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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549253/synechococcus-nidulans-from-a-thermoelectric-coal-power-plant-as-a-potential-co2-mitigation-in-culture-medium-containing-flue-gas-wastes
#1
Jessica Hartwig Duarte, Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa
This study evaluated the intermittent addition of coal flue gas wastes (CO2, SO2, NO and ash) into a Synechococcus nidulans LEB 115 cultivation in terms of growth parameters, CO2 biofixation and biomass characterization. The microalga from a coal thermoelectric plant showed tolerance up to 200ppm SO2 and NO, with a maximum specific growth rate of 0.18±0.03d(-)(1). The addition of thermal coal ash to the cultivation increased the Synechococcus nidulans LEB 115 maximum cell growth by approximately 1.3 times...
May 13, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549182/single-provenance-mature-conifers-show-higher-non-structural-carbohydrate-storage-and-reduced-growth-in-a-drier-location
#2
Frida I Piper, Alex Fajardo, Günter Hoch
Since growth is more sensitive to drought than photosynthesis, trees inhabiting dry regions are expected to exhibit higher carbohydrate storage and less growth than their conspecifics from more humid regions. However, the same pattern can be the result of different genotypes inhabiting contrasting humidity conditions. To test if reduced growth and high carbohydrate storage are environmentally driven by drought, we examined the growth and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in single-provenance stands of mature trees of Pinus contorta Douglas and Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C...
May 26, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548942/the-n-terminal-tail-coordinates-with-carbohydrate-recognition-domain-to-mediate-galectin-3-induced-apoptosis-in-t-cells
#3
Huiting Xue, Lu Liu, Zihan Zhao, Zhongyu Zhang, Yuan Guan, Hairong Cheng, Yifa Zhou, Guihua Tai
Galectin-3 is a galectin with a unique flexible N-terminal tail (NT) connected to the conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Galectin-3 is associated with tumor immune tolerance and exhibits an ability to induce T cell apoptosis. We used Jurkat, Jurkat E6-1 and CEM T-cell lines and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to investigate the specific roles of the CRD and NT in inducing T cell apoptosis. Galectin-3 triggered sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation that induced apoptosis...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548658/distinctive-microbiomes-and-metabolites-linked-with-weight-loss-after-gastric-bypass-but-not-gastric-banding
#4
Zehra Esra Ilhan, John K DiBaise, Nancy G Isern, David W Hoyt, Andrew K Marcus, Dae-Wook Kang, Michael D Crowell, Bruce E Rittmann, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) are anatomically different bariatric operations. RYGB achieves greater weight loss compared with LAGB. Changes in the gut microbiome have been documented after RYGB, but not LAGB, and the microbial contribution to sustainable surgical weight loss warrants further evaluation. We hypothesized that RYGB imposes greater changes on the microbiota and its metabolism than LAGB, and that the altered microbiota may contribute to greater weight loss...
May 26, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548585/dietary-assesment-of-free-living-elderly-spanish-people-with-disabilities
#5
M Lozano, J M Ramada, J Peiró, A Frígola, M J Esteve
Nutritional research in elderly disabled is difficult in noninstitutionalized people. The dietary intake of a noninstitutionalized disabled population of the eastern region of Spain was evaluated to detect possible nutritional deviations. A total of 329 participants aged 65 and over were recruited. Most participants were overweight. Carbohydrates did not reach 50% of total Kcal/day. Insufficient micronutrient intakes and high consumption of simple carbohydrates and saturated fats (SFA) were found. A decreasing trend of water intake (p < ...
May 26, 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548389/night-shift-work-is-associated-with-poorer-glycaemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#6
Areesa Manodpitipong, Sunee Saetung, Hataikarn Nimitphong, Nantaporn Siwasaranond, Thanawat Wongphan, Chotima Sornsiriwong, Pranee Luckanajantachote, Prasitchai Mangjit, Prasit Keesukphan, Stephanie J Crowley, Megan M Hood, Sirimon Reutrakul
The circadian system plays a role in regulating metabolism. Night-shift work, a form of circadian misalignment, is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. This study aimed to determine if night-shift workers with type 2 diabetes experience poorer glycaemic control than non-shift workers. Patients with type 2 diabetes (104 unemployed, 85 day workers and 60 night-shift workers) participated. Sleep duration, sleep quality, morningness-eveningness preference, depressive symptoms and dietary intake were assessed using standardized questionnaires...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547780/advances-in-molecular-engineering-of-carbohydrate-binding-modules
#7
REVIEW
Silvia Armenta, Silvia Moreno-Mendieta, Zaira Sánchez-Cuapio, Sergio Sánchez, Romina Rodríguez-Sanoja
Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are non-catalytic domains that are generally appended to carbohydrate-active enzymes. CBMs have a broadly conserved structure that allows recognition of a notable variety of carbohydrates, in both their soluble and insoluble forms, as well as in their alpha and beta conformations and with different types of bonds or substitutions. This versatility suggests a high functional plasticity that is not yet clearly understood, in spite of the important number of studies relating protein structure and function...
May 25, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546025/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-a-glycosylated-galactose-binding-lectin-from-mytilus-californianus
#8
Efrén García-Maldonado, Patricia Cano-Sánchez, Alejandra Hernández-Santoyo
Lectins play crucial roles for innate immune responses in invertebrates by recognizing and eliminating pathogens. In this study, a lectin from the mussel Mytilus californianus (MCL) was identified and characterized. The lectin was purified by affinity chromatography in α-lactose-agarose resin showing an experimental molecular weight of 18000 Da as determined by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. It was specific for binding d-galactose and N-Acetyl-d-galactosamine that contained carbohydrate moieties that were also inhibited by melibiose and raffinose...
May 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545937/treatment-of-nafld-with-diet-physical-activity-and-exercise
#9
REVIEW
Manuel Romero-Gómez, Shira Zelber-Sagi, Michael Trenell
Lifestyle intervention can be useful across all the spectrum of NAFLD patients. Losing weight decreases cardiovascular / diabetes risk and also regresses liver disease. Weight reductions of ≥ 10% are required for inducing near universal NASH resolution or fibrosis improvement by at least one stage. However, modest weight losses (>5%) also produce important benefits on NAS and its components. In addition, to improve the success of this intervention we need to explore, beyond total calories and type of weight loss diet, the role of micro and macronutrients, evidence-based benefits of physical activity and exercise and finally supporting these modifications through established behaviour change models and techniques...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545903/potential-of-fecal-waste-for-the-production-of-biomethane-bioethanol-and-biodiesel
#10
Mohamed A Gomaa, Raeid M M Abed
Fecal waste is an environmental burden that requires proper disposal, which ultimately becomes also an economic burden. Because fecal waste is nutrient-rich and contains a diverse methanogenic community, it has been utilized to produce biomethane via anaerobic digestion. Carbohydrates and lipids in fecal waste could reach up to 50% of the dry weight, which also suggests a potential as a feedstock for bioethanol and biodiesel production. We measured biomethane production from fecal waste of cows, chickens, goats and humans and compared the microbial community composition before and after anaerobic digestion...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545839/improved-laccase-production-by-funalia-trogii-in-absorbent-fermentation-with-nutrient-carrier
#11
Guanhua Li, Xiaoxue Liu, Lin Yuan
A novel strategy of enhancing laccase production by absorbent fermentation was investigated. Peanut shell was used as nutrient carrier for laccase production by Funalia trogii IFP0027 in the absorbent fermentation. The maximum laccase production was reached to 11,900 U/l, which was 4.97 times higher than that of the control group. The results indicated that carbohydrates and phenolic substances especially flavonoids contained in peanut shell stimulated laccase production by F. trogii. Meanwhile, the peanut shell nutrient carrier could not only alleviate the oxidative damage, owing to strong scavenging activity on hydroxyl, but also relieve the mechanical stresses to form small and regular microbial pellets...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545372/lectin-carbohydrate-interactions-implications-for-the-development-of-new-anticancer-agents
#12
Evellyne de Oliveira Figueirôa, Cassia Regina Albuquerque da Cunha, Priscilla B S Albuquerque, Raiana Apolinário de Paula, Mary Ângela Aranda-Souza, Matheus Alves da Silva, Adrielle Zagmignan, Maria G Carneiro-da-Cunha, Luís Cláudio Nascimento da Silva, Maria Tereza Dos Santos Correia
Lectins are a large group of proteins found in animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria that recognize specific carbohydrate targets and play an important role in cell recognition and communication, host-pathogen interactions, embryogenesis, and tissue development. Recently, lectins have emerged as important biomedical tools that have been used in the development of immunomodulatory, antipathogenic, and anticancer agents. Several lectins have been shown to have the ability to discriminate between normal cells and tumor cells as a result of their different glycosylation patterns...
May 22, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544894/regulation-of-maize-kernel-weight-and-carbohydrate-metabolism-by-abscisic-acid-applied-at-the-early-and-middle-post-pollination-stages-in-vitro
#13
Li Zhang, Xu-Hui Li, Zhen Gao, Si Shen, Xiao-Gui Liang, Xue Zhao, Shan Lin, Shun-Li Zhou
Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in plants under drought stress, but views on the role of ABA in kernel formation and abortion are not unified. The response of the developing maize kernel to exogenous ABA was investigated by excising kernels from cob sections at four days after pollination and culturing in vitro with different concentrations of ABA (0, 5, 10, 100μM). When ABA was applied at the early post-pollination stage (EPPS), significant weight loss was observed at high ABA concentration (100μM), which could be attributed to jointly affected sink capacity and activity...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544609/global-circular-rna-expression-profile-of-human-gastric-cancer-and-its-clinical-significance
#14
Yongfu Shao, Jinyun Li, Rongdan Lu, Tianwen Li, Yunben Yang, Bingxiu Xiao, Junming Guo
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a new class of noncoding RNAs. However, the expression profile and clinical significance of circRNAs in human gastric cancer is unclear. The global circRNA expression profile in human gastric cancer was measured by circRNA microarray. Hsa_circ_0014717, one of the most downregulated circRNAs in microarray, was selected as a targeted circRNA to explore its levels in gastric tissues and gastric juice. Freeze-thaw experiment and incubation experiment confirmed the stability of gastric juice circRNAs...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544549/future-warmer-seas-increased-stress-and-susceptibility-to-grazing-in-seedlings-of-a-marine-habitat-forming-species
#15
Gema Hernán, María J Ortega, Alberto M Gándara, Inés Castejón, Jorge Terrados, Fiona Tomas
Increases in seawater temperature are expected to have negative consequences for marine organisms. Beyond individual effects, species-specific differences in thermal tolerance are predicted to modify species interactions and increase the strength of top-down effects, particularly in plant-herbivore interactions. Shifts in trophic interactions will be especially important when affecting habitat-forming species such as seagrasses, as the consequences on their abundance will cascade throughout the food web. Seagrasses are a major component of coastal ecosystems offering important ecosystem services, but are threatened by multiple anthropogenic stressors, including warming...
May 22, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544235/absence-of-juvenile-hormone-signalling-regulates-the-dynamic-expression-profiles-of-nutritional-metabolism-genes-during-diapause-preparation-in-the-cabbage-beetle-colaphellus-bowringi
#16
W Liu, Q-Q Tan, L Zhu, Y Li, F Zhu, C-L Lei, X-P Wang
Temperate insects have evolved diapause, a period of programmed developmental arrest during specific life stages, to survive unfavourable conditions. During the diapause preparation phase (DPP), diapause-destined individuals generally store large amounts of fat by regulating nutrition distribution for the energy requirement during diapause maintenance and postdiapause development. Although nutritional patterns during the DPP have been investigated at physiological and biochemical levels in many insects, it remains largely unknown how nutritional metabolism is regulated during the DPP at molecular levels...
May 20, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544017/evaluation-of-canine-adverse-food-reactions-by-patch-testing-with-single-proteins-single-carbohydrates-and-commercial-foods
#17
Cornelia Johansen, Claire Mariani, Ralf S Mueller
BACKGROUND: Adverse food reaction (AFR) is an important differential diagnosis for the pruritic dog. It is usually diagnosed by feeding an elimination diet with a novel protein and carbohydrate source for eight weeks followed by subsequent food provocation. A previous study demonstrated that patch testing dogs with foods had a high sensitivity and negative predictability for selection of elimination diet ingredients. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate patch testing with proteins, carbohydrates and dry commercial dog food in dogs to determine whether there was value in patch testing to aid the diagnosis of canine adverse food reaction...
May 22, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543565/lactate-supplementation-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injured-adults-by-primed-constant-infusion-of-sodium-l-lactate
#18
Stephanie M Wolahan, Howard C Mao, Courtney Real, Paul M Vespa, Thomas C Glenn
Carbohydrate fuel augmentation following traumatic brain injury may be a viable treatment to improve recovery when cerebral oxidative metabolism of glucose is depressed. We performed a primed constant sodium L-lactate infusion in 11 moderate to severely brain injured adults. Blood was collected before and periodically during the infusion study. We quantified global cerebral uptake of glucose and lactate and other systemic metabolites associated with energy metabolism. Our hypothesis was that cerebral lactate uptake, as measured by the arteriovenous difference of lactate (AVDlac), would increase in severely injured TBI patients in the neurocritical care unit...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543133/defense-syndromes-in-lodgepole-whitebark-pine-ecosystems-relate-to-degree-of-historical-exposure-to-mountain-pine-beetles
#19
Kenneth F Raffa, Charles J Mason, Pieruluigi Bonello, Stephen Cook, Nadir Erbilgin, Ken Keefover-Ring, Jennifer G Klutsch, Caterina Villari, Philip A Townsend
Warming climate is allowing tree-killing bark beetles to expand their ranges and access naïve and semi-naïve conifers. Conifers respond to attack using complex mixtures of chemical defenses that can impede beetle success, but beetles exploit some compounds for host location and communication. Outcomes of changing relationships will depend on concentrations and compositions of multiple host compounds, which are largely unknown. We analyzed constitutive and induced chemistries of Dendroctonus ponderosae's primary historical host, Pinus contorta, and P...
May 24, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543022/sedentary-behaviour-is-a-key-determinant-of-metabolic-inflexibility
#20
Corey A Rynders, Stephane Blanc, Nathan DeJong, Daniel H Bessesen, Audrey Bergouignan
Metabolic flexibility is defined as the ability to adapt substrate oxidation rates in response to changes in fuel availability. The inability to switch between the oxidation of lipid and carbohydrate appears to be an important feature of chronic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Laboratory assessment of metabolic flexibility has traditionally involved measurement of the respiratory quotient (RQ) by indirect calorimetry during the fasted to fed transition (e.g. mixed meal challenge) or during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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