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fluid mechanics

Wen Tan, Lin Chen, Ya-Xin Wang, Li-Sha Hu, Wei Xiong, You Shang, Shang-Long Yao
Background: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe disease with high mortality and poor prognosis. Protectin DX (PDX), a pro-resolving lipid mediator, exhibits protective effects in ALI. Our experiment aimed to explore the effects and related mechanisms of PDX in mice with ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: BALB/c mice were randomly divided into five groups: sham, LPS, LPS plus 1 ng of PDX (LPS + PDX-1 ng), LPS plus 10 ng of PDX (LPS + PDX-10 ng), and LPS plus 100 ng of PDX (LPS + PDX-100 ng)...
March 19, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Kenneth B Bader
Histotripsy is a form of therapeutic ultrasound that liquefies tissue mechanically via acoustic cavitation. Bubble expansion is paramount in the efficacy of histotripsy therapy, and the cavitation dynamics are strongly influenced by the medium elasticity. In this study, an analytic model to predict histotripsy-induced bubble expansion in a fluid was extended to include the effects of medium elasticity. Good agreement was observed between the predictions of the analytic model and numerical computations utilizing highly nonlinear excitations (shock-scattering histotripsy) and purely tensile pulses (microtripsy)...
March 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Lixia Fu, Jing Guan, Yujia Zhang, Pei Ma, Yuanyuan Zhuang, Jinye Bai, Yasi Ding, Qi Hou, Wan Gong, Mingbao Lin, Wensheng Zheng, Jianmin Zhang
Background: Tulobuterol patch, one of strongest bronchodilators, was recently shown to improve bronchial hyperresponsiveness and significantly decrease the sputum eosinophil counts by combining with nonspecific anti-inflammatory drugs on patients with asthma. However, there is limited study on the anti-inflammatory activities of tulobuterol patch and its potential machenism. Results: The tulobuterol patch significantly ameliorated inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue, reduced the number of total leukocytes and its differential count, markedly reduced the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL-11 and IL-4 in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid, as well as a reduction in IL-4/IFN-γ ratio...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Zilong Hu, Shidong Hu, Youjun Wu, Songyan Li, Changzheng He, Xiaowei Xing, Yufeng Wang, Xiaohui Du
Although adoptive cell therapy (ACT) has demonstrated effective and remarkable clinical responses in several studies, this approach does not lead to objective clinical responses in all cases. The function of ACT is often compromised by various tumor escape mechanisms, including the accumulation of immunoregulatory cells. As a result of peritoneal metastasis in the terminal stage, malignant ascites fluid lacks effectiveness and is a poor prognostic factor for gastric cancer. The present study assessed T-cell subsets in lymphocytes derived from malignant ascites, and investigated the effects of arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ) on regulatory T cells (Tregs) and ascites-derived tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in vitro ...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Álvaro Sebastián-Serrano, Laura de Diego-García, David C Henshall, Tobías Engel, Miguel Díaz-Hernández
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare heritable metabolic bone disease caused by hypomorphic mutations in the ALPL (in human) or Akp2 (in mouse) gene, encoding the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) enzyme. In addition to skeletal and dental malformations, severe forms of HPP are also characterized by the presence of spontaneous seizures. Initially, these seizures were attributed to an impairment of GABAergic neurotransmission caused by altered vitamin B6 metabolism. However, recent work by our group using knockout mice null for TNAP (TNAP-/-), a well-described model of infantile HPP, has revealed a deregulation of purinergic signaling contributing to the seizure phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Siddharth Mallapragada, Ananya Wadhwa, Pallavi Agrawal
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are biological molecules bridging the innate and acquired immune systems of the defense mechanism. They have been found to be effective against not only Gram-positive and -negative bacterial species but also fungi and viruses with their broad spectrum of activity. Among the various niches where they are found in the human body, in the oral cavity, the AMPs are secreted by the epithelial cells, defense cells, crevicular fluid, and in the salivary secretions and form the first line of defense against bacterial invasion...
November 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Qiaomu Tian, Jose Antonio Mendez, Laura Rivera-Castaneda, Omar Mahmood, Adam Showalter, Elizabeth Ang, Sarah Kazmi, Huinan Liu
Medical implants play a key role in treating bone fractures. Permanent implants are currently used for immobilization of fractures and bearing physiological loads during bone healing. After bone has healed, these implants, if not removed, often cause complications in the long run; and secondary surgeries for removing them pose additional discomfort and expenses for patients. Magnesium (Mg)-based bioresorbable implants, can potentially eliminate the need for additional surgeries by degrading safely over time in the human body...
April 15, 2018: Materials Letters
Violaine Sironval, Laurence Reylandt, Perrine Chaurand, Saloua Ibouraadaten, Mihaly Palmai-Pallag, Yousof Yakoub, Bernard Ucakar, Jérôme Rose, Claude Poleunis, Rita Vanbever, Etienne Marbaix, Dominique Lison, Sybille van den Brule
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LIB) are increasingly produced and used worldwide. LIB electrodes are made of micrometric and low solubility particles, consisting of toxicologically relevant elements. The health hazard of these materials is not known. Here, we investigated the respiratory hazard of three leading LIB components (LiFePO4 or LFP, Li4 Ti5 O12 or LTO, and LiCoO2 or LCO) and their mechanisms of action. Particles were characterized physico-chemically and elemental bioaccessibility was documented. Lung inflammation and fibrotic responses, as well as particle persistence and ion bioavailability, were assessed in mice after aspiration of LIB particles (0...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Martyna Pakuła, Justyna Mikuła-Pietrasik, Łukasz Stryczyński, Paweł Uruski, Sebastian Szubert, Rafał Moszyński, Dariusz Szpurek, Stefan Sajdak, Andrzej Tykarski, Krzysztof Książek
Very little is known about the mechanisms by which malignant ascites modulates the cancer-promoting activity of human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs). Because malignant ascites induces pro-tumoral senescence in HPMCs, here we examined if this effect could be driven by oxidative stress. The study showed that malignant ascites generated by serous ovarian tumors induced oxidative damage to the DNA (γH2A.X, 53BP1, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) and lipids (8-isoprostane) in HPMCs as well as increased the production of mitochondrial superoxides and cellular peroxides in these cells...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Joo Myung Lee, Gilwoo Choi, Bon-Kwon Koo, Doyeon Hwang, Jonghanne Park, Jinlong Zhang, Kyung-Jin Kim, Yaliang Tong, Hyun Jin Kim, Leo Grady, Joon-Hyung Doh, Chang-Wook Nam, Eun-Seok Shin, Young-Seok Cho, Su-Yeon Choi, Eun Ju Chun, Jin-Ho Choi, Bjarne L Nørgaard, Evald Christiansen, Koen Niemen, Hiromasa Otake, Martin Penicka, Bernard de Bruyne, Takashi Kubo, Takashi Akasaka, Jagat Narula, Pamela S Douglas, Charles A Taylor, Hyo-Soo Kim
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the utility of noninvasive hemodynamic assessment in the identification of high-risk plaques that caused subsequent acute coronary syndrome (ACS). BACKGROUND: ACS is a critical event that impacts the prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease. However, the role of hemodynamic factors in the development of ACS is not well-known. METHODS: Seventy-two patients with clearly documented ACS and available coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) acquired between 1 month and 2 years before the development of ACS were included...
March 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Kai Yu, Paula Andruschak, Han Hung Yeh, Dana Grecov, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu
The information regarding the nature of protein corona (and its changes) and cell binding on biomaterial surface under dynamic conditions is critical to dissect the mechanism of surface-induced thrombosis. In this manuscript, we investigated the nature of protein corona and blood cell binding in heparinized recalcified human plasma, platelet rich plasma and whole blood on three highly hydrophilic antifouling polymer brushes, (poly(N, N-dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA), poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) and poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide] (PHPMA) using an in vitro blood loop model at comparable arterial and venous flow, and static conditions...
March 8, 2018: Biomaterials
Jin-Woo Kim, Zhong Lu
West Texas' Permian Basin, consisting of ancient marine rocks, is underlain by water-soluble rocks and multiple oil-rich formations. In the region that is densely populated with oil producing facilities, many localized geohazards, such as ground subsidence and micro-earthquakes, have gone unnoticed. Here we identify the localized geohazards in West Texas, using the satellite radar interferometry from newly launched radar satellites that provide radar images freely to public for the first time, and probe the causal mechanisms of ground deformation, encompassing oil/gas production activities and subsurface geological characteristics...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhibing Yang, Ruben Juanes
Pore fluid pressure in a fault zone can be altered by natural processes (e.g., mineral dehydration and thermal pressurization) and industrial operations involving subsurface fluid injection and extraction for the development of energy and water resources. However, the effect of pore pressure change on the stability and slip motion of a preexisting geologic fault remains poorly understood; yet, it is critical for the assessment of seismic hazard. Here, we develop a micromechanical model to investigate the effect of pore pressure on fault slip behavior...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
F Giorgiutti-Dauphiné, L Pauchard
The drying of complex fluids involves a large number of microscopic phenomena (transport and organization of non-volatile solutes) as well as hydrodynamic and mechanical instabilities. These phenomena can be captured in drying sessile drops where different domains can be identified: strong concentration gradients, formation of a glassy or porous envelope that withstands mechanical stress, and consolidation of a layer strongly adhering to the substrate at the drop edge. In colloidal systems, we quantify the evolution of the particle volume fraction at a nanometric scale and microscopic scale and identify the conditions for the envelope formation at the free surface by balancing the effect of diffusion and evaporation...
March 19, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Guanghui Wang, Jie Tan, Minghui Tang, Changbin Zhang, Dongying Zhang, Wenbin Ji, Junhao Chen, Ho-Pui Ho, Xuping Zhang
Centrifugal microfluidics or lab-on-a-disc (LOAD) is a promising branch of lab-on-a-chip or microfluidics. Besides effective fluid transportation and inherently available density-based sample separation in centrifugal microfluidics, uniform actuation of flow on the disc makes the platform compact and scalable. However, the natural radially outward centrifugal force in a LOAD system limits its capacity to perform complex fluid manipulation steps. In order to increase the fluid manipulation freedom and integration capacity of the LOAD system, we propose a binary centrifugal microfluidics platform...
March 16, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Dengfeng Ding, Shiyuan Xu, Hongfei Zhang, Wei Zhao, Xueping Zhang, Yuanxu Jiang, Ping Wang, Zhongliang Dai, Junzhi Zhang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and dexmedetomidine (DEX) pretreatment on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and the potential mechanism underlying the effects. LPS was instilled into the trachea of BALB/c mice to induce the ALI model. Solutions of 3-MA or DEX were intravenously injected into the mice 1 h later to establish the 3-MA and DEX groups. On days 1, 3 and 5 after the injections, arterial blood gas analysis was conducted, and the lung wet-dry weight ratio (W/D) was determined...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Renping Liu, Peihong Wang, Caiqing Wu, Juan Chen, Chengxin Li, Yongtao Xie, Qi Wang, Jianming Liu, Huan He, Jing Zhu
Hedyotis diffusa Willd (HDW) is a constituent of several Chinese medicines used clinically to treat inflammatory diseases, including airway inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether HDW serves a protective role in suppressing chronic airway inflammation and its underlying mechanisms. A mouse model of chronic smoking was induced via exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) for 30 days, increasing the exposure time for up to 5 min per day and the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Piera Valenti, Luigi Rosa, Daniela Capobianco, Maria Stefania Lepanto, Elisa Schiavi, Antimo Cutone, Rosalba Paesano, Paola Mastromarino
The innate defense system of the female mucosal genital tract involves a close and complex interaction among the healthy vaginal microbiota, different cells, and various proteins that protect the host from pathogens. Vaginal lactobacilli and lactoferrin represent two essential actors in the vaginal environment. Lactobacilli represent the dominant bacterial species able to prevent facultative and obligate anaerobes outnumber in vaginal microbiota maintaining healthy microbial homeostasis. Several mechanisms underlie the protection exerted by lactobacilli: competition for nutrients and tissue adherence, reduction of the vaginal pH, modulation of immunity, and production of bioactive compounds...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Aleksandra Mazur, Anthony Guernec, Jacky Lautridou, Julie Dupas, Emmanuel Dugrenot, Marc Belhomme, Michael Theron, François Guerrero
Introduction: Commercial divers, high altitude pilots, and astronauts are exposed to some inherent risk of decompression sickness (DCS), though the mechanisms that trigger are still unclear. It has been previously showed that diving may induce increased levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme. The renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is one of the most important regulators of blood pressure and fluid volume. The purpose of the present study was to control the influence of angiotensin II on the appearance of DCS...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yijun Pan, Jennifer L Short, Stephanie A Newman, Kwok H C Choy, Durgesh Tiwari, Christopher Yap, Danielle Senyschyn, William A Banks, Joseph A Nicolazzo
Epidemiological evidence suggests that people with bipolar disorder prescribed lithium exhibit a lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) relative to those prescribed other mood-stabilizing medicines. Lithium chloride (LiCl) reduces brain β-amyloid (Aβ) levels, and the brain clearance of Aβ is reduced in AD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether the cognitive benefits of LiCl are associated with enhanced brain clearance of exogenously-administered Aβ. The brain clearance of intracerebroventricularly (icv) administered125 I-Aβ42 was assessed in male Swiss outbred mice administered daily oral NaCl or LiCl (300 mg/kg for 21 days)...
March 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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