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stem cell law

Kaitlin M Laws, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
Multiple aspects of organismal physiology influence the number and activity of stem cells and their progeny, including nutritional status. Previous studies demonstrated that Drosophila germline stem cells (GSCs), follicle stem cells (FSCs), and their progeny sense and respond to diet via complex mechanisms involving many systemic and local signals. AMP-activated protein kinase, or AMPK, is a highly conserved regulator of energy homeostasis known to be activated under low cellular energy conditions; however, its role in the ovarian response to diet has not been investigated...
October 8, 2016: Developmental Biology
Guang-Kui Xu, Bo Li, Xi-Qiao Feng, Huajian Gao
Deciphering the mechanisms underlying the high sensitivity of cells to mechanical microenvironments is crucial for understanding many physiological and pathological processes, e.g., stem cell differentiation and cancer cell metastasis. Here, a cytoskeletal tensegrity model is proposed to study the reorientation of polarized cells on a substrate under biaxial cyclic deformation. The model consists of four bars, representing the longitudinal stress fibers and lateral actin network, and eight strings, denoting the microfilaments...
October 4, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Ritam Chatterjee, Sukalpa Chattopadhyay, Sujata Law
Aplastic anemia, the paradigm of bone marrow failure, is characterized by pancytopenic peripheral blood and hypoplastic bone marrow. Among various etiologies, inappropriate use of DNA alkylating drugs like cyclophosphamide and busulfan often causes the manifestation of the dreadful disease. Cell cycle impairment in marrow hematopoietic stem/progenitor compartment together with cellular apoptosis has been recognized as culpable factors behind aplastic pathophysiologies. However, the intricate molecular mechanisms remain unrevealed till date...
November 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Man Fai Law, Rita Ho, Carmen K M Cheung, Lydia H P Tam, Karen Ma, Kent C Y So, Bonaventure Ip, Jacqueline So, Jennifer Lai, Joyce Ng, Tommy H C Tam
Hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation can be severe and potentially fatal, but is preventable. HBV reactivation is most commonly reported in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy, especially rituximab-containing therapy for hematological malignancies and those receiving stem cell transplantation. All patients with hematological malignancies receiving anticancer therapy should be screened for active or resolved HBV infection by blood tests for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc)...
July 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
T Faltus
The use of autologous fat, especially for (stem) cell-assisted lipotransfer in plastic and aesthetic surgery, has regularly been regarded as the manufacture and application of so called Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMP). However, the in-house production of such pharmaceuticals at the point-of-care (PoC) in the surgeon's practice is not permitted without an official manufacturing license. Therefore, before beginning such treatments, a pharmaceutical manufacturing license has to be granted to the surgeon to avoid criminal prosecution and negative consequences due to infringement of professional regulations...
August 2016: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
Biao Cheng, Shu-Liang Lu, Xiao-Bing Fu
Regenerative medicine (RM) is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research and China has developed the research quickly and impressed the world with numerous research findings in stem cells, tissue engineering, active molecules and gene therapy. Important directions are induced differentiation of induced pluripotent stem and embryo stem cells as well as somatic stem cell differentiation potential and their application in trauma, burns, diseases of aging and nerve regeneration. The products ActivSkin and bone repair scaffolds have been approved and are applied in the clinic, and similar products are being studied...
2016: Military Medical Research
A Łęczycka, M Dudkiewicz, J Czerwiński, P Malanowski, J Żalikowska-Hołoweńko, R Danielewicz
History of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations in Poland begins in early 1980s; the 1st bone marrow allotransplantation was performed in 1983 in the Central Clinical Hospital of the Military Medical Academy in Warsaw. Following years brought the 1st autologous stem cell transplantations. Ten years later, unrelated bone marrow transplantation was performed for the 1st time by the team of the Hematology and Blood and Marrow Transplantation Unit in Katowice. Since then, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation developed to be standard procedure and one of the most important therapies applied in leukemia treatment...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
I A Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz, E Olender, A Kaminski
INTRODUCTION: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) transplantation and organ transplantation are well-established treatments for different conditions. Graft versus host disease (GvHD) is a major complication in both methods. There has been a rapid increase in the application of nonhematopoietic somatic cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory T cells in GvHD experimental therapy. According to current European Union (EU) law, human cells intended for human application can be considered either as cell grafts or as advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs)...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Jew Win Kuan, Chiong Soon Law, Xiang Qi Wong, Ching Tiong Ko, Zool Hilmi Awang, Lee Ping Chew, Kian Meng Chang
Radioimmunotherapy is an established treatment modality in Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The only two commercially available radioimmunotherapies - (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan is expensive and (131)I-tositumomab has been discontinued from commercial production. In resource limited environment, self-labelling (131)I-rituximab might be the only viable practical option. We reported our pioneer experience in Malaysia on self-labelling (131)I-rituximab, substituting autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and a patient, the first reported case, received high dose (131)I-rituximab (6000MBq/163mCi) combined with BEAM conditioning for autologous HSCT...
October 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Eisuke Nakazawa, Yoshiyuki Takimoto, Akira Akabayashi
In 2014, the Japanese government amended the laws concerning regenerative medicine. This reform aimed to contribute to the appropriate promotion of regenerative medicine and new drug discovery for intractable diseases using stem cells. It also helped restrict stem cell tourism, that is, provision of stem cell therapy of unclear efficacy and safety to tourists from abroad, and its relaxed regulations may even lead to the resolution of the drug lag problem. Stem cell medicine is positioned as a part of a national growth strategy that requires cooperation among the industry, government, healthcare field, and academia...
July 2016: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Hyun Joo Hwang, Robert A Riggleman, John C Crocker
Many seemingly different soft materials-such as soap foams, mayonnaise, toothpaste and living cells-display strikingly similar viscoelastic behaviour. A fundamental physical understanding of such soft glassy rheology and how it can manifest in such diverse materials, however, remains unknown. Here, by using a model soap foam consisting of compressible spherical bubbles, whose sizes slowly evolve and whose collective motion is simply dictated by energy minimization, we study the foam's dynamics as it corresponds to downhill motion on an energy landscape function spanning a high-dimensional configuration space...
September 2016: Nature Materials
Ritam Chatterjee, Sukalpa Chattopadhyay, Sujata Law
Downregulation of p53 is associated with most of the neoplasms, however it claims additional significance for hematopoietic malignancy due to its supplementary role during hematopoiesis. Apart from the classical role as tumor suppressor, p53 during steady state hematopoiesis is associated with the maintenance of quiescent cell population in bone marrow by upregulating necdin (Ndn) and Gfi-1. We felt, it is necessary to delineate its attribution towards malignant conversion of hematopoietic system during leukemogenesis from all the possible angles...
August 2016: Leukemia Research
Lucilla Lecchi, Silvia Giovanelli, Barbara Gagliardi, Ilaria Pezzali, Ilaria Ratti, Maurizio Marconi
The aim of this article is to review a number of variables that may affect the cryopreservation of minimally manipulated products containing allogeneic or autologous hemopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) used for transplantation, with particular reference to processing, type and addition of cryoprotectant, cell concentration, volume, freezing procedure, cooling rate, storage, thawing, and quality management. After defining final product's requirements in compliance with norms, laws and regulations, it is crucial to define the critical control points of the process...
June 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Yue Zhang, Horace H Loh, Ping-Yee Law
During the past decade, the study of the mechanisms and functional implications of adult neurogenesis has significantly progressed. Many studies focus on the factors that regulate proliferation and fate determination of adult neural stem/progenitor cells, including addictive drugs such as opioid. Here, we review the most recent works on opiate drugs' effect on different developmental stages of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms. We conclude that opiate drugs in general cause a loss of newly born neural progenitors in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus, by either modulating proliferation or interfering with differentiation and maturation...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
Vincent L Cannataro, Scott A McKinley, Colette M St Mary
Somatic tissue evolves over a vertebrate's lifetime due to the accumulation of mutations in stem cell populations. Mutations may alter cellular fitness and contribute to tumorigenesis or aging. The distribution of mutational effects within somatic cells is not known. Given the unique regulatory regime of somatic cell division, we hypothesize that mutational effects in somatic tissue fall into a different framework than whole organisms; one in which there are more mutations of large effect. Through simulation analysis, we investigate the fit of tumor incidence curves generated using exponential and power-law distributions of fitness effects (DFE) to known tumorigenesis incidence...
April 2016: Evolutionary Applications
Yue Zhang, Chi Xu, Hui Zheng, Horace H Loh, Ping-Yee Law
The regulation of adult neurogenesis by opiates has been implicated in modulating different addiction cycles. At which neurogenesis stage opiates exert their action remains unresolved. We attempt to define the temporal window of morphine's inhibition effect on adult neurogenesis by using the POMC-EGFP mouse model, in which newborn granular cells (GCs) can be visualized between days 3-28 post-mitotic. The POMC-EGFP mice were trained under the 3-chambers conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm with either saline or morphine...
2016: PloS One
Minoko Takanashi
Marrow donor registration and cord blood banking are essential components of the infrastructure required for unrelated haemopoietic stem cell transplantations. We now have a new law to support and regulate the Marrow Donor Coordination Agency, Cord Blood Banks and the Haematopoietic Stem Cell Provision Support Organization. We also need to have a specific goal for bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell donor registration, a minimum cord blood bank size, and the demographic data to back the medical needs for unrelated haemopoietic stem cell transplantations...
March 2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
U Nimptsch, D Peschke, T Mansky
Background: In order to improve hospital care, minimum caseload requirements for certain elective hospital treatments have been defined by law in Germany. This study analyses retrospectively if adherence to this regulation is associated with the outcome of hospital treatment. Differences in in-hospital mortality were analyzed for complex esophageal and pancreatic surgery, liver and kidney transplantation, stem cell transplantation and total knee replacement. Methods: Within individual inpatient data of the nationwide German hospital discharge data (DRG statistics) all inpatient episodes subject to the minimum volume requirements were identified and annual caseloads per hospital were calculated...
April 6, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
Lisa Cherkassky
It is widely accepted that younger children can act as saviour siblings by donating cord blood or bone marrow to their gravely-ill brothers or sisters. However, it is under dispute whether these procedures are in the best interests of the child. This article suggests that parents may be relying on a thinly-veiled interfamilial approach, where the wider benefit to the whole family is used to justify the procedure to the Human Tissue Authority in the United Kingdom. This article suggests that the merging of familial interests to validate a non-therapeutic bone marrow harvest on a child forces altruism in a patient too young to understand, rendering the harvests unlawful under current law...
March 2016: European Journal of Health Law
Radhika Sheth-Shah, Amanda J Vernon, Shankar Seetharaman, Michael H Neale, Julie T Daniels
In the past decade, stem cell therapy has been increasingly employed for the treatment of various diseases. Subsequently, there has been a great interest in the manufacture of stem cells under good manufacturing practice, which is required by law for their use in humans. The cells for sight Stem Cell Therapy Research Unit, based at UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, delivers somatic cell-based and tissue-engineered therapies to patients suffering from blinding eye diseases at Moorfields Eye Hospital (London, UK)...
April 2016: Regenerative Medicine
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