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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641051/beneficial-role-of-citrus-fruit-polyphenols-against-hepatic-dysfunctions-a-review
#1
Md Mohabbulla Mohib, Kazi Afnan, Tasfiq Zaman Paran, Salma Khan, Juthika Sarker, Nahid Hasan, Istiaque Hasan, Md Abu Taher Sagor
Alcoholic liver diseases and virus-induced hepatic dysfunctions are prevalent in western countries. Evidence also suggests that hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are key players in the development of hepatic diseases and their complications. Since the comorbid diseases like obesity, diabetes and vascular dysfunctions primarily affect liver, the modern therapies against other hepatic dysfunctions are becoming a major challenge to treat. In addition to these, polypharmacy and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are further aggravating the phenomenon...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640802/peroxisomal-biogenesis-is-genetically-and-biochemically-linked-to-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-drosophila-and-mouse
#2
Michael F Wangler, Yu-Hsin Chao, Vafa Bayat, Nikolaos Giagtzoglou, Abhijit Babaji Shinde, Nagireddy Putluri, Cristian Coarfa, Taraka Donti, Brett H Graham, Joseph E Faust, James A McNew, Ann Moser, Marco Sardiello, Myriam Baes, Hugo J Bellen
Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a group of multi-system human diseases due to mutations in the PEX genes that are responsible for peroxisome assembly and function. These disorders lead to global defects in peroxisomal function and result in severe brain, liver, bone and kidney disease. In order to study their pathogenesis we undertook a systematic genetic and biochemical study of Drosophila pex16 and pex2 mutants. These mutants are short-lived with defects in locomotion and activity. Moreover these mutants exhibit severe morphologic and functional peroxisomal defects...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640772/the-effect-of-a-carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-on-upper-body-muscular-strength-and-endurance
#3
James E Dunkin, Shaun M Phillips
Dunkin, JE and Phillips, SM. The effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on upper-body muscular strength and endurance. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1948-1953, 2017-Carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinsing rapidly increases corticomotor output and maximal muscle force production, which could enhance muscular strength and endurance during resistance exercise. However, previous research has found no effect of CHO rinsing on muscular strength or endurance. The current study altered the CHO rinse composition and frequency and the muscular endurance test to further investigate the effects of a CHO mouth rinse on upper-body muscular strength and endurance...
July 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640743/glucose-consumption-in-carbohydrate-mixtures-by-phosphotransferase-system-mutants-of-escherichia-coli
#4
Tian Xia, Neeraj Sriram, Sarah A Lee, Ronni Altman, Jeffrey L Urbauer, Elliot Altman, Mark A Eiteman
Escherichia coli lacking the glucose phosphotransferase system (PTS), mannose PTS and glucokinase are supposedly unable to grow on glucose as the sole carbon source (Curtis SJ, Epstein W. J Bacteriol 1975;122:1189-1199). We report that W ptsG manZ glk (ALS1406) grows slowly on glucose in media containing glucose with a second carbon source: ALS1406 metabolizes glucose after that other carbon source, including arabinose, fructose, glycerol, succinate or xylose, is exhausted. Galactose is an exception to this rule, as ALS1406 simultaneously consumes both galactose and glucose...
June 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637347/mechanisms-underlying-the-long-term-survival-of-the-monocot-dracaena-marginata-under-drought-conditions
#5
Radek Jupa, Roman Plichta, Zuzana Paschová, Nadezhda Nadezhdina, Roman Gebauer
Efficient water management is essential for the survival of vascular plants under drought stress. While interrelations among drought stress, plant anatomy and physiological functions have been described in woody dicots, similar research is very limited for non-palm arborescent and shrubby monocots despite their generally high drought tolerance. In this study, potted transplants of Dracaena marginata Lam. in primary growth stage were exposed to several short- and long-term drought periods. Continuous measurements of sap flow and stem diameter, the evaluation of capacitance and leaf conductance, the quantification of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), and organ-specific anatomical analyses were performed to reveal the mechanisms promoting plant resistance to limited soil moisture...
June 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636877/lectin-cgl-from-the-sea-mussel-crenomytilus-grayanus-induces-burkitt-s-lymphoma-cells-death-via-interaction-with-surface-glycan
#6
Oleg Chernikov, Alexandra Kuzmich, Irina Chikalovets, Valentina Molchanova, Kuo-Feng Hua
Marine organisms are rich sources of lectins. Lectins are able to bind specifically and reversibly to different types of carbohydrates or glycoproteins. The present study reports the evaluation of glycan binding profile and anti-tumor potential of lectin CGL from the sea mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. Glycan array assay revealed that CGL was able to bind both α and β anomer of galactose, but interaction with the αGal-terminated glycans was stronger. Analysis of most common glycan motifs for CGL showed high affinity to Galα1-4Galβ1-4GlcNAc motif similar to globotriose structure (Gb3: Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc), the epitope of globotriaosylceramide...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636761/molecular-tools-for-facilitative-carbohydrate-transporters
#7
Marina Tanasova, Joseph R Fedie
Facilitative carbohydrate transporters - Gluts - have received a wide attention over decades due to their essential role in the nutrient uptake and links with various metabolic disorders, including diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Endeavors into understanding mechanisms of Glut-mediated nutrient uptake have resulted in the multidisciplinary research field, branching protein chemistry, chemical biology, organic synthesis, crystallography, and biomolecular modeling. Gluts became attractive targets for cancer research and medicinal chemistry, leading to the development of new approaches to cancer diagnostics and providing avenues for cancer-targeting therapeutics...
June 21, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636668/microbiota-in-anorexia-nervosa-the-triangle-between-bacterial-species-metabolites-and-psychological-tests
#8
Francesca Borgo, Alessandra Riva, Alberto Benetti, Maria Cristina Casiraghi, Sara Bertelli, Stefania Garbossa, Simona Anselmetti, Silvio Scarone, Antonio E Pontiroli, Giulia Morace, Elisa Borghi
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease with devastating physical consequences, with a pathophysiological mechanism still to be elucidated. Metagenomic studies on anorexia nervosa have revealed profound gut microbiome perturbations as a possible environmental factor involved in the disease. In this study we performed a comprehensive analysis integrating data on gut microbiota with clinical, anthropometric and psychological traits to gain new insight in the pathophysiology of AN. Fifteen AN women were compared with fifteen age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636266/marap2-4-a-waterlogging-responsive-erf-from-mentha-regulates-bidirectional-sugar-transporter-atsweet10-to-modulate-stress-response-in-arabidopsis
#9
Ujjal J Phukan, Gajendra Singh Jeena, Vineeta Tripathi, Rakesh Kumar Shukla
As waterlogging and successive events severely influence growth and development of economically important plants, we attempted to characterize the role of a waterlogging-responsive Group I (A-6) Ethylene response factor (MaRAP2-4) from Mentha arvensis. Waterlogging, ethylene and Methyl jasmonate rapidly induced the expression of MaRAP2-4. MaRAP2-4 interacted with multiple cis-elements like Dehydration response elements (DRE1/2), Anoxia/Jasmonic acid response element (JARE) and GCC box showing its involvement in multiple responses...
June 21, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635680/saturated-fatty-acids-and-cardiovascular-disease-replacements-for-saturated-fat-to-reduce-cardiovascular-risk
#10
REVIEW
Michelle A Briggs, Kristina S Petersen, Penny M Kris-Etherton
Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein, may also reduce CVD risk...
June 21, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635611/modulatory-effects-of-naringin-on-hepatic-key-enzymes-of-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-low-dose-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-rats
#11
Leelavinothan Pari, Ramasamy Chandramohan
We evaluated the modulatory effects of naringin on altered hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in high-fat diet/low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral treatment of naringin at a doses of 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight to diabetic rats for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in the levels of plasma glucose, blood glycosylated hemoglobin and increase in the levels of plasma insulin and blood hemoglobin. The altered activities of the hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism such as hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen content of diabetic rats were significantly reverted to near normal levels by the treatment of naringin in a dose-dependent manner...
July 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634826/tai-vacuolar-invertase-orthologs-the-interspecific-variability-in-tomato-plants-solanum-section-lycopersicon
#12
M A Slugina, A V Shchennikova, E Z Kochieva
Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying carbohydrate metabolism can promote the development of biotechnological advances in fruit plants. The flesh tomato fruit represents an ideal system for examining the role of sucrose cleavage enzymes in fruit development, and wild tomato species differing in storage sugars serve as an excellent research material for this purpose. Plant vacuolar invertase is a key enzyme of sucrose metabolism in the sink organs. In the present study, we identified complete gene sequences encoding the TAI vacuolar invertase in 11 wild and one cultivated tomato accessions of the Solanum section Lycopersicon...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634792/impairments-of-cadmium-on-vitellogenin-accumulation-in-the-hepatopancreas-of-freshwater-crab-sinopotamon-henanense
#13
Jian Yang, Hui Sun, Yu Qian, Jie Yang
During ovary maturation of crabs, vitellogenin (Vg), a precursor molecule of vitellin (Vn) needed for embryogenesis, can be produced in large quantities in the hepatopancreas and then transported to the ovary by the hemolymph. In the present study, effects of Cd on Vg accumulation in the hepatopancreas and Vg transportation of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense were investigated. We also studied the impacts of Cd on the mRNA expression of genes involved in energy metabolism, protein metabolism, and metallothionein (MT) and glutathione (GSH) synthesis...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634588/antitumor-effect-of-kml-b-treated-dendritic-cells-via-induction-of-lymphocyte-activation
#14
Jong-Jin Kim, Yun-Ho Hwang, Kyung-Yun Kang, Sung-Ju Lee, Jong-Bae Kim, Jina Choi, Sung-Tae Yee
Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins with various biological activities, such as antitumor and immunomodulatory effects. Although lectins have various biological activities, they are still limited by cytotoxicity in normal cells. To overcome this problem, we used the noncytotoxic part of Korean mistletoe lectin B-chain (KML-B) to induce maturation of dendritic cells (DCs). A previous study reported that KML-B induces DC maturation by triggering TLR-4, including expression of costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80, and CD86), MHC II, and secretion of cytokines in DCs...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634367/proteomic-analysis-reveals-large-amounts-of-decomposition-enzymes-and-major-metabolic-pathways-involved-in-algicidal-process-of-trametes-versicolor-f21a
#15
Xueyan Gao, Congyan Wang, Wei Dai, Shenrong Ren, Fang Tao, Xingbing He, Guomin Han, Wei Wang
A recent algicidal mode indicates that fungal mycelia can wrap and eliminate almost all co-cultivated algal cells within a short time span. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is rarely understood. We applied proteomic analysis to investigate the algicidal process of Trametes versicolor F21a and identified 3,754 fungal proteins. Of these, 30 fungal enzymes with endo- or exoglycosidase activities such as β-1,3-glucanase, α-galactosidase, α-glucosidase, alginate lyase and chondroitin lyase were significantly up-regulated...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634239/the-dual-activity-responsible-for-the-elongation-and-branching-of-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-in-the-fungal-cell-wall
#16
Vishukumar Aimanianda, Catherine Simenel, Cecile Garnaud, Cecile Clavaud, Rui Tada, Lise Barbin, Isabelle Mouyna, Christoph Heddergott, Laura Popolo, Yoshikazu Ohya, Muriel Delepierre, Jean-Paul Latge
β-(1,3)-Glucan, the major fungal cell wall component, ramifies through β-(1,6)-glycosidic linkages, which facilitates its binding with other cell wall components contributing to proper cell wall assembly. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model, we developed a protocol to quantify β-(1,6)-branching on β-(1,3)-glucan. Permeabilized S. cerevisiae and radiolabeled substrate UDP-((14)C)glucose allowed us to determine branching kinetics. A screening aimed at identifying deletion mutants with reduced branching among them revealed only two, the bgl2Δ and gas1Δ mutants, showing 15% and 70% reductions in the branching, respectively, compared to the wild-type strain...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634232/the-phosphocarrier-protein-hpr-of-the-bacterial-phosphotransferase-system-globally-regulates-energy-metabolism-by-directly-interacting-with-multiple-enzymes-in-escherichia-coli
#17
Irina A Rodionova, Zhongge Zhang, Jitender Mehla, Norman Goodacre, Mohan Babu, Andrew Emili, Peter Uetz, Milton H Saier
The histidine-phosphorylatable phosphocarrier protein HPr, is an essential component of the sugar-transporting phosphotransferase system (PTS) in many bacteria. Recent interactome findings suggested that HPr interacts with several carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, but whether HPr plays a regulatory role was unclear. Here, we provide evidence that HPr interacts with a large number of proteins in Escherichia coli. We demonstrate HPr-dependent allosteric regulation of the activities of pyruvate kinase (PykF, but not PykA), phosphofructokinase (PfkB, but not PfkA), glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase (NagB) and adenylate kinase (Adk)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633944/gene-expression-analysis-identify-a-metabolic-and-cell-function-alterations-as-a-hallmark-of-obesity-without-metabolic-syndrome-in-peripheral-blood-a-pilot-study
#18
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Raquel Almansa, Rocío Aller, Olatz Izaola, E Romero
BACKGROUND: Understanding molecular basis involved in overweight is an important first step in developing therapeutic pathways against excess in body weight gain. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our pilot study was to evaluate the gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood of obese patients without other metabolic complications. DESIGN: A sample of 17 obese patients without metabolic syndrome and 15 non obese control subjects was evaluated in a prospective way...
June 10, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633943/diet-borne-systemic-inflammation-is-associated-with-prevalent-tooth%C3%A2-loss
#19
Georgios A Kotsakis, Vanessa Chrepa, Nitin Shivappa, Michael Wirth, James Hébert, Ai Koyanagi, Stefanos Tyrovolas
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The deleterious effect of cariogenic dietary patterns on tooth loss is well characterized, but the contribution of diet-borne systemic inflammation to loss of teeth remains uncharted. Recent efforts have unveiled a protective role of single nutrients to periodontal health. However, the assessment of overall diet as a modifiable risk factor for oral health remains elusive. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the association between diet-borne systemic inflammation and tooth loss in a representative sample of the US adult non-institutionalized population...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633874/proportional-bias-between-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-varies-based-on-sex-in-active-adults-consuming-high-and-low-carbohydrate-diets
#20
Grant M Tinsley
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) are common methods of body composition assessment, but the agreement between these methods varies. Bias between DXA and single-frequency BIA was evaluated at 6 different time points in 48 active male and female adults consuming standardized high- and low-carbohydrate diets. It was hypothesized that fixed and proportional biases exist between DXA and BIA but that the extent of bias does not differ based on sex. Substantial fixed bias was present for estimates obtained by DXA and BIA, and both men and women exhibited proportional bias for fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)...
June 2017: Nutrition Research
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