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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335037/is-freedom-still-therapy-the-40th-anniversary-of-the-italian-mental-health-care-reform
#1
A Fioritti
On 13 May 1978, the Italian Parliament approved Law 180, universally known as 'Basaglia Law' after the name of the leader of the anti-institutional movement which promoted this radical community mental health care reform. Forty years later, Italian psychiatry still runs a community care system, albeit with degrees of solidity and quality very varied along the peninsula. Mental health care is still an integral part of the National Health System, with liberal regulations on coercion and a lowest number of general hospital and residential facilities beds...
January 16, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324277/readmission-in-psychiatry-inpatients-within-a-year-of-discharge-the-role-of-symptoms-at-discharge-and-post-discharge-care-in-a-brazilian-sample
#2
Fernanda Lucia Capitanio Baeza, Neusa Sica da Rocha, Marcelo Pio de Almeida Fleck
INTRODUCTION: Readmission into inpatient psychiatric beds is a useful outcome for patients, care providers, and policymakers. This study aims to investigate the role of level of symptoms at discharge and type of post-discharge care in determining readmissions after a year before a psychiatric admission. METHODS: We performed a prospective and observational study in a general hospital psychiatric facility. Patients were assessed at admission, discharge, and one year after discharge...
December 2, 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298650/potential-application-of-centrifuges-to-protect-the-cns-in-space-and-on-earth
#3
Yoshiki Takamatsu, Gilbert Ho, Yuki Shimizu, Shuei Sugama, Takato Takenouchi, Masaaki Waragai, Jianshe Wei, Makoto Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: Centrifuges are the principal means of generating physiological hypergravity and have been used for many medical purposes, including the therapy of psychiatric diseases and evaluation of vestibular system in the pilots. In particular, modern centrifuges have evolved into mechanically sophisticated precision instruments compared to primitive ones in old times, indicating that centrifuges might possess great potential in modern medicine. Indeed, studies are in progress to apply centrifuges to musculoskeletal degenerative diseases, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia...
December 29, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277424/unplanned-admissions-to-inpatient-psychiatric-treatment-and-services-received-prior-to-admission
#4
Solveig Osborg Ose, Jorid Kalseth, Marian Ådnanes, Tone Tveit, Solfrid E Lilleeng
BACKGROUND: Inpatient bed numbers are continually being reduced but are not being replaced with adequate alternatives in primary health care. There is a considerable risk that eventually all inpatient treatment will be unplanned, because planned or elective treatments are superseded by urgent needs when capacity is reduced. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To estimate the rate of unplanned admissions to inpatient psychiatric treatment facilities in Norway and analyse the difference between patients with unplanned and planned admissions regarding services received during the three months prior to admission as well as clinical, demographical and socioeconomic characteristics of patients...
December 20, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275839/the-multifaceted-role-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-emotion-decision-making-social-cognition-and-psychopathology
#5
REVIEW
Jaryd Hiser, Michael Koenigs
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been implicated in a variety of social, cognitive, and affective functions that are commonly disrupted in mental illness. In this review, we summarize data from a diverse array of human and animal studies demonstrating that the vmPFC is a key node of cortical and subcortical networks that subserve at least three broad domains of psychological function linked to psychopathology. One track of research indicates that the vmPFC is critical for the representation of reward- and value-based decision making, through interactions with the ventral striatum and amygdala...
November 20, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259574/the-relationship-between-binge-eating-disorder-and-suicidality-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Chiara Conti, Roberta Lanzara, Mattia Scipioni, Marzia Iasenza, Maria T Guagnano, Mario Fulcheri
Background: We carried out a systematic review analyzing the relation between binge eating disorder (BED), a recent addition to the eating disorders in DSM-5, and suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation or attempted and/or committed suicide) by synthesizing the relevant studies' qualitative data. Methods: We conducted, according to PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search of the literature on PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect. Search terms were "binge eating disorder" combined with the "AND" Boolean operator and "suicid*...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221501/lean-methodology-reduces-inappropriate-use-of-antipsychotics-for-agitation-at-a-psychiatric-hospital
#7
Joshana K Goga, Antonio Depaolo, Sunil Khushalani, J Ken Walters, Robert Roca, Marc Zisselman, Christopher Borleis
OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate the Effects of Applying Lean Methodology-Improving Quality Increasing Efficiency by Eliminating Waste and Reducing Costs-An Approach To Decrease the Prescribing Frequency of Antipsychotics for The Indication of Agitation. DESIGN: Historically Controlled Study. SETTING: Bheppard Pratt Health System is the Largest Private Provider of Psychiatric Care in Maryland With a Total Bed Capacity of 300. There Were 4 337 Patient Days From November 1 2012 to October 31 2013 on the Dementia Unit...
January 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186377/oxytocin-oxytocin-receptor-systems-facilitate-social-defeat-posture-in-male-mice
#8
Naranbat Nasanbuyan, Masahide Yoshida, Yuki Takayanagi, Ayumu Inutsuka, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Akihiro Yamanaka, Tatsushi Onaka
Social stress has deteriorating effects on various psychiatric diseases. In animal models, exposure to socially dominant conspecifics, i.e., social defeat stress, evokes species-specific defeat posture via unknown mechanisms. Oxytocin neurons have been shown to be activated by stressful stimuli and to have pro-social and anxiolytic actions. The roles of oxytocin during social defeat stress remain unclear. Expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in oxytocin neurons and in oxytocin receptor-expressing neurons was investigated in mice...
November 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172099/associations-between-adhd-and-eating-disorders-in-relation-to-comorbid-psychiatric-disorders-in-a-nationally-representative-sample
#9
Hannah Ziobrowski, Timothy D Brewerton, Alexis E Duncan
The objective of this study was to examine whether previously observed associations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with eating disorders (EDs) are at least partially attributable to other underlying psychopathology. Data came from 4719 participants aged 18-44 years in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication and the National Survey of American Life. DSM-IV diagnoses were assessed using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Multinomial logistic regression assessed associations between DSM-IV lifetime and past-12 month diagnoses of ADHD with EDs in unadjusted models and in models adjusted for demographic variables and other psychopathology...
November 16, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169073/difficulty-of-confining-recalcitrant-tuberculosis-patients-in-isolation-wards-in-japan-2013-2014
#10
Y Nagata, M Ota, E Saito
OBJECTIVES: In Japan, approximately 7000 smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) cases were reported in 2014. According to the law, such patients must be isolated in a TB ward until they become at least sputum smear-negative. However, there are some recalcitrant patients who are difficult to isolate because of problematic behaviors. This study was conducted to characterize recalcitrant TB patients and determine why they left the hospitals and how they were followed up after they left. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
November 20, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135754/implementation-of-a-pediatric-behavioral-staffing-algorithm-in-an-acute-hospital-a-best-practice-implementation-project
#11
Tamara O'Connor
BACKGROUND: A progressive decline in acute psychiatric facility beds has led to a steadily increasing number of pediatric psychiatric patients hospitalized on acute care medical-surgical units. Clinical nurses in this environment feel ill-equipped to provide quality behavioral health care. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: This project aimed to improve continuity of care as well as staff and patient safety in pediatric acute and transitional care units. The specific objectives related to implementation of a resource allocation algorithm for staffing behavioral health admissions and consistent use of an interdisciplinary psychiatric huddle...
November 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120277/real-world-effectiveness-of-clozapine-for-borderline-personality-disorder-results-from-a-2-year-mirror-image-study
#12
Christopher Rohde, Christoffer Polcwiartek, Christoph U Correll, Jimmi Nielsen
While some second-generation antipsychotics have shown efficacy on patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), limited data exist regarding the effect of clozapine. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of clozapine on naturalistic outcomes in BPD patients with a 2-year mirror-image model. Among 25,916 patients with BPD, 1,107 redeemed ≥ 1 clozapine prescription. Of these, 18,188 were "specific" BPD patients, and 102 redeemed ≥ 1 clozapine prescription. During a mean observation period of 598...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108434/carers-victoria-response-to-the-low-availability-of-public-psychiatric-beds
#13
Glenn Campbell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107120/inter-individual-differences-in-trait-anxiety-shape-the-functional-connectivity-between-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-and-the-amygdala-during-brief-threat-processing
#14
Leonie Brinkmann, Christine Buff, Katharina Feldker, Paula Neumeister, Carina Y Heitmann, David Hofmann, Maximilian Bruchmann, Martin J Herrmann, Thomas Straube
An influential framework suggests that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is involved in phasic responses to threat, while the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) mediates sustained anxiety. However, this model has been questioned, proposing that the role of the BNST is not limited to sustained threat contexts. Rather, amygdala and BNST also seem to work in concert in the processing of discrete and briefly presented threat-related stimuli, likely dependent on inter-individual differences in anxiety...
November 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105149/a-pilot-study-investigating-the-feasibility-of-symptom-assessment-manager-sam-a-web-based-real-time-tool-for-monitoring-challenging-behaviors
#15
Samantha M Loi, Sangeeth Wanasinghage, Anita Goh, Nicola T Lautenschlager, David G Darby, Dennis Velakoulis
OBJECTIVE: Improving and minimizing challenging behaviors seen in psychiatric conditions, including behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia are important in the care of people with these conditions. Yet there is a lack of systematic evaluation of these as a part of routine clinical care. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory is a validated and reliable tool for rating the severity and disruptiveness of challenging behaviors. We report on the evaluation of a Web-based symptom assessment manager (SAM), designed to address the limitation of previous tools using some of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory functions, to monitor behaviors by staff caring for people with dementia and other psychiatric conditions in inpatient and residential care settings...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097857/like-the-eye-of-the-tiger-inpatient-psychiatric-facility-exclusionary-criteria-and-its-knockout-of-the-emergency-psychiatric-patient
#16
Veronica Tucci, John Liu, Anu Matorin, Asim Shah, Nidal Moukaddam
Context: Over 6% of all emergency department (ED) visits in the United States involve primary mental health or behavioral issues. The patients are stabilized in the ED but frequently require admission to an inpatient psychiatric unit or institution for longer term treatment and management. To facilitate this process, an emergency physician (EP) must first "medically clear" the patient as stable for transfer. At present, there is no interdisciplinary consensus regarding the necessary elements of the medical clearance or stability assessment process...
October 2017: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066224/oxytocin-receptors-in-the-anteromedial-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-promote-stress-induced-social-avoidance-in-female-california-mice
#17
Natalia Duque-Wilckens, Michael Q Steinman, Marta Busnelli, Bice Chini, Sae Yokoyama, Mary Pham, Sarah A Laredo, Rebecca Hao, Allison M Perkeybile, Vanessa A Minie, Phillip B Tan, Karen L Bales, Brian C Trainor
BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is a key regulator of social and emotional behaviors. The effects of OT are context dependent, and it has been proposed that OT increases the salience of both positive and negative social cues. Here we tested whether the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) mediates anxiogenic effects of OT. METHODS: First, we studied the effects of systemic administration of an OT receptor (OTR) antagonist L-368,899 on social behavior in male and female California mice exposed to social defeat...
September 14, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053927/safety-of-pharmacotherapy-options-for-bulimia-nervosa-and-binge-eating-disorder
#18
Nicholas T Bello, Bryn L Yeomans
Eating disorders represent a set of psychiatric illnesses with lifelong complications and high relapse rates. Individuals with eating disorders are often stigmatized and clinicians have a limited set of treatments options. Pharmacotherapy has the potential to improve long term compliance and patient commitment to treatment for eating disorders. Areas Covered: This review will examine the efficacy and safety profile of the FDA-approved medications for the treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED)...
October 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044798/the-impact-of-substance-use-disorders-on-clinical-outcomes-in-older-adult-psychiatric-inpatients
#19
Scott D Lane, Sabrina C da Costa, Antonio L Teixeira, Charles F Reynolds, Breno S Diniz
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations among substance use disorder (SUD) and measures of length of stay (LOS) and non-psychiatric medical comorbidity (MEDCO) in older-adult inpatients with serious mental illness (SMI), hypothesizing SUD would be related to worse clinical outcomes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study analyzed medical records from 2010 to 2016 of 7258 inpatients with SMI ≥ age 50, obtained from a 274-bed psychiatric hospital. Descriptive analyses examined prevalence rates for SUD status (+/-), individual drug classes, and total number of SUDs (polysubstance use disorders)...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037972/sex-differences-in-circuits-activated-by-corticotropin-releasing-factor-in-rats
#20
Madeleine Salvatore, Kimberly Wiersielis, Sandra Luz, David Waxler, Seema Bhatnagar, Debra A Bangasser
Women are more likely than men to suffer from psychiatric disorders characterized by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) hypersecretion, suggesting sex differences in CRF sensitivity. In rodents, sex differences in the sensitivity of specific brain regions to CRF have been identified. However, regions do not work in isolation, but rather form circuits to coordinate distinct responses to stress. Here we examined whether CRF activates different circuits in male and female rats. Following central administration of CRF or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), neuronal activation in stress-related areas was assessed using cFOS...
October 13, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
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