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neurology occupational

Thaila Francini Corona, Beatriz Böger, Tatiana Carneiro da Rocha, Walfrido Külh Svoboda, Eliane Carneiro Gomes
INTRODUCTION: Rabies is an acute zoonotic disease, caused by a rhabdovirus that can affect all mammals, and is commonly transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal. The definitive diagnosis is laboratorial, by the Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT) as a quick test and Mouse Inoculation Test (MIT) as a confirmatory test (gold standard). Studies conducted over the past three decades indicate that MIT and Virus Isolation in Cell Culture (VICC) can provide the same effectiveness, the latter being considered superior in bioethics and animal welfare...
January 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Angela Sanabria, Montserrat Alegret, Octavio Rodriguez-Gomez, Sergi Valero, Oscar Sotolongo-Grau, Gemma Monté-Rubio, Carla Abdelnour, Ana Espinosa, Gemma Ortega, Alba Perez-Cordon, Anna Gailhajanet, Isabel Hernandez, Maitee Rosende-Roca, Liliana Vargas, Ana Mauleon, Domingo Sanchez, Elvira Martin, Dorene M Rentz, Francisco Lomeña, Agustin Ruiz, Lluis Tarraga, Merce Boada
The Face-Name Associative Memory Exam (FNAME) is a paired associative memory test created to detect memory deficits in individuals with preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). Worse performance on FNAME in cognitively healthy individuals were found related to higher amyloid beta (Aβ) burden measured with Positron-Emission-Tomography using11 C-PiB (PiB-PET). We previously reported normative data of a Spanish version of FNAME (S-FNAME) in cognitively healthy Spanish-speaking subjects. The aim of the present study was to determine whether performance on S-FNAME was associated with Aβ burden in subjective cognitive decline (SCD) individuals...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Omamuyovwi Meashack Ijomone, Stephen Odey Okori, Olayemi Kafilat Ijomone, Azubike Peter Ebokaiwe
Nickel (Ni) is a heavy metal with wide industrial uses. Environmental and occupational exposures to Ni are potential risk factors for neurological symptoms in humans. The present study investigated the behavior and histomorphological alterations in brain of rats sub-acutely exposed to nickel chloride (NiCl2 ) and the possible involvement of oxidative stress. Rats were administered with 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg NiCl2 via intraperitoneal injections for 21 days. Neurobehavioral assessment was performed using the Y-maze and open field test (OFT)...
February 26, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Jun Zhang, Rongming Xu, Zheng Li, Weibin Zha
RATIONALE: Malposition of cervical pedicle screw (CPS) has a risk of vertebral artery (VA) injury which sometimes may cause unexpected and catastrophic outcome. A rare case of delayed onset of cerebral infarction caused by malposition of CPS was reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 23-year-old man who underwent a posterior cervical reduction and fusion of C4-5 using CPS fixation and allograft for cervical spine injury is presented. The patient suffered progressively weakness and numbness for both of upper and lower extremities 1 day after the operation...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nicole Baumer, Sarah J Spence
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by deficits in social communication and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests. This article provides the tools to diagnose and manage patients with autism spectrum disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous condition with varying presentations, multiple etiologies, and a number of comorbidities that impact the course and management of the disorder...
February 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Francisco Alburquerque-Sendín, Pascal Madeleine, César Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Paula Rezende Camargo, Tania Fátima Salvini
Mechanical hyperalgesia defined as decreased pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) is commonly associated with pain. In this narrative review, we report the current state of the art within topographical pressure sensitivity maps. Such maps are based on multiple PPT assessments. The PPTs are assessed by an a priori defined grid with special focus on both spatial and temporal summation issues. The grid covers the muscle or the body region of interest using absolute or relative values determined from anatomical landmarks or anthropometric values...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Carla Garza-Lombo, Yanahi Posadas, Liliana Quintanar, Maria E Gonsebatt, Rodrigo Franco
SIGNIFICANCE: Essential metals such as copper, iron, manganese and zinc play a role as cofactors in the activity of a wide range of processes involved in cellular homeostasis and survival, as well as during organ and tissue development. Throughout our lifespan, humans are also exposed to xenobiotic metals from natural and anthropogenic sources including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury. It is well recognized that alterations in the homeostasis of essential metals and an increased environmental/occupational exposure to xenobiotic metals is linked to several neurological disorders including neurodegeneration and neurodevelopmental alterations...
February 5, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Norihiro Nishida, Tsukasa Kanchiku, Daigo Nakandakari, Shota Tahara, Junji Ohgi, Kazuhiko Ichihara, Ituo Sakuramoto, Xian Chen, Toshihiko Taguchi
The thoracolumbar junction comprises the spinal cord, nerve roots and the cauda equina, exhibiting unique anatomical features that may give rise to a diverse array of symptoms under conditions of injury, thus complicating the diagnosis of compressive disorders. The present study aimed to examine varying degrees and forms of compression at this level of the spinal cord using a two-dimensional model to calculate the relationship of these variables to injury. The degree of compression was expressed as a percentage of the spinal canal that was occupied...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Poojya Anantharam, Dong-Suk Kim, Elizabeth M Whitley, Belinda Mahama, Paula Imerman, Piyush Padhi, Wilson K Rumbeiha
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless, highly neurotoxic gas. It is not only an occupational and environmental hazard but also of concern to the Department of Homeland Security for potential nefarious use. Acute high-dose H2S exposure causes death, while survivors may develop neurological sequelae. Currently, there is no suitable antidote for treatment of acute H2S-induced neurotoxicity. Midazolam (MDZ), an anti-convulsant drug recommended for treatment of nerve agent intoxications, could also be of value in treating acute H2S intoxication...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Cigdem Ayhan, Seval Tanrıkulu, Gursel Leblebicioglu
Elbow pain syndromes are common upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders, and they are usually associated with repetitive occupational exposure. Ligaments are often one of the sources of musculoskeletal disorders because of their mechanical and neurological properties. The wrist ligaments are some of the ligaments most vulnerable to occupational exposure. Since most occupational tasks require wrist extension for handling tools and loading, the scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) bears greater strain during loading, which results in creep deformation and hysteresis...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Yulan Wu, Yi Xu, Xiyao Huang, Danlei Ye, Miaomiao Han, Hui-Li Wang
Lead (Pb) prevails among the environmental hazards against human health. Although increasing evidence highlights the epigenetic roles underlying the Pb-induced neurotoxicity, the exact mechanisms concerning histone acetylation and its causative agents are still at its infancy. In the present study, the roles of histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2), as well as histone H3 Lys9 acetylation (Ac-H3K9), in Pb-induced neurotoxicity were investigated. Pb was administered to PC12 cells at 10 μM for 24 hours. And Sprague- Dawley rats were chronically exposed to Pb through drinking water containing 250 ppm Pb for 2 months...
January 2, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
M-N Vercambre-Jacquot, F Gilbert, N Billaudeau
BACKGROUND: Absences from work have considerable social and economic impact. In the education sector, the phenomenon is particularly worrying since teacher sick leave has an impact on the overall performance of the education system. Yet, available data are scarce. METHODS: In April-June 2013, 2653 teachers responded to a population-based postal survey on their quality of life (enquête Qualité de vie des enseignants, MGEN Foundation/Ministry of education, response rate 53 %)...
December 28, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Corrin Walmsley, Susan Taylor, Timothy Parkins, Leeanne Carey, Sonya Girdler, Catherine Elliott
BACKGROUND/AIM: Somatosensation is the ability to detect and recognise body sensations such as touch, vibration, pressure, pain, temperature and proprioception. Cerebral palsy is a neurological disorder that is often accompanied by impairments in somatosensation. Current somatosensory assessments have limited psychometrics established for use with these children. The aim of this study was to identify therapists' current practice and perspectives related to the assessment of somatosensation in children with neurological disorders...
December 28, 2017: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
Nicole J Tester, Joanne Jackson Foss
In the same way the human body requires food, hydration, and oxygen, it also requires sleep. Even among healthy people, the amount and quality of sleep substantially influence health and quality of life because sleep helps regulate physiological functioning. Given the impact of sleep on participation, the American Occupational Therapy Association reclassified sleep from an activity of daily living to an occupational domain. Poor sleep is a frequent medical complaint, especially among populations with neurological impairment...
January 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Juliana Conti
Cognitive impairment is a common dysfunction after neurological injury. Cognitive assessment tools can help the therapist understand how impairments are affecting functional status and quality of life. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify instruments for cognitive assessment that Occupational Therapists (OT) can use in clinical practice. Methods: The instruments published in English and Portuguese between 1999 and 2016 were systematically reviewed. Results: The search identified 17 specific instruments for OT not validated in Brazilian Portuguese, 10 non-specific instruments for OT not validated in Brazilian Portuguese, and 25 instruments validated for Portuguese, only one of which was specific for OT (Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment)...
April 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
P Fallahi, G Elia, R Foddis, A Cristaudo, A Antonelli
Scientific literature suggests a relationship between military occupation and the development of brain tumors, but no italian study has investigated on the impact of this job on the brain cancer morbidity. In this a study information were obtained from patients recruited in the Neurosurgical Department of the University-Hospital of Pisa, Italy, from 1990 to 1999. The study has been conducted as a case-control study. 161, newly diagnosed cases of brain tumors (glioma and meningiomas, histologically confirmed), were recruited, such as 483 controls (with other non tumoral neurologic diseases: trauma, hemorrhagic brain disorders, aneurism, etc), by matching cases and controls (1:3), for age (± 5 years) and gender...
November 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
Gregory J Christie, Tara Hamilton, Bradley D Manor, Norman A S Farb, Faranak Farzan, Andrew Sixsmith, Jean-Jacques Temprado, Sylvain Moreno
The number of patients suffering from dementia is expected to more than triple by the year 2040, and this represents a major challenge to publicly-funded healthcare systems throughout the world. One of the most effective prevention mechanisms against dementia lies in increasing brain- and cognitive-reserve capacity, which has been found to reduce the behavioral severity of dementia symptoms as neurological degeneration progresses. To date though, most of the factors known to enhance this reserve stem from largely immutable history factors, such as level of education and occupational attainment...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Stefanie D Krämer, Thomas Betzel, Linjing Mu, Ahmed Haider, Adrienne Herde Müller, Anna K Boninsegni, Claudia Keller, Marina Szermerski, Roger Schibli, Bernhard Wünsch, Simon M Ametamey
Clinical and preclinical research with modulators binding to the NMDA receptor GluN2B N-terminal domain (NTD) aim for the treatment of various neurological diseases. However, the interpretation of the results is hampered by the lack of a suitable NMDA PET tracer for assessing the receptor occupancy of candidate drugs. We have developed [11 C]Me-NB1 as a PET tracer for imaging GluN1/GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors and used it to investigate in rats the dose-dependent receptor occupancy of eliprodil, a GluN2B NTD modulator...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Eric J Ward, David A Edmondson, Mahmoud M Nour, Sandy Snyder, Frank S Rosenthal, Ulrike Dydak
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace metal. It is also a component of welding fume. Chronic inhalation of manganese from welding fume has been associated with decreased neurological function. Currently, there is not a universally recognized biomarker for Mn exposure; however, hair and toenails have shown promise. In a cohort of 45 male welders and 35 age-matched factory control subjects, we assessed the sensitivity and specificity of toenail Mn to distinguish occupationally exposed subjects from unexposed controls...
December 15, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
John C Moring, Alan L Peterson, Kathryn E Kanzler
PURPOSE: Acoustic trauma is more prevalent in military settings, especially among individuals with combat-related military occupational specialties. Gunfire, improvised explosive devices, and mortar explosions are a few examples that may cause hearing degradation and tinnitus. It is possible that the same events that are associated with auditory problems can cause traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: This paper reviews the distinct and overlapping symptoms of tinnitus, TBI, and PTSD, and how these disorders interact to synergistically promote negative outcomes...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
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