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Complement receptor 3

Floricel Gonzalez, Richard F Helm, Katherine M Broadway, Birgit E Scharf
Bacteriophage 7-7-1, a member of the Myoviridae family, infects the soil bacterium Agrobacterium sp. H13-3. Infection requires attachment to actively rotating bacterial flagellar filaments, with flagellar number, length, and rotation speed being important determinants for infection efficiency. To identify secondary receptor(s) on the cell surface, we isolated motile, phage-resistant Agrobacterium sp. H13-3 transposon mutants. Transposon insertion sites were pinpointed using arbitrary-primed polymerase chain reaction and bioinformatics analyses...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Yi-Ching Chen, Wan-Yu Chou, Tieh-Cheng Fu, Jong-Shyan Wang
Phagocytosis and oxidative burst are essential mechanisms of innate immunity by which neutrophils eliminate invading pathogens. Afterwards, phagocytic neutrophils are dissipated by facilitating apoptosis to control inflammation. This study investigates how exercise training with or without hypoxic exposure affects the bactericidal activity and subsequent apoptosis of neutrophils following strenuous exercise. A total of 60 healthy, sedentary men were randomly divided into four groups (n = 15 in each group), who were exposed to 21% O2 [normoxic control (NC)] or 15% O2 [hypoxic control (HC)] at rest or were trained at 50% of peak work rate at 21% O2 [normoxic training (NT)] or 15% O2 [hypoxic training (HT)] for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks...
July 9, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Chao Liu, Bing Sun, Bin Xu, Xiangying Meng, Lan Li, Yang Cong, Jiannan Liu, Qian Wang, Liang Xuan, Qibin Song, Shikai Wu
Introduction: Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), an immune checkpoint molecule, has recently been recognized as a predictive and prognostic biomarker in several malignant tumors, but its diagnostic value remains largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the differential diagnostic efficiency of PD-1 and other immune molecules and propose a panel of immune molecules combined with cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) to distinguish breast cancer (BC) from benign breast disease (BBD). Patients and methods: Ninety-one eligible BC patients and 31 BBD patients were enrolled...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Sabrina Reinehr, Jacqueline Reinhard, Marcel Gandej, Ivo Gottschalk, Gesa Stute, Andreas Faissner, H Burkhard Dick, Stephanie C Joachim
In glaucoma, latest studies revealed an involvement of the complement system with and without an elevated intraocular pressure. In the experimental autoimmune glaucoma model, immunization with antigens, such as S100B, lead to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and optic nerve degeneration after 28 days. Here, we investigated the timeline of progression of the complement system, toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR4), and the transcription factor nucleus factor-kappa B (NFκB). Therefore, rats were immunized with S100B protein (S100) and analyzed at 3, 7, and 14 days...
June 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sunita Kumari Yadav, Pujarini Dash, Pramoda Kumar Sahoo, Lalit C Garg, Aparna Dixit
The outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) of Aeromonas hydrophila, an imperative fish pathogen accountable for massive economic losses to aquaculture industry, are found to be immunogenic and considered as potential vaccine candidates. In spite of development in the formulation of vaccine candidates against Aeromonas infection, no commercial preparation has been done so far; in addition, the molecular mechanisms of immunoprotection induced by various vaccine formulations in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita, are little known...
June 26, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Brian J Booth, Boopathy Ramakrishnan, Kristin Narayan, Andrew M Wollacott, Gregory J Babcock, Zachary Shriver, Karthik Viswanathan
Engineering of antibodies for improved pharmacokinetics through enhanced binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) has been demonstrated in transgenic mice, non-human primates and humans. Traditionally, such approaches have largely relied on random mutagenesis and display formats, which fail to address related critical attributes of the antibody, such as effector functions or biophysical stability. We have developed a structure- and network-based framework to interrogate the engagement of IgG with multiple Fc receptors (FcRn, C1q, TRIM21, FcγRI, FcγRIIa/b, FcγRIIIa) simultaneously...
June 27, 2018: MAbs
Yana Zorina, Jason Stricker, Anthony O Caggiano, Donald C Button
In multiple sclerosis (MS), demyelinated CNS lesions fail to sufficiently remyelinate, despite the presence of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) capable of differentiating into mature oligodendrocytes. MS lesions contain damaged myelin debris that can inhibit OPC maturation and hinder repair. rHIgM22 is an experimental human recombinant IgM antibody that promotes remyelination in animal models and is being examined in patients with MS. rHIgM22 binds to CNS myelin and partially rescues OPC process outgrowth on myelin...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Arturo Hernandez, J Patrizia Stohn
Thyroid hormones (THs) influence multiple processes in the developing and adult central nervous system, and their local availability needs to be maintained at levels that are tailored to the requirements of their biological targets. The local complement of TH transporters, deiodinase enzymes, and receptors is critical to ensure specific levels of TH action in neural cells. The type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO3) inactivates THs and is highly present in the developing and adult brain, where it limits their availability and action...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiaoxia Huang, Jinyuan Li, Jin Xie, Yang Li, Yan Gao, Xiaohui Li, Xueqin Xu, Ruoshi Shi, Wanjun Yao, Changbin Ke
Activation of spinal cord microglia is crucial for the development of bone cancer pain (BCP). The essential signal between neuronal excitability and microglial activation is not fully understood. In the present study, carcinoma implantation into tibia was used to induce BCP and RNAi-lentivirus was injected into spinal cord to knock down C1, C2 or C3 of complement cascade. We showed that C1, C2 and C3 co-localized in the same neurons and increased in cancer-bearing rats along with microglial activation. Knocked down of C1, C2 or C3 inhibited microglial activation and prevented the development of cancer-induced bone pain...
June 14, 2018: Brain Research
Johannes Nowatzky, Olivier Manches, Shaukat Ali Khan, Emmanuelle Godefroy, Nina Bhardwaj
OBJECTIVE: Apoptotic cell receptors contribute to the induction of tolerance by modulating dendritic cell function following the uptake of apoptotic cells or microparticles. Dendritic cells that have bound or ingested apoptotic cells produce only low amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and fail to prime effector T cell responses. Specifically, ligation of the apoptotic cell receptor CR3 (CD11 b/CD18) on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) down-modates proinflammatory cytokine secretion, but the consequences for human Th17 cell homeostasis and effector responses remain unknown...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Cameron W Morris, Darryl S Watkins, Asma B Salek, Michael C Edler, Anthony J Baucum
Spinophilin is the most abundant protein phosphatase 1 targeting protein in the postsynaptic density of dendritic spines. Spinophilin associates with myriad synaptic proteins to regulate normal synaptic communication; however, the full complement of spinophilin interacting proteins and mechanisms regulating spinophilin interactions are unclear. Here we validate an association between spinophilin and the scaffolding protein, disks large-associated protein 3 (SAP90/PSD-95 associated protein 3; SAPAP3). Loss of SAPAP3 leads to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like behaviors due to alterations in metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) signaling...
June 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Jennifer K Mulligan, Kunal Patel, Tucker Williamson, Nicholas Reaves, William Carroll, Sarah E Stephenson, Peng Gao, Richard R Drake, Benjamin A Neely, Stephen Tomlinson, Rodney J Schlosser, Carl Atkinson
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is an inflammatory disease with an unknown etiology. Recent studies have implicated the complement system as a potential modulator of disease immunopathology. We performed proteomic pathway enrichment analysis of differentially increased proteins, and found an enrichment of complement cascade pathways in the nasal mucus of individuals with CRSwNP as compared to control subjects. Sinonasal mucus levels of complement 3 (C3) correlated with worse subjective disease severity, whereas no significant difference in systemic C3 levels could be determined in plasma samples...
June 15, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Giulia Costa, Annalisa Pinna, Pier Francesca Porceddu, Maria Antonietta Casu, Anna Di Maio, Francesco Napolitano, Alessandro Usiello, Micaela Morelli
We have recently shown that male Rhes knockout (KO) mice develop a mild form of spontaneous Parkinson's disease (PD)-like phenotype, characterized by motor impairment and a decrease in nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons. Experimental evidence has implicated neuroinflammation in PD progression, and the presence of activated glial cells has been correlated with DA neuron degeneration. Despite this, several factors, such as gender, have been found to affect DAergic neuron degeneration and influence neuroinflammation, explaining the differences between men and women in the etiology of PD...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Yi Yuan, Ling Zhao, Ning Ma, Zhuang Ye, Zhenyu Jiang, Congqiu Chu
Objectives: This study aims to assess the complement 3 (C3) expressions in whole blood cells and verify a pathway toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)/ transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)/C3 for C3 regulation in mediating thrombocytopenia (TCP) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients and methods: The study included 63 newly diagnosed SLE patients (2 males, 61 females; mean age 39.5 years; range 15 to 67 years). Whole blood messenger ribonucleic acid expression for C3, TLR9 and TGF-β1 were measured by quantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction in SLE patients with TCP (n=38) and age- and sex-matched SLE patients without TCP (n=25) at baseline and in 10 SLE patients with TCP after four weeks of treatment...
December 2017: Archives of rheumatology
Begoña Echeverria, Sonia Serna, Silvia Achilli, Corinne Vivès, Julie Pham, Michel Thépaut, Cornelis H Hokke, Franck Fieschi, Niels-Christian Reichardt
Here, we describe a strategy for the rapid preparation of pure positional isomers of complex N-glycans to complement an existing array comprising a larger number of N-glycans and smaller glycan structures. The expanded array was then employed to study context-dependent binding of structural glycan fragments by monoclonal antibodies and C-type lectins. A partial enzymatic elongation of semiprotected core structures was combined with the protecting-group-aided separation of positional isomers by preparative HPLC...
June 21, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Alexander C Robeson, Kelly R Lindblom, Jeffrey Wojton, Sally Kornbluth, Kenkyo Matsuura
Caspase-2 has been shown to initiate apoptotic cell death in response to specific intracellular stressors such as DNA damage. However, the molecular mechanisms immediately upstream of its activation are still poorly understood. We combined a caspase-2 bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) system with fluorophore-specific immunoprecipitation to isolate and study the active caspase-2 dimer and its interactome. Using this technique, we found that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), as well as TRAF1 and 3, directly binds to the active caspase-2 dimer...
July 13, 2018: EMBO Journal
Sanjay Ram, Sunita Gulati, Lisa A Lewis, Srinjoy Chakraborti, Bo Zheng, Rosane B DeOliveira, George W Reed, Andrew D Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St Michael, Jacek Stupak, Xia-Hong Su, Sudeshna Saha, Corinna S Landig, Ajit Varki, Peter A Rice
Sialylation of lacto- N -neotetraose (LNnT) extending from heptose I (HepI) of gonococcal lipooligosaccharide (LOS) contributes to pathogenesis. Previously, gonococcal LOS sialyltransterase (Lst) was shown to sialylate LOS in Triton X-100 extracts of strain 15253, which expresses lactose from both HepI and HepII, the minimal structure required for mAb 2C7 binding. Ongoing work has shown that growth of 15253 in cytidine monophospho- N -acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac)-containing media enables binding to CD33/Siglec-3, a cell surface receptor that binds sialic acid, suggesting that lactose termini on LOS of intact gonococci can be sialylated...
May 29, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Vinod Kumar, John D Lee, Richard J Clark, Trent M Woodruff
PMX53 and PMX205 are cyclic hexapeptide inhibitors of complement C5a receptors (C5aR1), that are widely used to study C5aR1 pathobiology in mouse models of disease. Despite their widespread use, limited information regarding their pharmacokinetics have been reported. Here, a bioanalytical method for the quantitative determination of PMX53 and PMX205 in plasma, brain and spinal cord of mice was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques. The LC-MS/MS method was validated in all three matrices according to regulatory guidelines and successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of PMX53 and PMX205 in C57BL/6 J mice following intravenous administration...
May 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Barbara A Bensing, Qiongyu Li, Dayoung Park, Carlito B Lebrilla, Paul M Sullam
Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis are typically found among the normal oral microbiota, but can also cause infective endocarditis. These organisms express cell-surface serine-rich repeat adhesins containing "Siglec-like" binding regions (SLBRs) that mediate attachment to α2-3 linked sialic acids on human glycoproteins. Two known receptors for the Siglec-like adhesins are the salivary mucin MG2/MUC7 and platelet GPIbα, and the interaction of streptococci with these targets may contribute to oral colonization and endocarditis, respectively...
May 23, 2018: Glycobiology
Shanshan Li, Bingchen Yu, Jiajia Wang, Yueqin Zheng, Huajie Zhang, Margaret J Walker, Zhengnan Yuan, He Zhu, Jun Zhang, Peng George Wang, Binghe Wang
Installation of an antibody-recruiting moiety on the surface of disease-relevant cells can lead to the selective destruction of targets by the immune system. Such an approach can be an alternative strategy to traditional chemotherapeutics in cancer therapy and possibly other diseases. Herein we describe the development of a new strategy to selectively label targets with an antibody-recruiting moiety through its covalent and stable installation, complementing existing methods of employing reversible binding...
June 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
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