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lupus infection

Andrea Fava, Michelle Petri
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a worldwide chronic autoimmune disease which may affect every organ and tissue. Genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and the hormonal milieu, interplay in disease development and activity. Clinical manifestations and the pattern of organ involvement are widely heterogenous, reflecting the complex mosaic of disrupted molecular pathways converging into the SLE clinical phenotype. The SLE complex pathogenesis involves multiple cellular components of the innate and immune systems, presence of autoantibodies and immunocomplexes, engagement of the complement system, dysregulation of several cytokines including type I interferons, and disruption of the clearance of nucleic acids after cell death...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Sajal Ajmani, Harshit Singh, Saurabh Chaturvedi, Ravi Mishra, Mohit Kumar Rai, Avinash Jain, Durga Prasanna Misra, Vikas Agarwal
Bacterial and opportunistic infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis owing to treatment with immunosuppressants. Commonly used laboratory tests are unreliable in differentiating infection from active disease patients. Fc receptor (FcγR1 or CD64) expression on neutrophils and soluble TREM-1 (triggering receptor expressed on monocytes) are potential biomarkers of bacterial infections...
November 16, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Sarah-Kim Friedrich, Philipp A Lang, Justa Friebus-Kardash, Vikas Duhan, Judith Bezgovsek, Karl S Lang
Viral infections can be fatal because of the direct cytopathic effects of the virus or the induction of a strong, uncontrolled inflammatory response. Virus and host intrinsic characteristics strongly modulate the outcome of viral infection. Recently we determined the circumstances under which enhanced replication of virus within the lymphoid tissue is beneficial for the outcome of a disease. This enforced viral replication promotes antiviral immune activation and, counterintuitively, accelerates virus control...
November 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Liborija Lugović-Mihić, Kristina Pilipović, Iva Crnarić, Mirna Šitum, Tomislav Duvančić
Although cheilitis as a term describing lip inflammation has been identified and recognized for a long time, until now there have been no clear recommendations for its work-up and classification. The disease may appear as an isolated condition or as part of certain systemic diseases/conditions (such as anemia due to vitamin B12 or iron deficiency) or local infections (e.g., herpes and oral candidiasis). Cheilitis can also be a symptom of a contact reaction to an irritant or allergen, or may be provoked by sun exposure (actinic cheilitis) or drug intake, especially retinoids...
June 2018: Acta Clinica Croatica
Melek Kharroubi, Lilia Ben Fatma, Lamia Rais, Hela Jebali, Ikram Mami, Mohamed Karim Zouaghi
BACKGROUND: Glomerular deposits are a major pathologic feature of a wide range of human glomerulonephritis and may be located in the mesangial, subepithelial, and subendothelial regions. Rare cases of primary glomerulonephritis definied by exclusive or predominant mesangial IgG deposits were reported. We reviewed the pathologic findings for the 848 renal biopsies examined in our department between 2007 and 2016, one case of primary mesangial IgG glomerulonephritis (MIG) in the absence of any evidence of systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), of other systemic diseases or of Infections...
July 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
Jun Liang, Huayong Zhang, Wei Kong, Wei Deng, Dandan Wang, Xuebing Feng, Cheng Zhao, Bingzhu Hua, Hong Wang, Lingyun Sun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of mesenchymal stem cell infusion in patients with autoimmune diseases. METHODS: A total of 404 patients with autoimmune diseases who received mesenchymal stem cell infusion between 2007 and 2016 were included in this study. Adverse events in these patients were collected, mainly including infections and malignancies. Sources of information included hospitalization records and data from outpatient visits and each follow-up...
November 14, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Gioulia Romanidou, Theocharis G Konstantinidis, Odysseas Koutsogiannis, Anastasia Grapsa, Konstantina Kantartzi, Stylianos Panagoutsos, Maria Panopoulou, Christina Tsigalou
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a multifactorial, autoantibody-mediated disease. Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) directed against negatively charged phospholipids or various combinations of phospholipid-binding proteins seem to be an independent pathogenic factor that plays a critical role in APS. Unfortunately, their role in hypertension is not fully elucidated. The aim of our study was to determine aPL titers in hypertension patients and investigate the association of aPL with renal impairment parameters...
November 13, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Mehdi Khorshidi, Sepehr Navid, Davood Azadi, Darioush Shokri, Hasan Shojaei
Introduction: Nocardia are Gram-positive partially acid-fast bacilli capable of inducing a wide range of infections in patients with immunodeficiency, AIDS, cancer, lupus erythematous and diabetes. Nocardia cyriacigeorgica was first isolated in 2001 from a patient with chronic bronchitis. Since then, there have been reports on the clinical significance of this organism in patients with bronchitis, brain abscess and lung diseases. We, herein, report a case of brain abscess in an elderly diabetic patient from Iran...
September 2018: JMM Case Reports
Paraskevi V Voulgari, Vissaria Tatsi, Haralampos J Milionis, Anna Goussia, Vasileios Xydis, George K Glantzounis
INTRODUCTION: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PECOMA) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm which expresses both myogenic and melanocytic markers showing a benign course,although malignant tumors have also been reported. To date there are approximately 33 cases of published hepatic pecomas. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We describe a 47-year-old man with a 27-year past medical history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who underwent left liver lobectomy due to a liver pecoma...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Margit L W Juhász, Natasha Atanaskova Mesinkovska
Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disorder in which immune attack of the anagen follicle causes hair loss in approximately 2% of the population. Although the pathogenesis of AA has not been fully determined, most likely it is mediated by a variety of factors including cellular/humoral immunity and genetic predisposition. Researchers have been interested in the possible role of the complement pathway in AA since the 1970s. Given recent evidence suggesting that complement plays a role in many immunologic and inflammatory dermatologic diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, bullous diseases, angioedema, lipodystrophy, and skin infections, it is likely that complement also contributes to AA pathogenesis...
October 2018: Skin Appendage Disorders
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Dennis McGonagle, Samaa Watad, Mohammad Adawi, Naim Mahroum, Giovanni Damiani, Rosalynn Conic, Charlie Bridgewood, Hussein Mahagna, Luca Giacomelli, Roberto Eggenhöffner, Mahmud Mahamid, Paolo Daniele Maria Pigatto, Howard Amital, Abdulla Watad
The immunological perturbations associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) puts many patients at higher risk of infections including pneumococcal pneumonia. However, the uptake and utility of anti-pneumococcal vaccines in SLE patient is both controversial and not completely agreed on. Indeed, several epidemiological studies of anti-pneumococcal vaccine safety and efficacy in SLE have reported short term immunogenicity with elevated anti-pneumococcal antibody titres but inconsistent long term findings with some studies finding poor responses, mainly for long-term immune protection...
November 5, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Mouhamad Nasser, Vincent Cottin
Defined by the accumulation of red blood cells into the alveolar space, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a severe and potentially fatal medical condition requiring careful attention. In contrast to simple extravasation of erythrocytes facilitated by impaired hemostasis or hemodynamic causes, DAH in vasculitis is due to capillaritis, that is, inflammation of capillaries. Dyspnea, hemoptysis, chest infiltrates, and abrupt fall of blood hemoglobin level represent the cardinal features of DAH; yet, hemoptysis is lacking in one-third of cases...
August 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Olusola Olafuyi, Raj K S Badhan
The insidious nature of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections can have a devastating consequence for foetal development. Recent reports have highlighted that chloroquine (CQ) is capable of inhibiting ZIKV endocytosis in brain cells. We applied pharmacokinetic modelling to develop a predictive model for CQ exposure to identify an optimal maternal/foetal dosing regimen to prevent ZIKV endocytosis in brain cells. Model validation utilised 13 non-pregnancy and 3 pregnancy clinical studies and a therapeutic CQ plasma window of 0...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Javier Millán, Roser Velarde, Verónica Delicado, Nieves Negre, Alexis Ribas, Álvaro Oleaga, Luis Llaneza, Fernando Esperón
Two-hundred and thirty-one wild carnivores belonging to 10 species of in Spain were analyzed for the presence of DNA of hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) by means of a universal real-time PCR targeting a 16S rRNA gene fragment. Positive reactions were found for wolf (Canis lupus: 6/37), fox (Vulpes vulpes: 1/41), Eurasian badger (Meles meles: 49/85), pine marten (Martes martes: 11/23), stone marten (Martes foina: 6/9), least weasel (Mustela nivalis: 4/4), European wildcat (Felis s. silvestris: 1/2) and common genet (Genetta genetta: 7/27)...
October 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Flora Alfano, Giulia Dowgier, Maria Paola Valentino, Giorgio Galiero, Antonella Tinelli, Nicola Decaro, Giovanna Fusco
We report a case in an Italian wolf ( Canis lupus italicus) of pantropic canine coronavirus infection, which has previously been detected only in dogs. The wolf was coinfected by canine parvovirus type 2b and canine adenovirus type 2, which highlighted the crucial role of epidemiologic surveys in European wild carnivores.
October 30, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Funda Erbasan
Central nervous system infections, which are rarely seen in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), have considerably high mortality but they are difficult to distinguish from neuropsychiatric manifestation of lupus. This article reports the case of a patient with SLE with brain abscess which developed during immunosuppressive therapy for lupus nephritis. The patient completely recovered without neurological sequelae by open surgical drainage and 12-week antibiotic therapy. It is recommended that CNS infections must be excluded in patients with SLE, particularly who are receiving immunosuppressive therapy...
December 2018: Rheumatology International
Huilin Li, Weijia Zhang, Fang Zhong, Gokul C Das, Yifan Xie, Zhengzhe Li, Weijing Cai, Gengru Jiang, Jae Choi, Mohamad Sidani, Deborah P Hyink, Kyung Lee, Paul E Klotman, John Cijiang He
Mounting evidence suggests that epigenetic modification is important in kidney disease pathogenesis. To determine whether epigenetic regulation is involved in HIV-induced kidney injury, we performed genome-wide methylation profiling and transcriptomic profiling of human primary podocytes infected with HIV-1. Comparison of DNA methylation and RNA sequencing profiles identified several genes that were hypomethylated with corresponding upregulated RNA expression in HIV-infected podocytes. Notably, we found only one hypermethylated gene with corresponding downregulated RNA expression, namely regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1)...
October 23, 2018: Kidney International
Zhao-Xia Li, Shan Zeng, Hui-Xia Wu, Yi Zhou
Previous systematic reviews have found a higher sero-prevalence of EBV antibodies in SLE patients compared with controls. Because many studies have been published, there is a need to apply more precise systematic review methods. We examined the association between EBV and SLE patients by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies that examined the prevalence of EBV antibodies and the DNA-positive rate. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 1966 to 2018 with no language restrictions...
October 25, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Neelakshi R Jog, Eliza F Chakravarty, Joel M Guthridge, Judith A James
Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a gamma herpes virus associated with certain malignancies and autoimmune diseases. EBV maintains latency in B cells with occasional reactivation, in part by overcoming the host immune response with viral homologs of several human proteins. EBV interleukin 10 (vIL-10), a lytic phase protein, is a homolog of human IL-10 (hIL-10). The effect of vIL-10 on human monocytes, which are one of the first immune cells to respond to infection, is not known. To understand the role of vIL-10, monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with hIL-10 or vIL-10...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Seung-Chul Choi, Anton A Titov, Georges Abboud, Howard R Seay, Todd M Brusko, Derry C Roopenian, Shahram Salek-Ardakani, Laurence Morel
Follicular helper T (TFH ) cells are expanded in systemic lupus erythematosus, where they are required to produce high affinity autoantibodies. Eliminating TFH cells would, however compromise the production of protective antibodies against viral and bacterial pathogens. Here we show that inhibiting glucose metabolism results in a drastic reduction of the frequency and number of TFH cells in lupus-prone mice. However, this inhibition has little effect on the production of T-cell-dependent antibodies following immunization with an exogenous antigen or on the frequency of virus-specific TFH cells induced by infection with influenza...
October 22, 2018: Nature Communications
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