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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216540/longitudinal-study-of-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-changes-in-a-multiple-sclerosis-patients-cohort-a-long-term-5-year-follow-up
#1
J M Abalo-Lojo, A Treus, M Arias, F Gómez-Ulla, F Gonzalez
PURPOSE: To analyze the changes in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in eyes with and without prior history of optic neuritis (ON) of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) after a 5-year time period (2010-2015) using optical coherence tomography. METHODS: The RNFL thickness of 114 eyes of 57 MS patients and 40 eyes of 20 healthy subjects were measured in year 2010 and year 2015. Measurements were made separately in twelve sectors around the optic nerve head. Statistical comparisons were made with the obtained data...
November 22, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215409/imaging-of-acquired-demyelinating-syndrome-with-18f-fdg-pet-ct
#2
Caroline Malo-Pion, Raymond Lambert, Jean-Claude Décarie, Sophie Turpin
Acquired demyelinating syndromes include acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis and may progress to multiple sclerosis (MS). Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is characterized by impairment of level of consciousness and multifocal neurological deficits and transverse myelitis by back pain, weakness and sphincter dysfunction. Only a few cases of acquired demyelinating syndrome have been imaged with F-FDG PET/CT. We present two such cases.
December 5, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214587/rare-neurodegenerative-diseases-clinical-and-genetic-update
#3
Antoni Matilla-Dueñas, Marc Corral-Juan, Agustí Rodríguez-Palmero Seuma, Dolores Vilas, Lourdes Ispierto, Sara Morais, Jorge Sequeiros, Isabel Alonso, Víctor Volpini, Carmen Serrano-Munuera, Guillem Pintos-Morell, Ramiro Álvarez, Ivelisse Sánchez
More than 600 human disorders afflict the nervous system. Of these, neurodegenerative diseases are usually characterised by onset in late adulthood, progressive clinical course, and neuronal loss with regional specificity in the central nervous system. They include Alzheimer's disease and other less frequent dementias, brain cancer, degenerative nerve diseases, encephalitis, epilepsy, genetic brain disorders, head and brain malformations, hydrocephalus, stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's Disease), Huntington's disease, and Prion diseases, among others...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214152/identification-of-candidate-casein-kinase-2-substrates-in-mitosis-by-quantitative-phosphoproteomics
#4
Scott F Rusin, Mark E Adamo, Arminja N Kettenbach
Protein phosphorylation is a crucial regulatory mechanism that controls many aspects of cellular signaling. Casein kinase 2 (CK2), a constitutively expressed and active kinase, plays key roles in an array of cellular events including transcription and translation, ribosome biogenesis, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. CK2 is implicated in cancerous transformation and is a therapeutic target in anti-cancer therapy. The specific and selective CK2 ATP competitive inhibitor, CX-4945 (silmitaseratib), is currently in phase 2 clinical trials...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212895/functional-metabolomics-characterizes-a-key-role-for-n-acetyl-neuraminic-acid-in-coronary-artery-diseases
#5
Lei Zhang, Ting-Ting Wei, Yong Li, Jing Li, Yong Fan, Feng-Qing Huang, Yuan-Yuan Cai, Gaoxiang Ma, Jin-Feng Liu, Qian-Qian Chen, Shi-Lei Wang, Honglin Li, Raphael N Alolga, Baolin Liu, Dong-Sheng Zhao, Jian-Hua Shen, Xiang-Ming Wang, Wei Zhu, Ping Li, Lian-Wen Qi
Background -As new biomarkers of coronary artery diseases (CAD) emerge via metabolomics, the underlying functional mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Functional metabolomics aims to translate metabolomics-derived biomarkers to disease mechanisms. Methods -A cohort of 2324 patients who underwent coronary angiography from 4 independent centers was studied. A combination of ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) in the negative ion mode was employed for untargeted analysis of metabolites in plasma...
December 6, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212866/acquired-haemophilia-a-complicating-alemtuzumab-therapy-for-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Georgia McCaughan, Jennifer Massey, Ian Sutton, Jennifer Curnow
Alemtuzumab is a highly efficacious therapy used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), but uncoupling of T and B cell repopulation during immune reconstitution associates with an increasing range of secondary B cell-mediated autoimmune complications. A 34-year-old woman developed Graves' disease 11 months following an initial course of alemtuzumab treatment for MS. Nine months following the second treatment with alemtuzumab, the patient presented with spontaneous intramuscular and subcutaneous haemorrhage due to development of an inhibitory autoantibody to coagulation factor VIII...
December 5, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212488/identification-of-the-lipid-biomarkers-from-plasma-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-by-lipidomics
#7
Feng Yan, Zhensong Wen, Rui Wang, Wenling Luo, Yufeng Du, Wenjun Wang, Xianyang Chen
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an irreversible interstitial pulmonary disease featured by high mortality, chronic and progressive course, and poor prognosis with unclear etiology. Currently, more studies have been focusing on identifying biomarkers to predict the progression of IPF, such as genes, proteins, and lipids. Lipids comprise diverse classes of molecules and play a critical role in cellular energy storage, structure, and signaling. The role of lipids in respiratory diseases, including cystic fibrosis, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been investigated intensely in the recent years...
December 6, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210583/time-resolved-infrared-spectroscopy-on-plant-cryptochrome-relevance-of-proton-transfer-and-atp-binding-for-signaling
#8
Lea Schroeder, Sabine Oldemeyer, Tilman Kottke
Plant cryptochromes are light receptors in land plants and algae with very diverse functions such as circadian timing and life cycle progression. The receptor consists of a photolyase homology region (PHR) binding the flavin chromophore and a C-terminal extension (CCT) responsible for signaling. The reputed signaling state, the flavin neutral radical, is formed by a femtosecond electron and microsecond proton transfer to the excited, oxidized flavin. Subsequently, a 500 μs loss of β-sheet structure ~25 Å away from flavin was resolved and suggested to be part of the signal conduction to the CCT...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209827/hemostasis-endothelial-stress-inflammation-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Gerald Grandl, Christian Wolfrum
Obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MS) are two of the pressing healthcare problems of our time. The MS is defined as increased abdominal obesity in concert with elevated fasting glucose levels, insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and plasma lipids. It is a key risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and for cardiovascular complications and mortality. Here, we review work demonstrating that various aspects of coagulation and hemostasis, as well as vascular reactivity and function, become impaired progressively during chronic ingestion of a western diet, but also acutely after meals...
December 5, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209434/vitamin-d-in-the-prevention-prediction-and-treatment-of-neurodegenerative-and-neuroinflammatory-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Priscilla Koduah, Friedemann Paul, Jan-Markus Dörr
Vitamin D research has gained increased attention in recent times due to its roles beyond bone health and calcium homeostasis, such as immunomodulation. In some parts of the brain and on immune cells, vitamin D hydroxylating enzymes and its receptors are located. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that deficiency of Vitamin D is relevant for disease risk and course in multiple sclerosis (MS) and presumably also in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209169/amyloid-%C3%AE-homeostasis-bridges-inflammation-synaptic-plasticity-deficits-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Sara Garofalo, Girolama A Marfia, Luana Gilio, Ilaria Simonelli, Annamaria Finardi, Roberto Furlan, Giulia M Sancesario, Jonny Di Giandomenico, Marianna Storto, Francesco Mori, Diego Centonze, Ennio Iezzi
Cognitive deficits are frequently observed in multiple sclerosis (MS), mainly involving processing speed and episodic memory. Both demyelination and gray matter atrophy can contribute to cognitive deficits in MS. In recent years, neuroinflammation is emerging as a new factor influencing clinical course in MS. Inflammatory cytokines induce synaptic dysfunction in MS. Synaptic plasticity occurring within hippocampal structures is considered as one of the basic physiological mechanisms of learning and memory. In experimental models of MS, hippocampal plasticity is profoundly altered by proinflammatory cytokines...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207954/the-turkish-validation-of-the-brief-international-cognitive-assessment-for-multiple-sclerosis-bicams-battery
#12
Serkan Ozakbas, Pinar Yigit, Bilge Piri Cinar, Hatice Limoncu, Turhan Kahraman, Görkem Kösehasanoğulları
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment may be seen in as many as 43-70% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and may be observed in all MS subtypes. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment in Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) battery may be used to evaluate cognition status. The purpose of the current study is to validate the BICAMS battery in Turkish. METHODS: Patients with MS attending our clinic between September 2014 and April 2015 were invited to participate. Healthy control participants were matched in terms of age, gender and years of education...
December 6, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207768/controversies-in-serotonin-syndrome-diagnosis-and-management-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Mohd Faisal Uddin, Richard Alweis, Syed Raza Shah, Noman Lateef, Waqas Shahnawaz, Rohan Kumar Ochani, Amin Muhammad Dharani, Syed Arbab Shah
Over the past few years, Serotonin Syndrome (SS) has become a significant clinical concern. Over the last decade, United States saw a surge in antidepressant use. SS characteristically presents as the triad of altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction and neuromuscular excitation. Symptoms vary from patient to patient with mild cases presenting with subacute symptoms and severe cases progressing rapidly to death. Due to the protean manifestations of the syndrome along with non-specific prodromal, SS can easily be misdiagnosed if not carefully assessed...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204963/the-brain-test-a-keyboard-tapping-test-to-assess-disability-and-clinical-features-of-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Samuel Shribman, Hasan Hasan, Shahrzad Hadavi, Gavin Giovannoni, Alastair J Noyce
BACKGROUND: The BRadykinesia Akinesia INcordination (BRAIN) test is an online keyboard-tapping test previously validated as a sensitive tool for detecting signs of Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the BRAIN test can measure disability in MS and identify the presence of pyramidal or cerebellar dysfunction. METHODS: Kinesia scores (KS, number of key taps in 30 s), akinesia times (AT, mean dwell time on each key) and incoordination scores (IS, variance of travelling time between keys) were calculated in 39 MS patients...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204851/fixed-versus-variable-practice-for-teaching-medical-students-the-management-of-pediatric-asthma-exacerbations-using-simulation
#15
David Drummond, Jennifer Truchot, Eleonora Fabbro, Pierre-François Ceccaldi, Patrick Plaisance, Antoine Tesnière, Alice Hadchouel
Simulation-based trainings represent an interesting approach to teach medical students the management of pediatric asthma exacerbations (PAEs). In this study, we compared two pedagogical approaches, training students once on three different scenarios of PAEs versus training students three times on the same scenario of PAE. Eighty-five third-year medical students, novice learners for the management of PAEs, were randomized and trained. Students were assessed twice, 1 week and 4 months after the training, on a scenario of PAE new to both groups and on scenarios used during the training...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203199/overexpression-of-oct4-induced-by-modulation-of-histone-marks-plays-crucial-role-in-breast-cancer-progression
#16
Swayamsiddha Kar, Samir Kumar Patra
OCT4 is known as the gatekeeper of pluripotent embryonic state as it is responsible for maintenance of pluripotency via self-renewal of embryonic stem cells and acquisition of induced pluripotency via somatic cell reprogramming. OCT4 is responsible for oncogenic transformation by disrupting pre-scheduled differentiation programs and in general, favoring evolution of cancer cells into a more aggressive cancer stem cell phenotype. In this study, we have investigated in details, the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms responsible for over-expression and subsequent aberrant function of OCT4 in breast cancer...
December 1, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202449/clonal-relationships-of-csf-b-cells-in-treatment-naive-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#17
Erica L Eggers, Brady A Michel, Hao Wu, Sheng-Zhi Wang, Carolyn J Bevan, Aya Abounasr, Natalie S Pierson, Antje Bischof, Max Kazer, Elizabeth Leitner, Ariele L Greenfield, Stanislas Demuth, Michael R Wilson, Roland G Henry, Bruce Ac Cree, Stephen L Hauser, H-Christian von Büdingen
A role of B cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) is well established, but there is limited understanding of their involvement during active disease. Here, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood (PB) B cells in treatment-naive patients with MS or high-risk clinically isolated syndrome. Using flow cytometry, we found increased CSF lymphocytes with a disproportionate increase of B cells compared with T cells in patients with gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions on brain MRI. Ig gene heavy chain variable region (Ig-VH) repertoire sequencing of CSF and PB B cells revealed clonal relationships between intrathecal and peripheral B cell populations, which could be consistent with migration of B cells to and activation in the CNS in active MS...
November 16, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202341/bridging-the-structural-gap-of-glycoproteomics-with-ion-mobility-spectrometry
#18
REVIEW
Abhigya Mookherjee, Miklos Guttman
Over the past two decades mass spectrometry (MS) has enabled high throughput studies on the level of a complex proteome. While it has similarly advanced glycobiology, the level of progress has been more restrained. This is in large part due to the diversity and complexity of carbohydrate structures. While MS is now routinely used for glycobiology, it suffers from a critical limitation, that is the inability to resolve isobaric structures. Since so many structurally and functionally distinct carbohydrates are indistinguishable by MS, additional techniques are needed for detailed structural analysis...
December 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202119/enrichment-of-retroviral-sequences-in-brain-tissue-from-patients-with-severe-demyelinating-diseases
#19
J D Kriesel, P J Bhetariya, B K Chan, T Wilson, K F Fischer
Background: Our group has used deep sequencing to identify viral RNA signatures in human brain specimens. We have previously used this method to detect HSV1, GBV-C, and measles virus sequence in brain tissue from deceased donors. Deep sequencing was performed on brain specimens from a cohort of patients who died with progressive forms of MS, revealing evidence of increased expression of some human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) domains. Objectives: Identify RNA sequences and new antigens involved in the pathogenesis of MS...
August 2017: Journal of Emerging Diseases and Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201641/iron-related-gene-variants-and-brain-iron-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-healthy-individuals
#20
Jesper Hagemeier, Murali Ramanathan, Ferdinand Schweser, Michael G Dwyer, Fuchun Lin, Niels Bergsland, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Robert Zivadinov
Brain iron homeostasis is known to be disturbed in multiple sclerosis (MS), yet little is known about the association of common gene variants linked to iron regulation and pathological tissue changes in the brain. In this study, we investigated the association of genetic determinants linked to iron regulation with deep gray matter (GM) magnetic susceptibility in both healthy controls (HC) and MS patients. Four hundred (400) patients with MS and 150 age- and sex-matched HCs were enrolled and obtained 3 T MRI examination...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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