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Alberto A Lutman, Marc W Guetg, Timothy J Maxwell, James P MacArthur, Yuantao Ding, Claudio Emma, Jacek Krzywinski, Agostino Marinelli, Zhirong Huang
We demonstrate a novel multistage amplification scheme for self-amplified spontaneous-emission free electron lasers for the production of few femtosecond pulses with very high power in the soft x-ray regime. The scheme uses the fresh-slice technique to produce an x-ray pulse on the bunch tail, subsequently amplified in downstream undulator sections by fresh electrons. With three-stages amplification, x-ray pulses with an energy of hundreds of microjoules are produced in few femtoseconds. For single-spike spectra x-ray pulses the pulse power is increased more than an order of magnitude compared to other techniques in the same wavelength range...
June 29, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Marc W Guetg, Alberto A Lutman, Yuantao Ding, Timothy J Maxwell, Zhirong Huang
The fresh-slice technique improved the performance of several self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron laser schemes by granting selective control on the temporal lasing slice without spoiling the other electron bunch slices. So far, the implementation has required a special insertion device to create the beam yaw, called a dechirper. We demonstrate a novel scheme to enable fresh-slice operation based on electron energy chirp and orbit dispersion that can be implemented at any free-electron laser facility without additional hardware...
June 29, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Cyril Elouard, Andrew N Jordan
We propose quantum engines powered entirely by a position-resolving measurement performed on a quantum particle. These engines produce work by moving the quantum particle against a force. Unlike classical information-driven engines (e.g., Maxwell's demon), the energy is not extracted from a thermal hot source but directly from the observation process via a partial wave-function collapse of the particle. We present results for the work done and the efficiency for different values of the engine parameters. Feedback is required for optimal performance...
June 29, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Amanda J Shelley, Katherine A McDonald, Alana McEvoy, Maxwell Sauder, Nordau Kanigsberg, Roger Zemek, Regis Vaillancourt, Annie Pouliot, Michele L Ramien
BACKGROUND: An eczema action plan (EAP) is an individualized tool to help caregivers and patients self-manage eczema. While novel illustrated EAPs have been developed and validated, there is limited literature examining the value of EAPs from patient and caregiver perspectives. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to test the usability, satisfaction, and usefulness of our validated EAP from the perspective of patients and caregivers. METHODS: Consecutive patients from the pediatric dermatology clinic of a tertiary children's hospital from July 2016 to July 2017 were offered enrolment in a prospective survey study; informed consent was obtained from participants...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
Anita D Misra-Hebert, Grant Hom, Eric A Klein, Janine M Bauman, Niyati Gupta, Xinge Ji, Andrew J Stephenson, J Stephen Jones, Michael W Kattan
Background: As prostate cancer (PCa) screening decisions often occur in outpatient primary care, a brief tool to help the PCa screening conversation in busy clinic settings is needed. Methods: A previously created 9-item tool to aid PCa screening discussions was tested in five diverse primary care clinics. Fifteen providers were recruited to use the tool for 4 weeks, and the tool was revised based upon feedback. The providers then used the tool with a convenience sample of patients during routine clinic visits...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Samuel O Onoja, Ginika Q Ihejirika, Oluchi N Nwankudu, Yusuf N Omeh, Maxwell I Ezeja
Bryophyllum pinnatum belongs to the family Crassulaceae and it is commonly used in the ethnomedical practices. This study investigated the antidiarrheal and antioxidant properties of methanol extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf harvested from South-Eastern Nigeria in mice. Cold maceration method in 80% methanol was adopted in the extract preparation. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant property while castor oil-induced diarrhea, small intestinal transit, and enteropooling models were used for the antidiarrheal investigation...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutics
Augusto M Tentori, Maxwell B Nagarajan, Jae Jung Kim, Wen Cai Zhang, Frank J Slack, Patrick S Doyle
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as promising biomarkers for the profiling of diseases. Translation of miRNA biomarkers to clinical practice, however, remains a challenge due to the lack of analysis platforms for sensitive, quantitative, and multiplex miRNA assays that have simple and robust workflows suitable for translation. The platform we present here utilizes functionalized hydrogel posts contained within isolated nanoliter well reactors for quantitative and multiplex assays directly from unprocessed cell samples without the need of prior nucleic acid extraction...
July 12, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Mohamed A Ghanem, Adam D Maxwell, Wayne Kreider, Bryan W Cunitz, Vera A Khokhlova, Oleg A Sapozhnikov, Michael R Bailey
Multi-element focused ultrasound phased arrays have been used in therapeutic applications to treat large tissue volumes by electronic steering of the focus, to target multiple simultaneous foci, and to correct aberration caused by inhomogeneous tissue pathways. There is an increasing interest in using arrays to generate more complex beam shapes and corresponding acoustic radiation force patterns for manipulation of particles such as kidney stones. Toward this end, experimental and computational tools are needed to enable accurate delivery of desired transducer vibrations and corresponding ultrasound fields...
June 27, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Sergey Makarov, Gregory Noetscher, Tommi Raij, Aapo Nummenmaa
OBJECTIVE: We develop a new accurate version of the boundary element fast multipole method for TMS-related problems. This method is based on the surface-charge formulation and is using the highly efficient fast multipole accelerator along with analytical computations of neighbor surface integrals. RESULTS: The method accuracy is demonstrated by comparison with the proven commercial FEM software ANSYS Maxwell 18.2 2017 operating on unstructured grids and with adaptive mesh refinement...
March 7, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Lucy Plumb, Anna Casula, Winnie Magadi, Fiona Braddon, Malcolm Lewis, Stephen D Marks, Mohan Shenoy, Manish D Sinha, Heather Maxwell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Nephron
Lucy Plumb, Esther Wong, Anna Casula, Fiona Braddon, Malcolm Lewis, Stephen D Marks, Mohan Shenoy, Manish D Sinha, Heather Maxwell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Nephron
Amílcar Figueiredo Dornelas-Filho, Venúcia Bruna Magalhães Pereira, Deysi Viviana Tenazoa Wong, Lívia Maria Soares Nobre, Anielle Torres Melo, Camila Meirelles Souza Silva, Carlos Wagner Souza Wanderley, Mariana Lima Nour, Lis Caetano Nobrega Costa Araújo, Renan Oliveira Silva, Francisco Maxwell Martins Pinto, Rudy Diavila Bingana, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte Souza, Nylane Maria Nunes Alencar, Paulo Goberlânio Barros Silva, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes Alves, Paulo Roberto Carvalho Almeida, Fernando Queiroz Cunha, Roberto César Pereira Lima-Júnior
Ifosfamide (IFO) is an antineoplastic drug that is commonly used to treat gynecological and breast cancers. Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common side effect associated with IFO injection, which courses with neutrophil accumulation and affects 6-50% of patients depending on dose intensity. Here, we investigated the role of neutrophils in this inflammatory process. Female Swiss mice (n = 8/group) were injected with saline, IFO (400 mg/kg, i.p.), fucoidan (a P- and L-selectins inhibitor, 100 mg/kg, i...
July 6, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Ezequiel Goldberg, Cecilia Suárez, Mauricio Alfonso, Juan Marchese, Alejandro Soba, Guillermo Marshall
Electroporation-based techniques, i.e. techniques based on the perturbation of the cell membrane through the application of electric pulses, are widely used at present in medicine and biotechnology. However, the electric pulse - cell membrane interaction is not yet completely understood neither explicitly formalized. Here we introduce a Multiphysics (MP) model describing electric pulse - cell membrane interaction consisting on the Poisson equation for the electric field, the Nernst-Planck equations for ion transport (protons, hydroxides, sodium or calcium, and chloride), the Maxwell tensor and mechanical equilibrium equation for membrane deformations (with an explicit discretization of the cell membrane), and the Smoluchowski equation for membrane permeabilization...
July 3, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Jing Wen, Rochelle R Maxwell, Alexander J Wolf, Menachem Spira, Maria E Gulinello, Peter D Cole
Methotrexate is a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor widely employed in curative treatment for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, methotrexate administration is also associated with persistent cognitive deficits among long-term childhood cancer survivors. Animal models of methotrexate-induced cognitive deficits have primarily utilized adult animals. The purpose of present study is to investigate the neurotoxicity of methotrexate in juvenile rats and its relevant mechanisms. The doses and schedule of systemic and intrathecal methotrexate, given from post-natal age 3-7 weeks, were chosen to model the effects of repeated methotrexate dosing on the developing brains of young children with ALL...
July 7, 2018: Neuropharmacology
George Dassios, A S Fokas, Parham Hashemzadeh, Richard M Leahy
OBJECTIVE: The inverse problem of computing the neuronal current density from scalp EEG is highly ill-posed. In part, this is due to the nonuniqueness of the mapping between current sources and scalp potentials. We develop an explicit formula for the scalp EEG for sources constrained to the cortical surface in terms only of the components of the current that affect the EEG signal. METHODS: Starting from the quasistatic form of Maxwell's equations, we develop a formula that involves only the "visible" part of the current (i...
December 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Alexandre Iourievich Ilitchev, Maxwell J Giammona, Carina Olivas, Sarah Louise Claud, Kristi Lazar Cantrell, Chun Wu, Steven K Buratto, Michael T Bowers
Protein aggregation is typically attributed to the association of homologous amino acid sequences between monomers of the same protein. Co-aggregation of heterogeneous peptide species can occur however, and is implicated in the proliferation of seemingly unrelated protein diseases in the body. The prion protein fragment (PrP106-126) and human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) serve as an interesting model of non-homologous protein assembly as they co-aggregate, despite a lack of sequence homology. We have applied ion-mobility mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism, and high-level molecular modeling to elucidate this important assembly process...
July 10, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ya Wen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine
Aura Cecilia Jimenez-Moreno, Sarah J Charman, Nikoletta Nikolenko, Maxwell Larweh, Chris Turner, Grainne Gorman, Hanns Lochmüller, Michael Catt
BACKGROUND: Accelerometers are accurate tools to assess movement and physical activity. However, interpreting standardly used outputs is not straightforward for populations with impaired mobility. METHODS: The applicability of GENEActiv was explored in a group of 30 participants with myotonic dystrophy and compared to a group of 14 healthy-controls. All participants performed a set of tests while wearing four different accelerometers (wrists and ankles): [1] standing still; [2] ten-meters walk test; [3] six-minutes walking test; and, [4] ten-meters walk/run test...
July 10, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Evelyn Sakeah, Raymond Aborigo, James Kotuah Sakeah, Maxwell Dalaba, Ernest Kanyomse, Daniel Azongo, Dominic Anaseba, Samuel Oladokun, Abraham Rexford Oduro
BACKGROUND: Globally, maternal mortality is still a challenge. In Ghana, maternal morbidity and mortality rates remain high, particularly in rural areas. Postnatal Care (PNC) is one of the key strategies for improving maternal health. This study examined determinants of at least three PNC visits in rural Ghana. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) Zones in the Builsa and West Mamprusi Districts between April and June 2016...
July 9, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Sean T Halloran, R Maxwell Collignon, J Steven McElfresh, Jocelyn G Millar
In field trials testing attraction of cerambycid beetles to a blend of known pheromone components plus host plant volatiles, several species in the subfamily Spondylidinae were attracted to baited traps, suggesting that one or more components of the blend might constitute their pheromones. Here, we describe laboratory and field experiments aimed at identifying the actual pheromone components produced by these species. Analysis of headspace odors collected from male Tetropium abietis (Fall) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) contained (S)-fuscumol as a single component, whereas Asemum nitidum (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) males produced both (S)-fuscumol and geranylacetone, and Asemum caseyi (Linsley) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) produced only geranylacetone...
July 6, 2018: Environmental Entomology
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