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central nervous system vasculitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919794/diagnostic-utility-of-contrast-enhanced-3d-t1-weighted-imaging-in-acute-cerebral-infarction-associated-with-graves-disease
#1
Yasufumi Gon, Manabu Sakaguchi, Naoki Oyama, Hideki Mochizuki
Graves disease is rarely complicated with cerebrovascular steno-occlusive diseases. Previous studies have suggested several hypotheses for this occurrence, including excess thyroid hormone, which stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, which in turn causes an abnormal hemodynamic response with consequent atherosclerotic changes, and antithyroid antibodies cause local vascular inflammation in patients with Graves disease. However, radiological findings of vasculitis in patients with Graves disease and cerebral infarction remain less known...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917269/ecstasy-mdma-and-its-effects-on-kidneys-and-their-treatment-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Feyza Bora, Fatih Yılmaz, Taner Bora
Ecstasy (MDMA; 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine) is an illicit drug that has been increasingly abused by young people. Its effects include euphoria, enhanced sociability and heightened mental awareness. These come about via the increase of serotonin in both the central nervous system and the sympathetic nervous system. Despite the drug's prevalent abuse, serious or adverse effects are rare. Due to personal pharmacokinetics, effects from the same dosage vary according to the individual. Fatal instances may include acute hyponatremia, hyperthermia (>42 °C), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) resulting from hyperthermia affecting the kidneys, and non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894445/usual-and-unusual-manifestations-of-systemic-and-central-nervous-system-vasculitis
#3
REVIEW
James J Nocton
The idiopathic vasculitides are a group of inflammatory and immune-mediated conditions associated with inflammation of blood vessels. They affect multiple organ and body systems, and vary in their clinical manifestations, severity, prognosis, and pathology. They frequently present a diagnostic challenge for clinicians because of their complexity, overlapping features, and similar findings to other noninflammatory, genetic, or infectious conditions. This article summarizes some of the common pediatric vasculitides, emphasizing both the characteristic and unusual clinical manifestations of these diseases...
February 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884882/lymphomatosis-cerebri-diagnostic-challenges-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Paul J Lee, Idanis Berrios, Carolina Ionete, Thomas Smith
Lymphomatosis cerebri (LC) is a rare variant of a primary central nervous system non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (PCNSL) characterised by diffuse infiltration of tumour cells throughout the brain parenchyma. We present a 68-year-old immunocompetent woman with headaches, dizziness, blurred vision, localised right leg weakness and rapidly progressive dementia. A brain MRI demonstrated diffuse T2 hyperintense white matter lesions that did not enhance with contrast. The clinical differential diagnosis of these lesions included metastatic disease, infectious or inflammatory process such as sarcoidosis, lymphoma, demyelinating disease and less likely vascular aetiology, such as vasculitis or ischaemic stroke...
November 24, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870601/t-cell-immunity-to-varicella-zoster-virus-in-the-setting-of-advanced-hiv-and-multiple-varicella-zoster-virus-recurrences
#5
Rachel A Bender Ignacio, Meena S Ramchandani, Kerry J Laing, Christine M Johnston, David M Koelle
A woman presented with at least four manifestations of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, including central nervous system vasculitis, during her first 2 years of HIV infection. We evaluated her CD4 T cell responses to VZV given the infrequency with which multiple recurrences of VZV occurred, especially following immune reconstitution on antiretroviral therapy.
November 21, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818812/cns-vasculitis-associated-with-waldenstr%C3%A3-m-macroglobulinemia
#6
Tanawan Riangwiwat, Chris Y Wu, Alberto S Santos-Ocampo, Randal J Liu, Aaron M McMurtray, Beau K Nakamoto
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is an indolent B cell lymphoproliferative disorder with monoclonal IgM secretion. We present a patient with WM who presented with multifocal acute cortical ischemic strokes and was found to have central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis. Workup was negative for cryoglobulins and hyperviscosity syndrome. Immunosuppression with intravenous steroids and cyclophosphamide stabilized the patient's mental status and neurologic deficits. On followup over 7 years, patient gained independence from walking aids and experienced no recurrences of CNS vasculitis...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812073/eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-presenting-with-multiple-intracerebral-haemorrhages-a-case-report
#7
Zafar Ullah, Zain Ul Abideen, Raja Farhat Shoaib, Arsalan Ahmad, Qamar Zaman, Rashid Nazir
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis also known as Churgg-Strauss syndrome is a systemic multi system vasculitis. Neurological involvement is mostly in the form of peripheral nervous system disease. Central nervous system involvement is relatively uncommon with most cases being secondary to ischaemic infarctions. Intra cerebral haemorrhage is rare and is usually in the form of solitary haemorrhagic lesions. Multiple intra cerebral haemorrhages are exceptionally rare with only one case documented in medical literature...
November 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800257/peripheral-vasculitis-intermediate-uveitis-and-interferon-use-in-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Şeref Kinyas, Haluk Esgin
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. A 40-year-old female patient with a 12-year history of MS was admitted to our clinic with blurred vision and floaters in her right eye for about 1 month. Here, we share the findings and the management of intermediate uveitis and retinal periphlebitis in an MS case being treated with interferon beta-1a for 7 years.
January 2016: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781050/the-role-of-catheter-angiography-in-the-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-vasculitis
#9
REVIEW
Randall C Edgell, Ahmed E Sarhan, Jazba Soomro, Collin Einertson, Joanna Kemp, Peyman Shirani, Theodore K Malmstrom, Jeroen Coppens
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system vasculitis (CNSV) is a rare disorder, the pathophysiology of which is not fully understood. It involves a combination of inflammation and thrombosis. CNSV is most commonly associated with headache, gradual changes in mental status, and focal neurological symptoms. Diagnosis requires the effective use of history, laboratory testing, imaging, and biopsy. Catheter angiography can be a powerful tool in the diagnosis when common and low-frequency angiographic manifestations of CNSV are considered...
September 2016: Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745577/-primary-central-nervous-system-vasculitis-in-children
#10
Marinka Twilt, Troels Herlin
In children, inflammatory brain diseases (IBrainDs) are increasingly being recognized. Clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory features are overlapping, and an exact diagnosis can be significantly delayed. Novel antibodies have been discovered and should be included in the diagnostic evaluation. Specific neuroradiological tests such as conventional angiography or vessel wall enhancement can assist in supporting the diagnosis. Brain biopsy should be considered in children with IBrainD with unclear pathology. Treatment should be tailored to the underlying pathogenesis...
October 17, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700194/neurological-abnormalities-in-localized-scleroderma-of-the-face-and-head-a-case-series-study-for-evaluation-of-imaging-findings-and-clinical-course
#11
Anna Lis-Święty, Ligia Brzezińska-Wcisło, Hubert Arasiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Localized scleroderma (LoS) of the face and head is often associated with neurologic manifestations and/or imaging abnormalities in the central nervous system (CNS). CASE SERIES: We present an analysis of 20 cases of LoS affecting the face and head. The CNS symptoms and/or abnormalities in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were observed in 12 patients (60%). In addition to the mild and unspecific disorders (e...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677285/-clinical-aspects-and-diagnostics-of-cerebral-vasculitis
#12
W Reith, C Kraus, N Harsch
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Vasculitis is a rare cause of diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Vasculitis can be divided into primary and secondary forms, of which the vast majority can be manifested in various organ systems, including the CNS. Isolated vasculitis of the CNS is limited to the CNS and clinical neurological symptoms as with the other forms of vasculitis, are headaches, encephalopathy, focal deficits and seizures. A criterion of isolated CNS vasculitis is the clinical and laboratory diagnostic exclusion of other forms of vasculitis and the involvement of other organ systems...
October 2016: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670650/-management-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#13
M Aringer, M Schneider
In the last few decades a number of small, often largely unrecognized steps have fundamentally changed the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The current goal is to stop all disease activity without long-term use of more than 5 mg prednisolone per day. Remission, i.e. absence of activity in the SLE activity score of choice, is the defined target in the treat to target approach. The essential basic measures include life-long hydroxychloroquine as well as protection from sunlight (UV) and vitamin D substitution...
September 26, 2016: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629736/the-safety-of-intravenous-cyclophosphamide-in-the-treatment-of-rheumatic-diseases
#14
Patryk J Woytala, Ewa Morgiel, Anna Łuczak, Katarzyna Czesak-Woytala, Piotr Wiland
BACKGROUND: The therapeutic effects of cyclophosphamide (CP) in the treatment of systemic rheumatic diseases are related to its immune suppressive activity. However effective, the application of CP is restricted due to multiple adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study was conducted to determine the frequency of adverse effects attributed to CP toxicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 65 patients (17 male; 48 female) receiving intravenous CP between October 2007 and December 2010...
May 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570401/primary-cns-vasculitis-presenting-as-intraventricular-bleeding
#15
Sreeja Hareendranathan Pillai, Sapna Erat Sreedharan, Girish Menon, Santhosh Kannoth, Sylaja Pn
Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare disorder affecting both medium- and small-sized vessels. Intracranial haemorrhages though less reported are in the form of parenchymal haemorrhage and subarachnoid haemorrhage. We report a case of PACNS with intraventricular haemorrhage due to aneurysms secondary to progression of vasculitis.
July 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554617/mri-and-clinicopathological-correlation-of-childhood-primary-central-nervous-system-angiitis
#16
N Wilson, D Pohl, J Michaud, A Doja, E Miller
AIM: To review the long-term clinical and imaging follow-up of eight children with histopathologically proven childhood primary central nervous system angiitis (cPACNS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight children (5-17 years, five female and three male patients) with biopsy-proven cPACNS vasculitis were reviewed retrospectively. All children were followed at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of the brain parenchyma and vessel pattern of the arteries of the circle of Willis were reviewed at baseline and follow-up(s)...
November 2016: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530660/high-resolution-vessel-wall-mri-appearance-of-intravascular-lymphoma-mimics-central-nervous-system-vasculitis
#17
Joanna D Schaafsma, Ferdinand Hui, Dolora Wisco, Susan M Staugaitis, Ken Uchino, Elizabeth Kouzmitcheva, Cheryl Jaigobin, Lili-Naz Hazrati, David J Mikulis, Daniel M Mandell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2016: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476630/intracerebral-hemorrhage-with-a-favorable-outcome-in-a-patient-with-childhood-primary-angiitis-of-the-central-nervous-system
#18
Marco Felipe Silva, Ana Raquel Feitosa, José A Paz, Nádia Emi Aikawa, Clovis A Silva
Childhood primary angiitis of the central nervous system (cPACNS) is a rare inflammatory brain disease of unknown etiology. Of note, brain hemorrhage has been rarely reported in cPACNS patients, generally associated with a delayed clinical diagnosis, or with a diagnosis only at necropsy. We present the case of a boy with cPACNS that previously suffered an ischemic stroke. At the age of 7 years and 10 months, he presented a sudden and severe headache, vomiting and reduction in consciousness level (Glasgow coma scale 7), requiring prompt tracheal intubation...
July 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470990/tumor-like-presentation-of-primary-angiitis-of-the-central-nervous-system
#19
Hubert de Boysson, Grégoire Boulouis, Nelly Dequatre, Sophie Godard, Antoine Néel, Caroline Arquizan, Olivier Detante, Coralie Bloch-Queyrat, Mathieu Zuber, Emmanuel Touzé, Boris Bienvenu, Achille Aouba, Loïc Guillevin, Olivier Naggara, Christian Pagnoux
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to describe the clinical and imaging features of patients with tumor-like presentation of primary angiitis of the central nervous system. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 10 patients enrolled in the French primary angiitis of the central nervous system cohort, who initially presented tumor-like brain lesions and compared them with other patients within the cohort. RESULTS: The 10 patients with tumor-like presentation in the cohort were younger and had more seizures at diagnosis than the other 75 patients (median of 37 [30-48] years versus 46 [18-79] years; P=0...
September 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469408/intravascular-lymphoma-mimicking-vasculitis
#20
Richard A Prayson
Intravascular lymphoma is a rare malignancy which is characterized by a proliferation of atypical appearing B cells, generally confined to vascular lumina. A tissue biopsy demonstrating the pathology is required to make a diagnosis. The tumor is often disseminated at the time of diagnosis and prognosis is poor, even with aggressive chemotherapy. Neurologic presentations of this neoplasm can be quite varied. This report documents the presence of intravascular lymphoma diagnosed on a brain biopsy in a 60-year-old man...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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