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Sensitive Skin

A Scope, S W Dusza, G Pellacani, M Gill, S Gonzalez, M A Marchetti, H S Rabinovitz, A A Marghoob, C Alessi-Fox, A C Halpern
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic accuracy of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) as a stand-alone diagnostic tool for suspect skin lesions has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: Primary aim was to measure experts' accuracy in RCM-based management decisions. Secondary aim was to identify melanoma-specific RCM features. METHODS: The study enrolled patients ≥18 years that underwent biopsy of skin lesions clinically suspected to be melanoma. One hundred lesions imaged by RCM were randomly-selected from 439 lesions prospectively collected at four pigmented lesion clinics...
September 22, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Harilaos Filippakis, Amine Belaid, Brian Siroky, Constance Wu, Nicola Alesi, Thomas Hougard, Julie Nijmeh, Hilaire C Lam, Elizabeth P Henske
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), a rare genetic disorder with mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) hyperactivation, is characterized by multi-organ hamartomatous benign tumors including brain, skin, kidney, and lung (Lymphangioleiomyomatosis). mTORC1 hyperactivation drives metabolic reprogramming including glucose and glutamine utilization, protein, nucleic acid and lipid synthesis. To investigate the mechanisms of exogenous nutrients uptake in Tsc2-deficient cells, we measured dextran uptake, a polysaccharide internalized via macropinocytosis...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Edmund Wee, Rory Wolfe, Catriona Mclean, John W Kelly, Yan Pan
BACKGROUND: The recognition and diagnosis of clinically amelanotic or hypomelanotic melanoma is a challenge. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the anatomic distribution and risk factors associated with clinically amelanotic or hypomelanotic melanoma and compare the survival of patients with clinically amelanotic or hypomelanotic melanoma with that of patients with pigmented melanoma. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of all cases of primary invasive melanoma managed at a tertiary referral center was performed...
October 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Susan Felter, Cindy Ryan, Petra Kern
When evaluating consumer products for safety, one must consider the heterogeneity of the population that might use those products, including the potential for different sensitivity based on factors such as age, gender, and genetics. For both systemic endpoints and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), quantitative safety evaluations typically include a default 10-fold uncertainty/assessment factor to account for inter-individual variability. While this factor is intended to include age, the adequacy of the default 10-fold factor has been questioned for infants, for whom a precautionary assumption is often made that they are more sensitive...
September 18, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Diptendu Chatterjee, Meena Fatah, Deniz Akdis, Danna A Spears, Tamara T Koopmann, Kirti Mittal, Muhammad A Rafiq, Bruce M Cattanach, Qili Zhao, Jeff S Healey, Michael J Ackerman, Johan Martijn Bos, Yu Sun, Jason T Maynes, Corinna Brunckhorst, Argelia Medeiros-Domingo, Firat Duru, Ardan M Saguner, Robert M Hamilton
Aims: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is characterized by right ventricular myocardial replacement and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Desmosomal gene mutations are sometimes identified, but clinical and genetic diagnosis remains challenging. Desmosomal skin disorders can be caused by desmosomal gene mutations or autoantibodies. We sought to determine if anti-desmosome antibodies are present in subjects with ARVC. Methods and results: We evaluated ARVC subjects and controls for antibodies to cardiac desmosomal cadherin proteins...
September 17, 2018: European Heart Journal
Teppei Shimasaki, Anna Seekatz, Christine Bassis, Yoona Rhee, Rachel D Yelin, Louis Fogg, Thelma Dangana, Enrique Cornejo Cisneros, Robert A Weinstein, Koh Okamoto, Karen Lolans, Michael Schoeny, Michael Y Lin, Nicholas M Moore, Vincent B Young, Mary K Hayden
Background: An association between increased relative abundance of specific bacterial taxa in the intestinal microbiota and bacteremia has been reported in some high-risk patient populations. Methods: We collected weekly rectal swab samples from patients at one long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) in Chicago from May 2015 - May 2016. Samples were tested for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) by PCR and culture. Positive samples underwent 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis; relative abundance of the operational taxonomic unit containing KPC-Kp was determined...
September 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Vanessa F M Carvalho, Daniela V Giaconi, Leticia V Costa-Lotufo, Edilberto Rocha Silveira, Luciana B Lopes
This study reports the development of a simple and reproducible method, with high rates of recovery, to extract the cytotoxic agent piplartine from skin layers, and a sensitive and rapid UV-HPLC method for its quantification. Considering the potential of piplartine for topical treatment of skin cancer, this method may find application for formulation development and pharmacokinetics studies to assess cutaneous bioavailability. Porcine skin was employed as a model for human tissue. Piplartine was extracted from the stratum corneum (SC) and remaining viable skin layers (VS) using methanol, vortex homogenization and bath sonication, and subsequently assayed by HPLC using a C18 column, and 1:1 (v/v) acetonitrile:water (adjusted to pH 4...
September 20, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Kotaro Nagase, Yutaka Narisawa
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but highly aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, with frequent recurrences, metastasis, and a high mortality rate. For primary or locoregional MCC, a wide local excision followed by radiation therapy is the basic treatment modality for preventing recurrence at the primary site and involved lymph nodes. Cytotoxic chemotherapy has been commonly used to treat patients with metastatic MCC, but not as an adjuvant therapy for high-risk resected MCC. Although MCC is often chemotherapy-sensitive in the first-line setting, responses are rarely durable and most patients subsequently relapse and develop metastasis...
September 20, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Francisco Lucas A Batista, Luiza M G Lima, Izamar A Abrante, José Ismael F de Araújo, Francisca Leidivania A Batista, Izabel A Abrante, Erlândia A Magalhães, Daniele R de Lima, Maria da Conceição L Lima, Brenda Silva do Prado, Luiz F W G Moura, Maria Izabel F Guedes, Maria Kueirislene A Ferreira, Jane Eire Silva Alencar de Menezes, Sacha Aubrey A R Santos, Francisco Rogênio S Mendes, Renato A Moreira, Ana Cristina O Monteiro-Moreira, Adriana R Campos, Francisco Ernani A Magalhães
Neem fruit (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) are popularly used to treat infections, diarrhea, fever, bronchitis, skin diseases, infected burns and hypertension. Although the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of A. indica has already been investigated in experimental models of pain and inflammation in mice, the current research is the first to report the evaluation of the capacity of A. indica fruit ethanolic extract (EtFrNeem) in acute pain attenuation using the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an alternative model to the use in rodents...
September 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Wilbur Johnson, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen, Bart Heldreth
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-150 pentaerythrityl tetrastearate, which functions as a viscosity-increasing agent-aqueous in cosmetic products and is being used at concentrations up to 5%. Given the chemical structure (large molecule), skin penetration is not likely. The available toxicity data and the low ingredient use concentrations suggest that systemic toxicity would not be likely even if percutaneous absorption were to occur. Additionally, the negative human repeated insult patch test data on the undiluted ingredient were deemed sufficient for evaluating skin irritation and sensitization potential...
September 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
Wei Liu, Xiaoyuan Zhang, Gang Wei, Zhiqiang Su
We demonstrate the fabrication of novel reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based double network (DN) hydrogels through the polymerization of poly( N -isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC). The facile synthesis of DN hydrogels includes the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) by CMC, and the subsequent polymerization of PNIPAm. The presence of rGO in the fabricated PNIPAm/CMC/rGO DN hydrogels enhances the compressibility and flexibility of hydrogels with respect to pure PNIPAm hydrogels, and they exhibit favorable thermoresponsivity, compressibility, and conductivity...
September 19, 2018: Sensors
Walter Mazzucco, Daniele Domenico Raia, Claudia Marotta, Antonella Costa, Vincenzo Ferrantelli, Francesco Vitale, Alessandra Casuccio
Anisakis simplex spp. sensitization rates have increased worldwide, with a significant impact on health-care systems. To date, no clear-cut diagnostic criteria and laboratory algorithm have been established, so anisakiasis still represents an under-reported health problem whose clinical manifestations, when present, mimic the much more common allergic and digestive disorders. Aim of the study was to systematically review the available literature on the prevalence of sensitization against Anisakis in the general population and in specific population groups, taking into account the impact of the different available diagnostic techniques on the epidemiological data...
2018: PloS One
Alessio Allegra, Alessandra Gallotta, Francesco Carimi, Francesco Mercati, Paolo Inglese, Federico Martinelli
Fig fruits are usually highly sensitive to some physiopathological disorders during post-harvest life, such as softening and skin cracking. Indeed, the use of edible coating (EC) has been evaluated in several fruit crops to reduce fruit post-harvest transpiration and to maintain fruit visual quality. The aim of this study was to determine the post-harvest metabolic response of breba figs treated with mucilage extract from O puntia ficus-indica cladodes, using an untargeted metabolomic approach. Coated and non-coated (control) fruit were sealed in plastic bags, and stored at 4°C for 7 days...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Vincent Dioszeghy, Lucie Mondoulet, Leo Laoubi, Véronique Dhelft, Camille Plaquet, Adeline Bouzereau, Christophe Dupont, Hugh Sampson
The skin is a major immunologic organ that may induce protection, sensitization or tolerance. Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) has been proposed as an attractive strategy to actively treat food allergy and has been shown to induce tolerance in sensitized mice through the induction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), especially CD62L+ Tregs. Among immune cells in the skin, dendritic cells are key players in antigen-specific immune activation or regulation. The role of different populations of skin DCs in tolerance induction remains to be elucidated...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hélène Hernandez-Pigeon, Lucile Garidou, Marie-Florence Galliano, Hélène Delga, Marie-Françoise Aries, Hélène Duplan, Sandrine Bessou-Touya, Nathalie Castex-Rizzi
Background: Rosacea is a chronic facial skin disorder characterized by inflammation and vascular abnormalities. The pathophysiology of rosacea involves increased activation of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, and cathelicidin LL-37, MMP-9, and KLKs. We evaluated the activity of four compounds (dextran sulfate, 4-t-butylcyclohexanol [BCH; TRP-regulin® ], pongamia oil, and hesperidin methyl chalcone [HMC]) on inflammatory and vascular responses implicated in rosacea...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
D Joseph Sexton, Milena Kordalewska, Meghan L Bentz, Rory M Welsh, David S Perlin, Anastasia P Litvintseva
The recent emergence of the multidrug-resistant and pathogenic yeast Candida auris continues to cause public health concern worldwide. C. auris is alarming because it causes healthcare-associated outbreaks and can establish invasive infections with high mortality rates. Transmission between patients is facilitated by the ability of C. auris to persistently colonize multiple body sites, including the skin, and survive for weeks on surfaces in healthcare settings. Rapid identification of colonized patients is needed to implement timely infection control measures...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Martha E Chico, Maritza G Vaca, Alejandro Rodriguez, Philip J Cooper
There is considerable interest as to potential protective effects of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) against allergy and allergic diseases. Here we discuss findings of studies done of the effects of STH parasites on atopy and allergic diseases in Ecuador. While cross-sectional studies have consistently shown a reduced prevalence of allergen skin prick test (SPT) reactivity among infected schoolchildren, the removal of these infections by repeated deworming did not affect SPT prevalence over the short-term (i...
September 19, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Priscilla A Pereira, Helio A Miot, Thales V Coutinho, Juliano Vilaverde Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Disgust is a universal emotion that plays a role in reducing people's exposure to situations with risks of contamination. By the same token, skin diseases could generate aversion in observers. The present study aimed to assess the aversion triggered when viewing skin disease lesions on the face and hands. METHODS: A questionnaire was applied over the Internet containing demographic questions, assessment of personal sensitivity to disgust - by the Disgust Scale-Revised (DS-R) -, and the aversion triggered when viewing eight images of skin diseases using an image aversion score (IAS) ranging from 0 to 10...
September 19, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
René Bérubé, Patrick Bélanger, Jean-François Bienvenu, Pierre Dumas, Gilles Provencher, Éric Gaudreau, Normand Fleury
Ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) has been widely used as a fungicide and preservative. Although low-dose studies have demonstrated its low toxicity in animals and humans, high-dose exposure to this contaminant has toxic effects that range from skin irritation to bladder cancer. Thus far, monitoring of OPP exposure in the general population has been performed by measuring OPP after urine hydrolysis with the β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase enzyme and sometimes by the use of a mineral acid. We developed a sensitive, accurate, and robust method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to specifically measure two-phase II OPP metabolites excreted in human urine, OPP sulfate (OPP-S), and OPP glucuronide (OPP-G)...
September 18, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Ian MacNiven, Jason E Hsu, Moni B Neradilek, Frederick A Matsen
Background: Propionibacterium species are commonly cultured from specimens harvested at the time of revision shoulder arthroplasty. These bacteria reside in normal sebaceous glands, out of reach of surgical skin preparation. The arthroplasty incision transects these structures, which allows Propionibacterium to inoculate the wound and to potentially lead to the formation of a biofilm on the inserted implant. To help identify patients who are at increased risk for wound inoculation, we investigated whether preoperative cultures of the specimens from the unprepared skin surface were predictive of the results of intraoperative cultures of dermal wound-edge specimens obtained immediately after incision of the surgically prepared skin...
March 29, 2018: JB & JS open access
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