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stem cell law

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516389/microenvironmental-scenario-of-the-bone-marrow-of-inorganic-arsenic-exposed-experimental-mice
#1
Jacintha Archana Pereira, Sujata Law
Exposure to arsenic on a regular basis, mainly through drinking water, agricultural pesticide, and sometimes therapeutic dose, results in various diseases of different tissues including the bone marrow hematopoietic system. Hematopoiesis is a dynamic process by which bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) generate a relatively constant pool of functionally mature blood cells by the support of microenvironmental components. The present study has been aimed to understand stem cell microenvironmental status during arsenic toxicity and the consequent reflection of dysregulation involving the hematopoietic machinery in experimental mice...
May 17, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482513/modeling-the-permeability-of-multiaxial-electrospun-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-gelatin-hybrid-fibers-for-controlled-doxycycline-release
#2
Abdurizzagh Khalf, Sundararajan V Madihally
Recent advances in electrospinning allow the formation of multiple layers of micro and nanosize fibers to regulate drug/therapeutic agent release. Although there has been significant progress in fiber formation techniques and drug loading, fundamental models providing insights into controlling individual permeabilities is lacking. In this regard, we first explored forming coaxial hybrid fibers from hydrophobic poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and hydrophilic gelatin (GT) in three different configurations, and the release of hydrophilic doxycycline (Dox) at 37°C over five days...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456853/cultured-meat-in-islamic-perspective
#3
Mohammad Naqib Hamdan, Mark J Post, Mohd Anuar Ramli, Amin Rukaini Mustafa
Cultured meat is a promising product that is derived through biotechnology that partially circumvents animal physiology, thereby being potentially more sustainable, environmentally friendly and animal friendly than traditional livestock meat. Such a novel technology that can impact many consumers evokes ethical, philosophical and religious discussions. For the Islamic community, the crucial question is whether cultured meat is halal, meaning compliant with Islamic laws. Since the culturing of meat is a new discovery, invention and innovation by scientists that has never been discussed by classical jurists (fuqaha'), an ijtihad by contemporary jurists must look for and provide answers for every technology introduced, whether it comply the requirements of Islamic law or not...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400519/balance-of-microtubule-stiffness-and-cortical-tension-determines-the-size-of-blood-cells-with-marginal-band-across-species
#4
Serge Dmitrieff, Adolfo Alsina, Aastha Mathur, François J Nédélec
The fast bloodstream of animals is associated with large shear stresses. To withstand these conditions, blood cells have evolved a special morphology and a specific internal architecture to maintain their integrity over several weeks. For instance, nonmammalian red blood cells, mammalian erythroblasts, and platelets have a peripheral ring of microtubules, called the marginal band, that flattens the overall cell morphology by pushing on the cell cortex. In this work, we model how the shape of these cells stems from the balance between marginal band rigidity and cortical tension...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396508/adipocyte-metabolic-pathways-regulated-by-diet-control-the-female-germline-stem-cell-lineage-in-drosophila
#5
Shinya Matsuoka, Alissa Armstrong, Leesa L Sampson, Kaitlin M Laws, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
Nutrients affect adult stem cells through complex mechanisms involving multiple organs. Adipocytes are highly sensitive to diet and have key metabolic roles, and obesity increases the risk for many cancers. How diet-regulated adipocyte metabolic pathways influence normal stem cell lineages, however, remains unclear. Drosophila melanogaster has highly conserved adipocyte metabolism and a well-characterized female germline stem cell (GSC) lineage response to diet. Here, we conducted an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic analysis to identify diet-regulated adipocyte metabolic pathways that control the female GSC lineage...
April 10, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273453/cd95-fas-increases-stemness-in-cancer-cells-by-inducing-a-stat1-dependent-type-i-interferon-response
#6
Abdul S Qadir, Paolo Ceppi, Sonia Brockway, Calvin Law, Liang Mu, Nikolai N Khodarev, Jung Kim, Jonathan C Zhao, William Putzbach, Andrea E Murmann, Zhuo Chen, Wenjing Chen, Xia Liu, Arthur R Salomon, Huiping Liu, Ralph R Weichselbaum, Jindan Yu, Marcus E Peter
Stimulation of CD95/Fas drives and maintains cancer stem cells (CSCs). We now report that this involves activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and induction of STAT1-regulated genes and that this process is inhibited by active caspases. STAT1 is enriched in CSCs in cancer cell lines, patient-derived human breast cancer, and CD95(high)-expressing glioblastoma neurospheres. CD95 stimulation of cancer cells induced secretion of type I interferons (IFNs) that bind to type I IFN receptors, resulting in activation of Janus-activated kinases, activation of STAT1, and induction of a number of STAT1-regulated genes that are part of a gene signature recently linked to therapy resistance in five primary human cancers...
March 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247046/control-of-germline-stem-cell-lineages-by-diet-and-physiology
#7
Kaitlin M Laws, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
Tight coupling of reproduction to environmental factors and physiological status is key to long-term species survival. In particular, highly conserved pathways modulate germline stem cell lineages according to nutrient availability. This chapter focuses on recent in vivo studies in genetic model organisms that shed light on how diet-dependent signals control the proliferation, maintenance, and survival of adult germline stem cells and their progeny. These signaling pathways can operate intrinsically in the germ line, modulate the niche, or act through intermediate organs to influence stem cells and their differentiating progeny...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241208/association-between-telomere-length-and-risk-of-cancer-and-non-neoplastic-diseases-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#8
Philip C Haycock, Stephen Burgess, Aayah Nounu, Jie Zheng, George N Okoli, Jack Bowden, Kaitlin Hazel Wade, Nicholas J Timpson, David M Evans, Peter Willeit, Abraham Aviv, Tom R Gaunt, Gibran Hemani, Massimo Mangino, Hayley Patricia Ellis, Kathreena M Kurian, Karen A Pooley, Rosalind A Eeles, Jeffrey E Lee, Shenying Fang, Wei V Chen, Matthew H Law, Lisa M Bowdler, Mark M Iles, Qiong Yang, Bradford B Worrall, Hugh Stephen Markus, Rayjean J Hung, Chris I Amos, Amanda B Spurdle, Deborah J Thompson, Tracy A O'Mara, Brian Wolpin, Laufey Amundadottir, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon, Antonia Trichopoulou, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Eiliv Lund, Eric J Duell, Federico Canzian, Gianluca Severi, Kim Overvad, Marc J Gunter, Rosario Tumino, Ulrika Svenson, Andre van Rij, Annette F Baas, Matthew J Bown, Nilesh J Samani, Femke N G van t'Hof, Gerard Tromp, Gregory T Jones, Helena Kuivaniemi, James R Elmore, Mattias Johansson, James Mckay, Ghislaine Scelo, Robert Carreras-Torres, Valerie Gaborieau, Paul Brennan, Paige M Bracci, Rachel E Neale, Sara H Olson, Steven Gallinger, Donghui Li, Gloria M Petersen, Harvey A Risch, Alison P Klein, Jiali Han, Christian C Abnet, Neal D Freedman, Philip R Taylor, John M Maris, Katja K Aben, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Sita H Vermeulen, John K Wiencke, Kyle M Walsh, Margaret Wrensch, Terri Rice, Clare Turnbull, Kevin Litchfield, Lavinia Paternoster, Marie Standl, Gonçalo R Abecasis, John Paul SanGiovanni, Yong Li, Vladan Mijatovic, Yadav Sapkota, Siew-Kee Low, Krina T Zondervan, Grant W Montgomery, Dale R Nyholt, David A van Heel, Karen Hunt, Dan E Arking, Foram N Ashar, Nona Sotoodehnia, Daniel Woo, Jonathan Rosand, Mary E Comeau, W Mark Brown, Edwin K Silverman, John E Hokanson, Michael H Cho, Jennie Hui, Manuel A Ferreira, Philip J Thompson, Alanna C Morrison, Janine F Felix, Nicholas L Smith, Angela M Christiano, Lynn Petukhova, Regina C Betz, Xing Fan, Xuejun Zhang, Caihong Zhu, Carl D Langefeld, Susan D Thompson, Feijie Wang, Xu Lin, David A Schwartz, Tasha Fingerlin, Jerome I Rotter, Mary Frances Cotch, Richard A Jensen, Matthias Munz, Henrik Dommisch, Arne S Schaefer, Fang Han, Hanna M Ollila, Ryan P Hillary, Omar Albagha, Stuart H Ralston, Chenjie Zeng, Wei Zheng, Xiao-Ou Shu, Andre Reis, Steffen Uebe, Ulrike Hüffmeier, Yoshiya Kawamura, Takeshi Otowa, Tsukasa Sasaki, Martin Lloyd Hibberd, Sonia Davila, Gang Xie, Katherine Siminovitch, Jin-Xin Bei, Yi-Xin Zeng, Asta Försti, Bowang Chen, Stefano Landi, Andre Franke, Annegret Fischer, David Ellinghaus, Carlos Flores, Imre Noth, Shwu-Fan Ma, Jia Nee Foo, Jianjun Liu, Jong-Won Kim, David G Cox, Olivier Delattre, Olivier Mirabeau, Christine F Skibola, Clara S Tang, Merce Garcia-Barcelo, Kai-Ping Chang, Wen-Hui Su, Yu-Sun Chang, Nicholas G Martin, Scott Gordon, Tracey D Wade, Chaeyoung Lee, Michiaki Kubo, Pei-Chieng Cha, Yusuke Nakamura, Daniel Levy, Masayuki Kimura, Shih-Jen Hwang, Steven Hunt, Tim Spector, Nicole Soranzo, Ani W Manichaikul, R Graham Barr, Bratati Kahali, Elizabeth Speliotes, Laura M Yerges-Armstrong, Ching-Yu Cheng, Jost B Jonas, Tien Yin Wong, Isabella Fogh, Kuang Lin, John F Powell, Kenneth Rice, Caroline L Relton, Richard M Martin, George Davey Smith
Importance: The causal direction and magnitude of the association between telomere length and incidence of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases is uncertain owing to the susceptibility of observational studies to confounding and reverse causation. Objective: To conduct a Mendelian randomization study, using germline genetic variants as instrumental variables, to appraise the causal relevance of telomere length for risk of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases. Data Sources: Genomewide association studies (GWAS) published up to January 15, 2015...
May 1, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196146/chemotherapy-induces-adaptive-drug-resistance-and-metastatic-potentials-via-phenotypic-cxcr4-expressing-cell-state-transition-in-ovarian-cancer
#9
Hyun Hee Lee, Vanessa Bellat, Benedict Law
Ovarian cancer (OVC) patients who receive chemotherapy often acquire drug resistance within one year. This can lead to tumor reoccurrence and metastasis, the major causes of mortality. We report a transient increase of a small distinctive CXCR4High/CD24Low cancer stem cell population (CXCR4High) in A2780 and SKOV-3 OVC cell lines in response to cisplatin, doxorubicin, and paclitaxel, treatments. The withdrawal of the drug challenges reversed this cell-state transition. CXCR4High exhibits dormancy in drug resistance and mesenchymal-like invasion, migration, colonization, and tumor formation properties...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192422/identification-of-quiescent-and-spatially-restricted-mammary-stem-cells-that-are-hormone-responsive
#10
Nai Yang Fu, Anne C Rios, Bhupinder Pal, Charity W Law, Paul Jamieson, Ruijie Liu, François Vaillant, Felicity Jackling, Kevin He Liu, Gordon K Smyth, Geoffrey J Lindeman, Matthew E Ritchie, Jane E Visvader
Despite accumulating evidence for a mammary differentiation hierarchy, the basal compartment comprising stem cells remains poorly characterized. Through gene expression profiling of Lgr5(+) basal epithelial cells, we identify a new marker, Tetraspanin8 (Tspan8). Fractionation based on Tspan8 and Lgr5 expression uncovered three distinct mammary stem cell (MaSC) subsets in the adult mammary gland. These exist in a largely quiescent state but differ in their reconstituting ability, spatial localization, and their molecular and epigenetic signatures...
February 13, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108933/modelling-genome-wide-topological-associating-domains-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#11
Y Zhan, L Giorgetti, G Tiana
Chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based techniques such as chromosome conformation capture carbon copy (5C) and Hi-C revealed that the folding of mammalian chromosomes is highly hierarchical. A fundamental structural unit in the hierarchy is represented by topologically associating domains (TADs), sub-megabase regions of the genome within which the chromatin fibre preferentially interacts. 3C-based methods provide the mean contact probabilities between chromosomal loci, averaged over a large number of cells, and do not give immediate access to the single-cell conformations of the chromatin fibre...
January 20, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094826/response-to-dittrich-et-al-non-embryo-destructive-extraction-of-pluripotent-embryonic-stem-cells-overlooked-legal-prohibitions-professional-legal-consequences-and-inconsistencies-in-patent-law
#12
REVIEW
T Faltus, U Storz
The publication of "Non-embryo-destructive Extraction of Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells: Implications for Regenerative Medicine and Reproductive Medicine" by Dittrich et al. in Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 2015; 75: 1239-1242 1 describes various possibilities which could result from the non-embryo-destructive extraction of embryonic stem cells from human blastocysts. But implementing this method is more problematic, both legally and ethically, than the authors have represented it to be and is illegal in Germany...
December 2016: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042168/reply-to-response-to-dittrich-et-al-non-embryo-destructive-extraction-of-pluripotent-embryonic-stem-cells-overlooked-legal-prohibitions-professional-legal-consequences-and-inconsistencies-in-patent-law
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976982/patent-eligibility-of-stem-cells-in-europe-where-do-we-stand-after-8-years-of-case-law
#14
Ulrich Storz, Timo Faltus
Since 2006, some of the highest ranking European Courts have issued decisions related to the patent eligibility of human embryonic stem cells. The question of patent eligibility of human embryonic stem cells remains, however, still erratic, at least in some aspects. This article will give a short comprehensive overview of the case history, and discuss questions still unsolved.
January 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933781/structure-and-function-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-envelope-glycoproteins-e1-and-e2-antiviral-and-vaccine-targets
#15
Holly Freedman, Michael R Logan, John Lok Man Law, Michael Houghton
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 are critical in viral attachment and cell fusion, and studies of these proteins may provide valuable insights into their potential uses in vaccines and antiviral strategies. Progress has included elucidating the crystal structures of portions of their ectodomains, as well as many other studies of hypervariable regions, stem regions, glycosylation sites, and the participation of E1/E2 in viral fusion with the endosomal membrane. The available structural data have shed light on the binding sites of cross-neutralizing antibodies...
November 11, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855949/-general-and-ethical-considerations-for-the-informed-consent-process-guidelines-from-the-francophone-society-of-bone-marrow-transplantation-and-cellular-therapy-sfgm-tc
#16
Jean-Baptiste Thibert, Alice Polomeni, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Dominique Bordessoule
Informed consent is not restricted to clinical research and must be applied to high-risk care such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. If standardized informed consent might improve inequalities in medical practices between different transplantation centers, it is strongly recommended that it be adapted with an honest dialogue between physicians and patients and physicians and donors. In an attempt to harmonize clinical practices among French hematopoietic stem cell transplantation centers, the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC) held its sixth annual workshop series in September 2015 in Lille...
November 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842861/-information-and-consent-forms-for-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-donors-and-recipients-guidelines-from-the-franchophone-society-of-bone-marrow-transplantation-and-cellular-therapy-sfgm-tc
#17
Bénédicte Bruno, Jean-Baptiste Thibert, Nelly Bancillon, Anna Desbos, Abir Fawaz, Isabelle Fournier, Carole Genty, Dominique Issarni, Sandrine Leveille, Christelle Premel, Alice Polomeni, Myriam Renault, Sylvie Tarillon, Anne Wallart, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Dominique Bordessoule
Within the context of the SFGM-TC's 6th workshop series on the harmonization of clinical practices, our workshop proposes a standardization of the informed consent process for hematopoietic stem cell donors and recipients leading up to an autologous or allogenic transplantation. All informed consent was for bone marrow or peripheral stem cell donors, and mononuclear/lymphocyte donors according to usual procedures. The informed consent for autologous and allogenic related or unrelated adults and pediatric transplantation patients have been included...
November 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824280/the-combined-effect-of-substrate-stiffness-and-surface-topography-on-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Yingnan Wu, Zheng Yang, Jaslyn Bee Khuan Law, Ai Yu He, Azlina A Abbas, Vinitha Denslin, Tunku Kamarul, James H P Hui, Eng Hin Lee
Stem cell differentiation is guided by contact with the physical microenvironment, influence by both topography and mechanical properties of the matrix. In this study, the combined effect of substratum nano-topography and mechanical stiffness in directing mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis was investigated. Three polyesters of varying stiffness were thermally imprinted to create nano-grating or pillar patterns of the same dimension. The surface of the nano-patterned substrate was coated with chondroitin sulfate (CS) to provide an even surface chemistry, with cell-adhesive and chondro-inductive properties, across all polymeric substrates...
January 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729213/amp-activated-protein-kinase-has-diet-dependent-and-independent-roles-in-drosophila-oogenesis
#19
Kaitlin M Laws, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
Multiple aspects of organismal physiology influence the number and activity of stem cells and their progeny, including nutritional status. Previous studies demonstrated that Drosophila germline stem cells (GSCs), follicle stem cells (FSCs), and their progeny sense and respond to diet via complex mechanisms involving many systemic and local signals. AMP-activated protein kinase, or AMPK, is a highly conserved regulator of energy homeostasis known to be activated under low cellular energy conditions; however, its role in the ovarian response to diet has not been investigated...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705770/a-tensegrity-model-of-cell-reorientation-on-cyclically-stretched-substrates
#20
Guang-Kui Xu, Bo Li, Xi-Qiao Feng, Huajian Gao
Deciphering the mechanisms underlying the high sensitivity of cells to mechanical microenvironments is crucial for understanding many physiological and pathological processes, e.g., stem cell differentiation and cancer cell metastasis. Here, a cytoskeletal tensegrity model is proposed to study the reorientation of polarized cells on a substrate under biaxial cyclic deformation. The model consists of four bars, representing the longitudinal stress fibers and lateral actin network, and eight strings, denoting the microfilaments...
October 4, 2016: Biophysical Journal
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