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Lymphoid organ

Fahd Touzani, Agnieszka Pozdzik
Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly acknowledged entity, characterized by an immune-mediated fibro-inflammatory process affecting virtually all organs, with infiltration of IgG4+ bearing plasma cells. Until today the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD remains unknown. Treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies efficiently induced remission and attenuated the secretory phenotype of myofibroblasts responsible of uncontrolled collagen deposition. This supports the pathogenic role of the adaptive immunity, particularly B cell compartment and B cell/T cell interaction...
November 9, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Angela D Pack, Matthew H Collins, Charles S Rosenberg, Rick L Tarleton
Trypanosoma cruzi infection is characterized by chronic parasitism of non-lymphoid tissues and is rarely eliminated despite potent adaptive immune responses. This failure to cure has frequently been attributed to a loss or impairment of anti-T. cruzi T cell responses over time, analogous to the T cell dysfunction described for other persistent infections. In this study, we have evaluated the role of CD8+ T cells during chronic T. cruzi infection (>100 dpi), with a focus on sites of pathogen persistence. Consistent with repetitive antigen exposure during chronic infection, parasite-specific CD8+ T cells from multiple organs expressed high levels of KLRG1, but exhibit a preferential accumulation of CD69+ cells in skeletal muscle, indicating recent antigen encounter in a niche for T...
November 12, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Thanh Loc Nguyen, Youngjin Choi, Jaeyun Kim
Immunotherapy has been recognized for decades as a promising therapeutic method for cancer treatment. To enhance host immune responses against cancer, antigen-presenting cells (APCs; e.g., dendritic cells) or T cells are educated using immunomodulatory agents including tumor-associated antigens and adjuvants, and manipulated to induce a cascading adaptive immune response targeting tumor cells. Mesoporous silica materials are promising candidates to improve cancer immunotherapy based on their attractive properties that include high porosity, high biocompatibility, facile surface modification, and self-adjuvanticity...
November 12, 2018: Advanced Materials
Derek Miller, Kenichiro Motomura, Valeria Garcia-Flores, Roberto Romero, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez
Pregnancy success is orchestrated by the complex balance between the maternal and fetal immune systems. Herein, we summarize the potential role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the maternal and fetal compartments. We reviewed published literature describing different ILC subsets [ILC1s, ILC2s, ILC3s, and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells] in the uterus, decidua, fetal tissues [liver, secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), intestine, and lung] and amniotic cavity. ILC1s, ILC2s, and ILC3s are present in the murine uterus prior to and during pregnancy but have only been detected in the non-pregnant endometrium in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Steven C Weindorf, Lauren B Smith, Scott R Owens
Herein we review the following selection of gastrointestinal lymphomas: monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma; indolent T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder of the gastrointestinal tract; intestinal T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified; duodenal-type follicular lymphoma; and Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer. Definitions reflect the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Clinical, morphologic, and immunophenotypic characteristics of each entity are emphasized...
November 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Joel D Leverson, Dan Cojocari
BCL-2 family proteins regulate the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (apoptosis) and play a key role in the development and health of multicellular organisms. The dynamics of these proteins' expression and interactions determine the survival of all cells in an organism, whether the healthy cells of a fully competent immune system or the diseased cells of an individual with cancer. Anti-apoptotic proteins like BCL-2, BCL-XL , and MCL-1 are well-known for maintaining tumor cell survival and are therefore attractive drug targets...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Mario Novkovic, Lucas Onder, Hung-Wei Cheng, Gennady Bocharov, Burkhard Ludewig
Adaptive immune responses develop in secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes (LNs) in a well-coordinated series of interactions between migrating immune cells and resident stromal cells. Although many processes that occur in LNs are well understood from an immunological point of view, our understanding of the fundamental organization and mechanisms that drive these processes is still incomplete. The aim of systems biology approaches is to unravel the complexity of biological systems and describe emergent properties that arise from interactions between individual constituents of the system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Melinda E Varney, Dylan T Boehm, Katherine DeRoos, Evan S Nowak, Ting Y Wong, Emel Sen-Kilic, Shebly D Bradford, Cody Elkins, Matthew S Epperly, William T Witt, Mariette Barbier, F Heath Damron
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) compartments are altered to direct immune responses to infection. Their roles during immunization are not well-described. To elucidate mechanisms for waning immunity following immunization with acellular vaccines (ACVs) against Bordetella pertussis ( Bp ), we tested the hypothesis that immunization with Bp ACVs and whole cell vaccines (WCVs) differ in directing the HSPC characteristics and immune cell development patterns that ultimately contribute to the types and quantities of cells produced to fight infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sergey A Staroverov, Alexei A Volkov, Pavel V Mezhenny, Ivan Yu Domnitsky, Alexander S Fomin, Sergey V Kozlov, Lev A Dykman, Olga I Guliy
Recent years have seen extremely fast development of new viral nanovaccines and diagnostic agents using nanostructures prepared by biological and chemical synthesis. We used spherical gold nanoparticles (average diameter, 15 nm) as a platform for the antigen for swine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). The literature data demonstrate that immunization of animals with the TGEV antigen coupled to gold nanoparticles (GNPs) not only activates antigen-presenting cells but also increases the proliferative activity of splenic lymphoid (antibody-forming) cells...
November 6, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Guilin Tang, John Kennedy Sydney Sir Philip, Olga Weinberg, Wayne Tam, Sam Sadigh, Jonathan I Lake, Elizabeth M Margolskee, Heesun J Rogers, Roberto N Miranda, Carlos Bueso-Ramos C, Eric D Hsi, Attilio Orazi, Robert P Hasserjian, Daniel A Arber, Adam Bagg, Sa A Wang
The purpose of this study is to examine hematopoietic neoplasms with 9p24/JAK2 rearrangement including neoplasms associated with t(8;9)(p22;p24)/PCM1-JAK2 fusion neoplasm as well as cases with translocations involving 9p24/JAK2 and other partner genes. From seven large medical centers, we identified ten patients with t(8;9)(p22;p24) /PCM1-JAK2 and 3 with t(9p24;v)/JAK2 at diagnosis. Majority of the cases showed myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) associated features (n = 7) characterized by variable degrees of eosinophilia, myelofibrosis, frequent proliferations of early erythroblasts in bone marrow and extramedullary sites, and infrequent/absent somatic mutations...
November 6, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Peter Ergang, Anna Mikulecka, Martin Vodicka, Karla Vagnerova, Ivan Miksik, Jiri Pacha
Stress is an important risk factors for human diseases. It activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and increases plasma glucocorticoids, which are powerful regulators of immune system. The response of the target cells to glucocorticoids depends not only on the plasma concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone but also on their local metabolism. This metabolism is catalysed by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases type 1 and 2, which interconvert glucocorticoid hormones cortisol and corticosterone and their 11-oxo metabolites cortisone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone...
November 1, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Radhika Raj C G, Suresh B
Castleman Disease (CD) is a rare, heterogeneous group of hyperimmune lymphoproliferative disorders, not very familiar to surgeons. Unicentric Castleman Disease (UCCD) at one end of the spectrum is a localized disease, with little or no systemic symptoms. It may be an incidental radiological finding or detected while investigating for a symptomatic lymph node mass. Surgery is the primary treatment and has good long term prognosis. Multicentric Castleman Disease (MCCD) is a more serious systemic condition, often associated with constitutional symptoms...
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Dana Bogdanova, Arata Takeuchi, Madoka Ozawa, Yasuhiro Kanda, M Azizur Rahman, Burkhard Ludewig, Tatsuo Kinashi, Tomoya Katakai
Organized tissue structure in the secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) tightly depends on the development of fibroblastic stromal cells (FSCs) of mesenchymal origin; however, the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood. In this study, we specifically inactivated the canonical NF-κB pathway in FSCs in vivo by conditionally inducing IκBα mutant in a Ccl19-IκBSR mouse system in which NF-κB activity is likely to be suppressed in fetal FSC progenitors. Given that NF-κB activation in fetal FSCs is essential for SLO development, the animals were expected to lack SLOs...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Midori Taniguchi, Yusuke Yanagi, Shinji Ohno
Measles virus (MeV) first infects immune cells in the respiratory tract of a human host, spreads to lymphoid organs throughout the body, and finally enters and grows in respiratory epithelial cells before being released and transmitted to the next host. Thus, efficient growth in respiratory epithelial cells is important for the person-to-person transmission of MeV. Upon viral entry, host cells detect viral nucleic acids and produce interferons (IFNs) to control viral growth. Type I (IFN-α/β) and type III (IFN-λ) IFNs have largely common induction and signaling mechanisms and stimulate expression of similar target genes but utilize distinct receptors...
November 2, 2018: Archives of Virology
Ari Waisman, Lisa Johann
Autoreactive T cells are considered the major culprits in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). Upon activation in the lymphoid organs, autoreactive T cells migrate towards the central nervous system (CNS) and target the myelin sheath-forming oligodendrocytes, resulting in detrimental neurological symptoms. Despite the availability of extensively studied systems like the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, our understanding of this disease and the underlying pathogenesis is still elusive...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Faisal Alsufyani, Hamid Mattoo, Dawang Zhou, Annaiah Cariappa, Denille Van Buren, Hanno Hock, Joseph Avruch, Shiv Pillai
The Mst1 and 2 cytosolic serine/threonine protein kinases are the mammalian orthologs of the Drosophila Hippo protein. Mst1 has been shown previously to participate in T-cell and B-cell trafficking and the migration of lymphocytes into secondary lymphoid organs in a cell intrinsic manner. We show here that the absence of Mst1 alone only modestly impacts B cell homing to lymph nodes. The absence of both Mst1 and 2 in hematopoietic cells results in relatively normal B cell development in the bone marrow and does not impact migration of immature B cells to the spleen...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
George S Yap, William C Gause
Helminths are ubiquitous and have chronically infected vertebrates throughout their evolution. As such helminths have likely exerted considerable selection pressure on our immune systems. The large size of multicellular helminths and their limited replicative capacity in the host necessarily elicits different host protective mechanisms than the immune response evoked by microbial pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and intracellular parasites. The cellular damage resulting from helminth migration through tissues is a major trigger of the type 2 and regulatory immune responses, which activates wound repair mechanisms that increases tissue tolerance to injury and resistance mechanisms that enhance resistance to further colonization with larval stages...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sharie Keanne C Ganchua, Anthony M Cadena, Pauline Maiello, Hannah P Gideon, Amy J Myers, Beth F Junecko, Edwin C Klein, Philana Ling Lin, Joshua T Mattila, JoAnne L Flynn
Tuberculosis is commonly considered a chronic lung disease, however, extrapulmonary infection can occur in any organ. Even though lymph nodes (LN) are among the most common sites of extrapulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, and thoracic LNs are frequently infected in humans, bacterial dynamics and the effect of Mtb infection in LN structure and function is relatively unstudied. We surveyed thoracic LNs from Mtb-infected cynomolgus and rhesus macaques analyzing PET CT scans, bacterial burden, LN structure and immune function...
November 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Kunio Mochizuki, Yuki Hanai, Kumiko Nakazawa, Shiori Murata, Kazuki Kasai, Naoko Mochizuki, Ippei Tahara, Tetsuo Kondo
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) can affect various organs, and the pancreas and salivary gland are representative examples. We report a rare case of IgG4-RD of the paratestis. A 74-year-old man presented with left scrotal swelling. Scrotopuncture drainage and cytology confirmed a clear, yellow retention liquid (130 mL) with many small, similar lymphocytes and a few plasmacytes. Many lymphoid cells were immunopositive for CD3 on a cell block section, indicating that a predominant type of lymphoid cells was T cell...
October 30, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
David Cruz-Zárate, Graciela Libier Cabrera-Rivera, Bibiana Patricia Ruiz-Sánchez, Jeanet Serafín-López, Rommel Chacón-Salinas, Constantino López-Macías, Armando Isibasi, Humberto Gallegos-Pérez, Marco Antonio León-Gutiérrez, Eduardo Ferat-Osorio, Lourdes Arriaga-Pizano, Iris Estrada-García, Isabel Wong-Baeza
Sepsis, one of the leading causes of death in intensive care units, is caused by a dysregulated host response to infection that leads to life-threatening organ dysfunction. The proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses activated by the infecting microorganism become systemic, and the sustained anti-inflammatory response induces a state of immunosuppression that is characterized by decreased expression of HLA-DR on monocytes, T cell apoptosis, and reduced production of TNF-α by monocytes and macrophages in response to TLR ligands...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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