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Spinal cord and electrical stim

Vanesa Bochkezanian, Robert U Newton, Gabriel S Trajano, Amilton Vieira, Timothy S Pulverenti, Anthony J Blazevich
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in skeletal muscles in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) with the aim of increasing muscle recruitment and thus muscle force production. NMES has been conventionally used in clinical practice as functional electrical stimulation (FES), using low levels of evoked force that cannot optimally stimulate muscular strength and mass improvements, and thus trigger musculoskeletal changes in paralysed muscles. The use of high intensity intermittent NMES training using wide-pulse width and moderate-intensity as a strength training tool could be a promising method to increase muscle force production in people with SCI...
February 13, 2018: BMC Neurology
Alexandru Călin, Vishakhadatta M Kumaraswamy, Diana Braver, Dinesh G Nair, Mihai Moldovan, Mirela V Simon
PURPOSE: The burst suppression (BS) EEG patterns induced by general anesthesia can react to somatosensory stimuli. We investigated this reactivity by studying the effect of peripheral nerve stimulation used for routine intraoperative spinal cord monitoring by somatosensory evoked potentials on BS patterns. METHODS: The relative time spent in suppression expressed as BS ratio (BSR) and mean burst duration were measured before (BSR(Pre)), during (BSR(Stim)), and after (BSR(Post)) a 60-second repetitive electrical ulnar nerve stimulation in nine patients under total intravenous general anesthesia with propofol...
April 2014: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Ayame Oishi, Shozo Tobimatsu, Katsuya Ogata, Takayuki Taniwaki, Naoko Kinukawa, Hiroyoshi Toyoshiba, Jun-Ichi Kira
OBJECTIVE: It is not fully understood how the stimulus/response curves obtained by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) reflect the function of the cortico-motoneuronal (CM) and spinal motoneuronal (SM) systems in healthy subjects. To understand these response functions, we studied patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) whose upper but not lower motor neurons were affected. METHODS: First, we determined the effects of voluntary muscle contraction and intensity of TMS on the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) of the first dorsal interossei (FDI) muscle in ten healthy control subjects (mean age: 35...
December 2008: Neurological Research
Soo J Kim, Roland R Roy, Jung A Kim, Hui Zhong, Fadia Haddad, Kenneth M Baldwin, V Reggie Edgerton
Anabolic and catabolic markers of muscle protein metabolism were examined in inactivity-induced atrophying muscles with and without daily short-duration, high-resistance isometric contractions. Inactivity was achieved via spinal cord isolation (SI), which results in near inactivity of the hindlimb musculature without compromising the motoneuron-muscle connectivity. Adult rats were assigned to a control (Con) or SI group in which one limb was stimulated (SI-Stim, 5 consecutive days of brief bouts of high-load isometric contractions) while the other served as a SI control (SI)...
October 2008: Journal of Applied Physiology
M Pötter, J Herzog, H R Siebner, F Kopper, F Steigerwald, G Deuschl, J Volkmann
BACKGROUND: Axial symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) may result from dysfunctional basal ganglia-brainstem connections. In this study, we assessed whether modulation of basal ganglia activity by high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-HFS) in PD had an impact on the brainstem-controlled startle system. METHODS: We assessed auditory startle responses (recorded from right orbicularis oculi, masseter, sternocleidomastoid, biceps brachii, and soleus muscle) and audiospinal facilitation (startle conditioned soleus H-reflexes at interstimulus intervals of 0-250 msec) in 24 patients with PD with chronically implanted, bilateral STN electrodes in the stimulation on (STIM ON) and off condition (STIM OFF) and 20 healthy controls...
April 15, 2008: Neurology
Soo J Kim, Roland R Roy, Hui Zhong, Hideki Suzuki, Lusine Ambartsumyan, Fadia Haddad, Kenneth M Baldwin, V Reggie Edgerton
The efficacy of high-load, short-duration isometric contractions, delivered as one vs. two sessions per day, on blunting inactivity-induced adaptations in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) were compared. Adult rats were assigned to a control (Con) or spinal cord-isolated (SI) group where one limb was stimulated (SI-Stim) while the other served as a SI control (SI-C). One bout of stimulation (BION microstimulator) consisted of a 100-Hz, 1-s stimulus, delivered every 30 s for 5 min with a 5-min rest period. This bout was repeated six times consecutively (SI-Stim1) or with a 9-h rest interval after the third bout (SI-Stim2) for 30 consecutive days...
July 2007: Journal of Applied Physiology
L L Baker, S Rubayi, F Villar, S K Demuth
Various electrical stimulation waveforms have been used to enhance wound healing, with little consideration for potential differences in their physiologic effect. The present study evaluated the effect of stimulation waveform and electrode placement on wound healing. Eighty patients with spinal cord injury and one or more pressure ulcers were treated. A total of 185 ulcers received 45 minutes of stimulation daily. Each ulcer was subjected to one of four treatment protocols: asymmetric biphasic waveform, symmetric biphasic waveform, microcurrent stim-ulation, or a sham control protocol...
January 1996: Wound Repair and Regeneration
A Prochazka, V K Mushahwar, D B McCreery
Assuming that neural regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) will eventually become a clinical reality, functional recovery will probably remain incomplete. Assistive devices will therefore continue to play an important role in rehabilitation. Neural prostheses (NPs) are assistive devices that restore functions lost as a result of neural damage. NPs electrically stimulate nerves and are either external or implanted devices. Surface stimulators for muscle exercise are now commonplace in rehabilitation clinics and many homes...
May 15, 2001: Journal of Physiology
J J Laskin, E A Ashley, L M Olenik, R Burnham, D C Cumming, R D Steadward, G D Wheeler
Recently a FES (functional electrical stimulation)-assisted rowing machine was developed to enhance cardiovascular training in people with spinal cord injuries. The machine was assessed in terms of its efficacy as a training tool. Six patients who were quadriplegic (C6-T1) and 2 who were paraplegic (T3-6) completed a series of three tests in succession: (1) leg stimulation only (quadriceps and hamstring groups)--'Stim', (2) arm row only--'Row' and (3) simultaneous row and stimulation--'R & S'. Measurements recorded included oxygen uptake (VO2), minute ventilation (Ve), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP)...
August 1993: Paraplegia
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