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Justin Yanuck, Ariana Nelson, Maxwell Jen
Migraine headaches make up a significant proportion of emergency department visits. There are multiple pharmacologic treatment modalities for migraine abortive therapy; however, these treatments are rarely targeted to the precise area of pain and thus elicit multiple systemic effects. It has been well established in the anesthesia pain literature that occipital nerve blocks can provide not only immediate pain relief from occipital migraines, but can also result in a long-term resolution of occipital migraines...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Min-Su Kwon, Sung-Gap Lee, Kyeong-Min Kim
In this study, Barium Titanate (BT)/Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) multilayer thin films were fabricated by the spin-coating method on Pt (200 nm)/Ti (10 nm) SiO2 (100 nm)/P-Si (100) substrates using BaTiO3 and Pb(Zr0.90Ti0.10)O3 metal alkoxide solutions. The coating and heating procedure was repeated several times to form the multilayer thin films. All of BT/PZT multilayer thin films show X-ray diffraction patterns typical to a polycrystalline perovskite structure and a uniform and void free grain microstructure...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
J R Ellis, G J Burt, G Grilli, S R McCully Phillips, T L Catchpole, D L Maxwell
Data on the vigour and at-vessel mortality (AVM) of 6798 skates (comprising Raja clavata n = 6295; R. brachyura n = 208; R. undulata n = 185, R. montagui n = 98 and R. microocellata n = 12) captured by commercial fishing vessels in the inshore waters of the southern North Sea and English Channel were recorded. AVM in longline fisheries averaged 0·44% across five vessels (0-1·47%), although skates were usually unhooked manually and did not usually pass through a bait-stripper. AVM in otter trawls averaged 0·76% (0-2·35%), from four vessels fishing with tow durations of <1·5 h (southern North Sea) or 1-4 h (English Channel)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
George Maxwell Otto, Gloria Ann Brar
The development of techniques for measuring gene expression globally has greatly expanded our understanding of gene regulatory mechanisms in depth and scale. We can now quantify every intermediate and transition in the canonical pathway of gene expression-from DNA to mRNA to protein-genome-wide. Employing such measurements in parallel can produce rich datasets, but extracting the most information requires careful experimental design and analysis. Here, we argue for the value of genome-wide studies that measure multiple outputs of gene expression over many timepoints during the course of a natural developmental process...
April 19, 2018: Current Genetics
Tammy E Davies, Graham Epstein, Stacy E Aguilera, Cassandra M Brooks, Michael Cox, Louisa S Evans, Sara M Maxwell, Mateja Nenadovic, Natalie C Ban
Large marine protected areas (LMPAs) are increasingly being established and have a high profile in marine conservation. LMPAs are expected to achieve multiple objectives, and because of their size are postulated to avoid trade-offs that are common in smaller MPAs. However, evaluations across multiple outcomes are lacking. We used a systematic approach to code several social and ecological outcomes of 12 LMPAs. We found evidence of three types of trade-offs: trade-offs between different ecological resources (supply trade-offs); trade-offs between ecological resource conditions and the well-being of resource users (supply-demand trade-offs); and trade-offs between the well-being outcomes of different resource users (demand trade-offs)...
2018: PloS One
Lisa Ann Williams, Tess Moeke-Maxwell, Janine Wiles, Stella Black, Gabriella Trussardi, Ngaire Kerse, Merryn Gott
BACKGROUND: A key challenge in meeting the palliative care needs of people in advanced age is the multiple healthcare and social service agencies typically involved in their care. The 'patient navigator' model, originally developed in cancer care, is the professional solution most often recommended to address this challenge. However, little attention has been paid, or is known, about the role that family carers play in enabling their dying relatives to negotiate service gaps. AIM: To explore the role family caregivers play in helping people dying in advanced old age navigate health services at the end of life...
April 1, 2018: Palliative Medicine
Toby M Maxwell, Lucas C R Silva, William R Horwath
This study was designed to address a major source of uncertainty pertaining to coupled carbon-water cycles in montane forest ecosystems. The Sierra Nevada of California was used as a model system to investigate connections between the physiological performance of trees and landscape patterns of forest carbon and water use. The intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE)-an index of CO2 fixed per unit of potential water lost via transpiration-of nine dominant species was determined in replicated transects along an ∼1,500-m elevation gradient, spanning a broad range of climatic conditions and soils derived from three different parent materials...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chee W Ong, Pamela Maxwell, Muhammad A Alvi, Stephen McQuaid, David Waugh, Ian Mills, Manuel Salto-Tellez
Accurate identification of intermediate risk (Gleason 3 + 4 = 7) prostate cancer patients with low risk of disease progression is an unmet challenge in treatment decision making. Here we describe a gene signature that could guide clinicians in the selection of patients with intermediate stage clinically localized prostate cancer for active surveillance. We examined six major drivers of aggressive disease - PTEN, MYC, RB1, TP53, AURKA, AR - by immunohistochemistry in a focused (N = 69) cohort predominantly consisting of intermediate risk prostate cancer...
April 2018: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
Udita Uday Ghosh, Sunando DasGupta
The balance of intermolecular and surface forces plays a critical role in the transport phenomena near the contact line region of an extended meniscus in several technologically important processes. Externally applied fields can alter the equilibrium and stability of the meniscus with concomitant effects on its shape, spreading characteristics and may even lead to oscillation. This article provides a detailed account of the present and past efforts in exploring the behavior of curved thin liquid films, subjected to mild thermal perturbations, heat input, electrical and magnetic fields for pure as well as colloidal suspensions - including the effects of particle charge and polarity...
April 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Seyed Hossein Jamali, Ludger Wolff, Tim M Becker, André Bardow, Thijs J H Vlugt, Othonas A Moultos
Molecular Dynamics simulations were performed for the prediction of the finite-size effects of Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients of molecular mixtures and a wide variety of binary Lennard-Jones systems. A strong dependency of computed diffusivities on the system size was observed. Computed diffusivities were found to increase with the number of molecules. We propose a correction for the extrapolation of Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients to the thermodynamic limit, based on the study by Yeh and Hummer (J...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Hurtis J Tullos, Robert G Briggs, Andrew K Conner, Allison E Williams, John B Maxwell, Michael D Martin
Posterior cervical wiring has been used by spine surgeons in fixation procedures for patients with spinal instability. It is historically considered an effective method of treating cervical instability with a low risk of complications leading to neurological deterioration. We experienced a case of delayed neurological decline associated with myelopathy, lower extremity spasticity, and associated syringomyelia secondary to instrumentation failure and resultant sublaminar wire protrusion into the cervical spinal cord...
February 14, 2018: Curēus
Maxwell A Stefan, Fatima S Ugur, George A Garcia
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a critical threat to human health due to the increased prevalence of rifampin resistance (RMPR ). Fitness defects have been observed in RMPR mutants having amino acid substitutions in the β-subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP). In clinical isolates, this fitness defect can be ameliorated by the presence of secondary mutations in the double-psi β-barrel (DPBB) domain of the β'-subunit of RNAP. To identify factors contributing to the fitness defects observed in vivo, several in vitro RNA transcription assays were utilized to probe initiation, elongation, termination, and 3' -RNA hydrolysis with the wild-type and RMPR MTB RNAPs...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Amir Qorbani, Farzad Fereidouni, Richard Levenson, Sana Yasmine Lahoubi, Zachary T Harmany, Austin Todd, Maxwell A Fung
Traditional histology relies on processing and physically sectioning either frozen or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue into thin slices (typically 4-6 microns) prior to staining and viewing on a standard wide-field microscope. MUSE represents a novel alternative microscopy method that works with ultraviolet (UV) excitation using oblique cis-illumination which can generate high-quality images from the cut surface of fresh or fixed tissue after brief staining, with no requirement for fixation, embedding and histological sectioning of tissue specimens...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Melina Arnold, Esther de Vries, David C Whiteman, Ahmedin Jemal, Freddie Bray, D Maxwell Parkin, Isabelle Soerjomataram
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a strong and ubiquitous risk factor for cutaneous melanoma, emitted naturally by the sun but also artificial sources. To shed light on the potential impact of interventions seeking to reduce exposure to UVR in both high and low risk populations, we quantified the number of cutaneous melanomas attributable to UVR worldwide. Population attributable fractions and numbers of new melanoma cases in adults due to ambient UVR were calculated by age and sex for 153 countries by comparing the current melanoma burden with historical data, i...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Maxwell H Furigay, Maria M Boucher, Nikola A Mizgier, Cheyenne S Brindle
The purification of organic compounds is an essential component of routine synthetic operations. The ability to remove contaminants into an aqueous layer by generating a charged structure provides an opportunity to use extraction as a simple purification technique. By combining the use of a miscible organic solvent with saturated sodium bisulfite, aldehydes and reactive ketones can be successfully transformed into charged bisulfite adducts that can then be separated from other organic components of a mixture by the introduction of an immiscible organic layer...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Maija Kiuru, Danielle M Tartar, Lihong Qi, Danyang Chen, Lan Yu, Thomas Konia, John D McPherson, William J Murphy, Maxwell A Fung
BACKGROUND: A subset of melanomas carrying a BRAF V600E mutation, the most common targetable mutation in melanoma, arises in association with a melanocytic nevus also harboring a BRAF V600E mutation. The detailed histomorphologic characteristics of BRAF V600E-positive nevi are not systematically documented. OBJECTIVE: To identify histomorphologic features correlating with BRAF V600E status in nevi. METHODS: We retrospectively identified melanocytic nevi from our laboratory reporting system...
April 10, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Maxwell Ayindenaba Dalaba, Paul Welaga, Abraham Oduro, Laata Latif Danchaka, Chieko Matsubara
BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge on cost of treating malaria in children under-five years in northern Ghana which poses a challenge in determining whether interventions such as the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) and Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) have reduced the economic burden of malaria to households or not. This study examined the malaria care seeking and cost of treatment in children under-five years in the Upper West Region of Ghana. METHODS: The study used a cross-sectional, quantitative design and data were collected between July and August 2016 in three districts in the Upper West Region of Ghana...
2018: PloS One
Luigi La Spada, Lucio Vegni
A modeling and design approach is proposed for nanoparticle-based electromagnetic devices. First, the structure properties were analytically studied using Maxwell's equations. The method provides us a robust link between nanoparticles electromagnetic response (amplitude and phase) and their geometrical characteristics (shape, geometry, and dimensions). Secondly, new designs based on "metamaterial" concept are proposed, demonstrating great performances in terms of wide-angle range functionality and multi/wide behavior, compared to conventional devices working at the same frequencies...
April 13, 2018: Materials
Olena S Iadlovska, Graham R Maxwell, Greta Babakhanova, Georg H Mehl, Christopher Welch, Sergij V Shiyanovskii, Oleg D Lavrentovich
Selective reflection of light by oblique helicoidal cholesteric (ChOH ) can be tuned in a very broad spectral range by an applied electric field. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the peak wavelength of the selective reflection can be controlled by the surface alignment of the director in sandwich cells. The peak wavelength is blue-shifted when the surface alignment is perpendicular to the bounding plates and red-shifted when it is planar. The effect is explained by the electric field redistribution within the cell caused by a spatially varying heliconical ChOH structure...
April 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Thijs van Westen, Robert D Groot
The quality of stored frozen products such as foods and biomaterials generally degrades in time due to the growth of large ice crystals by recrystallization. While there is ample experimental evidence that recrystallization within such products (or model systems thereof) is often dominated by diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening, the application of Ostwald-ripening theories to predict measured recrystallization rates has only met with limited success. For a model system of polycrystalline ice within an aqueous solution of sugars, we here show recrystallization rates can be predicted on the basis of Ostwald ripening theory, provided (1) the theory accounts for the fact the solution can be nonideal, nondilute and of different density than the crystals, (2) the effect of ice-phase volume fraction on the diffusional flux of water between crystals is accurately described, and (3) all relevant material properties (involving binary Fick diffusion coefficients, the thermodynamic factor of the solution, and the surface energy of ice) are carefully estimated...
April 4, 2018: Crystal Growth & Design
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