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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923204/case-report-of-the-surgical-management-of-small-bowel-and-colonic-ischaemia-associated-with-anorexia-nervosa-binge-purge-subtype
#1
Ann T Foran, Cillian Clancy, Tom F Gorey
INTRODUCTION: Anorexia Nervosa affects up to 1% of the population and can present with binge/purge episodes. A paucity of literature exists regarding small bowel and colonic ischaemia relating to this common condition. We report our own experience and management of a patient with anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype with small bowel and colon ischaemia and review existing cases in the literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 32year old female self-presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain, abdominal distension and vomiting on a background history of binge/purge subtype eating disorder, following consumption of a large amount of carbohydrates...
August 25, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923067/chronological-lifespan-in-yeast-is-dependent-on-the-accumulation-of-storage-carbohydrates-mediated-by-yak1-mck1-and-rim15-kinases
#2
Lu Cao, Yingzhi Tang, Zhenzhen Quan, Zhe Zhang, Stephen G Oliver, Nianshu Zhang
Upon starvation for glucose or any other macronutrient, yeast cells exit from the mitotic cell cycle and acquire a set of characteristics that are specific to quiescent cells to ensure longevity. Little is known about the molecular determinants that orchestrate quiescence entry and lifespan extension. Using starvation-specific gene reporters, we screened a subset of the yeast deletion library representing the genes encoding 'signaling' proteins. Apart from the previously characterised Rim15, Mck1 and Yak1 kinases, the SNF1/AMPK complex, the cell wall integrity pathway and a number of cell cycle regulators were shown to be necessary for proper quiescence establishment and for extension of chronological lifespan (CLS), suggesting that entry into quiescence requires the integration of starvation signals transmitted via multiple signaling pathways...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922863/suppression-of-myocardial-18f-fdg-uptake-through-prolonged-high-fat-high-protein-and-very-low-carbohydrate-diet-before-fdg-pet-ct-for-evaluation-of-patients-with-suspected-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#3
Yang Lu, Christopher Grant, Karen Xie, Nadera J Sweiss
BACKGROUND: A major obstacle in using FDG-PET/CT to diagnose cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is the unpredictable physiological myocardial FDG uptake. We hypothesized that a prolonged 72-hour pretest high-fat, high-protein, and very-low-carbohydrate (HFHPVLC) diet preparation could suppress physiologic myocardial uptake of FDG and thus help to identify active CS. METHODS: This retrospective study included 215 FDG-PET/CT tests from 207 patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis and clinical suspicion for CS between July 2014 and December 2015...
December 3, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922824/impaired-energy-metabolism-of-senescent-muscle-satellite-cells-is-associated-with-oxidative-modifications-of-glycolytic-enzymes
#4
Martín A Baraibar, Janek Hyzewicz, Adelina Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Anne-Laure Bulteau, Carina Prip-Buus, Gillian Butler-Browne, Bertrand Friguet
Accumulation of oxidized proteins is a hallmark of cellular and organismal aging. Adult muscle stem cell (or satellite cell) replication and differentiation is compromised with age contributing to sarcopenia. However, the molecular events related to satellite cell dysfunction during aging are not completely understood. In the present study we have addressed the potential impact of oxidatively modified proteins on the altered metabolism of senescent human satellite cells. By using a modified proteomics analysis we have found that proteins involved in protein quality control and glycolytic enzymes are the main targets of oxidation (carbonylation) and modification with advanced glycation/lipid peroxidation end products during the replicative senescence of satellite cells...
December 4, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922209/unconventional-pretreatment-of-lignocellulose-with-low-temperature-plasma
#5
Jens Vanneste, Thijs Ennaert, Annick Vanhulsel, Bert F Sels
Lignocellulose represents a potential supply of sustainable feedstock for the production of biofuels and chemicals. There is, however, an important cost and efficiency challenge associated with the conversion of such lignocellulosics. Since its structure is complex and not prone to undergo chemical reactions very easily, chemical and mechanical pretreatments are usually necessary in order to be able to refine them into the compositional building blocks (carbohydrates and lignin), from which value-added platform molecules such as glucose, ethylene glycol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, levulinic acid, etc...
December 6, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922006/structural-basis-of-myelin-associated-glycoprotein-adhesion-and-signalling
#6
Matti F Pronker, Suzanne Lemstra, Joost Snijder, Albert J R Heck, Dominique M E Thies-Weesie, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Bert J C Janssen
Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a myelin-expressed cell-adhesion and bi-directional signalling molecule. MAG maintains the myelin-axon spacing by interacting with specific neuronal glycolipids (gangliosides), inhibits axon regeneration and controls myelin formation. The mechanisms underlying MAG adhesion and signalling are unresolved. We present crystal structures of the MAG full ectodomain, which reveal an extended conformation of five Ig domains and a homodimeric arrangement involving membrane-proximal domains Ig4 and Ig5...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921432/-composition-of-macronutrients-in-the-diabetic-diet
#7
Zdeněk Rušavý, Michal Žourek
The diabetic diet is one of the pillars of diabetes treatment. The rapid development of knowledge relating to the treatment of diabetes also includes diet. The paper focuses on the importance of a diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and prevention of atherosclerosis. Its main goal is to assess the impact of a composition of macronutrients on individuals with type 2 diabetes. The paper is divided into several parts, each of which ends with a conclusion. The first part examines weight reduction. The diet aimed at a weight loss is effective, it can effectively prevent diabetes, it leads to improvements in glucose control and reduction of the risk factors for atherosclerosis, however it will not impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality until after more than 20 years...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921399/antioxidant-and-antidiabetic-properties-of-tartary-buckwheat-rice-flavonoids-after-in-vitro-digestion
#8
Tao Bao, Ye Wang, Yu-Ting Li, Vemana Gowd, Xin-He Niu, Hai-Ying Yang, Li-Shui Chen, Wei Chen, Chong-de Sun
Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921351/the-effect-of-combined-inositol-hexakisphosphate-and-inositol-supplement-in-streptozotocin-induced-type-2-diabetic-rats
#9
Shadae R Foster, Felix O Omoruyi, Juan Bustamante, Ruby L A Lindo, Lowell L Dilworth
Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and inositol both regulate insulin secretion, but their combined use in the management of diabetes deserves investigation. The combined effects of IP6 and inositol supplementation were investigated in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats. The following groups of rats were studied for 8 weeks: non-diabetic control, non-diabetic high-fat diet control, diabetic untreated, diabetic rats treated with the combination of IP6 and inositol (650 mg/kg bw) and diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg bw)...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921298/female-induced-remote-regulation-of-sperm-physiology-may-provide-opportunities-for-gamete-level-mate-choice
#10
Jukka Kekäläinen, Jonathan P Evans
In sedentary externally fertilizing species, direct interactions between mating partners are limited and pre-fertilization communication between sexes occur largely at the gamete level. Certain combinations of eggs and sperm often have higher fertilization success than others, which may be contingent on egg-derived chemical factors that preferentially attract sperm from compatible males. Here, we examine the mechanisms underlying such effects in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, where differential sperm attraction has recently been shown to be associated with variation in offspring viability...
December 6, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921082/global-role-of-cyclic-amp-signaling-in-ph-dependent-responses-in-candida-albicans
#11
Jeffrey M Hollomon, Nora Grahl, Sven D Willger, Katja Koeppen, Deborah A Hogan
Candida albicans behaviors are affected by pH, an important environmental variable. Filamentous growth is a pH-responsive behavior, where alkaline conditions favor hyphal growth and acid conditions favor growth as yeast. We employed filamentous growth as a tool to study the impact of pH on the hyphal growth regulator Cyr1, and we report that downregulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling by acidic pH contributes to the inhibition of hyphal growth in minimal medium with GlcNAc. Ras1 and Cyr1 are generally required for efficient hyphal growth, and the effects of low pH on Ras1 proteolysis and GTP binding are consistent with diminished cAMP output...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921046/weight-management-in-primary-care
#12
REVIEW
Susanne Maurer
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges worldwide. It is not only a medical but also a philosophical, ecological, economic, sociocultural, and psychological problem as well as a severe consequence of our modern value definition to 'receive more and more'. Therefore, physicians are not able to treat obesity broadly and should not be used as tools to achieve certain weight goals. METHODS: This article presents an outline of conservative obesity therapy...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920777/physical-interaction-of-t-cells-with-dendritic-cells-is-not-required-for-the-immunomodulatory-effects-of-the-edible-mushroom-agaricus-subrufescens
#13
Ruud H P Wilbers, Lotte B Westerhof, Jan van de Velde, Geert Smant, Debbie R van Raaij, Anton S M Sonnenberg, Jaap Bakker, Arjen Schots
Mushrooms are well known for their immunomodulating capacities. However, little is known about how mushroom-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) affect T cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mushroom compounds derived from seven edible mushroom species on DCs, their fate in DCs, and the effect of the mushroom-stimulated DCs on T cells. Each mushroom species stimulated DCs in a different manner as was revealed from the DC's cytokine response. Assessing DC maturation revealed that only one mushroom species, Agaricus subrufescens, induced complete DC maturation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920771/evidence-for-ecological-flexibility-in-the-cosmopolitan-genus-curtobacterium
#14
Alexander B Chase, Philip Arevalo, Martin F Polz, Renaud Berlemont, Jennifer B H Martiny
Assigning ecological roles to bacterial taxa remains imperative to understanding how microbial communities will respond to changing environmental conditions. Here we analyze the genus Curtobacterium, as it was found to be the most abundant taxon in a leaf litter community in southern California. Traditional characterization of this taxon predominantly associates it as the causal pathogen in the agricultural crops of dry beans. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether the abundance of this genus was because of its role as a plant pathogen or another ecological role...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920411/glycemic-indices-glycemic-load-and-glycemic-response-for-seventeen-varieties-of-dates-grown-in-saudi-arabia
#15
Metab Ali AlGeffari, Ebtehal Solaiman Almogbel, Homaidan Turki Alhomaidan, Ragab El-Mergawi, Issam Alsaed Barrimah
BACKGROUND: Dates are consumed worldwide, and are an important fruit for many individuals in Saudi Arabia. Currently, limited information is available on the glycemic indices of different date varieties. OBJECTIVES: To determine the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and glycemic response for 17 common date varieties in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial on healthy subjects. SETTING: College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia...
November 2016: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920337/effect-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-on-acrylamide-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-pc12-cells
#16
Y He, D Tan, Y Mi, B Bai, D Jiang, X Zhou, S Ji
Acrylamide (ACR) is a chemical intermediate utilized in industry. ACR is also formed during heating of foods containing carbohydrates and amino acids. Therefore, humans are widely exposed to ACR, and ACR neurotoxicity in humans is a significant public health issue attracting wide attention. In this study, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant polyphenolic compound in green tea, in PC12 cells treated with ACR. ACR-treated PC12 cells pretreated with various concentrations of EGCG (2...
December 5, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919820/tnf-%C3%AE-and-cancer-cachexia-molecular-insights-and-clinical-implications
#17
REVIEW
Hetal J Patel, Bhoomika M Patel
Cancer cachexia characterized by a chronic wasting syndrome, involves skeletal muscle loss and adipose tissue loss and resistance to conventional nutritional support. Cachexia is responsible for the reduction in quality and length of life of cancer patients. It also decreases the muscle strength of the patients. The pro-inflammatory and pro-cachectic factors produced by the tumor cells have important role in genesis of cachexia. A number of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) may have important role in the pathological mechanisms of cachexia in cancer...
December 2, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919710/the-transcription-factor-carbohydrate-response-element-binding-protein-chrebp-a-possible-link-between-metabolic-disease-and-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Katsumi Iizuka
Carbohydrate-response element-binding protein (ChREBP) has been identified as a transcription factor that binds to carbohydrate response element in the promoter of pyruvate kinase, liver and red blood cells. ChREBP is activated by metabolites derived from glucose and suppressed by adenosine monophosphate (AMP), ketone bodies and cyclic cAMP. ChREBP regulates gene transcription related to glucose and lipid metabolism. Findings from knockout mice and human subjects suggest that ChREBP helps to induce hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance...
December 2, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919701/evaluation-of-the-neurotoxic-effects-of-chronic-embryonic-exposure-with-inorganic-mercury-on-motor-and-anxiety-like-responses-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-larvae
#19
Noraini Abu Bakar, Nurul Syafida Asma' Mohd Sata, Nurul Farhana Ramlan, Wan Norhamidah Wan Ibrahim, Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Mohammad Noor Amal Azmai
Chronic exposure to mercury (Hg) can lead to cumulative impairments in motor and cognitive functions including alteration in anxiety responses. Although several risk factors have been identified in recent year, little is known about the environmental factors that either due exposure toward low level of inorganic mercury that may led to the developmental disorders. The present study investigated the effects of embryonic exposure of mercury chloride on motor function and anxiety-like behavior. The embryo exposed to 6 different concentrations of HgCl2 (7...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919444/mechanistic-genomic-and-proteomic-study-on-the-effects-of-bisgma-derived-biodegradation-product-on-cariogenic-bacteria
#20
Lida Sadeghinejad, Dennis G Cvitkovitch, Walter L Siqueira, Justin Merritt, J Paul Santerre, Yoav Finer
OBJECTIVES: Investigate the effects of a Bis-phenyl-glycidyl-dimethacrylate (BisGMA) biodegradation product, bishydroxypropoxyphenyl-propane (BisHPPP), on gene expression and protein synthesis of cariogenic bacteria. METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the effects of BisHPPP on the expression of specific virulence-associated genes, i.e. gtfB, gtfC, gbpB, comC, comD, comE and atpH in Streptococcus mutans UA159. Possible mechanisms for bacterial response to BisHPPP were explored using gene knock-out and associated complemented strains of the signal peptide encoding gene, comC...
December 2, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
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