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Cynthia V Maxwell, Hanan Al-Sehli, Jacqueline Parrish, Rohan D'Souza
Gestational breast cancer (GBC) is the second most commonly occurring malignancy affecting pregnant women. Management is complex due to potential foetal risks in the setting of maternal treatment. We report on the maternal, foetal, short-term neonatal and placental histopathologic findings of a retrospective cohort of pregnant women with either pre-gestational (group 1) or GBC (group 2) from a tertiary-level maternity care centre. Of the 69 women identified over 12 years, there were 47 in group 1 and 22 in group 2...
September 14, 2018: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
Maxwel C Oliveira, Todd A Gaines, Eric L Patterson, Amit J Jhala, Suat Irmak, Keenan Amundsen, Stevan Z Knezevic
Pollen-mediated gene (PMGF) flow might play an important role in dispersing herbicide resistance alleles in dioecious weedy Amaranthus species. Field experiments in a concentric donor-receptor design were conducted to quantify two sets of PMGF studies, an interspecific (Amaranthus tuberculatus × A. palmeri) and an intraspecific (A. tuberculatus × A. tuberculatus). In both studies, PMGF were evaluated using a resistant A. tuberculatus phenotype with enhanced mesotrione detoxification via P450 enzymes as a source of resistance alleles...
September 15, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Maxwell L Elliott, Daniel W Belsky, Kevin Anderson, David L Corcoran, Tian Ge, Annchen Knodt, Joseph A Prinz, Karen Sugden, Benjamin Williams, David Ireland, Richie Poulton, Avshalom Caspi, Avram Holmes, Terrie Moffitt, Ahmad R Hariri
People who score higher on intelligence tests tend to have larger brains. Twin studies suggest the same genetic factors influence both brain size and intelligence. This has led to the hypothesis that genetics influence intelligence partly by contributing to the development of larger brains. We tested this hypothesis using four large imaging genetics studies (combined N = 7965) with polygenic scores derived from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment, a correlate of intelligence. We conducted meta-analysis to test associations among participants' genetics, total brain volume (i...
September 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Carolyn E Z Pickering, Christopher Maxwell
This study evaluated the success of researcher-generated recruitment, enrollment, data collection, and safety protocols for field research with victims of elder abuse and neglect (EAN) identified from police incident reports in terms of their success including cost-effectiveness, ability to generate a representative sample, and safety. After reviewing 492 police incident reports involving victims age 65 years or older to identify cases of EAN 62 victims were identified. Mail, phone, and in-person recruitment strategies were used...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
Colleen J Maxwell, Michael A Campitelli, Christina Diong, Luke Mondor, David B Hogan, Joseph E Amuah, Sarah Leslie, Dallas Seitz, Sudeep Gill, Kednapa Thavorn, Walter P Wodchis, Andrea Gruneir, Gary Teare, Susan E Bronskill
BACKGROUND: The identification of contextual factors that modify associations between client frailty and their health and service use outcomes is essential for informed home health care and policy planning. Our objective was to examine variation in the associations between frailty and select 1-year health outcomes by caregiver distress and client sex among community-residing older care recipients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using linked population-based clinical and health administrative databases for all long-stay home care clients (n = 234,552) aged 66+ years assessed during April 2010-2013 in Ontario, Canada...
September 12, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Jinjiao Wang, Cathy A Maxwell, Fang Yu
The objectives of this literature review were to (1) synthesize biological processes linked to frailty and their corresponding biomarkers and (2) identify potential associations among these processes and biomarkers. In September 2016, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched. Studies examining biological processes related to frailty in older adults (≥60 years) were included. Studies were excluded if they did not employ specific measures of frailty, did not report the association between biomarkers and frailty, or focused on nonelderly samples (average age < 60)...
September 9, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
William J Sullivan, Peter J Mullen, Ernst W Schmid, Aimee Flores, Milica Momcilovic, Mark S Sharpley, David Jelinek, Andrew E Whiteley, Matthew B Maxwell, Blake R Wilde, Utpal Banerjee, Hilary A Coller, David B Shackelford, Daniel Braas, Donald E Ayer, Thomas Q de Aguiar Vallim, William E Lowry, Heather R Christofk
The metabolic state of a cell is influenced by cell-extrinsic factors, including nutrient availability and growth factor signaling. Here, we present extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling as another fundamental node of cell-extrinsic metabolic regulation. Unbiased analysis of glycolytic drivers identified the hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor as being among the most highly correlated with glycolysis in cancer. Confirming a mechanistic link between the ECM component hyaluronan and metabolism, treatment of cells and xenografts with hyaluronidase triggers a robust increase in glycolysis...
August 29, 2018: Cell
Titus H Divala, Randy G Mungwira, Patricia M Mawindo, Osward M Nyirenda, Maxwell Kanjala, Masiye Ndaferankhande, Lufina E Tsirizani, Rhoda Masonga, Francis Muwalo, Gail E Potter, Jessie Kennedy, Jaya Goswami, Blair J Wylie, Atis Muehlenbachs, Lughano Ndovie, Priscilla Mvula, Yamikani Mbilizi, Tamiwe Tomoka, Miriam K Laufer
BACKGROUND: Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance threatens efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy, and alternative regimens need to be identified. With the return of chloroquine efficacy in southern Africa, we postulated that chloroquine either as an intermittent therapy or as weekly chemoprophylaxis would be more efficacious than intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for prevention of malaria in pregnancy and associated maternal and newborn adverse outcomes...
September 5, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Gabriel B Ferguson, Ben Van Handel, Maxwell Bay, Petko Fiziev, Tonis Org, Siyoung Lee, Ruzanna Shkhyan, Nicholas W Banks, Mila Scheinberg, Ling Wu, Biagio Saitta, Joseph Elphingstone, A Noelle Larson, Scott M Riester, April D Pyle, Nicholas M Bernthal, Hanna Ka Mikkola, Jason Ernst, Andre J van Wijnen, Michael Bonaguidi, Denis Evseenko
Tissue-specific gene expression defines cellular identity and function, but knowledge of early human development is limited, hampering application of cell-based therapies. Here we profiled 5 distinct cell types at a single fetal stage, as well as chondrocytes at 4 stages in vivo and 2 stages during in vitro differentiation. Network analysis delineated five tissue-specific gene modules; these modules and chromatin state analysis defined broad similarities in gene expression during cartilage specification and maturation in vitro and in vivo, including early expression and progressive silencing of muscle- and bone-specific genes...
September 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Changho Kim, Andy Nonaka, John B Bell, Alejandro L Garcia, Aleksandar Donev
Fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD) provides a framework for modeling microscopic fluctuations in a manner consistent with statistical mechanics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics. This paper presents an FHD formulation for isothermal reactive incompressible liquid mixtures with stochastic chemistry. Fluctuating multispecies mass diffusion is formulated using a Maxwell-Stefan description without assuming a dilute solution, and momentum dynamics is described by a stochastic Navier-Stokes equation for the fluid velocity...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
F Berthias, L Feketeová, H Abdoul-Carime, F Calvo, B Farizon, M Farizon, T D Märk
Measurement of velocity distributions of evaporated water monomers from small mass- and energy-selected protonated water clusters allows probing the extent of thermalization after excitation of these ultimately small nanodroplets. Electronic excitation of a molecule in the cluster is here induced by a single collision with an argon atom in the keV energy range. The measured velocity distributions of the departing neutral molecules exhibit bimodal shapes with a lower-velocity part consistent with a complete redistribution of the deposited energy in the entire cluster and a higher-velocity contribution corresponding to evaporation before complete energy redistribution...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Manuel Maier, Annette Zippelius, Matthias Fuchs
We develop a generalized hydrodynamic theory, which can account for the build-up of long-ranged and long-lived shear stress correlations in supercooled liquids as the glass transition is approached. Our theory is based on the decomposition of tensorial stress relaxation into fast microscopic processes and slow dynamics due to conservation laws. In the fluid, anisotropic shear stress correlations arise from the tensorial nature of stress. By approximating the fast microscopic processes by a single relaxation time in the spirit of Maxwell, we find viscoelastic precursors of the Eshelby-type correlations familiar in an elastic medium...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Alexander Nuhnen, Dennis Dietrich, Simon Millan, Christoph Janiak
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and inorganic fillers are frequently incorporated into mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) to overcome the traditional trade-off in permeability (P) and selectivity for pure organic polymer membranes. Therefore, it is of great interest to examine the influence of porous and nonporous fillers in MMMs with respect to the possible role of the polymer-filler interface, that is, the void volume. In this work we compare the same MOF filler in a porous and nonporous state, so that artefacts from a different polymer-filler interface are excluded...
September 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Andrei Nikitchenko, Andrei V Azovtsev, Nikolay A Pertsev
Ferroelectric nanocomposites are intriguing nonhomogeneous materials, which may have unusual phase states and specific physical properties useful for practical applications. Here we theoretically describe dielectric properties of nanocomposites comprising single-domain ferroelectric nanocrystals embedded into a linear dielectric medium. First, small-signal intrinsic permittivities of spheroidal PbTiO&lt;sub&gt;3&lt;/sub&gt; and BaTiO&lt;sub&gt;3&lt;/sub&gt; crystallites surrounded by an isotropic matrix with linear elastic properties are calculated with the aid of a nonlinear thermodynamic theory...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Bhavya Balu, Aditya S Khair
This theoretical analysis quantifies the effect of coupled ionic fluxes on the charging dynamics of an electrochemical cell. We consider a model cell consisting of a concentrated, binary electrolyte between parallel, blocking electrodes, under a suddenly applied DC voltage. It is assumed that the magnitude of the applied voltage is small compared to the thermal voltage scale, RT/F, where R is the universal gas constant, T is the temperature and F is the Faraday's constant. We employ the Stefan-Maxwell equations to describe the hydrodynamic coupling of ionic fluxes that arise in concentrated electrolytes...
September 7, 2018: Soft Matter
Nicholas J Foy, Katherine C Forbes, Anne Marie Crooke, Maxwell D Gruber, Jeffrey S Cannon
A combined Lewis acid/photoredox catalyst system enabled the intramolecular umpolung addition of ketyl radicals to vinylogous carbonates in the synthesis of 2,6-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octan-3-ones. This reaction proceeded on a variety of aromatic ketones to provide THF rings in good yield (up to 95%). Although diastereoselectivity was found to be modest (1.4-5:1) for the C-C bond forming reaction, the minor diastereomers were converted to 2,6-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octan-3-ones by an efficient Lewis acid-mediated epimerization cascade in up to 90% yield...
September 6, 2018: Organic Letters
Maxwell H Turner, Gregory William Schwartz, Fred Rieke
Antagonistic receptive field surrounds are a near-universal property of early sensory processing. A key assumption in many models for retinal ganglion cell encoding is that receptive field surrounds are added only to the fully formed center signal. But anatomical and functional observations indicate that surrounds are added before the summation of signals across receptive field subunits that creates the center. Here, we show that in the macaque monkey retina this receptive field architecture has an important consequence for spatial contrast encoding: the surround can control sensitivity to fine spatial structure by changing the way the center integrates visual information over space...
September 6, 2018: ELife
Aishwarya Kumar, Tsung-Yao Wu, Felipe Giraldo, David S Weiss
In 1872, Maxwell proposed his famous 'demon' thought experiment1 . By discerning which particles in a gas are hot and which are cold, and then performing a series of reversible actions, Maxwell's demon could rearrange the particles into a manifestly lower-entropy state. This apparent violation of the second law of thermodynamics was resolved by twentieth-century theoretical work2 : the entropy of the Universe is often increased while gathering information3 , and there is an unavoidable entropy increase associated with the demon's memory4 ...
September 2018: Nature
Florian Proise, Anne-Laure Joudrier, Fabrice Pardo, Jean-Luc Pelouard, Jean-François Guillemoles
Nano-resonators can be used in photovoltaics to drastically improve the ability of the device to absorb light and generate photo-carriers, therefore enabling a reduction of the absorber volume. Conventionally, the harvest of the spectrally broad solar spectrum is achieved via the tedious engineering of multiple optical resonances. In this paper, we propose a breakthrough approach, which consists in reducing the solar spectral range with a spectral conversion layer to match only one resonance that can then be easily designed...
September 3, 2018: Optics Express
Leandro Toledo, Lisa Racine, Viviana Pérez, Juan P Henríquez, Rachel Auzely-Velty, Bruno F Urbano
Physical nanocomposite hydrogels composed of poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) and titanium oxide nanoparticles at low concentrations (<1.0 wt%) were synthesized. The effect of the nanoparticle content on the water swelling and mechanical properties of the hydrogels was investigated. Additionally, to study the influence of the polymer-nanoparticle interactions, a second type of nanocomposite was synthesized using surface functionalized nanoparticles with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane as the filler...
November 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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