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J Semer, M Štroch, V Špunda, M Navrátil
Plants have developed many ways to protect reaction centres of photosystems against overexcitation. One of the mechanisms involves reduction of the leaf absorption cross-section by light-induced chloroplast avoidance reaction. Decrease in the probability of photon absorption by the pigments bound within photosystem II (PSII) complexes leads to the increase in quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII ). On the other hand, the decrease of PSII excitation probability causes reduction of chlorophyll a fluorescence intensity which is manifested as the apparent increase of determined quantum yield of regulated light-induced non-photochemical quenching (ΦNPQ )...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Roberto dell'Omo, Denise Vogt, Ricarda G Schumann, Serena De Turris, Gianni Virgili, Giovanni Staurenghi, Matteo Cereda, Ciro Costagliola, Siegfried G Priglinger, Ferdinando Bottoni
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between blue-fundus autofluorescence (B-FAF) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in eyes with lamellar macular holes (LMHs). Methods: this was a multicenter, observational case series. Ninety-two eyes with LMH associated with the standard epiretinal membrane (ERM) or lamellar hole-associated epiretinal proliferation (LHEP) were evaluated. The eyes must also present an area of increased autofluorescence on B-FAF...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Xiao Tian, Tongsong Wang, Songmei Zhang, Qian Wang, Xiaoli Hu, Cheng Ge, Lixin Xie, Qingjun Zhou
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) and PEDF-derived peptides Mer44 and Mer34 on the severity of herpetic simplex keratitis (HSK) in mice. Methods: Adult C57BL/6 mice were infected ocularly with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1, McKrae strain) and injected subconjunctivally with PEDF, Mer44, or Mer34. Corneal nerve degeneration, neovascularization, sensitivity, neutrophils, macrophages and CD4+ T-cell infiltration, virus contents, and expressions of VEGF, PEDF, and proinflammatory factors were evaluated during acute period...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Merve Inanc Tekin, Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu, Canan Demirtas, Kemal Tekin, Sibel Doguizi, Serdar Bayraktar, Pelin Yilmazbas
Purpose: To determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in serum and aqueous humor (AH) and to assess the relationship between BDNF levels and retinal layer thicknesses in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: A total of 48 AMD patients (AMD group) that was composed of twenty-three nonexudative and 25 exudative patients and 26 control subjects (control group) were included in the study. Serum and AH BDNF levels were assessed by ELISA method...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Lydia Sauer, Karl M Andersen, Binxing Li, Rebekah H Gensure, Martin Hammer, Paul S Bernstein
Purpose: To describe different patterns of macular pigment (MP) seen in fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) and to analyze ex vivo fluorescence characteristics of carotenoids. Methods: A total of 31 eyes of young healthy subjects, 4 eyes from patients with albinism, 36 eyes with macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel), 24 eyes with retinitis pigmentosa, and 1 eye with a macular hole were included in this clinic-based, cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent Heidelberg Engineering FLIO and MP measurements (dual-wavelength autofluorescence)...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Akira Obana, Yuko Gohto, Hiroyuki Sasano, Werner Gellermann, Mohsen Sharifzadeh, Takahiko Seto, Paul S Bernstein
Purpose: To evaluate the influence of cataracts on measuring macular pigment optical density (MPOD) using a dual-wavelength confocal scanning autofluorescence imaging technique and to establish methods to compensate for the influence of cataracts. Methods: This prospective case series comprised 100 eyes that underwent cataract surgery. Cataracts were graded based on the World Health Organization classification. MPOD levels were measured with the MPOD module of the Spectralis MultiColor instrument (Spectralis-MP), pre- and postoperatively...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Chad A Galloway, Sonal Dalvi, Audra M A Shadforth, Shuko Suzuki, Molly Wilson, David Kuai, Ali Hashim, Leslie A MacDonald, David M Gamm, Damien G Harkin, Ruchira Singh
Purpose: RPE cell transplantation as a potential treatment for AMD has been extensively investigated; however, in AMD, ultrastructural damage affects both the RPE and its underlying matrix support, the Bruch's membrane (BrM). An RPE monolayer supported by a surrogate scaffold could thus provide a more effective approach to cell-based therapy for AMD. Toward this goal, we aimed to establish a functional human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (hiPSC)-RPE monolayer on a Bombyx mori silk fibroin (BMSF) scaffold...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Stanley Ka-Lok Li, Sze-Wan Shan, Hoi-Lam Li, Angela King-Wah Cheng, Feng Pan, Shea-Ping Yip, Mortimer M Civan, Chi-Ho To, Chi-Wai Do
Purpose: Gap junctions provide a conduit between the intracellular fluids of the pigmented (PE) and non-pigmented (NPE) ciliary epithelial cells, and are therefore critical in the secretion of the aqueous humor (AH). However, opinions differ concerning the connexin (Cx) composition of the gap junctions. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the expression of Cx in the porcine ciliary epithelium (CE), a favorable model for humans; and determine the contribution of the highest expressed Cx to AH secretion...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
David W Sant, Vladimir Camarena, Sushmita Mustafi, Yiwen Li, Zachary Wilkes, Derek Van Booven, Rong Wen, Gaofeng Wang
Purpose: To investigate the impact of ascorbate, via DNA hydroxymethylation, on VEGF expression in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Methods: Dot-blot and hydroxymethylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing were applied to evaluate the impact of ascorbate on DNA hydroxymethylation in ARPE-19 cells. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was carried out to analyze the transcriptome. Quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA were conducted to examine the transcription and secretion of VEGF from cultured cells...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Mayu Moriguchi, Shinsuke Nakamura, Yuki Inoue, Anri Nishinaka, Maho Nakamura, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
Purpose: To determine the mechanism causing degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptors in mice after an intravenous injection of sodium iodate (NaIO3). Methods: The time-dependent changes in NaIO3-induced retinal degeneration were determined by analyzing the retinal morphology by optical coherence tomographic (OCT) images, histological sections of the retina, physiology of the retina by electroretinography (ERG), and retinal blood flow by laser speckle flowgraphy...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jennifer Hage-Hülsmann, Alexander Grünberger, Stephan Thies, Beatrix Santiago-Schübel, Andreas Sebastian Klein, Jörg Pietruszka, Dennis Binder, Fabienne Hilgers, Andreas Domröse, Thomas Drepper, Dietrich Kohlheyer, Karl-Erich Jaeger, Anita Loeschcke
Bacterial secondary metabolites are naturally produced to prevail amongst competitors in a shared habitat and thus represent a valuable source for antibiotic discovery. The transformation of newly discovered antibiotic compounds into effective drugs often requires additional surfactant components for drug formulation. Nature may also provide blueprints in this respect: A cocktail of two compounds consisting of the antibacterial red pigment prodigiosin and the biosurfactant serrawettin W1 is naturally produced by the bacterium Serratia marcescens, which occurs in highly competitive habitats including soil...
2018: PloS One
Shiao Wei Quah, Hazreen Abdul Majid, Nabilla Al-Sadat, Abqariyah Yahya, Tin Tin Su, Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin
BACKGROUND: This study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors of vitamin D deficiency (vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L) among 15-year-old Malaysian adolescents. By identifying potential risk factors, prevention strategies and interventions can be carried out to improve the vitamin D status in adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Stratified random sampling design was used to select adolescents from 15 urban and rural secondary schools in Selangor, Perak and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia...
2018: PloS One
Zoë A Hilbert, Dennis H Kim
Sexually dimorphic behaviors are a feature common to species across the animal kingdom, however how such behaviors are generated from mostly sex-shared nervous systems is not well understood. Building on our previous work which described the sexually dimorphic expression of a neuroendocrine ligand, DAF-7, and its role in behavioral decision-making in C. elegans (Hilbert and Kim, 2017), we show here that sex-specific expression of daf-7 is regulated by another neuroendocrine ligand, Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF-1), which has previously been implicated in regulating male-specific behavior (Barrios et al...
July 19, 2018: ELife
Peter N Green, Julie K Ardley
The genus Methylobacterium, when first proposed by Patt et al. in 1976, was a monospecific genus created to accommodate a single pink pigmented facultatively methylotrophic bacterium. The genus now has over 50 validly published species, however, the percentage 16S rRNA sequence divergence within Methylobacterium questions whether or not they can still be accommodated within one genus. Additionally, several strains are described as belonging to Methylobacterium, but nodulate legumes and in some cases are unable to utilize methanol as a sole carbon source...
July 19, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Yinjian Zheng, Gancheng Xie, Xuejie Zhang, Zhijie Chen, Yijin Cai, Wen Yu, Hechou Liu, Junyang Shan, Ruimin Li, Yingliang Liu, Bingfu Lei
Carbon dots (CDs) obtained from rapeseed pollen with a high production yield, good biocompatibility, good water solubility, low cost, and simple synthesis are systematically characterized. They can be directly added to Hoagland nutrient solution for planting hydroponically cultivated Lactuca sativa L. to explore their influence on the plants at different concentrations. By measuring lettuce indices of growth, morphology, nutrition quality, gas exchange, and content of photosynthetic pigment, amazing growth-promotion effects of CDs were discovered, and the mechanism was analyzed...
July 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Siew Yin Chan, Benjamin Qi Yu Chan, Zengping Liu, Bhav Harshad Parikh, Kangyi Zhang, Qianyu Lin, Xinyi Su, Dan Kai, Wee Sim Choo, David James Young, Xian Jun Loh
Natural polysaccharide pectin has for the first time been grafted with polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) via ring-opening polymerization of β-butyrolactone. This copolymer, pectin-polyhydroxybutyrate (pec-PHB), was blended with PHB in various proportions and electrospun to produce nanofibers that exhibited uniform and bead-free nanostructures, suggesting the miscibility of PHB and pec-PHB. These nanofiber blends exhibited reduced fiber diameters from 499 to 336-426 nm and water contact angles from 123.8 to 88.2° on incorporation of pec-PHB...
December 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Briana C Gapsis, Nichelle A Warren, Matthew J Nutaitis, Leah A Bonaparte, Samuel L Cooper, Michael Ashenafi, Hans E Grossniklaus, George N Magrath
Purpose: To describe the natural history and management of a rare case of iris melanoma in a pediatric patient. Observations: A Caucasian female presented with left pupillary abnormalities at age 7, progressive iris changes at age 9, and markedly elevated intraocular pressure with advanced optic nerve cupping at 11 years of age. She was found to have a pigmented lesion overlying her iris and invading her angle. Trans-corneal fine needle aspirate biopsy demonstrated malignant melanoma of the iris...
September 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Kentaro Ohuchi, Taku Fujimura, Yumi Kambayashi, Hisayuki Tono, Eika Ohtake, Akira Hashimoto, Setsuya Aiba
Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM), also known as an animal-type melanoma, is a distinctive group of melanocytic tumors with a more favorable prognosis than conventional melanoma. Since tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) extend in the premetastatic lymph nodes in several cancers, we hypothesized that the lower rate of lymph node metastasis in PEM might be correlated with the phenotypes of TAMs. Therefore, in this report, we further investigate the subpopulation of TAMs in PEM, revealing that the main population of TAMs in histiocytic lesion is CD163+CD206+PD-L1+ M2-polarized macrophages...
May 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
Ieva Saulite, Agnes Pekar-Lukacs, Katrin Kerl, Antonio Cozzio, Wolfram Hoetzenecker, Emmanuella Guenova
Decorative tattooing is a procedure in which exogenous pigment and/or dye is introduced into the dermis with the aim of creating a permanent skin decoration. The increasing prevalence of tattooed individuals leads to more reported tattoo-related complications. Pseudolymphomatous reaction is a benign reactive proliferation of lymphocytes that may uncommonly occur secondary to tattooing. We describe the clinical, histological, and molecular aspects of a pseudolymphomatous reaction to red tattoo pigment.
May 2018: Case Reports in Dermatology
Xiaoyuan Ji, Chenyu Wang, Miaomiao Tang, Daoxia Guo, Fei Peng, Yiling Zhong, Bin Song, Yuanyuan Su, Yao He
The development of biocompatible and fluorescent gene carriers is of particular importance in the gene-delivery field. Taking advantage of the unique optical properties (e.g., strong and robust fluorescence) of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs), as well as the excellent biocompatibility of silicon and protamine sulfate (PS, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use), we herein present a type of PS-modified SiNP (PS@SiNP)-based gene carrier. Plasmid DNA (pDNA) with negative charges can be effectively bound onto the surface of the as-prepared fluorescent PS@SiNP-based gene carriers via electrostatic interactions...
July 19, 2018: Nanoscale
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