND: The potential benefits and risks of extended thienopyridine therapy beyond 12 months after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation remain unclear. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. The adverse clinical endpoints were compared between 12 months group (aspirin alone) and >12 months group (additional thienopyridine plus aspirin after 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy)...
October 2016: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Akhil Muthigi, Abhinav Sidana, Arvin K George, Michael Kongnyuy, Mahir Maruf, Subin Valayil, Bradford J Wood, Peter A Pinto
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance (MR) -targeted biopsy have a growing role in the screening and evaluation of prostate cancer. We aim to evaluate the current knowledge, attitude, and practice patterns of urologists regarding this new technique. METHODS: An anonymous online questionnaire was designed to collect information on urologists' beliefs and use of prostate multiparametric MRI and MR-targeted biopsy...
October 12, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Ata Ur Rehman Quraishi, Laurie J Lambert, Mina Madan, Yanyan Gong, Anne Forsey, Diane Galbraith, Neala Gill, Garth H Oakes, Andrea Lavoie, Ronald G Carere, Robert C Welsh
Currently there are more than 40 centres in Canada that perform more than 65,000 percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) in a year. Considering the high volume of procedures and number of operators, the potential for variation in processes of care is high, and might lead to variation in the quality of care. As part of its quality initiative, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society convened a working group to develop a set of PCI Quality Indicators (QIs) that would be relevant, scientifically acceptable, and feasible to measure and report...
July 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Arezoo Tahmasbi, Sahar Adabi, Ali Rezaee
The emergence of mobile healthcare systems is an important outcome of application of pervasive computing concepts for medical care purposes. These systems provide the facilities and infrastructure required for automatic and ubiquitous sharing of medical information. Healthcare systems have a dynamic structure and configuration, therefore having an architecture is essential for future development of these systems. The need for increased response rate, problem limited storage, accelerated processing and etc. the tendency toward creating a new generation of healthcare system architecture highlight the need for further focus on cloud-based solutions for transfer data and data processing challenges...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
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