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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169073/difficulty-of-confining-recalcitrant-tuberculosis-patients-in-isolation-wards-in-japan-2013-2014
#1
Y Nagata, M Ota, E Saito
OBJECTIVES: In Japan, approximately 7000 smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) cases were reported in 2014. According to the law, such patients must be isolated in a TB ward until they become at least sputum smear-negative. However, there are some recalcitrant patients who are difficult to isolate because of problematic behaviors. This study was conducted to characterize recalcitrant TB patients and determine why they left the hospitals and how they were followed up after they left. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
November 20, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135754/implementation-of-a-pediatric-behavioral-staffing-algorithm-in-an-acute-hospital-a-best-practice-implementation-project
#2
Tamara O'Connor
BACKGROUND: A progressive decline in acute psychiatric facility beds has led to a steadily increasing number of pediatric psychiatric patients hospitalized on acute care medical-surgical units. Clinical nurses in this environment feel ill-equipped to provide quality behavioral health care. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: This project aimed to improve continuity of care as well as staff and patient safety in pediatric acute and transitional care units. The specific objectives related to implementation of a resource allocation algorithm for staffing behavioral health admissions and consistent use of an interdisciplinary psychiatric huddle...
November 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120277/real-world-effectiveness-of-clozapine-for-borderline-personality-disorder-results-from-a-2-year-mirror-image-study
#3
Christopher Rohde, Christoffer Polcwiartek, Christoph U Correll, Jimmi Nielsen
While some second-generation antipsychotics have shown efficacy on patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), limited data exist regarding the effect of clozapine. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of clozapine on naturalistic outcomes in BPD patients with a 2-year mirror-image model. Among 25,916 patients with BPD, 1,107 redeemed ≥ 1 clozapine prescription. Of these, 18,188 were "specific" BPD patients, and 102 redeemed ≥ 1 clozapine prescription. During a mean observation period of 598...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108434/carers-victoria-response-to-the-low-availability-of-public-psychiatric-beds
#4
Glenn Campbell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107120/inter-individual-differences-in-trait-anxiety-shape-the-functional-connectivity-between-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-and-the-amygdala-during-brief-threat-processing
#5
Leonie Brinkmann, Christine Buff, Katharina Feldker, Paula Neumeister, Carina Y Heitmann, David Hofmann, Maximilian Bruchmann, Martin J Herrmann, Thomas Straube
An influential framework suggests that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is involved in phasic responses to threat, while the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) mediates sustained anxiety. However, this model has been questioned, proposing that the role of the BNST is not limited to sustained threat contexts. Rather, amygdala and BNST also seem to work in concert in the processing of discrete and briefly presented threat-related stimuli, likely dependent on inter-individual differences in anxiety...
November 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105149/a-pilot-study-investigating-the-feasibility-of-symptom-assessment-manager-sam-a-web-based-real-time-tool-for-monitoring-challenging-behaviors
#6
Samantha M Loi, Sangeeth Wanasinghage, Anita Goh, Nicola T Lautenschlager, David G Darby, Dennis Velakoulis
OBJECTIVE: Improving and minimizing challenging behaviors seen in psychiatric conditions, including behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia are important in the care of people with these conditions. Yet there is a lack of systematic evaluation of these as a part of routine clinical care. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory is a validated and reliable tool for rating the severity and disruptiveness of challenging behaviors. We report on the evaluation of a Web-based symptom assessment manager (SAM), designed to address the limitation of previous tools using some of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory functions, to monitor behaviors by staff caring for people with dementia and other psychiatric conditions in inpatient and residential care settings...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097857/like-the-eye-of-the-tiger-inpatient-psychiatric-facility-exclusionary-criteria-and-its-knockout-of-the-emergency-psychiatric-patient
#7
Veronica Tucci, John Liu, Anu Matorin, Asim Shah, Nidal Moukaddam
Context: Over 6% of all emergency department (ED) visits in the United States involve primary mental health or behavioral issues. The patients are stabilized in the ED but frequently require admission to an inpatient psychiatric unit or institution for longer term treatment and management. To facilitate this process, an emergency physician (EP) must first "medically clear" the patient as stable for transfer. At present, there is no interdisciplinary consensus regarding the necessary elements of the medical clearance or stability assessment process...
October 2017: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066224/oxytocin-receptors-in-the-anteromedial-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-promote-stress-induced-social-avoidance-in-female-california-mice
#8
Natalia Duque-Wilckens, Michael Q Steinman, Marta Busnelli, Bice Chini, Sae Yokoyama, Mary Pham, Sarah A Laredo, Rebecca Hao, Allison M Perkeybile, Vanessa A Minie, Phillip B Tan, Karen L Bales, Brian C Trainor
BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is a key regulator of social and emotional behaviors. The effects of OT are context dependent, and it has been proposed that OT increases the salience of both positive and negative social cues. Here we tested whether the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) mediates anxiogenic effects of OT. METHODS: First, we studied the effects of systemic administration of an OT receptor (OTR) antagonist L-368,899 on social behavior in male and female California mice exposed to social defeat...
September 14, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053927/safety-of-pharmacotherapy-options-for-bulimia-nervosa-and-binge-eating-disorder
#9
Nicholas T Bello, Bryn L Yeomans
Eating disorders represent a set of psychiatric illnesses with lifelong complications and high relapse rates. Individuals with eating disorders are often stigmatized and clinicians have a limited set of treatments options. Pharmacotherapy has the potential to improve long term compliance and patient commitment to treatment for eating disorders. Areas Covered: This review will examine the efficacy and safety profile of the FDA-approved medications for the treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED)...
October 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044798/the-impact-of-substance-use-disorders-on-clinical-outcomes-in-older-adult-psychiatric-inpatients
#10
Scott D Lane, Sabrina C da Costa, Antonio L Teixeira, Charles F Reynolds, Breno S Diniz
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations among substance use disorder (SUD) and measures of length of stay (LOS) and non-psychiatric medical comorbidity (MEDCO) in older-adult inpatients with serious mental illness (SMI), hypothesizing SUD would be related to worse clinical outcomes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study analyzed medical records from 2010 to 2016 of 7258 inpatients with SMI ≥ age 50, obtained from a 274-bed psychiatric hospital. Descriptive analyses examined prevalence rates for SUD status (+/-), individual drug classes, and total number of SUDs (polysubstance use disorders)...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037972/sex-differences-in-circuits-activated-by-corticotropin-releasing-factor-in-rats
#11
Madeleine Salvatore, Kimberly Wiersielis, Sandra Luz, David Waxler, Seema Bhatnagar, Debra A Bangasser
Women are more likely than men to suffer from psychiatric disorders characterized by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) hypersecretion, suggesting sex differences in CRF sensitivity. In rodents, sex differences in the sensitivity of specific brain regions to CRF have been identified. However, regions do not work in isolation, but rather form circuits to coordinate distinct responses to stress. Here we examined whether CRF activates different circuits in male and female rats. Following central administration of CRF or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), neuronal activation in stress-related areas was assessed using cFOS...
October 13, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032922/serotonin-transporter-density-in-binge-eating-disorder-and-pathological-gambling-a-pet-study-with-11-c-madam
#12
Joonas Majuri, Juho Joutsa, Jarkko Johansson, Valerie Voon, Riitta Parkkola, Hannu Alho, Eveliina Arponen, Valtteri Kaasinen
Behavioral addictions, such as pathological gambling (PG) and binge eating disorder (BED), appear to be associated with specific changes in brain dopamine and opioid function, but the role of other neurotransmitter systems is less clear. Given the crucial role of serotonin in a number of psychiatric disorders, we aimed to compare brain serotonergic function among individuals with BED, PG and healthy controls. Seven BED patients, 13 PG patients and 16 healthy controls were scanned with high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) using the serotonin transporter (SERT) tracer [(11)C]MADAM...
October 9, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017471/self-admission-to-inpatient-treatment-in-psychiatry-lessons-on-implementation
#13
Mattias Strand, Sanna A Gustafsson, Cynthia M Bulik, Yvonne von Hausswolff-Juhlin
BACKGROUND: Interest has increased in programs offering self-admission to inpatient treatment for patients with severe psychiatric illness, whereby patients who are well-known to a service are afforded the opportunity to admit themselves at will for a brief period of time. The aim of the present study was to examine patient experiences of practical considerations during the start-up phase of a self-admission program in an eating disorder service. METHODS: Sixteen adult participants in a self-admission program at a specialist eating disorders service were interviewed at 6 months about their experiences during the implementation phase...
October 10, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956950/mediators-and-treatment-matching-in-behavior-therapy-cognitive-therapy-and-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-chronic-insomnia
#14
Allison G Harvey, Lu Dong, Lynda Bélanger, Charles M Morin
OBJECTIVE: To examine the mediators and the potential of treatment matching to improve outcome for cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for insomnia. METHOD: Participants were 188 adults (117 women; Mage = 47.4 years, SD = 12.6) meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000) diagnostic criteria for chronic insomnia (Mduration: 14.5 years, SD: 12.8). Participants were randomized to behavior therapy (BT; n = 63), cognitive therapy (CT; n = 65), or CBT (n = 60)...
October 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953645/estimation-of-the-number-of-patient-deaths-recognized-by-a-medical-practitioner-as-caused-by-adverse-events-in-hospitals-in-japan-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Shigeru Fujita, Shuhei Iida, Yoji Nagai, Yoshiko Shimamori, Keiko Koyano, Yoh Moriyama, Tomonori Hasegawa
Chart reviews have been used to assess the incidence and impact of adverse events, but most of them are not a nationally representative sample. In addition, the definition of adverse events is generally broad and covers unintended events; the relationship to outcome is often unclear, and official estimates have not matched those of medical practitioner's recognition. The number of patient deaths from adverse events remains unknown.This study aimed to investigate the number of adverse event related patient deaths and mortality rate as recognized by medical practitioners in Japan, and to reveal the applicability of our method for estimating the number of adverse event related patient death as an alternative to a chart review...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949108/-recovering-the-capacity-to-live-outside-of-hospital-results-from-a-specialized-inpatient-program
#16
Pierre Lequin, Marie-Anne Brisard, Ifigeneia Skyllakou, Fabrice Herrera, Philippe Golay, Jacques Herrgott, Philippe Conus
An important number of psychiatric patients have difficulties to live outside of hospital and to stabilize their living situation. This results in long hospitalizations which are in conflict with the current strategies of brief hospital admissions for acute treatment. In order to tackle this issue, the service of general psychiatry of the Department of psychiatry of the CHUV, in Lausanne, Switzerland, has opened in June 2016 a rehabilitation inpatient unit of 18 beds focusing specifically on the development of the minimal abilities required to adapt to living in a flat or in a sheltered accommodation...
September 20, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944147/sigmoid-volvulus-in-young-patients-%C3%A4-new-twist-on-an-old-diagnosis
#17
Moaziz Sarfaraz, Syeda Rana Hasan, Shahid Lateef
According to the literature, sigmoid volvulus typically develops in patients of an older age with co-morbidities such as a psychiatric illness or a bed-bound chronic illness. Recent reports suggest that it should also be considered in young individuals without any preceding medical history. Abdominal roentgenography is a cheap and effective diagnostic modality that can avoid a delay in diagnosis. The treatment of colonic volvulus remains controversial and relies upon the procedure selected and the most appropriate therapeutic approach in terms of the clinical status of the patient, the location of the problem, the suspected existence or identification of peritonitis, bowel viability, and the expertise of the surgical team...
August 2017: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933969/psychopharmacological-advances-in-eating-disorders
#18
Hubertus Himmerich, Janet Treasure
Anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are the primary eating disorders (EDs). The only psychopharmacological treatment options for EDs with approval in some countries include fluoxetine for BN and lisdexamfetamine for BED. Given the high comorbidity and genetic correlations with other psychiatric disorders, it seems possible that novel medications for these conditions might also be effective in EDs. Areas Covered: The current scientific literature has increased our understanding of how medication could be beneficial for patients with EDs on a molecular, functional and behavioral level...
September 21, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933627/primary-care-for-mentally-ill-adults-in-acute-residential-treatment-facilities
#19
Linda Chafetz, Gerri Collins-Bride
Psychiatric bed capacity has decreased nationally with an impact on the number and the types of patients admitted to acute in-patient units. Acute residential programs provide alternatives to hospitals for patients with problems that do not meet criteria for admission. However, these settings may not have resources to respond to the medical co-morbidities associated with severe mental illness. To understand the medical needs of patients in these settings, this research examined data from a nurse-managed primary care outreach service...
October 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869209/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-an-aftercare-service-vs-treatment-as-usual-for-patients-with-severe-mental-disorders
#20
Eshagh Barfar, Vandad Sharifi, Homayoun Amini, Yasaman Mottaghipour, Masud Yunesian, Mehdi Tehranidoost, Payam Sobhebidari, Arash Rashidian
BACKGROUND: There have been claims that community mental health principles leads to the maintenance of better health and functioning in patients and can be more economical for patients with severe and chronic mental disorders. Economic evaluation studies have been used to assess the cost-effectiveness of national health programs, or to propose efficient strategies for health care delivery. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The current study is intended to test the cost-effectiveness of an Aftercare Service when compared with Treatment-As-Usual for patients with severe mental disorders in Iran...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
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