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Michael T Massengill, Brianna Young, Deep Patel, Farwa Jafri, Ernesto Sabogal, Neil Ash, Hong Li, Cristhian J Ildefonso, Alfred S Lewin
Purpose: The I307N rhodopsin (Rho) mouse is a light-inducible model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) that may be useful in testing therapies. We investigated the time-course of retinal changes of the I307N Rho mouse with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: SD-OCT was performed up to day 30 after light damage; electroretinography (ERG) was employed to evaluate photoreceptor function. We utilized ImageJ to analyze reflectivity of the retina...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Camilla Hessel Krog, Jørgen Steen Agerholm, Søren Saxmose Nielsen
Although transport and slaughter of cattle during the last 10% of the gestation period is prohibited in the European Union, such cattle are sometimes sent for slaughter. The late term pregnancy is usually not recognized by the authorities until the uterus is inspected after slaughter and a near term fetus is observed. Accurate post mortem determination of age of bovine fetuses is therefore of major importance as evidence for the subsequent prosecution of the owner. Fetometric measurements such as crown-rump length (CRL) have been used, but these existing estimators have often been established based on insufficiently described study populations or phenotypes that may have changed in the past decades...
2018: PloS One
W Bäumler, K T Weiß
Decorative tattoos including permanent make-up are very popular world-wide. However, some people regret tattooing and seek tattoo removal. Tattooed skin contains numerous solid particles of tattoo pigments. A major mechanism of tattoo removal is laser assisted fragmentation of these particles, which are then transported away from the skin. For many years, Q-switched lasers with nanosecond pulse durations at high light intensities have been applied to cause such fragmentation via rapid heating up while sparing the adjacent tissue...
November 19, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Katherine Wu, Erin Bauer, Gihyun Myung, Meika A Fang
Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that results from the deficient activity of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase and leads to increased levels of homogentisic acid (HGA) and its oxidized product benzoquinone acetic acid (BQA). Both HGA and BQA form polymerized deposits that lead to a bluish-black discoloration of the cartilage as well as degeneration, inflammation, and calcification of the tendons, ligaments, intervertebral discs, and large joints and increased bone resorption. A brittle and fragmented cartilage forms and leads to aberrant loading of the subchondral bone...
November 16, 2018: European Journal of Rheumatology
Silvia Zieger, Sergio Seoane, Aitor Laza-Martinez, Anna Knaus, Günter Mistlberger, Ingo Klimant
Early stage identification of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has gained significance for marine monitoring systems over the years. Various approaches for in-situ classification have been developed. Among them, pigment-based taxonomic classification is one promising technique for in-situ characterization of bloom compositions, although it is yet underestimated in marine monitoring programs. To demonstrate the applicability and importance of this powerful approach for monitoring programs, we combined an ultra-low-cost and miniaturized multi-channel fluorometer with Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (LDA)...
November 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Adam Greenspan, Andrew J Grainger
There are numerous abnormalities that present with similar signs and symptoms to arthritis. In this article some of these conditions that can masquerade as arthritis are discussed. Synovial osteochondromatosis is an uncommon benign disorder marked by the metaplastic proliferation of multiple cartilaginous nodules in the synovial membrane of the joints, bursae, or tendon sheaths. Pigmented villonodular synovitis, also known as diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumor, is a locally destructive fibrohistiocytic proliferation, characterized by many villous and nodular synovial protrusions which affects the joints...
2018: Journal of Ultrasonography
Tomohiro Imamura, Noriyoshi Isozumi, Yasuki Higashimura, Akio Miyazato, Hiroharu Mizukoshi, Shinya Ohki, Masashi Mori
Betalains are plant pigments primarily produced by plants of the order Caryophyllales. Because betalain possesses anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, it may be useful as a pharmaceutical agent and dietary supplement. Recent studies have identified the genes involved in the betalain biosynthesis of betanin. Amaranthin and celosianin II are abundant in the quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) hypocotyl, and amaranthin comprises glucuronic acid bound to betanin; therefore, this suggests the existence of a glucuronyltransferase involved in the synthesis of amaranthin in the quinoa hypocotyl...
November 19, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Rajan Gupta, Rajeev R Pappuru, Vivek P Dave, Jay Chhablani
Combined hamartoma of retina and retinal pigment epithelium (CHRRPE) has been considered as a congenital benign entity with evidence of choroidal neovascularization membranes (CNVM) being associated with it in literature. This case series gives insight into the pathogenesis and the predisposing factors leading to CNVM formation in peripapillary CHRRPE using swept-source optical coherence tomography. In addition, lack of typical markers of CNVM (subretinal fluid/pigment epithelial detachment) in CHRRPE highlights the utility of optical coherence tomography angiography and the subtle optical coherence tomography findings such as "Bridge Sign" that could be instrumental in early diagnosis of CNVM in CHRRPE...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Jay Sheth, Giridhar Anantharaman, Shruti Chandra, Sobha Sivaprasad
Purpose: The "double-layer sign (DLS)" describes the shallow and irregular elevation of the retinal pigment epithelium from the underlying intact Bruch's membrane visualized on the spectral domain optical coherence tomography. In this study, we evaluated the frequency, characteristics of the space within the double layer and other features in the pachychoroid spectrum to aid the clinical diagnosis of these variants. Methods: This retrospective study evaluated the features of the DLS on multimodal imaging in consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of one of the four variants of pachychoroid: pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy (PPE), pachychoroid neovasculopathy (PCN), chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CCSCR), and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV)...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Christine P S Ho, Timothy Y Y Lai
Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is a retinal disorder commonly found in Asians presenting as neovascular age-related macular degeneration and is characterized by serous macular detachment, serous or hemorrhagic pigment epithelial detachment, subretinal hemorrhage, and occasionally visible orange-red subretinal nodular lesions. PCV is diagnosed using indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and the lesions appear as polypoidal aneurysmal vascular lesions with or without abnormal branching vascular network...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Francesco Pichi, Kanika Aggarwal, Piergiorgio Neri, Paola Salvetti, Andrea Lembo, Paolo Nucci, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung, Vishali Gupta
A structurally and functionally intact choroid tissue is vitally important for the retina function. Although central retinal artery is responsible to supply the inner retina, choroidal vein network is responsible for the remaining one-third of the external part. Abnormal choroidal blood flow leads to photoreceptor dysfunction and photoreceptor death in the retina, and the choroid has vital roles in the pathophysiology of many diseases such as central serous chorioretinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, pathologic myopia, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
M Sobczak-Filipiak, T Męcik-Kronenberg, M Czopowicz, M Galanty, P Trębacz, J Frymus, I Badurek, J Szarek
Lipogranulomas are lesions found in histopathological liver examination in humans and in various animal species, including dogs, especially those with portosystemic shunts. They consist of macrophages and other inflammatory cells, and sometimes they contain iron salts (pigment granuloma). This study aimed at determining the number of granulomas and cellular composition of lipogranulomas in dogs with the congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and to identify factors associated with their development. 44 archival liver samples from dogs with portosystemic shunt were stained using HE, Perl's method and - in randomly-selected cases - immunohistochemically against CD56, CD20 and CD3 (DAKO)...
June 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Devi Sewvandini Atukorala Atukorallaya, Vikram Bhatia, Ravindra Ratnayake
A small fresh water fish, the Mexican tetra (Astyanax mexicanus) is a novel animal model in evolutionary developmental biology. The existence of morphologically distinct surface and cave morphs of this species allows simultaneous comparative analysis of phenotypic changes at different life stages. The cavefish harbours many favourable constructive traits (i.e. large jaws with an increased number of teeth, neuromast cells, enlarged olfactory pits and excess storage of adipose tissues) and regressive traits (i...
November 19, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Konstantinos Liopyris, Cristian Navarrete-Dechent, Stephen W Dusza, Ashfaq A Marghoob, Liang Deng, Barbara B Wilson, Michael A Marchetti
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Lichen planus-like keratoses (LPLK) are benign skin lesions that can mimic malignancy; the clinical and dermoscopic features distinguishing lichen planus-like keratoses from skin tumors have not been extensively studied. The objective of this study was to identify dermoscopic features that may prevent unnecessary biopsies of lichen planus-like keratoses. METHODS: Retrospective, observational study of biopsied skin lesions. We compared 355 lichen planus-like keratoses to 118 non-lichen planus-like keratoses lesions with lichen planus-like keratose in the differential diagnosis biopsied from August 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016...
November 18, 2018: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
Kyoichi Adachi, Takumi Notsu, Tomoko Mishiro, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
Objective The recently reported endoscopic finding of black spots is defined as black pigmentation in gastric mucosa. We attempted to clarify the relationship between the Helicobacter pylori infection status and black spot occurrence. Subjects and methods The study subjects were 1,600 individuals who underwent an annual medical checkup and whose H. pylori status could be determined. Upper endoscopic examinations were performed in all, and the presence of black spots in the stomach as well as the degree of gastric mucosal atrophy were determined...
November 19, 2018: Internal Medicine
Antonella Amicucci, Elena Barbieri, Valentina Sparvoli, Anna Maria Gioacchini, Cinzia Calcabrini, Francesco Palma, Vilberto Stocchi, Alessandra Zambonelli
Tuber magnatum Pico, the delectable white truffle, is the most prized truffle species. In this study, we examined the reddish pigmentation that frequently occurs in T. magnatum ascomata for the presence of pigment-producing bacteria. The inner part of the reddish-pigmented region of three T. magnatum ascomata collected in North-Central Italy was analysed. This reddish part was used to establish a bacterial culture collection and to extract the total genomic DNA in order to obtain a library of 16S rRNA genes representative of the bacterial community...
December 2018: Fungal Biology
Lorenzo Cupellini, Stefano Caprasecca, Ciro Achille Guido, Frank Müh, Thomas Renger, Benedetta Mennucci
The photosynthetic apparatus of purple bacteria uses exciton delocalization and static disorder to modulate the position and broadening of its absorption bands, leading to efficient light harvesting. Its main antenna complex, LH2, contains two rings of identical bacteriochlorophyll pigments, B800 and B850, absorbing at 800 nm and at 850 nm, respectively. It has been an unsolved problem why static disorder of the strongly coupled B850 ring is several times larger than that of the B800 ring. Here we show that mixing between excitons and charge transfer states in the B850 ring is responsible for the effect...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Zhennan Qiu, Li Zhu, Lei He, Dongdong Chen, Dali Zeng, Guang Chen, Jiang Hu, Guangheng Zhang, Deyong Ren, Guojun Dong, Zhenyu Gao, Lan Shen, Qiang Zhang, Longbiao Guo, Qian Qian
• High light and high temperature (HLHT) stress may become more frequent and severe as the climate changes, affecting crop growth and resulting in reduced production. However, the mechanism of the response to HLHT stress in rice is not yet fully understood. • In the present study, we screened a rice mutant library using HLHT conditions and isolated a HLHT-sensitive mutant, local lesions 1 (ls1), which showed decreased pigment contents, defective stomata and chloroplasts, and a local lesions phenotype under HLHT...
November 17, 2018: New Phytologist
Gemma Kulk, Anton Buist, Willem H van de Poll, Patrick D Rozema, Anita G J Buma
Diatoms are one of the dominant groups in phytoplankton communities of the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). Although generally well-studied, little is known about size dependent photophysiological responses in diatom bloom formation and succession. To increase this understanding, four Antarctic diatom species covering two orders of magnitude in cell size were isolated in northern Marguerite Bay (WAP). Fragilariopsis sp., Pseudo-nitzschia cf. subcurvata, Thalassiosira cf. antarctica, and Proboscia cf. alata were acclimated to three different irradiances after which photophysiology, electron transport, carbon fixation and growth were assessed...
November 18, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Andrea J Evenski, James Derek Stensby, Samuel Rosas, Cynthia L Emory
Intra-articular (IA) and peri-articular (PA) tumors of the knee are frequently encountered by orthopaedic surgeons. Nonetheless, due to the possibility of great morbidity and potential mortality, it is important to recognize and differentiate between benign and malignant lesions in a timely manner. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide a concise, practical, and updated review of commonly encountered IA and PA tumors including intratendinous gout, synovial chondromatosis, schwannoma, pigmented villonodular synovitis, and synovial sarcoma, and a detailed description of differentiating features to include various imaging modalities...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
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