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Human services

Srikanta Sannigrahi, Sandeep Bhatt, Shahid Rahmat, Saikat Kumar Paul, Somnath Sen
Changes in land use due to the industrial revolution, increasing population, ever-increasing desire for economic growth is a global concern. The aforementioned changes can have a significant impact on global and regional ecosystem services which are indispensable for human well-being and their subsistence. This study identifies several approaches (Costanza et al., de Groot et al., and Xie et al.) to estimate the value of global terrestrial ecosystem services. High resolution (300 m) land use products provided by European Space Agency-Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI) were used to quantify the global ecosystem service values (ESV) for 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 respectively...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Diane R M Somlo, Nelson P Repenning, Abeel A Mangi
BACKGROUND: Contemporary reimbursement systems allow hospitals to maintain profitability by offering procedural services. However, increasing procedural volume can be met with structural inefficiencies that in turn cause delays, worse patient outcomes, and increased cost. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team assessed operations and outcomes at the Heart and Vascular Center at Yale New Haven Hospital, a tertiary academic medical center. Data were analyzed retrospectively to assess delays in transferring patients between care environments, patient outcomes, and cost...
June 13, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Berhanu Degefa, Teklehaymanot Gebreeyesus, Zufan Gebremedhin, Getachew Melkamu, Atsebaha Gebrekidan, Haftamu Hailekiros, Ephrem Tsegay, Selam Niguse, Mahmud Abdulkader
Blood transfusion services are a vital and integral part of modern healthcare services. However, the risk of transfusion transmittable infections (TTI) has been a major handicap. Therefore this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors. A retrospective study was conducted to collect data about the blood donors that consecutively donated blood from October 2011 to 2014. A three-year retrospective study was conducted in Mekelle Blood Bank...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Jennifer M Alix-Garcia, Katharine R E Sims, Victor H Orozco-Olvera, Laura E Costica, Jorge David Fernández Medina, Sofía Romo Monroy
Payments for environmental services (PES) programs incentivize landowners to protect or improve natural resources. Many conservationists fear that introducing compensation for actions previously offered voluntarily will reduce social capital (the institutions, relationships, attitudes, and values that govern human interactions), yet little rigorous research has investigated this concern. We examined the land cover management and communal social capital impacts of Mexico's federal conservation payments program, which is a key example for other countries committed to reducing deforestation, protecting watersheds, and conserving biodiversity...
June 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ruchira Tabassum Naved, Mahfuz Al Mamun, Sanjida Akhter Mourin, Kausar Parvin
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh reports one of the highest rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the world. Despite wide recognition of IPV as an important public health and human rights issue, evidence for IPV prevention is still inadequate. Lack of guidance on effective IPV prevention in Bangladesh resulted in targeting only women in most of the programmes. METHODS: This paper assesses impact of SAFE, a 20-month intervention (March 2012 to October 2013) in slums of Dhaka on IPV and tests effectiveness of female only groups vs...
2018: PloS One
Duncan MacKellar, Daniel Williams, Bonsile Bhembe, Makhosazana Dlamini, Johnita Byrd, Lenhle Dube, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Trong Ao, Ishani Pathmanathan, Andrew F Auld, Pamela Faura, Nomthandazo Lukhele, Caroline Ryan
To achieve epidemic control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, sub-Saharan African countries are striving to diagnose 90% of HIV infections, initiate and retain 90% of HIV-diagnosed persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and achieve viral load suppression* for 90% of ART recipients (90-90-90) (1). In Eswatini (formerly Swaziland), the country with the world's highest estimated HIV prevalence (27.2%), achieving 90-90-90 depends upon improving access to early ART for men and young adults with HIV infection, two groups with low ART coverage (1-3)...
June 15, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Renato Beas, Alexander Anduaga-Beramendi, Jesus Maticorena-Quevedo, Percy Mayta-Tristán
Objetivo: Identificar los factores asociados al Síndrome de Burnout (SB) en trabajadores de salud del Perú en el año 2014.Métodos: Estudio transversal analítico mediante un análisis secundario de la Encuesta Nacional de Usuarios de Salud del año 2014 en Perú. El SB fue medido mediante el Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Se realizó un análisis descriptivo, también un análisis bivariado y multivariado calculando los valores de p y los OR crudos y ajustados mediante Regresión Logística...
March 26, 2018: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas
(no author information available yet)
The global refugee/migrant crisis of displacement because of persecution and conflict carries staggering implications of ambiguity and loss for the individuals affected. In 2013, approximately 25,000 displaced people sought asylum in the United States; many of whom have experienced state-sponsored physical and psychological torture. With Physicians for Human Rights (PHR), several medical student clinics work closely with immigration attorneys and University and Community based clinicians to assist U.S. asylum seekers in their asylum claims...
June 2018: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
Rozieyati Mohamed Saleh, Zulkafli Zefarina, Nor Fazila Che Mat, Geoffrey Keith Chambers, Hisham Atan Edinur
Transfusion procedures are always complicated by potential genetic mismatching between donor and recipient. Compatibility is determined by several major antigens, such as the ABO and Rhesus blood groups. Matching for other blood groups (Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS), human platelet antigens, and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) also contributes toward the successful transfusion outcomes, especially in multitransfused or highly immunized patients. All these antigens of tissue identity are highly polymorphic and thus present great challenges for finding suitable donors for transfusion patients...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Barbara Kabai Burmen, Joseph Mogunde, Pamela Olilo
Background: Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) aides in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and HBV, respectively, from accidental or occupational exposure. We assessed compliance to guidelines for HIV and HBV prevention after occupational exposure among hospital staff at a referral Kenyan hospital. Methods: We reviewed PEP registers for hospital staff reporting an occupational injury at a referral hospital in Western Kenya between January 2011 and December 2012...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Svein Olav Kolset, Marianne Nordstrøm, Sigrun Hope, Kjetil Retterstøl, Per Ole Iversen
Persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) are dependent on nutritional policies that have so far not been addressed in a systematic and health-promoting manner in Norway and other nations with a high socioeconomic standard. In many poor countries, such issues have not even been raised nor addressed. Nutritional issues facing persons with ID include the risk of both underweight and overweight. Deficiency in energy, vitamins, essential fatty acids and micronutrients can increase the risk of additional health burdens in already highly vulnerable individuals...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Juanli Li, Jiacheng Xie, Zhaojian Yang, Junjie Li
To reduce the difficulty of acquiring and transmitting data in mining hoist fault diagnosis systems and to mitigate the low efficiency and unreasonable reasoning process problems, a fault diagnosis method for mine hoisting equipment based on the Internet of Things (IoT) is proposed in this study. The IoT requires three basic architectural layers: a perception layer, network layer, and application layer. In the perception layer, we designed a collaborative acquisition system based on the ZigBee short distance wireless communication technology for key components of the mine hoisting equipment...
June 13, 2018: Sensors
Abade Ahmed, Jabir Makame, Fyumagwa Robert, Keyyu Julius, Matee Mecky
BACKGROUND: In the past two decades, Rift Valley Fever (RVF) outbreaks have been reported twice in Tanzania, with the most recent outbreak occurring in 2006/07. Given the ecology and climatic factors that support mosquito vectors in the Serengeti ecosystem, we hypothesized a continued transmission of RVF virus (RVFV) during interepidemic periods. This study was carried out to determine sero-prevalence, spatial distribution and factors associated with RVF in at-risk agro-pastoral and pastoral communities in the Serengeti Ecosystem in northern Tanzania...
June 14, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Nathan Kuppermann, Simona Ghetti, Jeff E Schunk, Michael J Stoner, Arleta Rewers, Julie K McManemy, Sage R Myers, Lise E Nigrovic, Aris Garro, Kathleen M Brown, Kimberly S Quayle, Jennifer L Trainor, Leah Tzimenatos, Jonathan E Bennett, Andrew D DePiero, Maria Y Kwok, Clinton S Perry, Cody S Olsen, T Charles Casper, J Michael Dean, Nicole S Glaser
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis in children may cause brain injuries ranging from mild to severe. Whether intravenous fluids contribute to these injuries has been debated for decades. METHODS: We conducted a 13-center, randomized, controlled trial that examined the effects of the rate of administration and the sodium chloride content of intravenous fluids on neurologic outcomes in children with diabetic ketoacidosis. Children were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups in a 2-by-2 factorial design (0...
June 14, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
David J Brennan, Rusty Souleymanov, Nathan Lachowsky, Gerardo Betancourt, Daniel Pugh, Owen McEwen
The Internet is a common tool for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) to find sexual partners and sexual health information. Given persistently high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rates among MSM, it is important to examine the role of online outreach for MSM as part of HIV prevention and care. We provide an overview of the unique perspectives of online sexual health outreach, delivered through AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) through sociosexual Internet sites and mobile applications...
June 13, 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Sahil Aggarwal, Luke Yu, Bima Hasjim, Debora H Lee, Esther Kim, Jonathan B Lee, Katrina Lee, Christina Tse, Alexander Anshus, Allen R Yu, Michael Louthan, Thomas Keown, Christopher Gabriel, Catherine Diamond
Background: Young people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWA) are at risk for HIV stigma. Methods: The HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLWA was administered to 36 young PLWA across six clinics in Bandung, Indonesia, to assess the fear of contagion (FC), verbal abuse (VA), social isolation (SI), workplace stigma (WS), health care neglect (HCN) and negative self-perception (NSP). Results: The median scores for FC, VA, SI, WS and HCN were all 0 while the median score for NSP was 4...
June 12, 2018: International Health
Anthony Nash, Thomas Sewell, Rhys A Farrer, Alireza Abdolrasouli, Jennifer M G Shelton, Matthew C Fisher, Johanna Rhodes
Summary: The increase of antifungal drug resistance is a major global human health concern and threatens agriculture and food security; in order to tackle these concerns, it is important to understand the mechanisms that cause antifungal resistance. The curated Mycology Antifungal Resistance Database (MARDy) is a web-service of antifungal drug resistance mechanisms, including amino acid substitutions, tandem repeat sequences and genome ploidy. MARDy is implemented on a Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP web development platform and includes a local installation of BLASTn of the database of curated genes...
April 20, 2018: Bioinformatics
Maria Grazia Amoroso, Danilo Russo, Gianvito Lanave, Luca Cistrone, Annamaria Pratelli, Vito Martella, Giorgio Galiero, Nicola Decaro, Giovanna Fusco
In recent years, bats have been found to harbour many viruses, raising several questions about their role as reservoirs and potential disseminators of zoonotic viruses. We investigated the presence of six virus families in bats in three regions of Central-Southern Italy. Astroviruses were identified in seven of 13 bat species. Sequence analysis revealed marked genetic heterogeneity among the astroviruses identified, with nucleotide identity ranging between 60.26% and 87.62%. Astrovirus diversity was not associated with the bat species, the geographic areas or the bat colony, suggesting the circulation of several astrovirus strains in Italian ecosystems...
June 12, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Mohammad F Alharbi
Change management studies have emphasized the significance of an organization's readiness for change and transformation and have recommended strategies to affect change. Organizational readiness for change is a multi-faceted, multi-level, and multi-dimensional activity; its most important aspect is organizational members' willingness to accept and implement change because ignoring the human factors may result in resistance and failure. Through its National Transformation Program 2020, the Saudi Arabian government is attempting to effect radical changes in the structure and function of its health-care system to achieve quality care and effective service delivery...
May 2018: International Journal of Health Sciences
Christina M Pollard, Bruce Mackintosh, Cathy Campbell, Deborah Kerr, Andrea Begley, Jonine Jancey, Martin Caraher, Joel Berg, Sue Booth
Australian efforts to address food insecurity are delivered by a charitable food system (CFS) which fails to meet demand. The scope and nature of the CFS is unknown. This study audits the organisational capacity of the CFS within the 10.9 square kilometres of inner-city Perth, Western Australia. A desktop analysis of services and 12 face-to-face interviews with representatives from CFS organisations was conducted. All CFS organisations were not-for⁻profit and guided by humanitarian or faith-based values. The CFS comprised three indirect services (IS) sourcing, banking and/or distributing food to 15 direct services (DS) providing food to recipients...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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