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Lymphoid organ

Dong-Ming Su, Olga Sizova, Denis Kuriatnikov, Ying Liu
Tumor metastatic relapse is the primary cause for cancer-associated mortality. Metastatic relapse is believed to arise from quantities of tumor cells that are below detectable thresholds, which are able to resist radio/chemotherapy by obtaining a dormant state and hiding in certain organs, i.e. tumor reservoirs. The thymus, a central T cell immune organ, has been suggested to be a pre-metastatic tumor reservoir for B-lymphoma cells. However, it remains unknown whether the thymus is able to harbor non-lymphoid solid tumor cells, and whether chemotherapy can thoroughly eliminate cancer cells in the thymus...
July 13, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Tyler A Herek, Jacob E Robinson, Tayla B Heavican, Catalina Amador, Javeed Iqbal, Christine E Cutucache
OBJECTIVE: Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is known for its role as both a tumor suppressor and an oncogene, harboring a highly context-dependent role within a myriad of malignancies and cell types. In an immunological context, dysregulation of CAV1 expression has been shown to alter immunological signaling functions and suggests a pivotal role for CAV1 in the facilitation of proper immune responses. Nonetheless, it is still unknown how Cav1-deficiency and heterozygosity would impact the development and composition of lymphoid organs in mice...
July 13, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Naohiro Seo, Kazunari Akiyoshi, Hiroshi Shiku
Exosomes are the representative extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from multivesicular endosomes (MVEs), and have been described as new players in communication of neighborhood and/or distant cells by serving as vehicles for transfer between cells of membrane and cytosolic proteins, lipids, and nucleotides including micro (mi) RNAs. Exosomes from immune cells and tumor cells act in part as a regulator in tumor immunology. CD8+ T cells that exhibit potent cytotoxic activity against tumor cells reside as an inactive naïve form in T cell zone of the secondary lymphoid organs...
July 12, 2018: Cancer Science
Funmilayo I D Afolayan, Blessing Erinwusi, Oyetunde T Oyeyemi
Background: Studies have shown that curcumin from Curcuma longa has a wide range of medicinal and immunomodulatory properties. These activities have, however, been hindered by its low bioavailability. Meanwhile, incorporation of nanoparticles has been shown to increase bioavailability of certain drugs. This study was, therefore, conducted to comparatively evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of free and nanoparticulate curcumin in mice. Methods: Healthy albino mice were sensitized with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) and thereafter free and nanoparticulate curcumin were administered orally at doses of 5 mg/kg/day and 10 mg/kg/day for 10 days to the mice...
June 2018: Integrative Medicine Research
Xin Wan, Weiya Pei, Khawar Ali Shahzad, Lei Zhang, Shilong Song, Xiaoxiao Jin, Limin Wang, Chen Zhao, Chuanlai Shen
In this study, a tolerogenic artificial APC (TaAPC) was developed to directly and selectively modulate myelin-autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 peptide-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6J mice. Cell-sized polylactic-coglycolic acid microparticles were generated to cocouple target Ags (MOG40-54 /H-2Db -Ig dimer, MOG35-55 /I-Ab multimer), regulatory molecules (anti-Fas and PD-L1-Fc), and "self-marker" CD47-Fc and encapsulate inhibitory cytokine (TGF-β1)...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Phornphan Sornchuer, Wisarut Junprung, Warumporn Yingsunthonwattana, Anchalee Tassanakajon
Heat shock factors (HSFs) participate in the response to environmental stressors and regulate heat shock protein (Hsp) expression. This study describes the molecular characterization and expression of PmHSF1 in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon under heat stress. PmHSF1 expression was detected in several shrimp tissues: the highest in the lymphoid organ and the lowest in the eyestalk. Significant up-regulation of PmHSF1 expression was observed in hemocytes (p < 0.05) following thermal stress. The expression of several PmHsps was rapidly induced following heat stress...
July 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Takashi Maehara, Hamid Mattoo, Vinay S Mahajan, Samuel Jh Murphy, Grace J Yuen, Noriko Ishiguro, Miho Ohta, Masafumi Moriyama, Takako Saeki, Hidetaka Yamamoto, Masaki Yamauchi, Joe Daccache, Tamotsu Kiyoshima, Seiji Nakamura, John H Stone, Shiv Pillai
Distinct T follicular helper (TFH ) subsets that influence specific class-switching events are assumed to exist, but the accumulation of isotype-specific TFH subsets in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) and tertiary lymphoid organs has not been hitherto demonstrated. IL-4-expressing TFH cells are surprisingly sparse in human SLOs. In contrast, in IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), a disorder characterized by polarized Ig class switching, most TFH cells in tertiary and SLOs make IL-4. Human IL-4+ TFH cells do not express GATA-3 but express nuclear BATF, and the transcriptomes of IL-4-secreting TFH cells differ from both PD1hi TFH cells that do not secrete IL-4 and IL-4-secreting non-TFH cells...
January 2018: Life science alliance
Weiya Pei, Xin Wan, Khawar Ali Shahzad, Lei Zhang, Shilong Song, Xiaoxiao Jin, Limin Wang, Chen Zhao, Chuanlai Shen
Purpose: Numerous nanomaterials have been reported in the treatment of multiple sclerosis or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). But most of these nanoscale therapeutics deliver myelin antigens together with toxins or cytokines and underlay the cellular uptake and induction of tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells by which they indirectly induce T cell tolerance. This study focuses on the on-target and direct modulation of myelin-autoreactive T cells and combined use of multiple regulatory molecules by generating a tolerogenic nanoparticle...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Yueh Z Lee, Esther Akinnagbe-Zusterzeel, Kenneth A Fowler, James M Coghill
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains a barrier to the success of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In mice, studies have demonstrated that donor conventional T cells traffic into host secondary lymphoid tissues early after transplant, and that this process is critical for the development of disease. As a result, the measurement of cellular proliferation within lymphoid sites early after transplant might be a useful approach for predicting aGVHD in humans. 18F-3'-deoxy-3' -fluorothymidine (FLT) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging has recently emerged as a functional imaging modality in oncology patients...
July 4, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Catherine P Brochu, Christina L Winnicker, Anne L Provencher, Elaine Debien, Sebastien Gariépy, Brianna N Gaskill
>The provision of nesting material benefits mice by reducing cold stress, improving feed conversion, increasing litter size,and improving adaptive immunity. The effects of toxins are sensitive to environmental changes, and the introduction of novelitems can alter results in some toxicologic studies. We hypothesized that nesting material would reduce stress and positively alter immunologic parameters in Crl:CD1(ICR) mice, thus changing typical results from a well-studied immunomodulating drug, cyclophosphamide...
July 5, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Carlos Hedman, Alicia Otero, Jean-Yves Douet, Caroline Lacroux, Séverine Lugan, Hicham Filali, Fabien Corbière, Naima Aron, Juan José Badiola, Olivier Andréoletti, Rosa Bolea
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) can be efficiently transmitted to pigs via intracerebral inoculation. A clear link has been established between the consumption of products of bovine origin contaminated with the BSE agent and the development of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Small ruminants can also naturally develop BSE, and sheep-adapted BSE (Sh-BSE) propagates more efficiently than cattle BSE in pigs and in mouse models expressing porcine prion protein. In addition, Sh-BSE shows greater efficiency of transmission to human models than original cow BSE...
2018: PloS One
Georgios L Moschovakis, Anja Bubke, Michaela Friedrichsen, Jasmin Ristenpart, Jaap Willem Back, Christine S Falk, Elisabeth Kremmer, Reinhold Förster
The chemokine receptor CCR7 and its ligands CCL19 and CCL21 guide the homing and positioning of dendritic and T cells in lymphoid organs, thereby contributing to several aspects of adaptive immunity and immune tolerance. In the present study, we investigated the role of CCR7 in the pathogenesis of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). By using a novel anti-human CCR7 antibody and humanized CCR7 mice, we evaluated CCR7 as a target in this autoimmune model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Ccr7-deficient mice were completely resistant to CIA and presented severely impaired antibody responses to collagen II (CII)...
July 4, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Kevin Singh, Soren Gandhi, Behzad Doratotaj
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is vital for host immunological surveillance against pathogens. MALT lymphoma, also known as extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma, is a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtype that predominantly arises in the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a common cause of gastric MALT lymphoma, although other infections are reported in association with extragastric MALT lymphomas. To our knowledge, here we report the first case of synchronous MALT lymphomas of the colon and stomach in the presence of Strongyloides stercoralis and H...
July 3, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Abdel-Hamid K Osman, Michiko Shintani
Autophagy is a highly regulated intracellular pathway for degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic protein aggregates and entire organelles. The autophagic pathway is stimulated by nutrient starvation, which prompted us to study the desert camel. Various organs of the camel undergo ecological and physiological stress due to food and water deprivation, dehydration and long exposure to solar radiation. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of specific biomarkers of autophagy under normal conditions as a baseline for later work on stressed individuals...
July 4, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
Euna Yoo, Alex C D Salyer, Michael J H Brush, Yupeng Li, Kathryn L Trautman, Nikunj M Shukla, Ans De Beuckelaer, Stefan Lienenklaus, Kim Deswarte, Bart Lambrecht, Bruno G De Geest, Sunil A David
Immunogens carried in lymphatic fluid drain via afferent vessels into regional lymph nodes and facilitate the efficient induction of appropriate immune responses. The lymphatic system possesses receptors recognizing hyaluronic acid (HA). Covalent conjugates of small-molecule TLR7/8 agonists with HA are entirely devoid of immunostimulatory activity in vitro. In murine models of immunization, however, such conjugates traffic to lymph nodes, where they are 'unmasked', releasing the small molecule TLR7/8 agonist from the carrier polysaccharide...
July 3, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Jai Woong Seo, Richard Tavaré, Lisa M Mahakian, Matthew T Silvestrini, Sarah Tam, Elizabeth S Ingham, Felix B Salazar, Alexander D Borowsky, Anna M Wu, Katherine W Ferrara
Noninvasive and quantitative tracking of CD8+ T-cells by positron emission tomography (PET) has emerged as a potential technique to gauge response to immunotherapy. We apply an anti-CD8 cys-diabody, labeled with 64Cu, to assess the sensitivity of PET imaging of normal and diseased tissue. Experimental Design Radiolabeling of an anti-CD8 cys-diabody (169cDb) with 64Cu was developed. The accumulation of 64Cu-169cDb was evaluated with PET/CT imaging (0, 5, and 24 hours) and biodistribution (24 hours) in wild-type mouse strains (n = 8 per group studied with imaging and immunohistochemistry or flow cytometry) after intravenous administration...
July 2, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Hsin-Ying Huang, Ana Rivas-Caicedo, François Renevey, Hélène Cannelle, Elisa Peranzoni, Leonardo Scarpellino, Debbie L Hardie, Arnaud Pommier, Karin Schaeuble, Stéphanie Favre, Tobias K Vogt, Fernando Arenzana-Seisdedos, Pascal Schneider, Christopher D Buckley, Emmanuel Donnadieu, Sanjiv A Luther
Antibody-secreting plasma cells (PCs) arise rapidly during adaptive immunity to control infections. The early PCs are retained within the reactive lymphoid organ where their localization and homeostasis rely on extrinsic factors, presumably produced by local niche cells. While myeloid cells have been proposed to form those niches, the contribution by colocalizing stromal cells has remained unclear. Here, we characterized a subset of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) that forms a dense meshwork throughout medullary cords of lymph nodes (LNs) where PCs reside...
July 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sadhak Sengupta, Steven C Katz, Sudarshana Sengupta, Prakash Sampath
Successful remission in hematological cancers by CAR-T cell immunotherapy has yet to be replicated in solid tumors like GBM. A significant impediment of CAR-T immunotherapy in solid tumors is poor exposure of T cells to tumor antigens resulting in suboptimal CAR-T cell activation, which ultimately fails to induce a robust anti-tumor immune response. Costimulatory moieties in advanced-generation CARs, along with additional IL2 therapy has been shown to be insufficient to overcome this hurdle and have its cytotoxic limitations...
June 26, 2018: Cancer Letters
Benjamin T Noble, Faith H Brennan, Phillip G Popovich
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes widespread damage to neurons, glia and endothelia located throughout the spinal parenchyma. In response to the injury, resident and blood-derived leukocytes orchestrate an intraspinal inflammatory response that propagates secondary neuropathology and also promotes tissue repair. SCI also negatively affects autonomic control over peripheral immune organs, notably the spleen. The spleen is the largest secondary lymphoid organ in mammals, with major roles in blood filtration and host defense...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Jesse Charles Nussbaum, Jorge Felipe Ortiz-Carpena
The recent discovery of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), a major source of canonical T cell cytokines, has prompted significant interest into understanding the role of these novel cells in immune responses. Unlike T cells, ILCs lack antigen receptors, instead receiving activation from locally derived tissue signals. Group 2 ILCs (ILC2s), which express the genes encoding GATA-3, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, are distributed throughout nonlymphoid tissues. Although ILC2s lack antigen receptors, there are considerable similarities that they share with their Th2 cell counterparts, including receptors, secreted signals, and key transcription factors...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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