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Blepharospasm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145580/effect-of-botulinum-toxin-a-on-muscle-healing-and-its-implications-in-aesthetic-and-reconstructive-surgery
#1
Eldad Silberstein, Ehud Maor, Oleg Sukmanov, Alexander Bogdanov Berezovsky, Yaron Shoham, Yuval Krieger
Background: Muscle activity contributes to the enhancement of facial aging deformity, blepharospasm, cerebral palsy spasticity, trismus, torticollis, and other conditions. Myotomy of the involved muscles in order to reduce the deformity has variable success rates due to muscle healing and regeneration of activity. Objectives: The goal of this study was to investigate whether blocking striated muscle activity with Botulinum toxin (BtxA) during the healing time after myotomy alters the healing process and reduces long-term muscle activity...
November 14, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145188/brueghel-syndrome-or-meige-syndrome-two-sides-of-a-same-disease
#2
M Béreau, L Tatu
Different eponyms such as "Wood syndrome," Meige syndrome, "Brueghel syndrome," "Blepharospasm plus syndrome" have been used to describe segmental craniocervical dystonias. These facial and/or oromandibular movement disorders are characterized by muscle contractions and spasms involving eyes, facial region, and sometimes pharynx, jaw, floor of the mouth, and tongue. The pathophysiology of craniocervical dystonia is poorly understood, but abnormal plasticity and impaired inhibition are suspected. Injection of botulinum toxin appears to be the best therapeutic option for treating segmental craniocervical dystonia...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135814/neuro-ophthalmology-at-a-tertiary-eye-care-centre-in-india
#3
Rebika Dhiman, Digvijay Singh, Shiva P Gantayala, Vaitheeswaran L Ganesan, Pradeep Sharma, Rohit Saxena
BACKGROUND: Neuro-ophthalmology as a specialty is underdeveloped in India. The aim of our study was to determine the spectrum and profile of patients presenting to a tertiary eye care center with neuro-ophthalmic disorders. METHODS: A retrospective hospital-based study was conducted, and records of all patients seen at the neuro-ophthalmology clinic of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, over a 1-year period were retrieved and evaluated...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116410/botulinum-toxin-therapy-in-patients-with-oral-anticoagulation-is-it-safe
#4
Christoph Schrader, Markus Ebke, Fereshte Adib Saberi, Dirk Dressler
When used therapeutically, botulinum toxin (BT) has to be injected into its target tissues. All manufacturers warn not to do so in patients with oral anticoagulation to avoid haematoma. We wanted to study the haematoma frequency (HF) in patients with anticoagulation receiving BT therapy. 32 patients (16 females, 16 males, age 69.3 ± 10.0 years) with blepharospasm (n = 6), hemifacial spasm (n = 8), post-stroke spasticity (n = 16), and cervical dystonia (n = 2) received BT therapy (needle size 27G, post-injection tissue compression) whilst on anticoagulation (anticoagulation group, AG)...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111586/an-unusual-case-of-feline-acute-corneal-hydrops-atypical-disease-presentation-and-possible-in%C3%A2-vivo-detection-of-descemet-s-membrane-detachment-in-the-cat-s-unaffected-eye
#5
Brittany N Schlesener, Erin M Scott, Lucien V Vallone
A 1-year-old, female spayed, domestic shorthair cat presented for blepharospasm of the right eye. Slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination showed focal corneal ulceration and presumptive keratomalacia of the right eye. Examination of the left eye was normal apart from a focal endothelial opacity. Within the first 24 h of medical management, the right eye developed marked corneal edema and globular anterior protrusion of the corneal surface consistent with feline acute corneal hydrops (FACH). Surgical management consisted of a bridge conjunctival graft, nictitating membrane flap, and temporary tarsorrhaphy...
November 7, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082270/increased-blinking-may-be-a-precursor-of-blepharospasm-a-longitudinal-study
#6
Antonella Conte, Gina Ferrazzano, Giovanni Defazio, Giovanni Fabbrini, Mark Hallett, Alfredo Berardelli
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this five-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether patients with increased blinking develop orbicularis oculi muscle spasms. METHODS: Eleven patients who initially manifested increased blinking alone were clinically and neurophysiologically re-evaluated five years later. RESULTS: By the five-year follow-up assessment, nine of the 11 patients had developed orbicularis oculi muscle spasms. The blink reflex recovery cycle became abnormal whereas somatosensory temporal discrimination, already abnormal at the first evaluation, did not significantly change...
September 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066869/treatment-satisfaction-with-botulinum-toxin-a-comparison-between-blepharospasm-and-cervical-dystonia
#7
Bernd Leplow, Anna Eggebrecht, Johannes Pohl
BACKGROUND: Differential effects of botulinum toxin (BoNT) treatment in cervical dystonia (CD) and blepharospasm (BSP) treatment satisfaction and emotional responses to a life with a disabling condition were investigated. Special interest was drawn to the course within a BoNT treatment cycle and the effects of subjective well-being vs perceived intensity of motor symptoms and quality of life. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed among 372 CD patients and 125 BSP patients, recruited from 13 BoNT centers throughout Germany...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062576/does-the-somatosensory-temporal-discrimination-threshold-change-over-time-in-focal-dystonia
#8
Antonella Conte, Gina Ferrazzano, Daniele Belvisi, Nicoletta Manzo, Antonio Suppa, Giovanni Fabbrini, Alfredo Berardelli
BACKGROUND: The somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) is defined as the shortest interval at which an individual recognizes two stimuli as asynchronous. Some evidence suggests that STDT depends on cortical inhibitory interneurons in the basal ganglia and in primary somatosensory cortex. Several studies have reported that the STDT in patients with dystonia is abnormal. No longitudinal studies have yet investigated whether STDT values in different forms of focal dystonia change during the course of the disease...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030680/-modern-non-cosmetic-treatment-with-botulinum-toxins
#9
REVIEW
A Straube
Botulinum toxin has been known in medical history for a long time. The first scientific investigations and thoughts on possible indications in the treatment of muscular disorders were published by the German physician and poet Justinus Kerner in 1822. The physiological effect of botulinum toxin was identified in the middle of the twentieth century and the first clinical use was reported in 1977. It was first used in ophthalmology for the correction of strabismus and some years later the therapy of blepharospasm and cervical dystonia was established...
October 13, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022290/comparison-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-botox-and-neuronox-in-the-management-of-benign-essential-blepharospasm-a-split-face-study
#10
Sayali Sane, Mohammad Javed Ali, Milind Naik
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and safety of Botox and Neuronox in the management of benign essential blepharospasm (BEB). METHODS: We performed a triple-masked, randomized control study to compare Botox and Neuronox in 48 eyes of 24 patients with BEB. All 24 patients randomly received Botox or Neuronox in the periorbital region in a masked, randomized split-face manner, keeping the injection sites and doses uniform. The toxin preparation, injection, and clinical evaluations were done by three independent observers...
June 26, 2017: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018766/acute-angle-closure-following-periorbital-botulinum-toxin-injection-in-a-patient-with-retinitis-pigmentosa
#11
Jen-Chia Tsai
A 50-year-old female presented with bilateral retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and acute angle closure (AAC) with fixed mid-dilated pupil and high intraocular pressure (IOP) in the left eye following left side periorbital botulinum toxin A injection for blepharospasm. Glaucomatous optic neuropathy and retinal nerve fiber layer defect were observed in the affected eye using optical coherence tomography although the IOP was maintained at <21 mmHg after the treatment. Botulinum toxin acts at the cholinergic synapse and inhibits acetylcholine release; hence, it can cause transient mydriasis and may lead to AAC in high-risk populations such as patients with RP...
April 2017: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975046/intractable-blepharospasm-treated-with-bilateral-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation
#12
Nijee S Luthra, Kyle T Mitchell, Monica M Volz, Idit Tamir, Phillip A Starr, Jill L Ostrem
BACKGROUND: Blepharospasm can be present as an isolated dystonia or in conjunction with other forms of cranial dystonia, causing significant disability. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 69-year-old male with craniocervical dystonia, manifesting primarily as incapacitating blepharospasm refractory to medical treatments. He underwent bilateral globus pallidus (GP) deep brain stimulation (DBS) with complete resolution of his blepharospasm and sustained benefit at 12 months postoperatively...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965229/treatment-of-blepharospasm-hemifacial-spasm
#13
REVIEW
Kemar E Green, David Rastall, Eric Eggenberger
The treatment of both hemifacial spasm (HFS) and blepharospasm (BEB) requires making the appropriate clinical diagnosis. Advance imaging and electrophysiologic studies are useful; however, one's clinical suspicion is paramount. The purpose of this review is to summarize current and emerging therapies for both entities. Botulinum toxin (BTX) remains the first-line therapy to treat both conditions. If chemodenervation has failed, surgery may be considered. Due to the risks associated with surgery, the benefits of this option must be carefully weighed...
September 30, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944479/temporal-horizontal-h-figure-sliding-skin-flap-for-central-eyelid-reconstructive-surgery-in-dogs-a-retrospective-study
#14
C Giordano, A Vercelli, G Barsotti
OBJECTIVE: To describe a modified H-figure sliding skin flap for treating eyelid central neoplasms and to evaluate the cosmetic and functional results of this reconstructive blepharoplasty. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight dogs affected by eyelid neoplasia involving more than one-third of the central part of the margin underwent an en bloc rectangular surgical removal of the neoplasia. Reconstructive surgery was performed using a temporal horizontal H-figure sliding skin flap...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932391/photophobia-in-neurologic-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Yiwen Wu, Mark Hallett
Photophobia is a common symptom seen in many neurologic disorders, however, its pathophysiology remains unclear. Even the term is ambiguous. In this paper, we review the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of photophobia in neurological disorders, including primary headache, blepharospasm, progressive supranuclear palsy, and traumatic brain injury, discuss the definition, etiology and pathogenesis, and summarize practical methods of diagnosis and treatment.
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902964/plasmatic-coagulation-and-fibrinolysis-in-healthy-and-otostrongylus-affected-northern-elephant-seals-mirounga-angustirostris
#16
Sarrah Kaye, Shawn Johnson, Carlos Rios, Daniel J Fletcher
BACKGROUND: Prepatent Otostrongylus arteritis results in hemorrhagic diathesis in free-ranging Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) attributed to aberrant larval migration of the lungworm, Otostrongylus circumlitus. Clinical signs are often nonspecific, including lethargy, anorexia, and blepharospasm, but can progress to spontaneous frank hemorrhage and death within 72 hours of onset. Previously published case reports describe coagulopathy with prolonged PT and APTT, normal to elevated platelet counts, normal antithrombin concentrations, and low concentrations of fibrinogen degradation products...
September 13, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893588/resting-state-fmri-observations-of-baseline-brain-functional-activities-and-connectivities-in-primary-blepharospasm
#17
Ming-Fei Ni, Xiao-Feng Huang, Yan-Wei Miao, Zhan-Hua Liang
Primary blepharospasm (BPS) is a focal dystonia characterized by involuntary eyelid spasms and blinking. The pathophysiology of BPS remains unclear. Several functional and structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated abnormalities of sensorimotor structures such as the sensorimotor cortex, the basal ganglia, the thalamus and the cerebellum in BPS patients. However, some of the results of these studies were inconsistent. In addition, the relationship between the motor and sensory structures in patients with BPS still needs to be investigated...
November 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888928/an-update-on-new-and-unique-uses-of-botulinum-toxin-in-movement-disorders
#18
Joseph Jankovic
The therapeutic applications of botulinum toxin (BoNT) have grown manifold since its initial approval in 1989 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of strabismus, blepharospasm, and other facial spasms. Although it is the most potent biologic toxin known to man, long-term studies have established its safety in the treatment of a variety of neurologic and non-neurologic disorders. This review focuses on some novel and uncommon uses of BoNT in the treatment of movement disorders, such as oromandibular dystonia, including bruxism, anterocollis, camptocormia, tremor, tics, tardive and levodopa-induced dyskinesia, and restless legs syndrome...
September 6, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884242/a-comparative-crossover-study-on-the-treatment-of-hemifacial-spasm-and-blepharospasm-preseptal-and-pretarsal-botulinum-toxin-injection-techniques
#19
Praween Lolekha, Arthita Choolam, Kongkiat Kulkantrakorn
Hemifacial spasm (HFS) and benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) are chronic and disabling abnormal craniofacial movements that produce involuntary eyelid twitching and closure. The efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections have been accepted and widely used for the treatment of HFS and BEB. However, different injection sites may influence the effectiveness, doses, and side effects. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy, patient satisfaction, and complications of low-dose BoNT-A injections between injection at the preseptal (PS) and the pretarsal (PT) portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle...
November 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863116/an-aesthetic-orbicularis-oculi-myectomy-technique-for-blepharospasm-use-of-topical-5-fluorouracil-and-fibrin-sealant
#20
Krista J Stewart, Shannon S Joseph, Raymond S Douglas
PURPOSE: To describe a modified technique of orbicularis oculi myectomy for refractory blepharospasm. This technique includes removal of orbicularis muscle, reformation of the eyelid crease and pretarsal platform using fibrin sealant (Tisseel), and topical 5-fluorouracil to reduce scar formation and improve aesthetic outcome. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 7 patients who underwent bilateral orbicularis oculi myectomy with our technique from 2013 to 2016...
August 24, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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