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Hannah C Moore, Christopher C Blyth
Infectious diseases remain a major cause of morbidity in Australia. A wealth of data exists in administrative datasets, which are linked through established data-linkage infrastructure in most Australian states and territories. These linkages can support robust studies to investigate the burden of disease, the relative contribution of various aetiological agents to disease, and the effectiveness of population-based prevention policies - research that is critical to the success of current and future vaccination programs...
June 14, 2018: Public Health Research & Practice
Diana Mitsova
There is a growing understanding that cross-sector risks faced by critical infrastructure assets in natural disasters require a collaborative foresight from multiple disciplines. However, current contributions to infrastructure interdependency analysis remain centered in discipline-specific methodologies often constrained by underlying theories and assumptions. This perspective article contributes to ongoing discussions about the uses, challenges, and opportunities provided by interdisciplinary research in critical infrastructure interdependency analysis...
June 20, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Nuol Aywel Madut, Adrian Muwonge, George William Nasinyama, John Bwalya Muma, Jacques Godfroid, Ambrose Samuel Jubara, James Muleme, Clovice Kankya
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a worldwide recognized bacterial zoonotic disease. There is currently no information on bovine brucellosis sero-prevalence in South Sudan regardless of the economic, social and public health impact on populations. Therefore, for the first time in 33 years, we report the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in cattle and their herders. Furthermore, we characterize the drivers associated with the disease at the human-animal interface in Bahr el Ghazal region, South Sudan...
June 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Pablo Basanta-Val, Luis Sánchez-Fernández
The proliferation of new data sources, stemmed from the adoption of open-data schemes, in combination with an increasing computing capacity causes the inception of new type of analytics that process Internet of things with low-cost engines to speed up data processing using parallel computing. In this context, the article presents an initiative, called BIG-Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE), designed to process the Spanish official government gazette (BOE) with state-of-the-art processing engines, to reduce computation time and to offer additional speed up for big data analysts...
June 2018: Big Data
Eric Fombonne
The first autism surveys were simple head counts of children already diagnosed with a severe autism phenotype and residing in small, circumscribed geographical areas. Prevalence was low, ranging from 0.4 to 2/1,000 in the 1960's and 1970's. Today, the methodology of surveys has become more complex; studies include large populations, multiple sites, stratified samples and rely on intricate sets of screening activities followed by some form of diagnostic confirmation procedures. Yet, and as surprising as it may be, there is no standardization of autism survey methodology...
July 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Lihsieh Marrero, Odaléa Maria Brüggemann
OBJECTIVE: To identify the types of institutional violence of childbirth reported by the woman, the birth companion and health professionals. METHOD: Integrative review that analyzed 33 articles in the LILACS, BDENF, INDEXPSI, regional SciELO, Scopus, Web Of Science and PubMed databases. RESULTS: Women were the main violence rapporteur, with predominance of the psychological type. Precarious infrastructure and the imposition of professional decisions were identified by the companion as violence...
May 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Jia-Jia Wang, Yang Xie, Hu-Lei Zhao, Wei-Hong Han, Xiao-Chun Wang
BACKGROUND: There is a limited evidence concerning the efficacy of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation over acupoints (Acu-TENS) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thus, this review aims to systematically determine the effect of Acu-TENS on COPD. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chongqing VIP, and Wanfang Data will be searched from their inception to May 10, 2018...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Beibei Ni, Shi Li, Yang Liu, Yuqian Huang, Zesong Li
Background: Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) was reported to be dysregulated in solid tumors and played an important role in cancer progression. However, the clinical and prognostic values of SYK in solid tumors remain unclear. This meta-analysis investigated the association between SYK expression and clinical outcomes in the patients with solid tumors. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted by screening the online electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Ernst Niederleithinger, Xin Wang, Martin Herbrand, Matthias Müller
Ultrasonic transmission measurements have been used for decades to monitor concrete elements, mostly on a laboratory scale. Recently, coda wave interferometry (CWI), a technique adapted from seismology, was introduced to civil engineering experiments. It can be used to reveal subtle changes in concrete laboratory samples and even large structural elements without having a transducer directly at the place where the change is taking place. Here, several load tests until failure on large posttensioned concrete beams have been monitored using networks of embedded transducers...
June 19, 2018: Sensors
Ni-Lei Li, Shao-Fei Jiang, Ming-Hao Wu, Sheng Shen, Ying Zhang
The Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensing technique is suitable for a wide variety of measurements, including temperature, pressure, acceleration, liquid level, etc., and has been applied to many bridges and buildings in the past two decades. The fact that the FBG technique can only monitor and measure strain data for most cases when it is used for deformation measurements impedes application of the FBG sensing technique in civil infrastructures. This paper proposes FBG sensing-based deformation monitoring methods that are applicable to monitoring beam deflection, column inclination angle and mortise-tenon joint dislocation for Chinese traditional timber structures...
June 19, 2018: Sensors
Rebecca Elvey, Simon Bailey, Kath Checkland, Anne McBride, Stephen Parkin, Katy Rothwell, Damian Hodgson
BACKGROUND: Current health policy focuses on improving accessibility, increasing integration and shifting resources from hospitals to community and primary care. Initiatives aimed at achieving these policy aims have supported the implementation of various 'new models of care', including general practice offering 'additional availability' appointments during evenings and at weekends. In Greater Manchester, six 'demonstrator sites' were funded: four sites delivered additional availability appointments, other services included case management and rapid response...
June 19, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Mirana Randriambelonoro, Cheick-Oumar Bagayoko, Antoine Geissbuhler
This paper presents the evolution and growth of continuous medical education through the Réseau en Afrique Francophone pour la Télémédecine (RAFT) network. RAFT is a telemedicine network present on four continents and built through years of experience, with the goal of supporting isolated healthcare professionals by providing them with the right expertise at the right time using affordable, low-bandwidth technologies. Much more than a platform to share and exchange knowledge, RAFT has put in place a solid local infrastructure to ensure the sustainability and maintenance of the network...
June 19, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Kwok-Chiu Chang, Eric Nuermberger, Giovanni Sotgiu, Chi-Chiu Leung
Since standardized rifampin-based first-line regimens and fluoroquinolone-based second-line regimens were used to treat tuberculosis (TB), unfortunately without timely modification according to the drug resistance profile, TB and drug-resistant disease are still important public health threats worldwide. Although the last decade has witnessed advances in rapid diagnostic tools and use of repurposed and novel drugs for better managing drug-resistant TB, we need an appropriate TB control strategy and a well-functioning health infrastructure to ensure optimal operational use of rapid tests, judicious use of effective treatment regimens that can be rapidly tailored according to the drug resistance profile and timely management of risk factors and co-morbidities that promote infection and its progression to disease...
June 19, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Leonard Katz, Yvonne Y Chen, Ramon Gonzalez, Todd C Peterson, Huimin Zhao, Richard H Baltz
Synthetic biology is a logical extension of what has been called recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology or genetic engineering since the 1970s. As rDNA technology has been the driver for the development of a thriving biotechnology industry today, starting with the commercialization of biosynthetic human insulin in the early 1980s, synthetic biology has the potential to take the industry to new heights in the coming years. Synthetic biology advances have been driven by dramatic cost reductions in DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis; by the development of sophisticated tools for genome editing, such as CRISPR/Cas9; and by advances in informatics, computational tools, and infrastructure to facilitate and scale analysis and design...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Shashi Kant, Ravneet Kaur, Sumit Malhotra, Partha Haldar, Akhil Dhanesh Goel
Background: The maternal mortality ratio in India is high. An effective emergency obstetric care (EmOC) strategy has been identified as a priority to reduce maternal deaths. Since the capacity of different levels of public health facilities to provide EmOC is varied, an effective referral system is crucial. However, few studies have evaluated the functioning and quality of referral systems in India. A systematic monitoring of referrals helps to identify current gaps in the provision of essential obstetric care...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Ilona Kickbusch, Rüdiger Krech, Christian Franz, Nadya Wells
The annual funding need for global health SDG targets is estimated by WHO at US$134 billion per year, rising to US$274-$371bn by 2030. This paper examines the challenge of making sustainable investment structures in global health more attractive for mainstream financial markets. The objective is a framework for targeted future debate with financial sector actors. Four case studies of innovative sustainable investment mechanisms are analysed, elaborating potential transfer of green and impact investment models in order to channel additional private sector funds to health...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Y Wang, Y Wei, X Tang, B Liu, L Shen, C Long, T Lin, D He, S Wu, G Wei
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have revealed the relationship between androgen receptor (AR) CAG and/or GGC polymorphisms and risk of cryptorchidism, yet the results have been elusive and controversial. AIM: To determine whether AR polymorphic CAG and/or GGC repeats are related to cryptorchidism. STUDY DESIGN: The relevant studies were obtained from PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang. The pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Huan-Gao Zhu, Zhao-Shun Jiang, Pi-Yun Gong, Dong-Mei Zhang, Zhi-Wei Zou, Qian-Zhang, Hui-Mei Ma, Zhen-Gang Guo, Jun-Yu Zhao, Jian-Jun Dong, Lin-Liao
BACKGROUND: A low-protein diet (LPD) is believed to be beneficial in slowing the progression of kidney disease. It is reported that low protein diet can improve protein, sugar and lipid metabolism, and reduce the symptoms and complications of renal insufficiency. However, there has been controversial regarding the effects of protein restriction on diabetic nephropathy (DN). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of LPD on renal function in patients with type 1 or 2 DN by meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
June 19, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Mahesh Jampani, Stephan Huelsmann, Rudolf Liedl, Sahebrao Sonkamble, Shakeel Ahmed, Priyanie Amerasinghe
Wastewater irrigation is a common livelihood practice in many parts of the developing world. With the continuous irrigation supply, groundwater systems in these regions perceive adverse impacts due to inadequate infrastructure to treat the wastewater. The current study area, Musi River irrigation system, is one such case study located in the peri-urban Hyderabad of South India. The Musi River water, which is used for irrigation, is composed of untreated and secondary treated wastewater from Hyderabad city. Kachiwani Singaram micro-watershed in the peri-urban Hyderabad is practicing wastewater irrigation for the last 40 years...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yi Sun, Yao Wang, Shu Yuan, Jialing Wen, Weiyu Li, Liu Yang, Xiaoyan Huang, Yanmei Mo, Yingqi Zhao, Yuanming Lu
This study investigated the association of PM2.5 exposure with VEGF by conducting a systematic review of existing literature and performing a meta-analysis. We searched all the studies published in the Cochrane Library, PUBMED, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and WanFang Electronic Database before June 2017. Finally six studies were identified. It confirmed that the increase in VEGF (β = 1.23 pg/ml, 95% CI: 0.45, 2.01) was significantly associated with the PM2...
2018: PloS One
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