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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528993/comparison-of-cycloplegic-refraction-between-grand-seiko-autorefractor-and-retinomax-autorefractor-in-the-vision-in-preschoolers-hyperopia-in-preschoolers-vip-hip-study
#1
Gui-Shuang Ying, Maureen G Maguire, Marjean Taylor Kulp, Elise Ciner, Bruce Moore, Maxwell Pistilli, Rowan Candy
PURPOSE: To evaluate the agreement of cycloplegic refractive error measures between the Grand Seiko and Retinomax autorefractors in 4- and 5-year-old children. METHODS: Cycloplegic refractive error of children was measured using the Grand Seiko and Retinomax during a comprehensive eye examination. Accommodative error was measured using the Grand Seiko. The differences in sphere, cylinder, spherical equivalent (SE) and intereye vector dioptric distance (VDD) between autorefractors were assessed using the Bland-Altman plot and 95% limits of agreement (95% LoA)...
May 18, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525592/neurosyphilis-increases-hiv-associated-central-nervous-system-inflammation-but-does-not-explain-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-syphilis
#2
Emily L Ho, Clare L Maxwell, Shelia B Dunaway, Sharon K Sahi, Lauren C Tantalo, Sheila A Lukehart, Christina M Marra
Background: HIV-infected individuals with previous syphilis have cognitive impairment. We tested the hypothesis that neurosyphilis causes cognitive impairment in HIV by amplifying HIV-related CNS inflammation. Methods: 132 HIV-infected participants enrolled in a study of CSF abnormalities in syphilis underwent the mental alternation test (MAT), venipuncture and lumbar puncture. CSF concentrations of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and neurofilament light (NFL) were determined by commercial assays...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524682/violating-the-weak-cosmic-censorship-conjecture-in-four-dimensional-anti-de-sitter-space
#3
Toby Crisford, Jorge E Santos
We consider time-dependent solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations using anti-de Sitter (AdS) boundary conditions, and provide the first counterexample to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture in four spacetime dimensions. Our counterexample is entirely formulated in the Poincaré patch of AdS. We claim that our results have important consequences for quantum gravity, most notably to the weak gravity conjecture.
May 5, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524672/stimulated-emission-of-fast-alfv%C3%A3-n-waves-within-magnetically-confined-fusion-plasmas
#4
J W S Cook, R O Dendy, S C Chapman
A fast Alfvén wave with a finite amplitude is shown to grow by a stimulated emission process that we propose for exploitation in toroidal magnetically confined fusion plasmas. Stimulated emission occurs while the wave propagates inward through the outer midplane plasma, where a population inversion of the energy distribution of fusion-born ions is observed to arise naturally. Fully nonlinear first-principles simulations, which self-consistently evolve particles and fields under the Maxwell-Lorentz system, demonstrate this novel "α-particle channeling" scenario for the first time...
May 5, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524257/the-efficacy-of-early-language-intervention-in-mainstream-school-settings-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Silke Fricke, Kelly Burgoyne, Claudine Bowyer-Crane, Maria Kyriacou, Alexandra Zosimidou, Liam Maxwell, Arne Lervåg, Margaret J Snowling, Charles Hulme
BACKGROUND: Oral language skills are a critical foundation for literacy and more generally for educational success. The current study shows that oral language skills can be improved by providing suitable additional help to children with language difficulties in the early stages of formal education. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 394 children in England, comparing a 30-week oral language intervention programme starting in nursery (N = 132) with a 20-week version of the same programme starting in Reception (N = 133)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524182/cell-sized-mechanosensitive-and-biosensing-compartment-programmed-with-dna
#6
Sagardip Majumder, Jonathan Garamella, Ying-Lin Wang, Maxwell DeNies, Vincent Noireaux, Allen P Liu
The bottom-up construction of cell-sized compartments programmed with DNA that are capable of sensing the chemical and physical environment remains challenging in synthetic cell engineering. Here, we construct mechanosensitive liposomes with biosensing capability by expressing the E. coli channel MscL and a calcium biosensor using cell-free expression.
May 19, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523958/proportional-hazards-under-conway-maxwell-poisson-cure-rate-model-and-associated-inference
#7
N Balakrishnan, S Barui, F S Milienos
Cure rate models or long-term survival models play an important role in survival analysis and some other applied fields. In this article, by assuming a Conway-Maxwell-Poisson distribution under a competing cause scenario, we study a flexible cure rate model in which the lifetimes of non-cured individuals are described by a Cox's proportional hazard model with a Weibull hazard as the baseline function. Inference is then developed for a right censored data by the maximum likelihood method with the use of expectation-maximization algorithm and a profile likelihood approach for the estimation of the dispersion parameter of the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson distribution...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522584/cooperative-targets-of-combined-mtor-hdac-inhibition-promote-myc-degradation
#8
John K Simmons, Aleksandra M Michalowski, Benjamin J Gamache, Wendy DuBois, Jyoti Patel, Ke Zhang, Joy Gary, Shuling Zhang, Snehal Gaikwad, Daniel Connors, Nicholas Watson, Elena Leon, Jin-Qiu Chen, W Michael Kuehl, Maxwell P Lee, Adriana Zingone, Ola Landgren, Peter Ordentlich, Jing Huang, Beverly A Mock
Cancer treatments often require combinations of molecularly targeted agents to be effective. mTORi (rapamycin) and HDACi (MS-275/entinostat) inhibitors have been shown to be effective in limiting tumor growth, and here we define part of the cooperative action of this drug combination. More than 60 human cancer cell lines responded synergistically (CI<1) when treated with this drug combination compared to single agents.  In addition, a breast cancer patient-derived xenograft, and a BCL-XL plasmacytoma mouse model both showed enhanced responses to the combination compared to single agents...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522311/effect-of-second-timed-appointments-for-non-attenders-of-breast-cancer-screening-in-england-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Prue C Allgood, Roberta Maroni, Sue Hudson, Judith Offman, Anne E Turnbull, Lesley Peacock, Jim Steel, Geraldine Kirby, Christine E Ingram, Julie Somers, Clare Fuller, Anthony G Threlfall, Rhian Gabe, Anthony J Maxwell, Julietta Patnick, Stephen W Duffy
BACKGROUND: In England, participation in breast cancer screening has been decreasing in the past 10 years, approaching the national minimum standard of 70%. Interventions aimed at improving participation need to be investigated and put into practice to stop this downward trend. We assessed the effect on participation of sending invitations for breast screening with a timed appointment to women who did not attend their first offered appointment within the NHS Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP)...
May 15, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521550/detection-and-evaluation-of-renal-injury-in-burst-wave-lithotripsy-using-ultrasound-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#10
Philip Clark May, Wayne Kreider, Adam D Maxwell, Yak-Nam Wang, Bryan W Cunitz, Philip M Blomgren, Cynthia Johnson, Joshua Sh Park, Michael R Bailey, Donghoon Lee, Jonathan D Harper, Mathew D Sorensen
PURPOSE: Burst wave lithotripsy (BWL) is a transcutaneous technique with potential to safely and effectively fragment renal stones. Preclinical investigations of BWL require the assessment of potential renal injury. This study evaluates the capabilities of real-time ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect and evaluate BWL injury that was induced in porcine kidneys. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten kidneys from five female farm pigs were treated with either a 170 kHz or 335 kHz BWL transducer using variable treatment parameters and monitored in real time with ultrasound...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521060/diagnostic-and-prognostic-significance-of-dsm-5-attenuated-psychosis-syndrome-in-services-for-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#11
Paolo Fusar-Poli, Andrea De Micheli, Marco Cappucciati, Grazia Rutigliano, Cathy Davies, Valentina Ramella-Cravaro, Dominic Oliver, Ilaria Bonoldi, Matteo Rocchetti, Lauren Gavaghan, Rashmi Patel, Philip McGuire
Background: The diagnostic and prognostic significance of the DSM-5-defined Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (DSM-5-APS) in individuals undergoing an ultra high risk (UHR) clinical assessment for suspicion of psychosis risk is unknown. Methods: Prospective cohort study including all consecutive help-seeking individuals undergoing both a DSM-5-APS and a Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental States (CAARMS 12/2006) assessment for psychosis risk at the Outreach and Support in South London (OASIS) UHR service (March 2013-April 2014)...
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512038/involvement-of-the-oxytocin-system-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-the-regulation-of-juvenile-social-novelty-seeking-behavior
#12
Caroline J W Smith, Jazmin N Mogavero, Maxwell T Tulimieri, Alexa H Veenema
Exploration of novel environments, stimuli, and conspecifics is highly adaptive during the juvenile period, as individuals transition from immaturity to adulthood. We recently showed that juvenile rats prefer to interact with a novel individual over a familiar cage mate. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this juvenile social novelty-seeking behavior remain largely unknown. One potential candidate is the oxytocin (OXT) system, given its involvement in various motivated social behaviors. Here, we show that administration of the specific oxytocin receptor antagonist desGly-NH2,d(CH2)5-[Tyr(Me)(2),Thr(4)]OVT reduces social novelty seeking-behavior in juvenile male rats when injected into the nucleus accumbens (10ng/0...
May 13, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508864/power-generator-driven-by-maxwell-s-demon
#13
Kensaku Chida, Samarth Desai, Katsuhiko Nishiguchi, Akira Fujiwara
Maxwell's demon is an imaginary entity that reduces the entropy of a system and generates free energy in the system. About 150 years after its proposal, theoretical studies explained the physical validity of Maxwell's demon in the context of information thermodynamics, and there have been successful experimental demonstrations of energy generation by the demon. The demon's next task is to convert the generated free energy to work that acts on the surroundings. Here, we demonstrate that Maxwell's demon can generate and output electric current and power with individual randomly moving electrons in small transistors...
May 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508476/magnetic-resonance-electrical-properties-tomography-for-small-anomalies-using-boundary-conditions-a-simulation-study
#14
Joonsung Lee, Narae Choi, Jin Keun Seo, Dong-Hyun Kim
PURPOSE: Magnetic Resonance Electrical Property Tomography (MREPT) is an emerging imaging modality using measured B1 maps from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to measure a distribution of electric conductivity and permittivity of the subject at the Larmor frequency. Conventional MREPT approachesat single transmit channel system using the Helmholtz equation rely on an assumption that conductivity and permittivity of the subject are locally homogeneous. For small tissue structures and tissue boundaries, in which the assumption of locally homogeneous conductivity and permittivity does not hold, the reconstructed conductivity values deviated from the actual values, so called "Boundary Artifacts"...
May 16, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507886/racial-disparities-in-elderly-patients-receiving-lumbar-spinal-stenosis-surgery
#15
Doniel Drazin, Faris Shweikeh, Carlito Lagman, Beatrice Ugiliweneza, Maxwell Boakye
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate for racial disparities in elderly patients having undergone lumbar spinal stenosis surgery. METHODS: The US Medicare Provider Analysis and Review database (records from 2005 to 2011) was used to identify patients over the age of 65 years, diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis, and having undergone lumbar laminectomy or fusion surgery. Blacks were compared to Whites in both unmatched and propensity score-matched populations...
April 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507315/the-herpesvirus-nuclear-egress-complex-component-ul31-can-be-recruited-to-sites-of-dna-damage-through-poly-adp-ribose-binding
#16
Maxwell R Sherry, Thomas J M Hay, Michael A Gulak, Arash Nassiri, Renée L Finnen, Bruce W Banfield
The herpes simplex virus (HSV) UL31 gene encodes a conserved member of the herpesvirus nuclear egress complex that not only functions in the egress of DNA containing capsids from the nucleus, but is also required for optimal replication of viral DNA and its packaging into capsids. Here we report that the UL31 protein from HSV-2 can be recruited to sites of DNA damage by sequences found in its N-terminus. The N-terminus of UL31 contains sequences resembling a poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) binding motif suggesting that PAR interactions might mediate UL31 recruitment to damaged DNA...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507124/thiophene-antibacterials-that-allosterically-stabilize-dna-cleavage-complexes-with-dna-gyrase
#17
Pan F Chan, Thomas Germe, Benjamin D Bax, Jianzhong Huang, Reema K Thalji, Eric Bacqué, Anna Checchia, Dongzhao Chen, Haifeng Cui, Xiao Ding, Karen Ingraham, Lynn McCloskey, Kaushik Raha, Velupillai Srikannathasan, Anthony Maxwell, Robert A Stavenger
A paucity of novel acting antibacterials is in development to treat the rising threat of antimicrobial resistance, particularly in Gram-negative hospital pathogens, which has led to renewed efforts in antibiotic drug discovery. Fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum antibacterials that target DNA gyrase by stabilizing DNA-cleavage complexes, but their clinical utility has been compromised by resistance. We have identified a class of antibacterial thiophenes that target DNA gyrase with a unique mechanism of action and have activity against a range of bacterial pathogens, including strains resistant to fluoroquinolones...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506759/complement-c1q-is-hydroxylated-by-collagen-prolyl-4-hydroxylase-and-is-sensitive-to-off-target-inhibition-by-prolyl-hydroxylase-domain-inhibitors-that-stabilize-hypoxia-inducible-factor
#18
Serafim Kiriakidis, Simon S Hoer, Natalie Burrows, Gloria Biddlecome, Moddasar N Khan, Cyrille C Thinnes, Christopher J Schofield, Norma Rogers, Marina Botto, Ewa Paleolog, Patrick H Maxwell
Complement C1q is part of the C1 macromolecular complex that mediates the classical complement activation pathway: a major arm of innate immune defense. C1q is composed of A, B, and C chains that require post-translational prolyl 4-hydroxylation of their N-terminal collagen-like domain to enable the formation of the functional triple helical multimers. The prolyl 4-hydroxylase(s) that hydroxylate C1q have not previously been identified. Recognized prolyl 4-hydroxylases include collagen prolyl-4-hydroxylases (CP4H) and the more recently described prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymes that act as oxygen sensors regulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)...
May 12, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506133/clinical-outcomes-following-surgically-repaired-bucket-handle-meniscus-tears
#19
Michael J Moses, David E Wang, Maxwell Weinberg, Eric J Strauss
OBJECTIVES: Meniscus tears are one of the most common knee injuries. Our goal is to investigate the failure rate for surgically repaired bucket-handle meniscus tears and compare clinical outcomes of repairs that failed versus those that did not, at a minimum 2-year follow-up interval. METHODS: 51 patients were identified in this retrospective cohort study who experienced bucket-handle meniscus tears that were isolated or with concomitant ACL injury. Inclusion criteria included age range from 13-55 years, confirmed bucket-handle meniscus tear by MRI and intraoperatively, and at least two-years of post-operative follow-up following index repair...
May 16, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505854/mean-field-equations-for-neuronal-networks-with-arbitrary-degree-distributions
#20
Duane Q Nykamp, Daniel Friedman, Sammy Shaker, Maxwell Shinn, Michael Vella, Albert Compte, Alex Roxin
The emergent dynamics in networks of recurrently coupled spiking neurons depends on the interplay between single-cell dynamics and network topology. Most theoretical studies on network dynamics have assumed simple topologies, such as connections that are made randomly and independently with a fixed probability (Erdös-Rényi network) (ER) or all-to-all connected networks. However, recent findings from slice experiments suggest that the actual patterns of connectivity between cortical neurons are more structured than in the ER random network...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
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