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Lymphoid organ

Paola Lasso, Alejandra Gomez-Cadena, Claudia Urueña, Alena Donda, Amaia Martinez-Usatorre, Alfonso Barreto, Pedro Romero, Susana Fiorentino
Polyphenols have tumoricidal effects via anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic and cytotoxic mechanisms and have recently been demonstrated to modulate the immune response through their anti- or pro- oxidant activity. Nevertheless, it remains controversial whether antioxidant-rich supplements have real beneficial effects on health, especially in complex diseases such as cancer. We previously identified a polyphenol-rich extract obtained from Caesalpinia spinosa (P2Et) with anti-tumor activity in both breast carcinoma and melanoma...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Laleh Vahedi, Maryam Ghasemi, Jamshid Yazdani, Samaneh Ranjbar, Banafshe Nouri, Ahad Alizadeh, Parvaneh Afshar
Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in the world, especially in Iran. There are large numbers of molecular and genomic factors causing breast cancer as well as many markers associated with tumor invasion. Chemokines are small proteins that primarily regulate leukocyte trafficking in the homeostatic conditions and specific immune responses. Chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) belongs a class A subtype 7-span transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor. CCR7 plays a role in the migration of tumor cells such as immune cells into lymphoid organs through binding to its only two ligands CCL19/CCL21...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
Kutaiba Alhaj Hussen, Emna Chabaane, Bruno Canque
Due to difficulties to access primary bone marrow samples, human hematopoiesis has long remained far less characterized than in the mouse. Using an in vivo modeling approach of fetal hematopoiesis in humanized mice, we recently showed that human lymphoid cells stem from two functionally specialized populations of CD127- and CD127+ early lymphoid progenitors (ELP) that differentiate independently, respond differently to growth factors, undergo divergent modes of lineage restriction and generate distinct lymphoid populations...
August 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Lingjie Tang, Jiaman Wang, Jingna Zhu, Yanhua Liang
SHARPIN is an important component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC). Loss of function of SHARPIN results in eosinophilic inflammation in multiple organs including skin with Th2 -dominant cytokines and dysregulated development of lymphoid tissues in mice. The clinicpathological features are similar to atopic dermatitis (AD) in humans. In order to investigate the potential role of SHARPIN in the pathogenesis of AD, we performed genetic association study of the genotypes and haplotypes as well as SHARPIN's expression between AD cases and controls...
September 19, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Guanxi Qiao, Mark J Bucsek, Nicolette M Winder, Minhui Chen, Thejaswini Giridharan, Scott H Olejniczak, Bonnie L Hylander, Elizabeth A Repasky
Primary and secondary lymphoid organs are heavily innervated by the autonomic nervous system. Norepinephrine, the primary neurotransmitter secreted by post-ganglionic sympathetic neurons, binds to and activates β-adrenergic receptors expressed on the surface of immune cells and regulates the functions of these cells. While it is known that both activated and memory CD8+ T-cells primarily express the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) and that signaling through this receptor can inhibit CD8+ T-cell effector function, the mechanism(s) underlying this suppression is not understood...
September 18, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Gokhlesh Kumar, Karin Hummel, Katharina Noebauer, Timothy J Welch, Ebrahim Razzazi-Fazeli, Mansour El-Matbouli
Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease in salmonids. Head kidney and spleen are major lymphoid organs of the teleost fish where antigen presentation and immune defense against microbes take place. We investigated proteome alteration in head kidney and spleen of the rainbow trout following Y. ruckeri strains infection. Organs were analyzed after 3, 9 and 28 days post exposure with a shotgun proteomic approach. GO annotation and protein-protein interaction were predicted using bioinformatic tools...
September 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Leslie Naesens, Helena Devos, Friedel Nollet, Lucienne Michaux, Dominik Selleslag
INTRODUCTION: Myeloid sarcoma (MS), previously known as granulocytic sarcoma or chloroma, is a rare neoplastic condition defined as a tumor mass consisting of myeloblasts or immature myeloid cells occurring at an extramedullary site. Clinical presentation is diverse and determined by a tumor mass effect or local organ dysfunction. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 25-year-old previously healthy male with rapidly progressive shortness of breath. A chest CT scan demonstrated a heterogenous anterosuperior mediastinal mass with pleural and pericardial invasion...
September 18, 2018: Acta Haematologica
Cindy Campoverde, Karl B Andree, Douglas J Milne, Alicia Estévez, Enric Gisbert, Francesca Carella
This study investigates the development of lymphoid organs and mucosal tissues in larval and juvenile meagre, Argyrosomus regius. For this purpose, meagre larvae were reared from hatch to the juvenile stage, under mesocosm conditions at 18-19 °C, using standard feeding sequences with live prey and artificial food. The kidney was evident upon hatch and included a visible pronephros, with undifferentiated stem cells and excretory tubules at 1 dph (3.15 ± 0.1 mm SL). The thymus was first detected 8 dph (4...
September 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
T Wu, H Zhou, H T Gu, J Y Zhou
Objective: To analyze high risk factors, therapeutic regimen and prognosis of patients with pulmonary mucormycosis. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 25 patients who were diagnosed as pulmonary mucormycosis in the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, between January 2009 and December 2017. Results: Univariate analysis revealed that no risk factor had significant effect on prognosis of these 25 cases, while multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that the exposure to antifungal drugs was correlated to worse prognosis( P =0...
August 28, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Joanna R DiSpirito, David Zemmour, Deepshika Ramanan, Jun Cho, Rapolas Zilionis, Allon M Klein, Christophe Benoist, Diane Mathis
Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs ) accumulate in certain nonlymphoid tissues, where they control diverse aspects of organ homeostasis. Populations of tissue Tregs , as they have been termed, have transcriptomes distinct from those of their counterparts in lymphoid organs and other nonlymphoid tissues. We examined the diversification of Tregs in visceral adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and the colon vis-à-vis lymphoid organs from the same individuals. The unique transcriptomes of the various tissue Treg populations resulted from layering of tissue-restricted open chromatin regions over regions already open in the spleen, the latter tagged by super-enhancers and particular histone marks...
September 14, 2018: Science Immunology
Brianne E Phillips, Diego Páez-Rosas, James R Flowers, John M Cullen, Jerry M Law, Carmen Colitz, Diane Deresienski, Kenneth J Lohmann, Gregory A Lewbart
The Galapagos sea lion ( Zalophus wollebaeki) is an otariid species endemic to the Galapagos archipelago and is currently listed as endangered. The ocular trematode Philophthalmus zalophi was recently reported to affect the survival of juvenile Galapagos sea lions on Santa Cruz Island, resulting in marked ophthalmic changes. This study evaluated the ophthalmic disease and histopathologic effects of P. zalophi on juvenile Galapagos sea lions in the largest rookery located on San Cristóbal Island. Twenty juvenile Galapagos sea lions (10 male and 10 female) were evaluated among five sites in the rookery El Malecón...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Neha Mehta-Shah, Mark W Clemens, Steven M Horwitz
Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a recently described form of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma now formally recognized by the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. The disease most often presents with a delayed seroma around the breast implant, almost exclusively one with a textured surface, and manifests with breast pain, swelling or asymmetry, capsular contracture, but can also present with a breast mass, and lymph node involvement. The prognosis of BIA-ALCL is favorable compared to many other subtypes of systemic T-cell lymphoma, however unlike other non-Hodgkin lymphomas, complete surgical excision for localized disease is an important part of the management of these patients...
September 12, 2018: Blood
Uma Sundram
Cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders remain a challenging aspect of dermatopathology, in part due to the rarity of the entities and extreme variability in clinical outcomes. Although many of the entities remain unchanged, the approach to some of them has changed in the new 2016 classification scheme of the World Health Organization. Chief among these are Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders such as Epstein-Barr virus-associated mucocutaneous ulcer and hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disorder, primary cutaneous CD8+ aggressive epidermotropic cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma, primary cutaneous acral CD8+ T-cell lymphoma, primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, and breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma...
September 7, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Reza Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, Reza Bakhshalinejad, Evangelos Zoidis
1. A total of 1440 one-day-old Ross 308 male broilers were allocated to twelve dietary treatments to evaluate dose-dependent effects of α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TOA) combined with zinc (Zn) supplementation on humoral and cellular immune responses, antioxidant enzymes, serum and hepatic contents of vitamins and minerals in broilers. 2. Three levels of supplemental α-TOA (0, 150 and 300 mg/kg) and four levels of Zn (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) were combined as a completely randomised design as a 3×4 factorial arrangement...
September 10, 2018: British Poultry Science
Didem Ağaç, Leonardo D Estrada, Robert Maples, Lora V Hooper, J David Farrar
The mammalian nervous system communicates important information about the environment to the immune system, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Secondary lymphoid organs are highly innervated by sympathetic neurons that secrete norepinephrine (NE) as the primary neurotransmitter. Immune cells express adrenergic receptors, enabling the sympathetic nervous system to directly control immune function. NE is a potent immunosuppressive factor and markedly inhibits TNF-α secretion from innate cells in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
September 5, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Darius Häusler, Silke Häusser-Kinzel, Linda Feldmann, Sebastian Torke, Gildas Lepennetier, Claude C A Bernard, Scott S Zamvil, Wolfgang Brück, Klaus Lehmann-Horn, Martin S Weber
The anti-CD20 antibody ocrelizumab, approved for treatment of multiple sclerosis, leads to rapid elimination of B cells from the blood. The extent of B cell depletion and kinetics of their recovery in different immune compartments is largely unknown. Here, we studied how anti-CD20 treatment influences B cells in bone marrow, blood, lymph nodes, and spleen in models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Anti-CD20 reduced mature B cells in all compartments examined, although a subpopulation of antigen-experienced B cells persisted in splenic follicles...
September 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ling Yang, Yong Liu, Wan Lv, Pengda Wang, Bin Wang, Jie Xue, Leying Zhang
The spleen is a unique lymphoid organ that plays a key role in immune regulation. Interferon-tau induces upregulation of interferon-stimulated gene 15-kDa protein (ISG15) in the uterus during early pregnancy in sheep. Prostaglandins (PGs) have important effects in both the activation and the inhibition of immune response through an autocrine and paracrine manner. In this study, splenic samples were obtained at Day 16 of the estrous cycle, and Days 13, 16, and 25 of pregnancy from ewes, and the expression of ISG15 and PG synthases, including cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), COX-2, PGE synthase (PTGES), and PGF synthase (aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1, AKR1B1), was detected through quantitative real-time PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry analysis...
September 6, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Deepak A Rao
Chronically inflamed tissues commonly accrue lymphocyte aggregates that facilitate local T cell-B cell interactions. These aggregates can range from small, loosely arranged lymphocyte clusters to large, organized ectopic lymphoid structures. In some cases, ectopic lymphoid structures develop germinal centers that house prototypical T follicular helper (Tfh) cells with high expression of Bcl6, CXCR5, PD-1, and ICOS. However, in many chronically inflamed tissues, the T cells that interact with B cells show substantial differences from Tfh cells in their surface phenotypes, migratory capacity, and transcriptional regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Rafael A Paiva, Camila V Ramos, Vera C Martins
Cell competition in the thymus promotes turnover and functions as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting leukemia. Using thymus transplantation experiments, we have shown that the presence of T lymphocyte precursors, recently seeding the thymus, promotes the clearance of precursors with a longer time of thymus residency. If cell competition is impaired and no cells seed the thymus, the organ is capable of sustaining T lymphocyte production, a state termed thymus autonomy. However, we observed consistently that prolonged autonomy is permissive to the emergence of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL)...
September 5, 2018: FEBS Journal
Emmanuel Clave, Itauá Leston Araujo, Cécile Alanio, Etienne Patin, Jacob Bergstedt, Alejandra Urrutia, Silvia Lopez-Lastra, Yan Li, Bruno Charbit, Cameron Ross MacPherson, Milena Hasan, Breno Luiz Melo-Lima, Corinne Douay, Noémie Saut, Marine Germain, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Pierre-Emmanuel Morange, Magnus Fontes, Darragh Duffy, James P Di Santo, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Matthew L Albert, Antoine Toubert
The thymus is the primary lymphoid organ where naïve T cells are generated; however, with the exception of age, the parameters that govern its function in healthy humans remain unknown. We characterized the variability of thymic function among 1000 age- and sex-stratified healthy adults of the Milieu Intérieur cohort, using quantification of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) in peripheral blood T cells as a surrogate marker of thymopoiesis. Age and sex were the only nonheritable factors identified that affect thymic function...
September 5, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
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