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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350449/lipoidal-corneal-degeneration-in-aged-falcons
#1
Bret A Moore, Joanne R Paul-Murphy, Kathleen L Adamson, Richard R Dubielzig, Thomas Kern, Ben J Gonzales, Peregrine Wolff, Christopher J Murphy
OBJECTIVE: To present a case series of idiopathic lipoidal corneal degeneration in falcons. ANIMALS STUDIED: Five falcons including three peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), one prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus), and one red-naped shaheen (Falco peregrinus babylonicus) were observed to develop slowly progressive corneal opacification that began at the temporal limbus and extended centripetally across the cornea over a period of years. Four of the birds were over 20 years old...
January 19, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350342/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-of-the-bone-marrow-and-natural-killer-cells-cell-interactions-and-cross-modulation
#2
Mehdi Najar, Mohammad Fayyad-Kazan, Nathalie Meuleman, Dominique Bron, Hussein Fayyad-Kazan, Laurence Lagneaux
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells that have shown promise for several different therapeutic applications. As they are able to modulate the function of several types of immune cells, BM-MSCs are highly important in the field of cell-based immunotherapy. Understanding BM-MSC-natural killer (NK) cell interactions is crucial for improving their therapeutic efficiency. Here, we observed that the type of NK cell-activating cytokine (e.g., IL-2, IL-12, IL-15 and IL-21) strongly influenced the outcomes of their interactions with BM-MSCs...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350308/the-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-efatutazone-delays-invasive-progression-and-induces-differentiation-of-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ
#3
Virginie Ory, William B Kietzman, Jacob Boeckelman, Bhaskar V Kallakury, Anton Wellstein, Priscilla A Furth, Anna T Riegel
PURPOSE: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a pre-invasive lesion of the breast considered a precursor of invasive ductal carcinoma. This study aimed to determine whether activated PPARγ acts as a tumor suppressor in human DCIS progression. METHODS: We utilized the high-affinity PPARγ agonist, efatutazone, to activate endogenous PPARγ in a well-defined model for the progression of basal (triple negative) DCIS, MCFDCIS cells, cultured under 2D and 3D conditions...
January 19, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350101/biomimetic-composite-scaffold-sis-mbg-exhibits-high-osteogenic-and-angiogenic-capacity
#4
Tingfang Sun, Man Liu, Sheng Yao, Yanhui Ji, Zekang Xiong, Kai Tang, Kaifang Chen, Hu Yang, Xiao-Dong Guo
Biomaterials with excellent osteogenic and angiogenic activities are desirable to repair massive bone defects. Decellularized matrix from porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) has attracted particular attention for tissue regeneration because it has strong angiogenic effects and retains plentiful bioactive components. However, it has inferior osteoinductivity and osteoconductivity. In this study, we developed porous composite of SIS combined with mesoporous bioactive glass (SIS/MBG) with the goal of improving the mechanical and biological properties...
January 19, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349655/total-body-irradiation-tremendously-impair-the-proliferation-differentiation-and-chromosomal-integrity-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells
#5
Wen-Jyi Lo, Chiao-Lin Lin, Yu-Chien Chang, Li-Yuan Bai, Chen-Yuan Lin, Ji-An Liang, Long-Yuan Li, Ling-Min Chao, Chang-Fang Chiu, Chuan-Mu Chen, Su-Peng Yeh
Total body irradiation (TBI) is frequently used in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and is associated with many complications due to radiation injury to the normal cells, including normal stem cells. Nevertheless, the effects of TBI on the mesenchymal stromal stem cell (MSC) are not fully understood. Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) isolated from normal adults were irradiated with 200 cGy twice daily for consecutive 3 days, a regimen identical to that used in TBI-conditioning HSCT. The characteristics, differentiation potential, cytogenetics, hematopoiesis-supporting function, and carcinogenicity of the irradiated BM-MSCs were then compared to the non-irradiated control...
January 18, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349096/safety-and-efficacy-of-aav-retrograde-pancreatic-ductal-gene-delivery-in-normal-and-pancreatic-cancer-mice
#6
Kayla A Quirin, Jason J Kwon, Arafat Alioufi, Tricia Factora, Constance J Temm, Max Jacobsen, George E Sandusky, Kim Shontz, Louis G Chicoine, K Reed Clark, Joshua T Mendell, Murray Korc, Janaiah Kota
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated gene delivery shows promise to transduce the pancreas, but safety/efficacy in a neoplastic context is not well established. To identify an ideal AAV serotype, route, and vector dose and assess safety, we have investigated the use of three AAV serotypes (6, 8, and 9) expressing GFP in a self-complementary (sc) AAV vector under an EF1α promoter (scAAV.GFP) following systemic or retrograde pancreatic intraductal delivery. Systemic delivery of scAAV9.GFP transduced the pancreas with high efficiency, but gene expression did not exceed >45% with the highest dose, 5 × 1012 viral genomes (vg)...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348860/silencing-ror1-and-ror2-inhibits-invasion-and-adhesion-in-an-organotypic-model-of-ovarian-cancer-metastasis
#7
Claire Henry, Neville Hacker, Caroline Ford
OBJECTIVE: Elevated expression of the ROR1 and ROR2 Wnt receptors has been noted in both the tumour and stromal compartments of ovarian cancer patient tissue samples. In vitro studies have suggested these receptors play a role in ovarian cancer metastasis. However, these previous studies have utilised simple 2D in vitro models to investigate cancer cell growth and migration, which does not allow investigation of stromal involvement in Wnt driven metastasis. AIM: To investigate targeting ROR1 and ROR2 using a primary co-culture 3D model of epithelial ovarian cancer dissemination to the omentum...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348519/guanylate-binding-protein-1-inhibits-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-derived-from-bone-marrow
#8
Shi Bai, Zhixiang Mu, Yuanding Huang, Ping Ji
Guanylate Binding Proteins (GBPs) are a group of cytokine-inducible large guanosine triphosphatase. Previous studies have shown high expression of GBP1 in circulating monocytes of premenopausal subjects was correlated to extremely low peak bone mass, which is considered as an important determinant of osteoporosis. However, whether GBPs play a role in regulation of osteogenesis of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) remains largely unknown. In the present study, we found that mRNA expression of GBP1 was highest among all the GBPs, and it was dramatically downregulated during osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs derived from bone marrow (hBM-MSCs)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348458/hic-5-regulates-fibrillar-adhesion-formation-to-control-tumor-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-through-interaction-with-tensin1
#9
Gregory J Goreczny, Ian J Forsythe, Christopher E Turner
The linearization of the stromal extracellular matrix (ECM) by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) facilitates tumor cell growth and metastasis. However, the mechanism by which the ECM is remodeled is not fully understood. Hic-5 (TGFβ1i1), a focal adhesion scaffold protein, has previously been reported to be crucial for stromal ECM deposition and remodeling in vivo. Herein we show that CAFs lacking Hic-5 exhibit a significant reduction in the ability to form fibrillar adhesions, a specialized form of focal adhesion that promote fibronectin fibrillogenesis...
January 19, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348441/sdf1-gradient-associates-with-the-distribution-of-c-kit-cardiac-cells-in-the-heart
#10
Outi Renko, Anna-Maria Tolonen, Jaana Rysä, Johanna Magga, Erja Mustonen, Heikki Ruskoaho, Raisa Serpi
Identification of the adult cardiac stem cells (CSCs) has offered new therapeutic possibilities for treating ischemic myocardium. CSCs positive for the cell surface antigen c-Kit are known as the primary source for cardiac regeneration. Accumulating evidence shows that chemokines play important roles in stem cell homing. Here we investigated molecular targets to be utilized in modulating the mobility of endogenous CSCs. In a four week follow-up after experimental acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery of Sprague-Dawley rats c-Kit+ CSCs redistributed in the heart...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348304/mir-20a-5p-promotes-adipogenic-differentiation-via-targeting-kruppel-like-factor-3
#11
Endong Zhu, Juanjuan Zhang, Jie Zhou, Hairui Yuan, Wei Zhao, Baoli Wang
miR-20a-5p has recently been identified to induce adipogenesis of established adipogenic cell lines in our previous study. However, its role and molecular mechanisms in the regulation of adipocyte lineage commitment of bone marrow derived stromal cells (BMSCs) still need to be explored. In this report, we demonstrated the expression of miR-20a-5p was promoted gradually during adipogenic differentiation in BMSCs. We also confirmed that miR-20a-5p have a positive function in the adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs by gain-of-function study with overexpression lentivirus or synthetic mimics of miR-20a-5p, and loss-of-function study with sponge lentivirus or synthetic inhibitor of miR-20a-5p...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346774/mannose-receptor-1-restricts-hiv-particle-release-from-infected-macrophages
#12
Sayaka Sukegawa, Eri Miyagi, Fadila Bouamr, Helena Farkašová, Klaus Strebel
Human mannose receptor 1 (hMRC1) is expressed on the surface of most tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, and select lymphatic or liver endothelial cells. HMRC1 contributes to the binding of HIV-1 to monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and is involved in the endocytic uptake of HIV-1 into these cells. Here, we identify hMRC1 as an antiviral factor that inhibits virus release through a bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2)-like mechanism. Virions produced in the presence of hMRC1 accumulated in clusters at the cell surface but were fully infectious...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346656/host-responses-to-intestinal-nematodes
#13
Koubun Yasuda, Kenji Nakanishi
Helminth infection remains common in developing countries, where residents who suffer from the consequences of such infections can develop serious physical and mental disorders and often persist in the face of serious economic problems. Intestinal nematode infection induces the development of Th2-type immune responses including the B cell IgE response; additionally, this infection induces an increase in the numbers and activation of various types of effector cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils and basophils, as well as the induction of goblet cell hyperplasia, antimicrobial peptide production and smooth muscle contraction, all of which contribute to expel nematodes...
January 13, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346528/a-novel-stromal-lncrna-signature-reprograms-fibroblasts-to-promote-the-growth-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-via-lncrna-caf-interleukin-33
#14
Liang Ding, Jing Ren, Dongya Zhang, Yi Li, Xiaofeng Huang, Qingang Hu, Hui Wang, Yuxian Song, Yanhong Ni, Yayi Hou
Stromal carcinoma-related fibroblasts (CAFs) are the main type of non-immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). CAFs interact with cancer cells to promote tumor proliferation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to regulate cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis of cancer cells, but their role in stromal cells is unclear. Using RNA sequencing, we identified a stromal lncRNA signature during the transformation of CAFs from normal fibroblasts (NFs) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We uncovered an uncharacterized lncRNA, FLJ22447, which was remarkably up-regulated in CAFs, referred to LncRNA-CAF (Lnc-CAF) hereafter...
January 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346495/long-term-temporal-changes-in-structure-and-function-of-rat-visual-system-after-blast-exposure
#15
Daniel F Shedd, Nikolaus A Benko, Justin Jones, Brian E Zaugg, Robert L Peiffer, Brittany Coats
Purpose: We identify long-term ocular sequelae subsequent to experimental blast exposure. Methods: Male Long-Evans rats were exposed to 230 kPa side-on primary blast overpressure using a compressed air driven shock tube. Visual system function and structure were assessed for 8 weeks after exposure using optokinetic nystagmus and optical coherence tomography. Vitreous protein expression and histology (TUNEL, H&E) were performed at 1 day and 1, 4, and 8 weeks. IOP was recorded bilaterally during blast in a subset of animals...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346131/toxicological-profile-and-safety-pharmacology-of-a-single-dose-of-fibroblast-activation-protein-%C3%AE-based-doxorubicin-prodrug-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#16
Sichao Huang, Yuchen Zhang, Jinsong Zhong, Ying Pan, Shaohui Cai, Jun Xu
Fibroblast activation protein-α (FAPα) is a promising tumor-associated target expressed by reactive stromal fibroblasts in tumor tissue. FAPα has a postprolyl peptidase activity and can specifically cleave N-terminal benzyloxycarbonyl (Z)-blocked peptides, such as the substrate Z-Gly-Pro-AMC. Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective antitumor drug, but its application is greatly limited by toxic adverse effects owing to poor tumor selectivity. Based on these facts, we previously designed a FAPα-targeting prodrug of doxorubicin (FTPD) which can be selectively hydrolyzed by FAPα...
January 17, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345353/hipop-mesenchymal-population-has-high-potential-for-repairing-injured-peripheral-nerves
#17
Yukako Yamauchi, Shousaku Itoh, Haruna Naruse, Yuki Itoh, Makoto Abe, Takumi Kagioka, Mikako Hayashi
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are reportedly a heterogeneous population of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Recently, we developed a simple strategy for the enrichment of MSCs with the capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. On transplantation, the progenitor-enriched fractions can regenerate the bone with multiple lineages of donor origin and are thus called "highly purified osteoprogenitors" (HipOPs). Although our previous studies have demonstrated that HipOPs are enriched with MSCs and exhibit a higher potential to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes than BMSCs, their potential to differentiate into neural cells has not been clarified...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345319/endothelial-cells-enhance-adipose-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-mediated-matrix-contraction-via-alk-receptors-and-reduced-follistatin-potential-role-of-endothelial-cells-in-skin-fibrosis
#18
Hanneke N Monsuur, Lenie J van den Broek, Pieter Koolwijk, Frank B Niessen, Susan Gibbs
Abnormal cutaneous wound healing can lead to formation of fibrotic hypertrophic scars. Although several clinical risk factors have been described, the cross-talk between different cell types resulting in hypertrophic scar formation is still poorly understood. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate whether endothelial cells (EC) may play a role in skin fibrosis, e.g. hypertrophic scar formation after full-thickness skin trauma. Using a collagen/elastin matrix, we developed an in vitro fibrosis model to study the interaction between EC and dermal fibroblasts or adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASC)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344894/systems-biology-approaches-in-cancer-pathology
#19
Aaron DeWard, Rebecca J Critchley-Thorne
The complex network of the tissue system, in both pre-neoplastic tissues and tumors, demonstrates the need for a systems biology approach to cancer pathology, in which quantification of key tissue system processes is combined with informatics tools to produce actionable scores to aid clinical decision-making. A systems biology approach to cancer pathology enables integration of key system features that are relevant to diagnoses, patient outcomes, and responses to therapies. Key tissue system features relevant to cancer pathology include molecular and morphologic abnormalities in epithelia, cellular changes in the stroma such as immune infiltrates, and relationships between components of the system, such as interactions and spatial relationships between epithelial and stromal components, and also between specific immune cell subsets...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344855/protocol-for-the-analysis-of-laser-capture-microdissected-fresh-frozen-tissue-homogenates-by-silver-stained-1d-sds-page
#20
DaRue A Prieto, Gordon Whitely, Donald J Johann, Josip Blonder
The heterogeneity present in solid tumors adds significant difficulty to scientific analysis and improved understanding. Fundamentally, solid tumor formation consists of cancer cells proper along with stromal elements. The burgeoning malignant process is dependent upon modified stromal elements. Collectively, the stroma forms an essential microenvironment, which is indispensable for the survival and growth of the malignant neoplasm. This cellular heterogeneity makes molecular profiling of solid tumors via mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics a daunting task...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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