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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920778/the-dynamics-of-t-and-b-cells-in-lymph-node-during-chronic-hiv-infection-tfh-and-hiv-unhappy-dance-partners
#1
REVIEW
Jung Joo Hong, Kyu-Tae Chang, Francois Villinger
Although the dynamics of germinal center (GC) formation, follicular helper T (TFH) cell recruitment to B cell follicles within lymphoid organs, and changes of lymphoid tissue architecture in HIV/SIV infection have been documented, the underlying immunopathology remains unclear. Here, we summarize what is known regarding the kinetics of TFH cells and GC B cells during the course of infection as well as the potential immunopathological features associated with structural changes in the lymphoid compartment. This review also explores the implications of cell dynamics in the formation and maintenance of viral reservoirs in hyperplastic follicles of secondary lymphoid organs before and after viral suppressive antiretroviral therapy...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919759/identification-of-sea-bass-pigr-shows-its-interaction-with-vitellogenin-inducing-antibody-like-activities-in-hek-293t-cells
#2
Shuangshuang Yang, Shousheng Liu, Baozhen Qu, Yuan Dong, Shicui Zhang
Fish vitellogenin (Vg) has been shown to mediate the phagocytosis via interaction with a Fcγ-like phagocytic receptor on macrophages, but identification of such a receptor and its functional characterization remains lacking. In this study, we isolated a cDNA of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) from sea bass, which encoded a single-spanning transmembrane protein of 326 amino acids including a 21-amino acid signal peptide, an extracellular region, a transmembrane region and a 36-amino acid intracellular region included two Ig-like domains (ILDs), and was expressed in multiple lymphoid organs...
December 2, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917173/live-imaging-of-immune-responses-in-experimental-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Barbara Rossi, Gabriela Constantin
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most common animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by multifocal perivascular infiltrates that predominantly comprise lymphocytes and macrophages. During EAE, autoreactive T cells first become active in the secondary lymphoid organs upon contact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and then gain access to CNS parenchyma, through a compromised blood-brain barrier, subsequently inducing inflammation and demyelination...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914456/microbiota-induces-expression-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-in-postnatal-mouse-skin
#4
D V Yuzhakova, M V Shirmanova, A A Bocharov, I V Astrakhantseva, E A Vasilenko, E N Gorshkova, M S Drutskaya, E V Zagaynova, S A Nedospasov, A A Kruglov
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates many important processes in the body. TNF production in a physiological state supports the structure of lymphoid organs and determines the development of lymphoid cells in hematopoiesis. However, chronic TNF overexpression leads to the development of various autoimmune disorders. Sites of TNF production in the naïve state remain unclear due to the lack of in vivo models. In the present study, we used TNF-2A-Kat reporter mice to monitor the expression of TNF in different tissues...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913457/treatment-of-blastic-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-neoplasm
#5
Jill M Sullivan, David A Rizzieri
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare myeloid malignancy with no defined standard of care. BPDCN presents most commonly with skin lesions with or without extramedullary organ involvement before leukemic dissemination. As a result of its clinical ambiguity, differentiating BPDCN from benign skin lesions or those of acute myeloid leukemia with leukemia cutis is challenging. BPDCN is most easily defined by the phenotype CD4(+)CD56(+)CD123(+)lineage(-)MPO(-), although many patients will present with variable expression of CD4, CD56, or alternate plasmacytoid markers, which compounds the difficulty in differentiating BPDCN from other myeloid or lymphoid malignancies...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909848/tissue-resident-natural-killer-cells-in-the-livers
#6
REVIEW
Hui Peng, Zhigang Tian
Nature killer (NK) cells are important lymphocytes of the innate immune system, well known for their pivotal roles in immune surveillance and defense against tumor and virus-infected cells. Current studies have revealed that NK cells are not a homogeneous population, but instead consist of distinct subsets with diverse characteristics. As an organ with predominant innate immunity, the liver is enriched with NK cells, among which two distinct NK cell subsets have recently been identified: conventional NK (cNK) cells and tissue-resident NK (trNK) cells...
November 30, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909439/the-a-allele-of-the-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-rs630923-creates-a-binding-site-for-mef2c-resulting-in-reduced-cxcr5-promoter-activity-in-b-cell-lymphoblastic-cell-lines
#7
Nikita A Mitkin, Alisa M Muratova, Anton M Schwartz, Dmitry V Kuprash
Chemokine receptor CXCR5 is highly expressed in B-cells and under normal conditions is involved in their migration to specific areas of secondary lymphoid organs. B-cells are known to play an important role in various autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) where areas of demyelinating lesions attract B-cells by overexpressing CXCL13, the CXCR5 ligand. In this study, we aimed to determine the functional significance of single-nucleotide polymorphism rs630923 (A/C), which is located in cxcr5 gene promoter, and its common allele is associated with increased risk of MS...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908630/non-linear-dose-response-of-aluminium-hydroxide-adjuvant-particles-selective-low-dose-neurotoxicity
#8
Guillemette Crépeaux, Housam Eidi, Marie-Odile David, Yasmine Baba-Amer, Eleni Tzavara, Bruno Giros, François-Jérôme Authier, Christopher Exley, Christopher A Shaw, Josette Cadusseau, Romain K Gherardi
Aluminium (Al) oxyhydroxide (Alhydrogel(®)), the main adjuvant licensed for human and animal vaccines, consists of primary nanoparticles that spontaneously agglomerate. Concerns about its safety emerged following recognition of its unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence within immune cells in some individuals, and reports of chronic fatigue syndrome, cognitive dysfunction, myalgia, dysautonomia and autoimmune/inflammatory features temporally linked to multiple Al-containing vaccine administrations. Mouse experiments have documented its capture and slow transportation by monocyte-lineage cells from the injected muscle to lymphoid organs and eventually the brain...
November 28, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907202/a-reproducible-method-for-isolation-and-in-vitro-culture-of-functional-human-lymphoid-stromal-cells-from-tonsils
#9
Yotam E Bar-Ephraim, Tanja Konijn, Mehmet Gönültas, Reina E Mebius, Rogier M Reijmers
The stromal compartment of secondary lymphoid organs is classicaly known for providing a mechanical scaffold for the complex interactions between hematopoietic cells during immune activation as well as for providing a niche which is favorable for survival of lymphocytes. In recent years, it became increasingly clear that these cells also play an active role during such a response. Currently, knowledge of the interactions between human lymphoid stroma and hematopoietic cells is still lacking and most insight is based on murine systems...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905033/reaction-of-lymphoid-organs-to-injection-of-iron-carbon-nanoparticles
#10
Yu S Khramtsova, N V Tyumentseva, B G Yushkov, E A Silant'eva, S Yu Medvedeva, I V Byzov, M A Uimin, A E Ermakov
The distribution of iron-carbon nanoparticles in FeC-DSPE-PEG-2000 modification (micellar particles with structure (Fe) core-carbon shell; PEG-based coating) is studied. The greater part of the nanoparticles accumulated in the spleen and liver, a small amount in the lungs, and the minimum amount in the thymus. The structural changes in the lymphoid organs were minor and involved only the microcirculatory bed. Analysis of the peripheral blood showed manifest anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytosis.
December 1, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902982/limitation-of-simultaneous-analysis-of-t-cell-receptor-and-%C3%AE%C2%BA-deleting-recombination-excision-circles-based-on-multiplex-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency-patients
#11
Faranaz Atschekzei, Fareed Ahmad, Torsten Witte, Roland Jacobs, Reinhold E Schmidt
AIM OF STUDY: We used a triplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to classify our common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients into distinct groups according to the amount of their T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and κ-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: TREC and KREC analysis was performed using a multiplex real-time PCR assay. The T- and B-lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The copy number of TRECs and KRECs was significantly reduced in CVID patients compared to healthy controls...
December 1, 2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900374/spatially-resolved-microfluidic-stimulation-of-lymphoid-tissue-ex-vivo
#12
Ashley E Ross, Maura C Belanger, Jacob F Woodroof, Rebecca R Pompano
The lymph node is a structurally complex organ of the immune system, whose dynamic cellular arrangements are thought to control much of human health. Currently, no methods exist to precisely stimulate substructures within the lymph node or analyze local stimulus-response behaviors, making it difficult to rationally design therapies for inflammatory disease. Here we describe a novel integration of live lymph node slices with a microfluidic system for local stimulation. Slices maintained the cellular organization of the lymph node while making its core experimentally accessible...
November 30, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898464/donor-derived-exosomes-the-trick-behind-the-semidirect-pathway-of-allorecognition
#13
Adrian E Morelli, William Bracamonte-Baran, William J Burlingham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The passenger leukocyte hypothesis predicts that after transplantation, donor antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from the graft present donor MHC molecules to directly alloreactive T cells in lymphoid organs. However, in certain transplantation models, recent evidence contradicts this long-standing concept. New findings demonstrate that host, instead of donor, APCs play a prominent role in allosensitization against donor MHC molecules via the semidirect pathway. A similar mechanism operates in development of T-cell split tolerance to noninherited maternal antigens...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895164/mysm1-dependent-checkpoints-in-b-cell-lineage-differentiation-and-b-cell-mediated-immune-response
#14
Michael Förster, Kyo Farrington, Jessica C Petrov, Jad I Belle, Barbara C Mindt, Mariko Witalis, Claudia U Duerr, Jörg H Fritz, Anastasia Nijnik
MYSM1 is a chromatin-binding histone deubiquitinase. MYSM1 mutations in humans result in lymphopenia whereas loss of Mysm1 in mice causes severe hematopoietic abnormalities, including an early arrest in B cell development. However, it remains unknown whether MYSM1 is required at later checkpoints in B cell development or for B cell-mediated immune responses. We analyzed conditional mouse models Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.mb1-cre, Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.CD19-cre, and Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.CD21-cre with inactivation of Mysm1 at prepro-B, pre-B, and follicular B cell stages of development...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892793/physiologically-based-modeling-to-predict-the-clinical-behavior-of-monoclonal-antibodies-directed-against-lymphocyte-antigens
#15
Patrick M Glassman, Joseph P Balthasar
Many clinically approved and investigational monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapeutics are directed against proteins located in the systemic circulation, including cytokines, growth factors, lymphocyte proteins, and shed antigens. Interaction between mAb and target may lead to non-linear pharmacokinetics (PK), characterized by rapid, target-mediated elimination. Several groups have reported that determinants of target-mediated elimination could include mAb-target binding, target expression, and target turnover...
November 28, 2016: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891482/treatment-emergent-agranulocytosis-with-skin-and-gingival-lesions-in-a-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-patient-a-case-report
#16
Ramesh Amirisetty, Varun Zade, Meenakshi Boddun, Rolly Gupta, Micky Kumari, Hema Suryawanshi
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) is a monoclonal lymphoid malignancy characterized by progressive accumulation of small, mature but functionally incompetent neoplastic lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, bone marrow and lymphoid organs. Patients present a variable course and may not require early intervention unlike other malignancies. Patients with rapidly deteriorating blood counts, and organomegaly need treatment. Alkylating agent live Bendamustine combined with Rituximab, anti-CD 20 monoclonal antibody have shown promising results in such patients...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890383/-autoimmune-and-inflammatory-disorders-associated-with-lymphoid-hematological-malignancies
#17
E Grignano, A Mekinian, V Jachiet, P Coppo, O Fain
In this literature review, we reported autoimmune and inflammatory disorders associated with lymphoid hematological malignancies, including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The different types of systemic involvement are classified by affected organ. We listed in this review the joint diseases, skin, neurologic, hematologic, renal, and vasculitis. We tried to determine whether there is a correlation between each autoimmune manifestation and a specific type of lymphoma or a particular feature that may support a paraneoplastic origin, if there is an impact on the prognosis of the hematological malignancy, and finally, we identified the different therapeutic strategies used in the literature...
November 24, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890079/detection-of-theileria-parva-in-tissues-of-cattle-undergoing-severe-east-coast-fever-disease-show-significant-parasite-dna-accumulation-in-the-spleen
#18
Cassandra L Olds, Tasha Paul, Glen A Scoles
Infiltration and proliferation of Theileria parva infected lymphocytes in bovine host lymphoid organs is one of the hallmarks of T. parva infection. The relative abundance of parasites within infected host tissues, both lymphoid and non-lymphoid is however unknown. Using quantitative PCR, we have shown that significantly higher concentrations of T. parva DNA are detected in the spleens of cattle undergoing severe disease compared to other organs.
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889778/primary-intestinal-hodgkin-lymphoma-mimicking-intraabdominal-abscess-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient-a-case-report
#19
Biljana Mihaljevic, Darko Antic, Vojin Vukovic, Maja Perunicic Jovanovic, Visnja Lezaic, Nemanja Zaric, Mirko Kerkez, Vladimir Djordjevic
INTRODUCTION: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) comprises a variety of lymphoid and plasma cell disorders arising in patients with a solid organ transplant. Monomorphic lymphomas represent the most significant part of this wide spectrum, with the overall risk rising with the aggressiveness of lymphoid proliferation in comparison to the general population. The development of Hodgkin lymphoma is very rare in transplant recipients, comprising less than 6% of all monomorphic PTLD, while cases of primary intestinal Hodgkin lymphoma in these circumstances are anecdotal...
2016: Oncology Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888629/inhibition-of-bcr-signaling-using-the-syk-inhibitor-tak-659-prevents-stroma-mediated-signaling-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-cells
#20
Noelia Purroy, Júlia Carabia, Pau Abrisqueta, Leire Egia, Meritxell Aguiló, Cecilia Carpio, Carles Palacio, Marta Crespo, Francesc Bosch
Proliferation and survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells depend on microenvironmental signals coming from lymphoid organs. One of the key players involved in the crosstalk between CLL cells and the microenvironment is the B-cell receptor (BCR). Syk protein, a tyrosine kinase essential for BCR signaling, is therefore a rational candidate for targeted therapy in CLL. Against this background, we tested the efficacy of the highly specific Syk inhibitor TAK-659 in suppressing the favorable signaling derived from the microenvironment...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
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