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Brian Slovick, Lucas Zipp, Srini Krishnamurthy
We solve the nonlinear Maxwell equations in an InP-based dielectric metamaterial, considering both two-photon absorption and photo-induced free-carrier absorption. We obtain the intensity-dependent reflection, absorption, and effective permittivity and permeability of the metamaterial. Our results show that nonlinear absorption dampens both the electric and magnetic Mie resonance, although the magnetic resonance is more affected because it occurs at longer wavelengths where the free-carrier absorption cross section is larger...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Julie Bolvig, Carsten B Juhl, Isabelle Boutron, Peter Tugwell, Elizabeth A T Ghogomu, Jordi Pardo Pardo, Tamara Rader, George A Wells, Alain Mayhew, Lara Maxwell, Hans Lund, Henning Bliddal, Robin Christensen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of bias-related study characteristics on treatment effects in osteoarthritis (OA) trials. STUDY DESIGN: Based on OA trials included in Cochrane reviews the impact of study characteristics on treatment effect estimates were evaluated. Characteristics included items of the risk of bias tool (RoB), trial size, single vs multi-site, and source of funding. Effect sizes were calculated as standardized mean differences (SMDs). Meta-regression was performed to identify "relevant study-level covariates" that decreases the between-study variance (τˆ2)...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Shihua Chen, Yanlin Ye, Fabio Baronio, Yi Liu, Xian-Ming Cai, Philippe Grelu
The resonant interaction of an optical field with two-level doping ions in a cryogenic optical fiber is investigated within the framework of nonlinear Schrödinger and Maxwell-Bloch equations. We present explicit fundamental rational rogue wave solutions in the context of self-induced transparency for the coupled optical and matter waves. It is exhibited that the optical wave component always features a typical Peregrine-like structure, while the matter waves involve more complicated yet spatiotemporally balanced amplitude distribution...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Christian Ganser, Caterina Czibula, Daniel Tscharnuter, Thomas Schöberl, Christian Teichert, Ulrich Hirn
Viscoelastic properties are often measured using probe based techniques such as nanoindentation (NI) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Rarely, however, are these methods verified. In this article, we present a method that combines contact mechanics with a viscoelastic model (VEM) composed of springs and dashpots. We further show how to use this model to determine viscoelastic properties from creep curves recorded by a probe based technique. We focus on using the standard linear solid model and the generalized Maxwell model of order 2...
December 8, 2017: Soft Matter
Andre G Campos, Renan Cabrera, Herschel A Rabitz, Denys I Bondar
A simple framework for Dirac spinors is developed that parametrizes admissible quantum dynamics and also analytically constructs electromagnetic fields, obeying Maxwell's equations, which yield a desired evolution. In particular, we show how to achieve dispersionless rotation and translation of wave packets. Additionally, this formalism can handle control interactions beyond electromagnetic. This work reveals unexpected flexibility of the Dirac equation for control applications, which may open new prospects for quantum technologies...
October 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Xi Hua Wu, Jennifer Junru Song, Richard Lewis Maxwell Faull, Henry John Waldvogel
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a critical excitatory signalling centre within the basal ganglia circuitry. The activity of subthalamic neurons is tightly controlled by upstream inhibitory signalling centres in the basal ganglia. In this study, we used immunohistochemical techniques to firstly, visualise and quantify the STN neurochemical organisation based on neuronal markers including parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), SMI-32 and GAD65/67 . Secondly, we characterised the detailed regional, cellular and subcellular expression of GABAA (α1 , α2 , α3 , β2/3 and γ2 ) and GABAB (R1 and R2) receptor subunits within the normal human STN...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Michael A Lodato, Rachel E Rodin, Craig L Bohrson, Michael E Coulter, Alison R Barton, Minseok Kwon, Maxwell A Sherman, Carl M Vitzthum, Lovelace J Luquette, Chandri Yandava, Pengwei Yang, Thomas W Chittenden, Nicole E Hatem, Steven C Ryu, Mollie B Woodworth, Peter J Park, Christopher A Walsh
It has long been hypothesized that aging and neurodegeneration are associated with somatic mutation in neurons; however, methodological hurdles have prevented testing this hypothesis directly. We used single-cell whole-genome sequencing to perform genome-wide somatic single-nucleotide variant (sSNV) identification on DNA from 161 single neurons from the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of fifteen normal individuals (aged 4 months to 82 years) as well as nine individuals affected by early-onset neurodegeneration due to genetic disorders of DNA repair (Cockayne syndrome and Xeroderma pigmentosum)...
December 7, 2017: Science
Tapas Ranjan Padhi, Bradley J Anderson, Ashkan M Abbey, Yoshihiro Yonekawa, Maxwell Stem, Danish Alam, Rohit Ramesh Modi, Laxmi Prabhavathi Savla, Michael T Trese, Antonio Capone, Kimberly A Drenser, Cagri G Besirli
PURPOSE: To analyse the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVM) in paediatric subjects at three paediatric retina referral centres. METHODS: Medical charts of patients aged 18 years or less with a diagnosis of CNVM were retrospectively reviewed. The demographic profile, laterality, presenting complaint, corrected vision, underlying pathology, fundus, fundus fluorescein angiogram and optical coherence tomogram (OCT) were analysed...
December 7, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Mark W Logue, Sanne J H van Rooij, Emily L Dennis, Sarah L Davis, Jasmeet P Hayes, Jennifer S Stevens, Maria Densmore, Courtney C Haswell, Jonathan Ipser, Saskia B J Koch, Mayuresh Korgaonkar, Lauren A M Lebois, Matthew Peverill, Justin T Baker, Premika S W Boedhoe, Jessie L Frijling, Staci A Gruber, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem, Neda Jahanshad, Sheri Koopowitz, Ifat Levy, Laura Nawijn, Lauren O'Connor, Miranda Olff, David H Salat, Margaret A Sheridan, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Mirjam van Zuiden, Sherry R Winternitz, Jonathan D Wolff, Erika J Wolf, Xin Wang, Kristen Wrocklage, Chadi G Abdallah, Richard A Bryant, Elbert Geuze, Tanja Jovanovic, Milissa L Kaufman, Anthony P King, John H Krystal, Jim Lagopoulos, Maxwell Bennett, Ruth Lanius, Israel Liberzon, Regina E McGlinchey, Katie A McLaughlin, William P Milberg, Mark W Miller, Kerry J Ressler, Dick J Veltman, Dan J Stein, Kathleen Thomaes, Paul M Thompson, Rajendra A Morey
BACKGROUND: Many studies report smaller hippocampal and amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but findings have not always been consistent. Here, we present the results of a large-scale neuroimaging consortium study on PTSD conducted by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC)-Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) PTSD Working Group. METHODS: We analyzed neuroimaging and clinical data from 1868 subjects (794 PTSD patients) contributed by 16 cohorts, representing the largest neuroimaging study of PTSD to date...
September 20, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
Lunwu Zeng, Jin Xu, Chengen Wang, Jianhua Zhang, Yuting Zhao, Jing Zeng, Runxia Song
When space (time) translation symmetry is spontaneously broken, the space crystal (time crystal) forms; when permittivity and permeability periodically vary with space (time), the photonic crystal (photonic time crystal) forms. We proposed the concept of photonic time crystal and rewritten the Maxwell's equations. Utilizing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, we simulated electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal, the simulation results show that more intensive scatter fields can obtained in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Maxwell T Robinson, David E Cliffel, G Kane Jennings
The photosynthetic protein, Photosystem I (PSI), has been used as a photoactive species within a host of biohybrid photoelectrochemical systems. PSI multilayer films at electrode surfaces provide greatly improved solar energy conversion relative to homologous monolayer films. While the photocatalytic effect of PSI multilayers has been theorized as an electrolyte-mediated mechanism, no comprehensive, first-principles modeling study has been presented. In this work, we develop and optimize an electrochemical reaction-diffusion model to replicate the significant electrochemical, physicochemical, and transport processes that underpin photocurrent development of a PSI multilayer film...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Anushka Naidoo, Veron Ramsuran, Maxwell Chirehwa, Paolo Denti, Helen McIlleron, Kogieleum Naidoo, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Ravesh Singh, Sinaye Ngcapu, Mamoonah Chaudhry, Michael S Pepper, Nesri Padayatchi
AIM: We assessed the effect of genetic variability in UGT1A and ABCB1 genes on moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics. METHODS: Genotypes for selected UGT1A and ABCB1 SNPs were determined using a TaqMan® Genotyping OpenArray™ and high-resolution melt analysis for rs8175347. A nonlinear mixed-effects model was used to describe moxifloxacin pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: Genotypes of UGT1A SNPs, rs8175347 and rs3755319 (20.6% lower and 11.6% increased clearance, respectively) and ABCB1 SNP rs2032582 (40% reduced bioavailability in one individual) were significantly associated with changes in moxifloxacin pharmacokinetic parameters...
December 6, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
Alexandra J Townsend, Maxwell A Ware, Alexander V Ruban
Photoinhibition is the light-induced reduction in photosynthetic efficiency and is usually associated with damage to the D1 Photosystem II (PSII) reaction centre (RC) protein. This damage must either be repaired, through the PSII repair cycle, or prevented in the first place by non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Both NPQ and D1 repair contribute to light tolerance since they ensure the long-term maintenance of the highest quantum yield of PSII. However, the relative contribution of each of these processes is yet to be elucidated...
December 5, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Xuefei Li, Roberto Grassi, Sichao Li, Tiaoyang Li, Xiong Xiong, Tony Low, Yanqing Wu
Metal-semiconductor contact has been the performance limiting problem for electronic devices and also dictates the scaling potential for future generation devices based on novel channel materials. Two-dimensional semiconductors beyond graphene, particularly few layer black phosphorus, has attracted much attention due to its exceptional electronic properties such as anisotropy and high mobility. However, due to its ultra-thin body nature, few layer black phosphorus/metal contact behaves differently than conventional Schottky barrier (SB) junctions, and the mechanisms of its carrier transport across such a barrier remains elusive...
December 5, 2017: Nano Letters
Mai-Kim Gervais, Sally M Burtenshaw, Jessica Maxwell, Brendan C Dickson, Charles N Catton, Martin Blackstein, David McCready, Jaime Escallon, Rebecca A Gladdy
BACKGROUND: Breast angiosarcoma (AS) accounts for less than 1% of all breast cancers. The goal of this study was to determine patient outcomes in radiation-associated angiosarcoma of the breast (RAAS) and sporadic AS. We evaluated patterns of recurrence and predictors of breast AS survival. METHODS: Patients with pathologically confirmed AS from 1994 to 2014 referred to Mount Sinai Hospital/Princess Margaret Cancer Centre were included. Primary outcome was overall survival (OS)...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
D J Brinkman, J Tichelaar, L B Mokkink, T Christiaens, R Likic, R Maciulaitis, J Costa, E J Sanz, S R Maxwell, M C Richir, M A van Agtmael
Harmonizing clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CPT) education in Europe is necessary to ensure that the prescribing competency of future doctors is of an uniform high standard. As there are currently no uniform requirements, our aim was to achieve consensus on key learning outcomes for undergraduate CPT education in Europe. We used a modified Delphi method consisting of three questionnaire rounds and a panel meeting. 129 experts from 27 European countries were asked to rate 307 learning outcomes. 92 experts (71%) completed all three questionnaire rounds, and 33 experts (26%) attended the meeting...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
James Osei-Yeboah, William K B A Owiredu, Gameli Kwame Norgbe, Sylvester Yao Lokpo, Christian Obirikorang, Emmanuel Alote Allotey, John Gameli Deku, Emmanuel Akomanin Asiamah, Nana Yaw Barimah Manaphraim, Prince Senyo Kwasi Nyamadi, Edward Yiadom Boakye, Tibemponi Ntoni, Roseline Avorkliyah, Romeo Asumbasiya Aduko, Seyram Tetteh Quarshie, Maxwell Jenkins Gbemu
Quality of life (QoL) is an important component in the evaluation of the wellbeing of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). This study was aimed at evaluating the QoL of PLHIV attending the antiretroviral clinics in the Ho municipality. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2017 to April 2017 involving 158 purposively selected HIV-positive patients who were attending the antiretroviral clinics both in the Volta Regional Hospital and Ho Municipal Hospital. An Interviewer administered standard questionnaire (WHOQOL-HIV Bref) was used to collect information on sociodemography, medical history, and the quality of life (QoL) of the respondents...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
V Strbac, D M Pierce, J Vander Sloten, N Famaey
Finite element (FE) simulations are increasingly valuable in assessing and improving the performance of biomedical devices and procedures. Due to high computational demands such simulations may become difficult or even infeasible, especially when considering nearly incompressible and anisotropic material models prevalent in analyses of soft tissues. Implementations of GPGPU-based explicit FEs predominantly cover isotropic materials, e.g. the neo-Hookean model. To elucidate the computational expense of anisotropic materials, we implement the Gasser-Ogden-Holzapfel dispersed, fiber-reinforced model and compare solution times against the neo-Hookean model...
December 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Josef Hartl, Astrid Peschel, Diethelm Johannsmann, Patrick Garidel
Making use of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), concentrated solutions of therapeutic antibodies were studied with respect to their behavior under shear excitation with frequencies in the MHz range. At high protein concentration and neutral pH, viscoelastic behavior was found in the sense that the storage modulus, G', was nonzero. Fits of the frequency dependence of G'(ω) and G''(ω) (G'' being the loss modulus) using the Maxwell-model produced good agreement with the experimental data. The fit parameters were the relaxation time, τ, and the shear modulus at the inverse relaxation time, G* (at the "cross-over frequency" ωC = 1/τ)...
December 4, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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