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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779192/impact-of-weak-water-deficit-on-growth-photosynthetic-primary-processes-and-storage-processes-in-pine-and-spruce-seedlings
#1
Ilya E Zlobin, Yury V Ivanov, Alexander V Kartashov, Boris A Sarvin, Andrey N Stavrianidi, Vladimir D Kreslavski, Vladimir V Kuznetsov
We investigated the influence of 40 days of drought on growth, storage processes and primary photosynthetic processes in 3-month-old Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings growing in perlite culture. Water stress significantly affected seedling water status, whereas absolute dry biomass growth was not substantially influenced. Water stress induced an increase in non-structural carbohydrate content (sugars, sugar alcohols, starch) in the aboveground part of pine seedlings in contrast to spruce seedlings. Due to the relatively low content of sugars and sugar alcohols in seedling organs, their expected contribution to osmotic potential changes was quite low...
May 19, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779127/physiological-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-a-chronologically-long-lived-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strain-obtained-by-evolutionary-engineering
#2
Mevlüt Arslan, Can Holyavkin, Halil İbrahim Kısakesen, Alican Topaloğlu, Yusuf Sürmeli, Zeynep Petek Çakar
High-throughput aging studies with yeast as a model organism involve transposon-mutagenesis and yeast knockout collection, which have been pivotal strategies for understanding the complex cellular aging process. In this study, a chronologically long-lived Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant was successfully obtained by using another high-throughput approach, evolutionary engineering, based on systematic selection in successive batch cultures under gradually increasing levels of caloric restriction. Detailed comparative physiological and transcriptomic analyses of the chronologically long-lived mutant and the reference strain revealed enhanced levels of respiratory metabolism, upregulation of genes related to carbohydrate metabolic processes, glycogen-trehalose pathways, stress response, and repression of protein synthesis-related genes in the long-lived mutant SRM11, already in the absence of caloric restriction...
May 19, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778878/structural-elucidation-of-lignin-carbohydrate-complexes-lccs-from-chinese-quince-chaenomeles-sinensis-fruit
#3
Zhao Qin, Yu-Xiang Ma, Hua-Min Liu, Guang-Yong Qin, Xue-De Wang
The lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC) of the mesocarp (MS) and near the endocarp (NE) of Chinese quince (Chaenomeles sinensis) fruits were analyzed using three different methods of fractioning: milled wood lignin (MWL), LCC extracted from crude MWL with acetic acid (LCC-AcOH), and Bjorkman LCC. The MWL and LCC fractions were characterized by carbohydrate composition analysis, SEC, FT-IR, Py-GC/MS, thermal analysis and 2D HSQC NMR. Notably, large amounts of arabinose and galactose remained in the Björkman LCC fractions suggesting a chemical bond between the lignin and pectin...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778800/phenotypic-and-genotypic-diversity-of-lactobacillus-buchneri-strains-isolated-from-spoiled-fermented-cucumber
#4
Katheryne V Daughtry, Suzanne D Johanningsmeier, Rosemary Sanozky-Dawes, Todd R Klaenhammer, Rodolphe Barrangou
Lactobacillus buchneri is a Gram-positive, obligate heterofermentative, facultative anaerobe commonly affiliated with spoilage of food products. Notably, L. buchneri is able to metabolize lactic acid into acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. Although beneficial to the silage industry, this metabolic capability is detrimental to preservation of cucumbers by fermentation. The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of L. buchneri purified from both industrial and experimental fermented cucumber after the onset of secondary fermentation...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778794/effect-of-nitrogen-limitation-on-biochemical-composition-and-photosynthetic-performance-for-fed-batch-mixotrophic-cultivation-of-microalga-spirulina-platensis
#5
Xiaoting Li, Wei Li, Jun Zhai, Haoxuan Wei
In this study, the effect of nitrogen limitation on microalgal growth, biochemical composition and photosynthetic performance was investigated in fed-batch mixotrophic cultivation of microalga Spirulina platensis, compared with that in autotrophic cultivation. The microalgal biomass productivity was greatly enhanced by mixotrophic cultivation. With nitrogen limitation, the mixotrophic culture accelerated the degradation of microalgal pigments and proteins to supply intracellular nitrogen for maintaining higher biomass productivity, simultaneously accumulating more carbohydrates...
May 12, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778741/changes-in-lipid-protein-and-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-spodoptera-exigua-larvae-associated-with-infection-by-heliothis-virescens-ascovirus-3h
#6
Zi-Qi Li, Huan Yu, Guo-Hua Huang
Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae were used to analyze the regulation of lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism in host larvae infected with the Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h). Using histological sections, significant pathological changes were found in the fat bodies of infected larvae from 24 h to 72 h post-infection (hpi). The lipid and protein contents of the infected larvae were significantly higher than those of the uninfected larvae, while the carbohydrate content of the infected larvae was significantly lower than that of the mock-infected larvae...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778541/carbohydrate-intake-and-the-risk-of-prostate-cancer
#7
Ying He Chen, Cun Jin Nan, Lai Lai Fan, Hong Xia Su, Xi Jie Gu
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading cause cancer among men worldwide. Many epidemiologic studies have reported an association between carbohydrate intake and PCa. However, the evidence from epidemiologic studies is inconsistent. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to explore the associations between carbohydrate intake and PCa risk and to investigate potential dose-response relationships. METHODS: We searched PubMed and EMBASE for studies published from 1980 to 2018...
May 17, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778511/observed-appetite-and-nutrient-intake-three-months-after-icu-discharge
#8
Lee-Anne S Chapple, Luke M Weinel, Yasmine Ali Abdelhamid, Matthew J Summers, Thu Nguyen, Palash Kar, Kylie Lange, Marianne J Chapman, Adam M Deane
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oral intake is diminished immediately after ICU discharge, yet factors affecting nutritional intake after hospital discharge have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary intake and factors which may influence intake - appetite and gastric emptying - 3-months after ICU discharge. METHODS: Inception cohort study with ICU survivors compared to healthy subjects. Following an overnight fast, all participants consumed a standardized carbohydrate drink, containing 13 C-octanoic acid, to measure gastric emptying...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778478/quantitative-proteomics-of-lactococcus-lactis-f44-under-cross-stress-of-low-ph-and-lactate
#9
Hao Wu, Yue Zhao, Yuhui Du, Sen Miao, Jingui Liu, Yanni Li, Qinggele Caiyin, Jianjun Qiao
Lactococcus lactis encounters 3 environmental stimuli, H+ , lactate, and undissociated lactic acid, because of the accumulation of lactic acid-the predominant fermentation product. Few studies have examined how these stimuli synergistically affect the bacteria. Herein, we analyzed the dissociation degree of lactic acid at different pH and investigated the cellular response to cross-stress in L. lactis ssp. lactis F44 through quantitative proteomic analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of 3 groups: 0% lactic acid with pH 4...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778095/establishing-an-innovative-carbohydrate-metabolic-pathway-for-efficient-production-of-2-keto-l-gulonic-acid-in-ketogulonicigenium-robustum-initiated-by-intronic-promoters
#10
Cai-Yun Wang, Ye Li, Zi-Wei Gao, Li-Cheng Liu, Meng-Yue Zhang, Tian-Yuan Zhang, Chun-Fu Wu, Yi-Xuan Zhang
BACKGROUND: 2-Keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KGA), the precursor of vitamin C, is currently produced by two-step fermentation. In the second step, L-sorbose is transformed into 2-KGA by the symbiosis system composed of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare and Bacillus megaterium. Due to the different nutrient requirements and the uncertain ratio of the two strains, the symbiosis system significantly limits strain improvement and fermentation optimization. RESULTS: In this study, Ketogulonicigenium robustum SPU_B003 was reported for its capability to grow well independently and to produce more 2-KGA than that of K...
May 19, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777808/preparation-and-applications-of-glyconanoparticles
#11
Qilin Tang, Gangliang Huang
The glyconanoparticle can be used to construct biological cell models that are similar to the expression of carbohydrates on the surface of cells, and it has become excellent research tools in glycobiology, biopharmaceuticals, and materials science. With the deepening of research, glyconanoparticle has broad application prospects in drug delivery, biomedical imaging, diagnosis and treatment because its preparation is simple, and it has the unique physical, chemical and biological properties. The preparation of glyconanoparticles and their applications were summarized and discussed here...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777414/altered-gut-microbiota-associated-with-intestinal-disease-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idellus
#12
Ngoc Tuan Tran, Jing Zhang, Fan Xiong, Gui-Tang Wang, Wen-Xiang Li, Shan-Gong Wu
Gut microbiota plays a crucial importance in their host. Disturbance of the microbial structure and function is known to be associated with inflammatory intestinal disorders. Enteritis is a significant cause of high mortality in fish species, including grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Study regarding the association between microbial alternations and enteritis in grass carp is still absent. In this study, changes in the gut microbiota of grass carp suffering from enteritis were investigated using NGS-based 16S rRNA sequencing...
May 18, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777386/substrate-metabolism-during-ironman-triathlon-different-horses-on-the-same-courses
#13
Ed Maunder, Andrew E Kilding, Daniel J Plews
Ironman triathlons are ultra-endurance events of extreme duration. The performance level of those competing varies dramatically, with elite competitors finishing in ~ 8:00:00, and lower performing amateurs finishing in ~ 14-15:00:00. When applying appropriate values for swimming, cycling and running economies to these performance times, it is demonstrated that the absolute energy cost of these events is high, and the rate of energy expenditure increases in proportion with the athlete's competitive level...
May 18, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777369/adherence-to-special-diets-and-its-association-with-meeting-the-nutrient-recommendations-in-individuals-with-type-1-diabetes
#14
A J Ahola, C Forsblom, Per-Henrik Groop
AIMS: Not much is known about adherence to special diets in type 1 diabetes, characteristics of individuals with special diets, and whether such practices should raise concerns with respect to meeting the dietary recommendations. In this study, we assessed the frequencies of adherence to special diets, in a population of individuals with type 1 diabetes, and investigated the association between special diet adherence and dietary intake, measured as dietary patterns and nutrient intakes...
May 18, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777241/acute-effect-of-equicaloric-meals-varying-in-glycemic-index-and-glycemic-load-on-arterial-stiffness-and-glycemia-in-healthy-adults-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#15
Andreea Zurbau, Alexandra L Jenkins, Elena Jovanovski, Fei Au-Yeung, Emma A Bateman, Christy Brissette, Thomas M S Wolever, Amir Hanna, Vladimir Vuksan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dietary carbohydrate quality and quantity fluctuate but it is unknown which attribute takes precedence in vascular health preservation. We investigated all four permutations of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) on acute vascular and glycemic responses. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twenty-one healthy adults were screened for this crossover trial. Seventeen (8 M:9 F; 26.7 ± 12.3 y; BMI 22.2 ± 2.8 kg/m2 ) entered randomization and completed the study, receiving four isocaloric meals, varying in GI and GL, in random order at least 3 days apart...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777234/prevotella-to-bacteroides-ratio-predicts-body-weight-and-fat-loss-success-on-24-week-diets-varying-in-macronutrient-composition-and-dietary-fiber-results-from-a-post-hoc-analysis
#16
Mads F Hjorth, Trine Blædel, Line Q Bendtsen, Janne K Lorenzen, Jacob B Holm, Pia Kiilerich, Henrik M Roager, Karsten Kristiansen, Lesli H Larsen, Arne Astrup
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individuals with high pre-treatment bacterial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides (P/B) ratio have been reported to lose more body weight on diets high in fiber than subjects with a low P/B ratio. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine potential differences in dietary weight loss responses between participants with low and high P/B. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Eighty overweight participants were randomized (52 completed) to a 500 kcal/d energy deficit diet with a macronutrient composition of 30 energy percentage (E%) fat, 52 E% carbohydrate and 18 E% protein either high (≈1500 mg calcium/day) or low ( ≤ 600 mg calcium/day) in dairy products for 24 weeks...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777231/dietary-protein-intake-in-school-age-children-and-detailed-measures-of-body-composition-the-generation-r-study
#17
Vincent Jen, Leonidas G Karagounis, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Oscar H Franco, Trudy Voortman
BACKGROUND: A high-protein diet in infancy increases the risk of obesity, but the effects of dietary protein intake in mid-childhood on body composition are unclear. Therefore, we studied associations of protein intake (total, animal and plant-sourced) at 8 years of age with anthropometric measures and body composition up to age 10 years. METHODS: We included 3991 children of the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort in the Netherlands. Dietary protein intake was assessed at 8 years of age using a food-frequency questionnaire and is expressed in energy percentage (E%)...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777128/comparison-of-the-serum-metabolic-signatures-based-on-1-h-nmr-between-patients-and-a-rat-model-of-deep-vein-thrombosis
#18
Jie Cao, Qian-Qian Jin, Gui-Ming Wang, Hong-Lin Dong, Yong-Ming Feng, Jun-Sheng Tian, Ke-Ming Yun, Ying-Yuan Wang, Jun-Hong Sun
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) have high morbidity, reduce quality of life, and can cause death. Biomarkers or genetic risk factors have not been identified in patients with DVT. In present study, serum of 61 patients suffering from DVT and a rat DVT model (n = 10) were assayed by a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) metabolomics technique combing with multivariate statistical analysis to identify the metabolites. The MetPA platform was used to identify differences in the metabolic pathways between the rat model and patients...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776987/mini-dose-glucagon-as-a-novel-approach-to-prevent-exercise-induced-hypoglycemia-in-type-1-diabetes
#19
Michael R Rickels, Stephanie N DuBose, Elena Toschi, Roy W Beck, Alandra S Verdejo, Howard Wolpert, Martin J Cummins, Brett Newswanger, Michael C Riddell
OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 1 diabetes who do aerobic exercise often experience a drop in blood glucose concentration that can result in hypoglycemia. Current approaches to prevent exercise-induced hypoglycemia include reduction in insulin dose or ingestion of carbohydrates, but these strategies may still result in hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. We sought to determine whether mini-dose glucagon (MDG) given subcutaneously before exercise could prevent subsequent glucose lowering, and to compare the glycemic response to current approaches for mitigating exercise-associated hypoglycemia...
May 18, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775934/arsenic-speciation-dynamics-in-paddy-rice-soil-water-environment-sources-physico-chemical-and-biological-factors-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Prasanna Kumarathilaka, Saman Seneweera, Andrew Meharg, Jochen Bundschuh
Rice is the main staple carbohydrate source for billions of people worldwide. Natural geogenic and anthropogenic sources has led to high arsenic (As) concentrations in rice grains. This is because As is highly bioavailable to rice roots under conditions in which rice is cultivated. A multifaceted and interdisciplinary understanding, both of short-term and long-term effects, are required to identify spatial and temporal changes in As contamination levels in paddy soil-water systems. During flooding, soil pore waters are elevated in inorganic As compared to dryland cultivation systems, as anaerobism results in poorly mobile As(V), being reduced to highly mobile As(III)...
April 21, 2018: Water Research
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