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Complement receptor 3

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218976/differential-expression-of-innate-immune-response-genes-in-clinical-phases-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#1
Sara Romani, Seyed Masoud Hosseini, Seyed Reza Mohebbi, Andre Boonstra, Afsaneh Sharifian
We investigated innate immune gene expression in clinical phases of Chronic Hepatitis B infection, including immune tolerant (IT); immune active (IA); inactive carrier (IC); and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative phases, as well as healthy controls. Expression levels of interferon types I, II, and III, their receptor subunits, IRFs, TLRs and other IFN-induced genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were compared.Forty HBsAg-positive treatment-naïve subjects without co-infection with HIV, HCV or HDV were enrolled...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195315/genetic-testing-facilitates-prepubertal-diagnosis-of-congenital-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism
#2
Cheng Xu, Mariarosaria Lang-Muritano, Franziska Phan-Hug, Andrew A Dwyer, Gerasimos P Sykiotis, Daniele Cassatella, James Acierno, Moosa Mohammadi, Nelly Pitteloud
Neonatal micropenis and cryptorchidism raise the suspicion of congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH), a rare genetic disorder caused by GnRH deficiency. Low plasma testosterone levels and low gonadotropins during minipuberty provide a clinical diagnostic clue, yet these tests are seldomly performed in general practice. We report a male neonate with no family history of reproductive disorders who was born with micropenis and cryptorchidism. Hormonal testing at age 2.5 months showed low testosterone (0...
February 14, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191010/role-of-dietary-metabolites-in-regulating-the-host-immune-response-in-gastrointestinal-disease
#3
REVIEW
Mohamad El-Zaatari, John Y Kao
The host immune response to gastrointestinal (GI) infections, hypersensitivity reactions, or GI cancers comprises numerous pathways that elicit responses on different host cells. Some of these include (1) the stimulation of mast cells via their IgE receptor, (2) the production of antibodies leading to antibody-mediated cytotoxic T/natural killer cell killing, (3) the activation of the complement pathway, and (4) the activation of the adaptive immune response via antigen-presenting cell, T cell, and B cell interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187163/enhanced-survival-of-leishmania-major-in-neutrophil-granulocytes-in-the-presence-of-apoptotic-cells
#4
Natallia Salei, Lars Hellberg, Jörg Köhl, Tamás Laskay
Neutrophil granulocytes are the first leukocytes that encounter and phagocytose Leishmania major (L. major) parasites in the infected skin. The parasites can nonetheless survive within neutrophils. However, the mechanisms enabling the survival of Leishmania within neutrophils are still elusive. Previous findings indicated that human neutrophils can engulf apoptotic cells. Since apoptotic neutrophils are abundant in infected tissues, we hypothesized that the uptake of apoptotic cells results in diminished anti-leishmanial activity and, consequently, contributes to enhanced survival of the parasites at the site of infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128456/pharmacological-inhibition-of-complement-c5a-c5ar1-signalling-ameliorates-disease-pathology-in-the-hsod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#5
John D Lee, Vinod Kumar, Jenny Nt Fung, Marc J Ruitenberg, Peter G Noakes, Trent M Woodruff
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal and rapidly progressing motor neuron disease without effective treatment. The complement system is upregulated in ALS, with recent studies indicating that the activation product C5a may accelerate disease progression via its receptor, C5aR1. We therefore aimed to examine the therapeutic effect of C5aR1 antagonism in hSOD1(G93A) mice, the most widely used preclinical model of ALS. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The selective and orally active C5aR1 antagonist, PMX205, was administered to hSOD1(G93A) mice via their drinking water, both pre- and post-disease onset...
January 27, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127639/increased-mer-and-axl-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-expression-on-glomeruli-in-lupus-nephritis
#6
Shanshan Li, Qianyu Guo, Huaqun Zhu, Zhanguo Li, Yin Su, Bao Dong
Mer and Axl receptor tyrosine kinases (MerTK and AxlTK) play important roles in the clearance of apoptotic cells and the inhibition of inflammatory responses. Previous studies demonstrated that they might participate in glomerular injury in mice model. This study aimed to elucidate the expression of MerTK and AxlTK on glomeruli and analyze their clinical significance in lupus nephritis (LN) patients. Twenty-nine LN and 10 primary nephrotic syndrome (NS) patients were recruited. The expression of MerTK and AxlTK on glomeruli was measured by immunohistochemistry...
January 26, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117704/above-and-beyond-c5a-receptor-targeting-by-staphylococcal-leucotoxins-retrograde-transport-of-panton-valentine-leucocidin-and-%C3%AE-hemolysin
#7
Gaëlle Zimmermann-Meisse, Gilles Prévost, Emmanuel Jover
Various membrane receptors associated with the innate immune response have recently been identified as mediators of the cellular action of Staphylococcus aureus leucotoxins. Two of these, the Panton-Valentine leucotoxin LukS-PV/LukF-PV and the γ-hemolysin HlgC/HlgB, bind the C5a complement-derived peptide receptor. These leucotoxins utilize the receptor to induce intracellular Ca(2+) release from internal stores, other than those activated by C5a. The two leucotoxins are internalized with the phosphorylated receptor, but it is unknown whether they divert retrograde transport of the receptor or follow another pathway...
January 20, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117590/structural-characterization-of-a-novel-polysaccharide-from-lepidium-meyenii-maca-and-analysis-of-its-regulatory-function-in-macrophage-polarization-in-vitro
#8
Mengmeng Zhang, Wenjia Wu, Yao Ren, Xiaofeng Li, Yuqian Tang, Tian Min, Furao Lai, Hui Wu
In our previous study, three novel polysaccharides, named MC-1, MC-2, and MC-3, were separated from the roots of maca (Lepidium meyenii), which is a food source from the Andes region. The structural information and immunomodulatory activity of MC-1 were then investigated. The structure and activity of MC-2 are still unknown. In this study, structural characterization revealed that MC-2 has an average molecular weight of 9.83 kDa and is composed of arabinose (20.9%), mannose (4.5%), glucose (71.9%), and galactose (2...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115681/allergic-environment-enhances-airway-epithelial-pro-inflammatory-responses-to-rhinovirus-infection
#9
Cristan Herbert, Kimchi Do, Vincent Chiu, Linda Garthwaite, Yifan Chen, Paul M Young, Daniela Traini, Rakesh K Kumar
Airway epithelial cells (AEC) exhibit a pro-inflammatory phenotype in patients with allergic asthma. We examined the effect of an allergic cytokine environment on the response of AEC to rhinovirus, the most common trigger of acute exacerbations of asthma. Calu-3 cells, a well-differentiated human AEC line, were cultured with or without the T-helper type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, then stimulated with a toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 agonist (poly I:C, dsRNA) or a TLR7 agonist (imiquimod), or infected with rhinovirus 16...
January 23, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100627/inflammatory-biomarkers-predict-heart-failure-severity-and-prognosis-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-a-holistic-proteomic-approach
#10
Camilla Hage, Erik Michaëlsson, Cecilia Linde, Erwan Donal, Jean-Claude Daubert, Li-Ming Gan, Lars H Lund
BACKGROUND: Underlying mechanisms in heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction remain unknown. We investigated cardiovascular plasma biomarkers in HF with preserved ejection fraction and their correlation to diastolic dysfunction, functional class, pathophysiological processes, and prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 86 stable patients with HF and EF ≥45% in the Karolinska Rennes (KaRen) biomarker substudy, biomarkers were quantified by a multiplex immunoassay...
February 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094956/radiolabeled-r954-derivatives-for-imaging-bradykinin-b1-receptor-expression-with-positron-emission-tomography
#11
Hsiou-Ting Kuo, Jinhe Pan, Joseph Lau, Chengcheng Zhang, Jutta Zeisler, Nadine Colpo, Francois Benard, Kuo-Shyan Lin
Peptide receptors have emerged as promising targets for diagnosis and therapy. The aberrant overexpression of these receptors in different cancer subtypes allows for the adoption of new treatment strategies that complement conventional chemotherapies. Bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is overexpressed in many cancers, with limited expression in healthy tissues. Previously, we developed 68Ga- and 18F-labeled derivatives of B1R antagonist peptides B9858 and B9958, and successfully targeted B1R-expressing tumor xenografts in vivo...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090302/three-dimensional-micro-computed-tomography-analysis-of-the-lung-vasculature-and-differential-adipose-proteomics-in-the-sugen-hypoxia-rat-model-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#12
Kelly J Shields, Kostas Verdelis, Michael J Passineau, Erin M Faight, Lee Zourelias, Changgong Wu, Rong Chong, Raymond L Benza
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease characterized by significant vascular remodeling. The obesity epidemic has produced great interest in the relationship between small visceral adipose tissue depots producing localized inflammatory conditions, which may link metabolism, innate immunity, and vascular remodeling. This study used novel micro computed tomography (microCT) three-dimensional modeling to investigate the degree of remodeling of the lung vasculature and differential proteomics to determine small visceral adipose dysfunction in rats with severe PAH...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075189/11-analytically-confirmed-cases-of-mexedrone-use-among-polydrug-users
#13
Liam Roberts, Loretta Ford, Neel Patel, J Allister Vale, Sally M Bradberry
INTRODUCTION: Mexedrone, 3-methoxy-2-(methylamino)-1-(4-methylphenyl)propan-1-one, is the alpha-methoxy-derivative of mephedrone (4-methyl-N-methyl cathinone). Mexedrone inhibits the re-uptake of serotonin and dopamine in a dose-dependent manner and has affinity for serotonin and dopamine membrane transporters and receptors (5-HT2 and D2 receptors), producing sympathomimetic effects similar to amfetamines. To date there are no published clinical reports on mexedrone use that are analytically confirmed...
March 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064007/protein-based-nanotoxicology-assessment-strategy
#14
Marlene Pedersen Elnegaard, Markus List, Helle Christiansen, Steffen Schmidt, Jan Mollenhauer, Ines Block
The nanomaterial community calls for standardized in vitro assays to determine nanoparticle toxicity in the effort to reduce the number of in vivo validation experiments. We demonstrate that chip-based protein detection is suitable for assessing toxicity and may complement traditional assays to improve selection of primary hits for subsequent analysis. As nanodrug mimics, we analyzed the effect of transiently transfected siRNAs in MCF7 breast cancer cells and normal MCF12A breast cells, resembling a differential screen...
January 5, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058672/neuroprotective-effects-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-are-mediated-through-inhibition-of-complement-activation-and-apoptosis-in-a-rat-model-of-sepsis
#15
Figen Esen, Gunseli Orhun, Perihan Ergin Ozcan, Evren Senturk, Melike Kucukerden, Murat Giris, Ugur Akcan, Canan Ugur Yilmaz, Nurcan Orhan, Nadir Arican, Mehmet Kaya, Sema Bilgic Gazioglu, Erdem Tuzun
BACKGROUND: Intravenous (IV) immunoglobulin (Ig) treatment is known to alleviate behavioral deficits and increase survival in the experimentally induced model of sepsis. To delineate the mechanisms by which IVIg treatment prevents neuronal dysfunction, an array of immunological and apoptosis markers was investigated. METHODS: Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation perforation (CLP) in rats. The animals were divided into five groups: sham, control, CLP + saline, CLP + immunoglobulin G (IgG) (250 mg/kg, iv), and CLP + immunoglobulins enriched with immunoglobulin M (IgGAM) (250 mg/kg, iv)...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045880/targeted-complement-inhibition-protects-vascularized-composite-allografts-from-acute-graft-injury-and-prolongs-graft-survival-when-combined-with-subtherapeutic-cyclosporine-a-therapy
#16
Peng Zhu, Stefanie R Bailey, Biao Lei, Chrystal M Paulos, Carl Atkinson, Stephen Tomlinson
BACKGROUND: Recipients of vascularized composite allografts require aggressive and life-long immunosuppression, and since the surgery is usually performed in nonlife threatening situations, the development of strategies to minimize immunosuppression is especially pertinent for this procedure. We investigated how complement affects acute graft injury, alloimmunity, and immunosuppressive therapy. METHODS: Vascularized composite allografts were transplanted from Balb/C to C57BL/6 mice that were complement deficient (C3 or double C3a Receptor (R)/C5aR), or treated with a targeted complement inhibitor (CR2-Crry)...
December 30, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039302/camp-signaling-of-adenylate-cyclase-toxin-blocks-the-oxidative-burst-of-neutrophils-through-epac-mediated-inhibition-of-phospholipase-c-activity
#17
Ondrej Cerny, Karen E Anderson, Len R Stephens, Phillip T Hawkins, Peter Sebo
The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) plays a key role in immune evasion and virulence of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis. CyaA penetrates the complement receptor 3-expressing phagocytes and ablates their bactericidal capacities by catalyzing unregulated conversion of cytosolic ATP to the key second messenger molecule cAMP. We show that signaling of CyaA-generated cAMP blocks the oxidative burst capacity of neutrophils by two converging mechanisms. One involves cAMP/protein kinase A-mediated activation of the Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) and limits the activation of MAPK ERK and p38 that are required for assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033544/complement-receptor-1-gene-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-cardiovascular-risk
#18
Marijke A de Vries, Stella Trompet, Simon P Mooijaart, Roelof A J Smit, Stefan Böhringer, Manuel Castro Cabezas, J Wouter Jukema
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis. The complement system is involved in atherogenesis, and the complement receptor 1 (CR1) plays a role facilitating the clearance of immune complexes from the circulation. Limited evidence suggests that CR1 may be involved in cardiovascular disease. We investigated the relationship between CR1 gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CR1 region (n = 73) on chromosome 1 were assessed in 5244 participants in PROSPER (PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk) (mean age 75...
December 20, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012732/gabaergic-control-of-neostriatal-dopamine-d2-receptor-binding-and-behaviors-in-the-rat
#19
Susanne Nikolaus, Markus Beu, Maria Angelica de Souza Silva, Joseph P Huston, Christina Antke, Hans-Wilhelm Müller, Hubertus Hautzel
PURPOSE: The present study assessed the influence of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol and the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline on neostriatal dopamine D2 receptor binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors in the rat. METHODS: D2 receptor binding was measured in baseline and after challenge with either 1mg/kg muscimol or 1mg/kg bicuculline. In additional rats, D2 receptor binding was measured after injection of saline. After treatment with muscimol, bicuculline and saline, motor and exploratory behaviors were assessed for 30min in an open field prior to administration of [(123)I]S-3-iodo-N-(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzamide ([(123)I]IBZM)...
February 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007957/molecular-portrait-of-metastasis-competent-circulating-tumor-cells-in-colon-cancer-reveals-the-crucial-role-of-genes-regulating-energy-metabolism-and-dna-repair
#20
Catherine Alix-Panabières, Laure Cayrefourcq, Thibault Mazard, Thierry Maudelonde, Eric Assenat, Said Assou
BACKGROUND: Unraveling the molecular mechanisms that regulate the biology of metastasis-competent circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is urgently needed to understand metastasis formation and tumor relapse. Our group previously established the first cell line (CTC-MCC-41) derived from metastasis-competent CTCs of a patient with colon cancer. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of CTC-MCC-41 cells using Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays with the aim of unraveling the molecular basis of their special features (stem cell properties and ability to initiate and support metastasis formation)...
December 22, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
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