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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456537/understanding-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-risk-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-treated-with-immunomodulatory-therapies-a-bird-s-eye-view
#1
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Mills, Yang Mao-Draayer
The increased use of newer potent immunomodulatory therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS), including natalizumab, fingolimod, and dimethyl fumarate, has expanded the patient population at risk for developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). These MS therapies shift the profile of lymphocytes within the central nervous system (CNS) leading to increased anti-inflammatory subsets and decreased immunosurveillance. Similar to MS, PML is a demyelinating disease of the CNS, but it is caused by the JC virus...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455894/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-ms-related-fatigue-explained-a-longitudinal-mediation-analysis
#2
L E van den Akker, H Beckerman, E H Collette, H Knoop, G Bleijenberg, J W Twisk, J Dekker, V de Groot
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) effectively reduces fatigue directly following treatment in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), but little is known about the process of change during and after CBT. DESIGN: Additional analysis of a randomized clinical trial. OBJECTIVE: To investigate which psychological factors mediate change in fatigue during and after CBT. METHODS: TREFAMS-CBT studied the effectiveness of a 16-week CBT treatment for MS-related fatigue...
March 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455558/investigational-immunosuppressants-in-early-stage-clinical-trials-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Alberto Gajofatto, Marco Turatti
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with an immune mediated pathogenesis. Several therapies that suppress or modulate diverse immune system functions have been used for decades with the aim of modifying the disease course. However, these treatments have either limited efficacy or potentially serious adverse events that prevent first-line use on large scale. Areas covered. The aim of the present article is to review ongoing or recently completed clinical trials investigating immunosuppressive drugs for MS...
February 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455071/the-use-of-satellite-data-to-measure-ultraviolet-b-penetrance-and-its-potential-association-with-age-of-multiple-sclerosis-onset
#4
Ofer Amram, Nadine Schuurman, Ellen Randall, Feng Zhu, Jameelah Saeedi, Peter Rieckmann, Irene Yee, Helen Tremlett
BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated an association between low Ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure and an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). Few studies, however, have explored whether UVB exposure is associated with the age at MS symptom onset. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the potential association between cumulative early life ambient UVB exposure and age at MS onset, using satellite data to measure ambient UVB exposure. METHODS: Adult onset MS patients were selected from the University of British Columbia's MS genetic database (1980-2005)...
February 6, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453889/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-axon-degeneration-in-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#5
REVIEW
Graham Campbell, Don Mahad
The neuron is the target of inflammatory demyelinating processes in multiple sclerosis (MS). In progressive MS, however, there is a gathering body of evidence indicating that molecular changes converge on mitochondria within neuronal cell bodies. The most reproducible change relates to mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiency, which compromises the capacity of neurons to generate ATP. The resulting energy failure state is coupled with an increase in demand for energy by the demyelinated axon, being particularly relevant to the long tracts such as corticospinal tracts with long projection axons...
February 17, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453877/significance-of-mitochondria-on-cardiometabolic-syndromes
#6
REVIEW
Nair Anupama, G Sindhu, K G Raghu
Metabolic syndromes (MS) are a cluster of disorders like obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS), a branch of MS, is a group of diseases affecting cardiovascular, renal, metabolic, prothrombotic and inflammatory abnormalities due to defects in energy metabolism. Since the emergence of molecular biology and the discovery of pathogenic mitochondrial DNA defect in the 1980s, research advances has revealed a number of common human disease involving mitochondrial dysfunction...
February 17, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450696/neuroprotective-effects-of-melatonin-on-experimental-allergic-encephalomyelitis-mice-via-anti-oxidative-stress-activity
#7
Ting Long, Yuan Yang, Ling Peng, Zuoxiao Li
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic auto-inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) and hard to heal. This study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely used MS model, and its potential mechanism underlying the action of MT on anti-oxidative stress. Female C57BL/6 mice were injected with MOG35-55 peptide to set up the EAE model, and for detection of the effect of melatonin (10 mg/kg i.p.) on the development and progression of EAE...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449193/phase-i-trial-of-intrathecal-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-neural-progenitors-in-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Violaine K Harris, James Stark, Tamara Vyshkina, Leslie Blackshear, Gloria Joo, Valentina Stefanova, Gabriel Sara, Saud A Sadiq
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and is one of the leading causes of disability in young adults. Cell therapy is emerging as a therapeutic strategy to promote repair and regeneration in patients with disability associated with progressive MS. METHODS: We conducted a phase I open-label clinical trial investigating the safety and tolerability of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived neural progenitor (MSC-NP) treatment in 20 patients with progressive MS...
February 3, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446144/animal-models-of-multiple-sclerosis-focus-on-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#9
REVIEW
Ivana Bjelobaba, Vesna Begovic-Kupresanin, Sanja Pekovic, Irena Lavrnja
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that affects more than two million people worldwide. Several animal models resemble MS pathology; the most employed are experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and toxin- and/or virus-induced demyelination. In this review we will summarize our knowledge on the utility of different animal models in MS research. Although animal models cannot replicate the complexity and heterogeneity of the MS pathology, they have proved to be useful for the development of several drugs approved for treatment of MS patients...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445429/classification-of-mri-and-psychological-testing-data-based-on-support-vector-machine
#10
Wenlu Yang, Xinyun Chen, David S Cohen, Eric R Rosin, Arthur W Toga, Paul M Thompson, Xudong Huang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, and often fatal, brain disease that causes neurodegeneration, resulting in memory loss as well as other cognitive and behavioral problems. Here, we propose a novel multimodal method combining independent components from MRI measures and clinical assessments to distinguish Alzheimer's patients or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects from healthy elderly controls. 70 AD subjects (mean age: 77.15 ± 6.2 years), 98 MCI subjects (mean age: 76.91 ± 5.7 years), and 150 HC subjects (mean age: 75...
December 2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445346/psychological-shift-in-partners-of-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-who-undertake-lifestyle-modification-an-interpretive-phenomenological-study
#11
Sandra L Neate, Keryn L Taylor, George A Jelinek, Alysha M De Livera, Chelsea R Brown, Tracey J Weiland
Introduction: Being in an intimate relationship with a person with multiple sclerosis (MS) may have a substantial impact on the partner's quality of life. Existing research has largely focused on negative impacts of MS for both people with MS (PwMS) and their partners and has sampled the population of partners of PwMS who have primarily adopted standard medical management only. Modifiable lifestyle factors have become increasingly recognized in the management of MS symptoms and disease progression. For partners of PwMS who have undertaken lifestyle modification as an additional strategy to minimize disease progression, the impacts, both positive and negative remain unexplored...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445144/lenalidomide-regulates-cns-autoimmunity-by-promoting-m2-macrophages-polarization
#12
Qinjie Weng, Jiaying Wang, Jiajia Wang, Jing Wang, Fahmida Sattar, Zhikang Zhang, Jiahuan Zheng, Zijie Xu, Mengting Zhao, Xuan Liu, Lijun Yang, Guifeng Hao, Liang Fang, Q Richard Lu, Bo Yang, Qiaojun He
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and debilitating neurological disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by infiltration of leukocytes into CNS and subsequent demyelination. Emerging evidences have revealed the beneficial roles of M2 macrophages in ameliorating experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for MS. Here, we identify that lenalidomide alone could promote macrophages M2 polarization to prevent the progression of EAE, which is associated with subsequent inhibition of proinflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells both in peripheral lymph system and CNS...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444796/biopsy-proven-multiple-sclerosis-in-an-adult-patient-with-atypical-craniometaphyseal-dysplasia
#13
Jacopo C DiFrancesco, Giuseppe Isimbaldi, Maria Francesca Bedeschi, Barbara Castellotti
Craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD) is a rare condition characterised by progressive, diffuse hyperostosis of cranial and long bones, with compression of cranial nerves, linked to mutations in ANKH or GJA1 genes. Here we describe an adult case with clinical features of CMD, who developed cerebral expansive lesion of undetermined nature. Brain biopsy revealed active demyelinating lesions, consistent with multiple sclerosis. The genetic screening of target genes for CMD ( ANKH and GJA1 ) resulted negative in this patient...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444389/anatomy-integration-effective-change-or-change-of-affect
#14
Rebecca S Hartley, Gary A Smith, Martina J Rosenberg
Anatomy is fundamental to clinical practice, is considered a rite of passage in becoming a physician and is key to professional identity formation. The anatomy course that began the medical curriculum at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine was recently dissolved to address content and process gaps in the pre-clinical curriculum. Anatomy was integrated into the organ system blocks to make room for new courses to address content gaps. Previous reports of anatomy integration document more positive attitudes and perceptions to teaching anatomy in context, as compared to an independent course...
February 14, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444299/early-nodal-and-paranodal-disruption-in-autoimmune-optic-neuritis
#15
Aleksandar Stojic, Jovana Bojcevski, Sarah K Williams, Ricarda Diem, Richard Fairless
Disturbances in the nodes of Ranvier are an early phenomenon in many CNS disorders, including the autoimmune demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Using an animal model of optic neuritis, a common early symptom of MS, we have investigated nodal and paranodal compartments in the optic nerve during disease progression. Both nodes and paranodes, as identified by immunohistochemistry against sodium channels (Nav) and Caspr, respectively, were observed to increase in length during the late induction phase of the disease, prior to onset of the demyelination and immune cell infiltration characteristic of optic neuritis...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442178/the-use-of-cannabis-and-cannabinoids-in-treating-symptoms-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#16
REVIEW
Suzanne Nielsen, Rada Germanos, Megan Weier, John Pollard, Louisa Degenhardt, Wayne Hall, Nicholas Buckley, Michael Farrell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pharmaceutical cannabinoids such as nabiximols, nabilone and dronabinol, and plant-based cannabinoids have been investigated for their therapeutic potential in treating multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms. This review of reviews aimed to synthesise findings from high quality systematic reviews that examined the safety and effectiveness of cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis. We examined the outcomes of disability and disability progression, pain, spasticity, bladder function, tremor/ataxia, quality of life and adverse effects...
February 13, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441412/progressive-multiple-sclerosis-patients-show-substantial-lesion-activity-that-correlates-with-clinical-disease-severity-and-sex-a-retrospective-autopsy-cohort-analysis
#17
Sabina Luchetti, Nina L Fransen, Corbert G van Eden, Valeria Ramaglia, Matthew Mason, Inge Huitinga
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly heterogeneous disease with large inter-individual differences in disease course. MS lesion pathology shows considerable heterogeneity in localization, cellular content and degree of demyelination between patients. In this study, we investigated pathological correlates of disease course in MS using the autopsy cohort of the Netherlands Brain Bank (NBB), containing 182 MS brain donors. Using a standardized autopsy procedure including systematic dissection from standard locations, 3188 tissue blocks containing 7562 MS lesions were dissected...
February 13, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440425/bryostatin-1-alleviates-experimental-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Michael D Kornberg, Matthew D Smith, Hasti Atashi Shirazi, Peter A Calabresi, Solomon H Snyder, Paul M Kim
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disorder targeting the central nervous system (CNS). The relapsing-remitting phase of MS is largely driven by peripheral activation of autoreactive T-helper (Th) 1 and Th17 lymphocytes. In contrast, compartmentalized inflammation within the CNS, including diffuse activation of innate myeloid cells, characterizes the progressive phase of MS, the most debilitating phase that currently lacks satisfactory treatments. Recently, bryostatin-1 (bryo-1), a naturally occurring, CNS-permeable compound with a favorable safety profile in humans, has been shown to act on antigen-presenting cells to promote differentiation of lymphocytes into Th2 cells, an action that might benefit Th1-driven inflammatory conditions such as MS...
February 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440322/neurodegeneration-in-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Graham Campbell, Don Mahad
The neuron is the target of inflammatory demyelinating processes in multiple sclerosis (MS). In progressive MS, however, there is a gathering body of evidence indicating molecular changes within neuronal cell bodies. All of these molecular changes to intrinsic neurons converge on mitochondria, and the most reproduced change relates to mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiency. This compromise in the capacity to generate ATP in the neuronal cell body is coupled with an increased demand for energy by the demyelinated axon, which is particularly relevant to the long tracts such as corticospinal tracts with long projection axons...
February 12, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439344/low-accuracy-of-brief-cognitive-tests-in-tracking-longitudinal-cognitive-decline-in-an-asian-elderly-cohort
#20
April Ka Sin Phua, Shaun Kuan Wei Hiu, Win King Goh, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Boon Yeow Tan, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen, Xin Xu
BACKGROUND: Researchers have questioned the utility of brief cognitive tests such as the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in serial administration and suggested that brief cognitive tests may not accurately track changes in Global Cognition. OBJECTIVE: To examine the accuracy of longitudinal changes on brief cognitive tests in reflecting progression in Global Cognition measured using comprehensive neuropsychological assessments...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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