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Jordan M Casey, Andrew H Baird, Simon J Brandl, Mia O Hoogenboom, Justin R Rizzari, Ashley J Frisch, Christopher E Mirbach, Sean R Connolly
Removal of predators is often hypothesized to alter community structure through trophic cascades. However, despite recent advances in our understanding of trophic cascades, evidence is often circumstantial on coral reefs because fishing pressure frequently co-varies with other anthropogenic effects, such as fishing for herbivorous fishes and changes in water quality due to pollution. Australia's outer Great Barrier Reef (GBR) has experienced fishing-induced declines of apex predators and mesopredators, but pollution and targeting of herbivorous fishes are minimal...
October 15, 2016: Oecologia
Russell Q-Y Yong, Scott C Cutmore, Terrence L Miller, Nicholas Q-X Wee, Thomas H Cribb
Two new species of Cardicola Short, 1953 are described from the milkfish, Chanos chanos Forsskål (Gonorynchiformes: Chanidae), obtained from off Lizard Island on the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and North Stradbroke Island in southeast Queensland. These are the first known blood flukes from this order of fishes. Cardicola suni n. sp. differs from all other Cardicola spp. by a combination of a large ovoid oral sucker surrounding a subterminal mouth, recurved tegumental spines up to 16 μm long, anterior caeca occupying 25...
November 2016: Systematic Parasitology
J-Y Won, C-Y Park, J-H Bae, G Ahn, C Kim, D-H Lim, D-W Cho, W-S Yun, J-H Shim, J-B Huh
Here, we compared 3D-printed polycaprolactone/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate (PCL/PLGA/β-TCP) membranes with the widely used collagen membranes for guided bone regeneration (GBR) in beagle implant models. For mechanical property comparison in dry and wet conditions and cytocompatibility determination, we analyzed the rate and pattern of cell proliferation of seeded fibroblasts and preosteoblasts using the cell counting kit-8 assay and scanning electron microscopy. Osteogenic differentiation was verified using alizarin red S staining...
October 7, 2016: Biomedical Materials
Scott A Wooldridge, Scott F Heron, Jon E Brodie, Terence J Done, Itsara Masiri, Saskia Hinrichs
A spatial risk assessment model is developed for the Great Barrier Reef (GBR, Australia) that helps identify reef locations at higher or lower risk of coral bleaching in summer heat-wave conditions. The model confirms the considerable benefit of discriminating nutrient-enriched areas that contain corals with enlarged (suboptimal) symbiont densities for the purpose of identifying bleaching-sensitive reef locations. The benefit of the new system-level understanding is showcased in terms of: (i) improving early-warning forecasts of summer bleaching risk, (ii) explaining historical bleaching patterns, (iii) testing the bleaching-resistant quality of the current marine protected area (MPA) network (iv) identifying routinely monitored coral health attributes, such as the tissue energy reserves and skeletal growth characteristics (viz...
September 28, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Shannen M Smith, Rebecca J Fox, Jennifer M Donelson, Megan L Head, David J Booth
With global change accelerating the rate of species' range shifts, predicting which are most likely to establish viable populations in their new habitats is key to understanding how biological systems will respond. Annually, in Australia, tropical fish larvae from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are transported south via the East Australian Current (EAC), settling into temperate coastal habitats for the summer period, before experiencing near-100% mortality in winter. However, within 10 years, predicted winter ocean temperatures for the southeast coast of Australia will remain high enough for more of these so-called 'tropical vagrants' to survive over winter...
September 2016: Biology Letters
Allan P Dale, Karen Vella, Robert L Pressey, Jon Brodie, Margaret Gooch, Ruth Potts, Rachel Eberhard
The state and trend of the Great Barrier Reef's (GBR's) ecological health remains problematic, influencing United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) statements regarding GBR governance. While UNESCO's concerns triggered separate strategic assessments by the Australian and Queensland governments, there has been no independent and integrated review of the key risks within the overall system of governance influencing GBR outcomes. As a case study of international significance, this paper applies Governance Systems Analysis (GSA), a novel analytical framework that identifies the governance themes, domains and subdomains most likely to influence environmental and socio-economic outcomes in complex natural systems...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
M Aaron MacNeil, Camille Mellin, Morgan S Pratchett, Jessica Hoey, Kenneth R N Anthony, Alistair J Cheal, Ian Miller, Hugh Sweatman, Zara L Cowan, Sascha Taylor, Steven Moon, Chris J Fonnesbeck
Crown-of-thorns starfish (CoTS; Acanthaster spp.) are an outbreaking pest among many Indo-Pacific coral reefs that cause substantial ecological and economic damage. Despite ongoing CoTS research, there remain critical gaps in observing CoTS populations and accurately estimating their numbers, greatly limiting understanding of the causes and sources of CoTS outbreaks. Here we address two of these gaps by (1) estimating the detectability of adult CoTS on typical underwater visual count (UVC) surveys using covariates and (2) inter-calibrating multiple data sources to estimate CoTS densities within the Cairns sector of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR)...
2016: PeerJ
Mi-Hye Kim, Sung-Il Ahn, Chan-Mook Lim, Jin-Woo Jhoo, Gur-Yoo Kim
This study aimed to investigate the functional and physicochemical properties of yogurt, supplemented with germinated brown rice (GBR) containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), during storage. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice at 30℃, and saccharified germinated brown rice (SGBR) was produced by treating brown rice with α- and β-amylase for 1 h, at 80℃ and 60℃, respectively. Yogurt was manufactured using a commercial starter (YC-X11, CHR. Hansen, Denmark) at 37℃ for 12 h. The fatty acids and GABA contents were analyzed using GC and HPLC, respectively...
2016: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
R Al-Kattan, M Retzepi, E Calciolari, N Donos
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the gene expression and molecular pathways implicated in the regulation of the osseous healing process following guided bone regeneration (GBR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six 6-month-old Wistar male rats were used. Standardized 5-mm critical size defects were created in the parietal bones of each animal and treated with an extracranial and intracranial ePTFE membrane, according to the GBR principle. Three animals were randomly sacrificed after 7 and 15 days of healing...
September 11, 2016: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Zeeshan Sheikh, Javairia Qureshi, Abdullah M Alshahrani, Heba Nassar, Yuichi Ikeda, Michael Glogauer, Bernhard Ganss
Certain cell populations within periodontal tissues possess the ability to induce regeneration, provided they have the opportunity to populate the wound or defect. Guided regeneration techniques have been investigated for regenerating periodontal tissues and such therapies usually utilize barrier membranes. Various natural and synthetic barrier membranes have been fabricated and tested to prevent epithelial and connective tissue cells from invading while allowing periodontal cells to selectively migrate into the defect...
September 9, 2016: Odontology
Itsaso Buesa, Zigor Aira, Jon Jatsu Azkue
Dopamine can influence NMDA receptor function and regulate glutamate-triggered long-term changes in synaptic strength in several regions of the CNS. In spinal cord, regulation of the threshold of synaptic plasticity may determine the proneness to undergo sensitization and hyperresponsiveness to noxious input. In the current study, we increased endogenous dopamine levels in the dorsal horn by using re-uptake inhibitor GBR 12935. During the so-induced hyperdopaminergic transmission, conditioning low-frequency (1 Hz) stimulation (LFS) to the sciatic nerve induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of C-fiber-evoked potentials in dorsal horn neurons...
2016: PloS One
Rebecca Albright, Kenneth R N Anthony, Mark Baird, Roger Beeden, Maria Byrne, Catherine Collier, Sophie Dove, Katharina Fabricius, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Ryan P Kelly, Janice Lough, Mathieu Mongin, Philip L Munday, Rachel J Pears, Bayden D Russell, Bronte Tilbrook, Eva Abal
Coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to ocean acidification. While our understanding of the potential impacts of ocean acidification on coral reef ecosystems is growing, gaps remain that limit our ability to translate scientific knowledge into management action. To guide solution-based research, we review the current knowledge of ocean acidification impacts on coral reefs alongside management needs and priorities. We use the world's largest continuous reef system, Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR), as a case study...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Shiqing Ma, Aidina Adayi, Zihao Liu, Meng Li, Mingyao Wu, Linghao Xiao, Yingchun Sun, Qing Cai, Xiaoping Yang, Xu Zhang, Ping Gao
Infections caused by pathogens colonization at wound sites in the process of bone healing are considered as one of the major reasons for the failure of guided bone regeneration (GBR). The objective of this study was to prepare a novel asymmetric collagen/chitosan GBR membrane containing minocycline-loaded chitosan nanoparticles. The morphologies of the membranes and nanoparticles were observed by SEM and TEM, respectively. The characterization and biocompatibility of the membranes was evaluated. The effect of the membrane on bone regeneration was assessed using the critical-size at cranial defect model...
2016: Scientific Reports
Bhuvaneswari Gurumurthy, Patrick C Bierdeman, Amol V Janorkar
OBJECTIVE: Collagen-based scaffolds for guided bone regeneration (GBR) are continuously improved to overcome the mechanical weaknesses of collagen. We have previously demonstrated superior mechanical characteristics of the elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) reinforced collagen composites. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the efficacy of ELP-collagen composites to culture human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and allow them to undergo osteogenic differentiation. We hypothesized that hASCs would show a superior osteogenic differentiation in stiffer ELP-collagen composites compared to the neat collagen hydrogels...
October 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Vincent D Costa, Laura C Kakalios, Bruno B Averbeck
Dopamine and serotonin have opponent interactions on aspects of impulsivity. Therefore we wanted to test the hypothesis that dopamine and serotonin would have opposing effects on speed-accuracy trade offs in a perceptual decision making task. Unlike other behavioral measures of impulsivity, perceptual decision making allows us to determine whether decreasing premature responses, often interpreted as decreased impulsivity, corresponds to increased behavioral performance. We administered GBR-12909 (a dopamine transporter blocker), escitalopram (a serotonin transporter blocker), or saline in separate sessions to 3 rhesus macaques...
October 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
Alain Hoornaert, Cyril d'Arros, Marie-Francoise Heymann, Pierre Layrolle
Membranes for guided bone regeneration (GBR) were prepared from the synthetic biodegradable polymer poly-D,L-lactic/glycolic acid (PLGA). This GBR membrane has a bi-layered structure with a dense film to prevent gingival fibroblast ingrowth and ensure mechanical function, and a micro-fibrous layer to support colonization by osteogenic cells and promote bone regeneration. Hydrolysis and biodegradation were both studied in vitro through soaking in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and in vivo by implantation in the subcutis of rats for 4, 8, 16, 26, 48 and 52 weeks...
2016: Biomedical Materials
Qiang Xia, Liping Wang, Congcong Xu, Jun Mei, Yunfei Li
The effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of mineral elements, amino acids (AAs), antioxidants and starch in brown rice (BR) were investigated. Germinated BR (GBR) was obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h and then subjected to HHP treatments at 0.1, 100, 300 and 500MPa for 10min. The in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium and copper was increased by 12.59-52.17% and 2.87-23.06% after HHP, respectively, but bioaccessible iron was decreased. In addition, HHP significantly improved individual AAs, particularly indispensable AAs and gama-aminobutyric acid, as well as bioaccessible total antioxidant activities and starch resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis...
January 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Elena Calciolari, Nikos Mardas, Xanthippi Dereka, Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, Aviva Petrie, Nikolaos Donos
OBJECTIVES: To histologically define the healing events occurring in calvarial critical size defects (CSDs) following treatment with a collagen barrier for guided bone regeneration (GBR) and a particulate graft in healthy and osteoporotic conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-six 10-month-old, female, Wistar rats were used in this study. Half of them were ovariectomized (OVX) and fed with a low-calcium diet to induce an osteoporotic-like status. In each animal of both groups, two 5-mm CSDs were created, one in the centre of each parietal bone, and they were treated with a deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) particulate graft and a bi-layer collagen membrane...
August 8, 2016: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Rong-Gang Cong, Mette Termansen
Traditional pig production often relies on cereal-based feed, which has adverse environmental effects, e.g. nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Alternative production systems are therefore sought to improve the sustainability of pig production. A promising alternative is to use proteinaceous feed from grass, produced in a green bio-refinery (GBR), to substitute part of the cereals in the feed. Cultivation of grass on arable land can reduce nitrogen leaching and pesticide application, and increase carbon storage...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
M Andreasi Bassi, C Andrisani, M A Lopez, R M Gaudio, L Lombardo, D Lauritano
The aim of this case series was to evaluate the clinical outcome of preformed titanium foil (PTF) to perform guided bone regeneration (GBR) in posterior mandibular atrophies. Thirteen patients (4 male; 9 female; mean age 58.85±10.16 years), with class II division C atrophy, according to Misch, were selected to perform GBR by means of PTF, using a moldable allograft paste as graft material. The devices, made of a 0.2mm thick pure titanium foil, were pre-shaped using stereolithographic models obtained from CT-scan of the patients’ recipient sites...
April 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
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