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Jessica E McDonald, Amy M Knollinger
PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of hyaluronic acid (HA) subdermal filler in canines and felines for entropion. METHODS: Complete ophthalmologic examination was performed by a board-certified veterinary ophthalmologist or ABVO-approved resident. Each case was characterized as primary, secondary, spastic or cicatricial entropion. HA subdermal filler, specifically Restylane® and Restylane Silk® , were utilized in dogs and cats, respectively. Subdermal injection was performed 1-2 mm from the eyelid margin in the affected area until normal eyelid conformation was achieved...
March 9, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Kelly E Knickelbein, Mallory Stock, Sebastian E Carrasco, Christopher M Reilly, Mary E Lassaline
An 18-year-old American Miniature Horse mare was presented with a complaint of a scleral swelling affecting the right eye and a history of suspected trauma 6 weeks prior to evaluation. Clinical findings included severe blepharospasm, a bulbous swelling of the dorsotemporal bulbar conjunctiva, and phthisis bulbi. Ocular ultrasound was recommended but declined. Enucleation was elected for the blind, painful eye and was performed standing. Gross and histopathologic examinations of the globe were consistent with extrusion of the lens to the episcleral space, which is classified as a traumatic phacocele when associated with naturally occurring trauma...
March 8, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Priyanka Tater, Sanjay Pandey
Botulinum toxin has gained immense popularity since its introduction for therapeutic use. It is used in a variety of movement disorders like hemi-facial spasm, focal dystonias like blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, oromandibular dystonia, limb dystonias. It is also being used in patients with tremors, tics and for a variety of indications in Parkinson's disease as well. There are eight subtypes of toxins available, but type A and B are the ones used in movement disorder clinics. The toxin mainly acts by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction and causing weakness...
March 2018: Neurology India
P J Garcia-Ruiz, P Sanz-Cartagena, J C Martinez-Castrillo, B Ares-Pensado, I Aviles-Olmos, M Blazquez-Estrada, S Fanjul-Arbos, J Garcia-Caldentey, J Gazulla, J Gutierrez-Garcia, B Huete-Anton, C Lucas-Rodenas, M R Luquin, I Martinez-Torres, P Medialdea-Natera, A Mendoza-Rodriguez, P Mir-Rivera, I J Posada, J Ruiz-Martinez, P Sanchez-Alonso, J M Trejo-Gabriel Y Galan, L Vela, J L Pena-Segura
INTRODUCTION: Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) is a bacterial endotoxin, whose therapeutic use has had a dramatic impact on different neurological disorders, such as dystonia and spasticity. AIM: To analyze and summarize different questions about the use of BTA in our clinical practice. DEVELOPMENT: A group of experts in neurology developed a list of topics related with the use of BTA. Two groups were considered: neuropharmacology and dystonia...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Dubravka Biuk, Maja Vinković, Suzana Matić, Mario Bradvica, Egon Biuk, Tvrtka Benašić
The aim of the study was to evaluate diagnostic tests for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (Schirmer test, tear break-up time (TBUT) test, and corneal staining with fluorescein and lissamine green dye) in patients with blepharospasm. This prospective study included 60 female patients older than 40 with blepharospasm, divided into two groups according to clinical symptoms. For fluorescein test, the surface under the ROC curve was 1.0 with standard error (SE) 0 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.940-1.0; for Schirmer test, the surface under the ROC curve was 0...
September 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
Yasaman Safarpour, Bahman Jabbari
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are now among the most widely used therapeutic agents in clinical medicine with indications applied to the fields of movement disorders, pain disorders, and autonomic dysfunction. In this literature review, the efficacy and utility of BoNTs in the field of movement disorders are assessed using the criteria of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. The literature supports a level A efficacy (established) for BoNT therapy in cervical dystonia and a level B efficacy (probably effective) for blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, laryngeal dystonia (spasmodic dysphonia), task-specific dystonias, essential tremor, and Parkinson rest tremor...
February 24, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Sakiko Itaya, Zen Kobayashi, Kokoro Ozaki, Nozomu Sato, Yoshiyuki Numasawa, Kinya Ishikawa, Takanori Yokota, Hiroshi Matsuda, Shuzo Shintani
A 58-year-old man consulted our hospital due to a 2-year history of dysarthria and a 1-month history of blepharospasm. In addition to the ataxic dysarthria and blepharospasm, a neurological examination demonstrated slight ataxia of the trunk and lower limbs. Brain MRI demonstrated atrophy of the upper portion of the cerebellar vermis. Gene analysis established a diagnosis of spinocerebellar ataxia type 31 (SCA31). SPECT with the three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template (3DSRT) software program demonstrated hyperperfusion in the lenticular nucleus and thalamus...
February 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
Melanie L Church, Daniel R Priehs, Heidi Denis, Lara Croft, Stacy DiRocco, Michelle Davis
OBJECTIVE: To describe surgical technique, postoperative complications, and visual outcome in penguins after phacoemulsification lens extraction surgery. ANIMALS STUDIED: Twenty-one penguins (27 eyes) that had phacoemulsification from 2011 to 2015 at Animal Eye Associates. Species included are as follows: 14 southern Rockhopper (18 eyes, 66.6%), 4 Gentoo (4 eyes, 19%), 2 King (3 eyes, 9.5%), and 1 Chinstrap penguin (2 eyes, 4.8%). Eleven of the penguins were females, and 10 were males with average age at the time of surgery being 27...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Elina Zakin, David Simpson
Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is a neurotoxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum that has become widely used for various neurologic indications. The four toxin formulations currently available for use in the United States (approved by the Food and Drug Administration) are onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox® ), abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport® ), incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin® ), and rimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc® ). While the FDA-approved labels indicate that potency conversions should not be done, literature supports relative dose equivalents of approximately 1:1:2-4:50-100, respectively...
February 3, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Jörg Wissel
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is an effective, well-tolerated, and well-established option for the treatment of dystonic and spastic movement disorders. However, a single approach does not suit all patients, even within one disease indication. The degree of flexibility in treatment protocols is determined by individual product licenses, which often lag behind real-world clinical experience. A number of patient/practitioner surveys conducted recently have highlighted a desire for greater flexibility than that currently approved, both in BoNT doses and in the intervals between consecutive doses...
January 30, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
T P Do, J Hvedstrup, H W Schytz
Botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A) was originally used in neurology for the treatment of dystonia and blepharospasms, but is now clinically used worldwide for the treatment of chronic migraine. Still, the possible mode of action of BoNT/A in migraine is not fully known. However, the mode of action of BoNT/A has been investigated in experimental pain as well as migraine models, which may elucidate the underlying mechanisms in migraine. The aim of this study was to review studies on the possible mode of action of BoNT/A in relation to chronic migraine treatment...
February 6, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Seunghyun Lee, Sangrye Park, Helen Lew
PURPOSE: In the present study, we investigated the treatment efficacy and clinical outcomes of botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) administered for longer than 5 years to patients with essential blepharospasm. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients (male : female = 8 : 11) diagnosed with essential blepharospasm between March 2006 and July 2016 who underwent BoNT-A injections for over 5 years and were followed. Efficacy of 297 injections of Botox (n = 162), Meditoxin (n = 75), Hugel-tox (n = 40), or Dysport (n = 20) was based on the symptom improvement score at the final injection (-1, worse; 0, same; 1, better)...
January 24, 2018: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
Ulrich Schaudig, Matthias Keserü
BACKGROUND: Presentation of a congenital abnormality that is rare, but follows a distinct course and can be diagnosed and cured promptly if the pathognomonic presentation is recognized. A congenital tarsal kink leads to a malposition of the upper eyelid margin that must not be missed, as it will lead to ulcerative keratitis if it is not treated. CASE PRESENTATION: An otherwise healthy newborn was presented after delivery with forceps with marked unilateral purulent secretion and blepharospasm...
January 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Shiro Horisawa, Taku Ochiai, Shinichi Goto, Takeshi Nakajima, Nobuhiko Takeda, Takakazu Kawamata, Takaomi Taira
OBJECTIVE Meige syndrome is characterized by blepharospasm and varied subphenotypes of craniocervical dystonia. Current literature on pallidal surgery for Meige syndrome is limited to case reports and a few small-scale studies. The authors investigated the clinical outcomes of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) in patients with Meige syndrome. METHODS Sixteen patients who underwent GPi DBS at the Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital between 2002 and 2015 were included in this study...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Phillip M Radke, Ali Mokhtarzadeh, Michael S Lee, Andrew R Harrison
The objective of this study was to observe the effect of medical cannabis in benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) as an adjunct to botulinum toxin. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients certified for medical cannabis use for BEB from September 2015 to May 2016. Patient demographics and responses, cannabis history, and severity indices were collected. Ten patients were certified for medical cannabis use. Five met the inclusion criteria, which was any patient with a diagnosis of BEB receiving standard botulinum toxin treatment who had started medical cannabis treatment by a registered distributor within the state, and was contactable by phone...
October 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
Sanjay Pandey, Soumya Sharma
CONTEXT: Despite being the most common cause of cranial dystonia, Meige's syndrome remains a rare clinical entity. Characterized by blepharospasm and orofacial dystonia, patients suffering from Meige's syndrome benefit from the injection of botulinum toxin (BTX). AIMS: As the majority of the studies tend to discuss Meige's syndrome with blepharospasm patients, there is a paucity of case-based studies dealing exclusively with this syndrome. Hence, we intended to characterize and define the evolution of this syndrome and objectively determine the response of the patients suffering from this entity to BTX therapy...
January 2018: Neurology India
Barbara Illowsky Karp, Katharine Alter
Selection of muscles for botulinum toxin injection for limb dystonia is particularly challenging. Limb dystonias vary more widely in the pattern of dystonic movement and involved muscles than cervical dystonia or blepharospasm. The large variation in how healthy individuals perform skilled hand movements, the large number of muscles in the hand and forearm, and the presence of compensatory actions in patients with dystonia add to the complexity of choosing muscles for injection. In this article, we discuss approaches to selecting upper and lower extremity muscles for chemodenervation treatment of limb dystonia...
December 29, 2017: Toxins
Michał Sobstyl, Grażyna Brzuszkiewicz-Kuźmicka, Artur Zaczyński, Tomasz Pasterski, Marta Aleksandrowicz, Mirosław Ząbek
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to report the short-term as well long-term results of bilateral pallidal stimulation in 6 consecutive patients for severe debilitating craniocervical dystonia (Meige syndrome) using Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS). METHODS: We evaluated 6 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of intractable long-standing craniocervical dystonia. The formal objective assessment included the motor and disability BFMDRS scores...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Christopher Weller, Ilya Leyngold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: International Ophthalmology Clinics
Seong Lee, Michael T Yen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: International Ophthalmology Clinics
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