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Jessica E Spiewak, Emily J Bain, Jin Liu, Kellie Kou, Samantha L Sturiale, Larissa B Patterson, Parham Diba, Judith S Eisen, Ingo Braasch, Julia Ganz, David M Parichy
Fishes of the genus Danio exhibit diverse pigment patterns that serve as useful models for understanding the genes and cell behaviors underlying the evolution of adult form. Among these species, zebrafish D. rerio exhibit several dark stripes of melanophores with sparse iridophores that alternate with light interstripes of dense iridophores and xanthophores. By contrast, the closely related species D. nigrofasciatus has an attenuated pattern with fewer melanophores, stripes and interstripes. Here we demonstrate species differences in iridophore development that presage the fully formed patterns...
September 18, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Pan Chuang, Shoichiro Ishizaki, Yuji Nagashima, Shugo Watabe
BACKGROUND: A novel red color-related pigment-binding protein, named LvPBP75, isolated from the shell of Litopenaeus vannamei has recently been identified as hemocyanin. However, information on the functional and structural properties of LvPBP75 is insufficient. This study was aimed to elucidate the thermal properties and pigment-binding ability of LvPBP75. RESULTS: LvPBP75 showed significant red color change after heat treatments with high concentration of NaCl (> 0...
September 18, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Nuramina Mamat, Xue Ying Lu, Maidina Kabas, Haji Akber Aisa
Vitiligo is a depigmentation disorder of the skin. It is primarily caused by the destruction of melanocytes or obstruction of the melanin synthesis pathway. Melanin is a type of skin pigment that determines skin color. The seeds of Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd (Kaliziri) are used for treating skin diseases including vitiligo in traditional Uyghur medicine. 1,5‑Dicaffeoylquinic acid (1,5‑diCQA) is a natural polyphenolic compound widely distributed in plants and extracted from Kaliziri seeds. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of 1,5‑diCQA on melanin synthesis in B16 cell was evaluated, and its molecular mechanism was explored...
September 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Sunjay Sethi, Kimberly P Keil, Pamela J Lein
PCB 11 (3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl), a contemporary congener produced as a byproduct of current pigment production processes, has recently emerged as a prevalent worldwide pollutant. We recently demonstrated that exposure to PCB 11 increases dendritic arborization in vitro, but the mechanism(s) mediating this effect remain unknown. To address this data gap, primary cortical neuron-glia co-cultures derived from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 48 h to either vehicle (0.1% DMSO) or PCB 11 at concentrations ranging from 1 fM to 1 nM in the absence or presence of pharmacologic antagonists of established molecular targets of higher chlorinated PCBs...
September 17, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Maxim E Darvin, Johannes Schleusener, Franziska Parenz, Olaf Seidel, Christoph Krafft, Jürgen Popp, Jürgen Lademann
Raman measurements applied on freshly tattooed porcine skin ex vivo showed a possibility of obtaining the ink pigment related information in the skin. Based on these results, confocal Raman microscopy was used to identify the tattoo ink pigments of different colors in multicolored tattooed human skin in vivo. The Raman signatures of tattoo ink pigments were unique. Therefore, it could be shown that the applied method is successful for the identification of the tattoo ink pigments in human skin in vivo down to depths of approx...
September 18, 2018: Analyst
Kristina Navrazhina, Barry Goldman, Marie C Leger
Tattoos have become increasingly popular worldwide. While tattoos carry a minimal risk of complications, previous reports have located malignant melanoma hidden within tattoos. We present a case of an atypical intraepidermal melanocytic proliferation masked by a large tattoo in a 39-year-old Caucasian male. Tattooed skin can be difficult to examine, particularly when the tattoos are dark, pigmented, and extensive. We demonstrate that a careful examination of tattooed skin leads to the early detection of atypical melanocytic proliferations...
July 13, 2018: Curēus
Lola Brasseur, Marie Demeyer, Corentin Decroo, Guillaume Caulier, Patrick Flammang, Pascal Gerbaux, Igor Eeckhaut
Sea urchin pigmentation is mainly due to polyhydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones called spinochromes. If their molecular structures are well known in test and spines of many species, their abundance and distribution in other body compartments remain unstudied. The aim of this study is to analyse the pigment composition in four body compartments (test/spines, digestive system, gonads and coelomic fluid) of four coloured types of the sea urchin Echinometra mathaei . Qualitative and quantitative measurements by mass spectrometry highlight the existence of 13 different pigments; among which are five isomers of known spinochromes as well as three potentially new ones...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Siriporn Okonogi, Adchareeya Kaewpinta, Taepin Junmahasathien, Songwut Yotsawimonwat
The effects of variety and modification of rice on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were investigated. White rice varieties; Jasmine (JM) and Saohai (SH), and pigmented rice varieties; Doisket (DS) and Homnil (HN) were used. The modified rice samples were obtained from chemical modification using etherification reaction. The activities of the modified rice samples were compared with the ethanol extracts of the raw rice at the same rice concentration. Antioxidant activity was measured by the free radical scavenging activity tests and ferric reducing power assay...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Isha Akhtar-Schäfer, Luping Wang, Tim U Krohne, Heping Xu, Thomas Langmann
This review highlights the role of three key immune pathways in the pathophysiology of major retinal degenerative diseases including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and rare retinal dystrophies. We first discuss the mechanisms how loss of retinal homeostasis evokes an unbalanced retinal immune reaction involving responses of local microglia and recruited macrophages, activity of the alternative complement system, and inflammasome assembly in the retinal pigment epithelium. Presenting these key mechanisms as complementary targets, we specifically emphasize the concept of immunomodulation as potential treatment strategy to prevent or delay vision loss...
September 17, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
C Alonso-Alvarez, E García-de Blas, R Mateo
Carotenoids give color to conspicuous animal signals that are often the product of sexual selection. To know the mechanisms involved in carotenoid-based signaling is critical to understand how these traits evolve. However, these mechanisms remain partially understood. Carotenoids are usually viewed as scarce dietary antioxidants whose allocation to ornaments may trade against health. This trade-off would assure its reliability as individual quality signals. In the case of red (keto)carotenoids, the literature suggests that some species may show constraints in their uptake...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jianing Mi, Kun-Peng Jia, Jian You Wang, Salim Al-Babili
Carotenoid cleavage products (apocarotenoids; APOs) exert important biological functions in light perception and as vitamin A source, signaling molecules, hormone precursors, pigments and volatiles. However, an analytical method that allows simultaneous profiling of these diverse compounds is still missing. We developed an efficient method to analyze APOs present in plant tissues, which is based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic separation and high-resolution hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap (Q-Orbitrap) mass spectrometry (MS)...
December 4, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
L Gusdorf, D Lipsker
Neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis (NUD) is a rare form of dermatosis. In clinical terms, it consists of a chronic or recurrent eruption comprising slightly elevated, pink to reddish plaques or macules. The elementary lesion lasts 24 to 48hours and resolves without leaving any residual pigmentation. Extra-cutaneous signs are common, particularly fever or arthralgia. At histopathology, the dermis contains dense neutrophilic interstitial infiltrate with leukocytoclasis, but without fibrinoid necrosis of vessel walls...
September 14, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Carlos Escott, Antonio Morata, Jorge M Ricardo-da-Silva, María Jesús Callejo, María Del Carmen González, José Antonio Suarez-Lepe
Anthocyanins in red grape musts may evolve during the winemaking process and wine aging for several different reasons; colour stability and evolution is a complex process that may depend on grape variety, winemaking technology, fermentative yeast selection, co-pigmentation phenomena and polymerization. The condensation of flavanols with anthocyanins may occur either with the flavylium ion or with the hemiacetal formation in order to produce oligomers and polymers. The kinetics of the reaction are enhanced by the presence of metabolic acetaldehyde, promoting the formation of pyranoanthocyanin-type dimers or flavanol-ethyl-anthocyanin structures...
September 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sara Usandizaga, Carolina Camus, Jose Luis Kappes, Marie Laure Guillemin, Alejandro H Buschmann
In terrestrial plants, it is well known that genetic diversity can affect responses to abiotic and biotic stress and have important consequences on farming. However, very little is known about the interactive effects of genetic and environmental factors on seaweed crops. We conducted a field experiment on Gracilaria chilensis to determine the effect of heterozygosity and nutrient addition on two southern Chilean farms: Ancud and Chaica. In addition to growth rate and productivity, we measured photosynthetic responses, photosynthetic pigment concentration (chlorophyll a and phycobiliproteins), C:N ratio (C:N), and epiphytic load...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Mert Simsek, Serdar Ozates, Bayram Gulpamuk, Berrin Buyukeren, Mehmet Yasin Teke
A 34-year-old woman presented with vision loss in her right eye, which had persisted for approximately 12 months. Funduscopy showed horseshoe retinal tear at the 8-o'clock position and retinal detachment in inferior, nasal, and temporal quadrants, with a pigmented demarcation line in the right eye. Diffuse punctate accumulations were noted on the detached retinal surface and in the vitreous. Fundus autofluorescence imaging detected diffuse punctate accumulations, which produced hyperautofluorescence spots. Cytological examination of a vitreous sample detected CD68-positive and cytokeratin- and CD45-negative macrophages...
September 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Sohee Jeon, Byungju Jung, Won Ki Lee
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the retinal morphologic characteristics of patients with macropsia caused by epiretinal membrane (ERM) based on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, non-interventional study was performed to compare the characteristics of retinal structures in eyes with ERM according to the presence or absence of macropsia. Twenty-six patients with ERM and macropsia were defined as the macropsia group and 26 age-matched patients with ERM without macropsia were the control group...
September 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Olena Al-Shymali, Alejandra E Rodriguez, Maria A Amesty, Jorge L Alio
PURPOSE: To report the use of different superficial keratopigmentation (KTP) techniques for restoring or enhancing cosmetic appearance of eyes impaired for several reasons. METHODS: This is a retrospective, consecutive, noncomparative interventional series of cases, in which 136 cosmetically disabled eyes (due to different corneal abnormalities) of 130 patients were included. A total of 222 procedures of superficial manual KTP and superficial automated KTP were performed...
September 14, 2018: Cornea
Jan J Koenderink, Andrea J van Doorn, Johan Wagemans
Pictorial relief is a quality of visual awareness that happens when one looks into (as opposed to at) a picture. It has no physical counterpart of a geometrical nature. It takes account of cues, mentally identified in the tonal gradients of the physical picture-pigments distributed over a planar substrate. Among generally recognized qualities of relief are color, pattern, texture, shape, and depth. This review focuses on geometrical properties, the spatial variation of depth. To be aware of an extended quality like relief implies a "depth" dimension, a nonphysical spatial entity that may smoothly vary in a surface-like manner...
September 15, 2018: Annual Review of Vision Science
Stéphanie Almeida Scalvino, Audrey Chapelle, Neïla Hajem, Elian Lati, Philippe Gasser, Jean-Christophe Choulot, Laurence Michel, Michel Hocquaux, Estelle Loing, Joan Attia, Joanna Wdzieczak-Bakala
OBJECTIVE: Hair greying (i.e., canities) is a component of chronological aging and occurs regardless of gender or ethnicity. Canities is directly linked to the loss of melanin and increase in oxidative stress in the hair follicle and shaft. To promote hair pigmentation and reduce the hair greying process, an agonist of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), a biomimetic peptide (palmitoyl tetrapeptide-20; PTP20) was developed. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of the designed peptide on hair greying...
September 17, 2018: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Kaiwen Bai, Luyi Jiang, Ligen Zhang, Yongwei Zhao, Yi Lu, Jingya Zhu, Jie Cai, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro free radical scavenging capacity of dimethylglycine sodium (DMG‑Na) and its protective ability against oleic acid hydroperoxide (OAHPx)‑induced oxidative damage in IPEC‑J2 cells. Initially, the free radical scavenging activities of water‑soluble pigments (DMG‑Na, betalain, capsanthin and cyanidin‑3‑rutinoside) were measured and compared with those of Trolox. Subsequently, freshly collected swine blood was mixed with heparin and centrifuged to obtain erythrocytes...
September 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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