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Yslla Fernanda Fitz Balo Merigueti, Vamilton Alvares Santarém, Lívia Magosso Ramires, Aline da Silveira Batista, Layron Vinícus da Costa Beserra, Amábyle Lopes Nuci, Talita Mirella de Paula Esposte
Toxocariasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic zoonoses in the world. The disease is principally caused by the nematode Toxocara canis, whose definitive host is the dog. The transmission of toxocariasis to humans is mainly caused by accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs of the parasite, present in the soil. Studies have shown that dog hair has the capacity to harbor eggs of the parasite and represents a risk for transmission of the zoonosis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency and factors associated with the contamination of dog hair by Toxocara spp...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Nirmala Nair, Prasanta Tripathy, H S Sachdev, Hemanta Pradhan, Sanghita Bhattacharyya, Rajkumar Gope, Sumitra Gagrai, Shibanand Rath, Suchitra Rath, Rajesh Sinha, Swati Sarbani Roy, Suhas Shewale, Vijay Singh, Aradhana Srivastava, Anthony Costello, Andrew Copas, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli, Naomi Saville, Audrey Prost
BACKGROUND: Around 30% of the world's stunted children live in India. The Government of India has proposed a new cadre of community-based workers to improve nutrition in 200 districts. We aimed to find out the effect of such a worker carrying out home visits and participatory group meetings on children's linear growth. METHODS: We did a cluster-randomised controlled trial in two adjoining districts of Jharkhand and Odisha, India. 120 clusters (around 1000 people each) were randomly allocated to intervention or control using a lottery...
October 2017: Lancet Global Health
Stefan Mandic-Rajcevic, Federico M Rubino, Eugenio Ariano, Danilo Cottica, Sara Neri, Claudio Colosio
Grapevine is a vulnerable crop to several fungal diseases often requiring the use of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicides, such as mancozeb. This fungicide has been reported to have goitrogenic, endocrine disrupting, and possibly immunotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess workers' exposure in two scenarios of mancozeb application and analyse the main determinants of exposure in order to better understand their mechanism of influence. Environmental monitoring was performed using a modified Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) "patch" methodology and by hand-wash collection, while mancozeb's metabolite, ethylenethiourea (ETU), was measured in 24-h preexposure and postexposure urine samples...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Clinton H Hansen, Darren Yang, Mounir A Koussa, Wesley P Wong
Protein detection and quantification play critical roles in both basic research and clinical practice. Current detection platforms range from the widely used ELISA to more sophisticated, and more expensive, approaches such as digital ELISA. Despite advances, there remains a need for a method that combines the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of ELISA with the sensitivity and speed of modern approaches in a format suitable for both laboratory and rapid, point-of-care applications. Building on recent developments in DNA structural nanotechnology, we introduce the nanoswitch-linked immunosorbent assay (NLISA), a detection platform based on easily constructed DNA nanodevices that change conformation upon binding to a target protein with the results read out by gel electrophoresis...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
R Jam, O Hernández, J Mesquida, C Turégano, E Carrillo, R Pedragosa, V Gómez, L Martí, J Vallés, P Delgado-Hito
OBJECTIVE: To analyse whether adherence to non-pharmacological measures in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is associated with nursing workload. METHODS: A prospective observational study performed in a single medical-surgical ICU. Nurses in charge of patients under ventilator support were assessed. VARIABLES: knowledge questionnaire, application of non-pharmacological VAP prevention measures, and workload (Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score)...
September 7, 2017: Enfermería Intensiva
J Pérez-Garza, S García, N Heredia
Food handlers are important sources of contamination in the agricultural environment. This study was conducted (i) to evaluate the activity of antimicrobial soaps against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis using a hand washing model with soiled hands and (ii) to determine the survival and persistence of these bacteria in rinsates. Sterilized agricultural soil from tomato and pepper farms was inoculated with E. coli or E. faecalis at 10(3) or 10(6) CFU/g. Decontaminated hands were placed in contact with contaminated soil for 2 min and were then washed with soaps with or without antimicrobial compounds (citric extracts, chloroxylenol, triclosan, or chlorhexidine gluconate)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Dirceu Rodrigues Athayde, Diego Rafael Martins Flores, Jéssica Soares da Silva, Ana Luísa Gomes Genro, Marianna Stafanello Silva, Bruna Klein, Renius Mello, Paulo Cezar Bastianello Campagnol, Roger Wagner, Cristiano Ragagnin de Menezes, Juliano Smanioto Barin, Alexandre José Cichoski
The microbiological and oxidative qualities of pork loin sprayed with different types (slightly acidic, acidic and basic) and combinations of electrolyzed water (EWs) were evaluated. The EWs were applied at two temperatures (18° and 30°C) and pressures (30 and 45psi) and the volume corresponded to approximately 10% water commonly used in carcass washing. EW after spraying exhibited a chlorine concentration between 15 and 25ppm. The application of acidic EW (AEW) alone or in combination with basic EW (BEW) decreased (P<0...
October 2017: Food Research International
Aslı Suner, Ozlem Ege Oruc, Cagri Buke, Hacer Deniz Ozkaya, Gul Kitapcioglu
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is one of the most effective attempts to control nosocomial infections, and it is an important measure to avoid the transmission of pathogens. However, the compliance of healthcare workers (HCWs) with hand washing is still poor worldwide. Herein, we aimed to determine the best hand hygiene preference of the infectious diseases and clinical microbiology (IDCM) specialists to prevent transmission of microorganisms from one patient to another. METHODS: Expert opinions regarding the criteria that influence the best hand hygiene preference were collected through a questionnaire via face-to-face interviews...
August 31, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Hiroki Kageshima, Kazumi Hayama, Miki Takahashi, Miho Abe, Tsuyoshi Yamada, Akira Saito, Shoichiro Hirano, Yoichi Murakami, Shigeru Abe
A lysozyme-chitosan conjugate preparation (LYZOX), produced from egg white lysozyme and chitosan by Maillard reaction, is a commercial product developed as a cosmetic ingredient or food additive. Effects of LYZOX on in vitro growth of Candida albicans were examined. C. albicans cells were treated with LYZOX for 3 hrs, and then washed and cultured for an additional 16 hrs in modified RPMI1640 medium. Mycelial growth of C. albicans was clearly inhibited by more than 100 μg/ml of LYZOX in a concentration-dependent manner...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Sandra Enyonam Akagbo, Priscillia Nortey, Mercy M Ackumey
BACKGROUND: Implementing standard precautions (SP) has been a major challenge for health care workers (HCWs) especially those in developing countries thereby compromising their safety and increasing their exposure to blood-related pathogens. Compliance with safety precautions and occupational accidents among health workers are often unreported. The literature on knowledge and compliance to SP in Ghana is scanty. We report findings of a study that examined knowledge of SP, compliance and barriers to compliance with SP among HCWs in two health facilities in Ghana...
August 30, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Jean Meyer Capps, Haron Njiru, Pieter deVries
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic entered Liberia through Lofa County in February 2014 and spread to two health districts where the nongovernmental organization Global Communities had been implementing community-led total sanitation (CLTS) since 2012. By December 2014 the county had 928 Ebola cases (422 of them confirmed) and 648 deaths. Before the epidemic, CLTS was triggered in 155 communities, and 98 communities were certified as Open Defecation Free (ODF). Using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods, we determined that no cases of EVD were found in ODF communities and in only one CLTS community that had not reached ODF status...
2017: Journal of Health Communication
Lungiswa Ll Nkonki, Lumbwe L Chola, Aviva A Tugendhaft, Karen K Hofman
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the costs and impact on reducing child mortality of scaling up interventions that can be delivered by community health workers at community level from a provider's perspective. SETTING: In this study, we used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST), a module in the spectrum software. Within the spectrum software, LiST interacts with other modules, the AIDS Impact Module, Family Planning Module and Demography Projections Module (Dem Proj), to model the impact of more than 60 interventions that affect cause-specific mortality...
August 28, 2017: BMJ Open
Q Feng, J L Tang
Puerperal fever was a major cause of maternal death in Europe in the 19(th) century. Many efforts were made to investigate the cause of the epidemic but failed. In 1846, Semmelweis, a young obstetrician in Vienna General Hospital, started his historical investigation. His breakthrough was largely due to his doctor friend's accidental injury during autopsy and his consequential death. Semmelweis found the pathological findings in his friend's post mortem examination were very similar to puerperal fever. He postulated his friend's death might be caused by "cadaverous particles" from cadavers and further inferred that puerperal fever might also be caused by the cadaverous particles that doctors brought to the delivering women after autopsy classes...
August 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Aiping Tian, Aiping Zhou, Xinyu Bi, Shangying Hu, Zhichao Jiang, Wen Zhang, Zhen Huang, Hongzhe Shi, Boyan Yang, Wei Chen
Dermatologic toxicities resulting in dose reduction or discontinuation of treatment pose challenges for targeted anticancer therapies. We conducted this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of topical application of Compound Danxiong Granules (CDG) for treatment of dermatologic toxicities associated with targeted anticancer therapies. One hundred and ten patients with dermatologic toxicities induced by targeted anticancer therapies were randomly assigned to CDG or placebo group...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Johan G Timmerman, Dick Heederik, Ton Spee, Frits G van Rooy, Esmeralda J M Krop, Thomas Rustemeyer, Lidwien A M Smit
BACKGROUND: A high contact dermatitis symptoms prevalence has been observed in Dutch construction workers. METHODS: Contact dermatitis was diagnosed by an expert panel using questionnaire data and photographs of 751 subjects' hands. A subset was evaluated by two occupational physicians. Their diagnoses were compared to those of the expert panel. In addition, two self-reported questionnaire-based assessment methods were compared to the expert panel evaluation. Associations between contact dermatitis and determinants were assessed using log-binomial regression analysis...
August 18, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Hailemichael Bizuneh, Fentabil Getnet, Beyene Meressa, Yonatan Tegene, Getnet Worku
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of underfive diarrhea in Somali Regional State, Ethiopia is one of the highest in the country. This study attempted to examine the multiple factors associated with underfive diarrhea and how they might influence its prevalence in Jigjiga, Somali regional state, Ethiopia. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15 to 28, 2015. Multistage sampling technique was used to collect data from 492 mothers via household survey...
August 23, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
M A C Wilkinson, M Kiernan, J Wilson, H Loveday, C Bradley
BACKGROUND: Much attention has focused on hand decontamination for healthcare workers; little has been paid to patient hand hygiene. Patients confined to bed are often unable to access hand washing facilities. They could use an alcohol hand rub but these are not advised for soiled hands or social hand hygiene. One alternative is the use of a hand wipe. However, it is important to ascertain how effective they are at removing transient micro-organisms from the hands. AIM: To develop a method to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of hand wipes compared with hand washing, and so determine if a hand wipe can be acceptable for patient hand hygiene...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
Chian-Feng Huang, I-Jen Wang
In 2011, the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration inadvertently discovered that, for decades, manufacturers had replaced expensive natural emulsifiers in food products with diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). We wanted to compare urinary phthalate metabolite levels of children before and after the DEHP food contamination event and identify source(s) of phthalate exposure in addition to the illegal food additives. In the present study, morning urine samples were collected from a cohort of 453 children in 2010 in Taipei...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Amy Guo, J Michael Bowling, Jamie Bartram, Georgia Kayser
Safe and sufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) prevent the spread of disease in health-care facilities (HCFs). Little research has been conducted on WaSH in HCF in sub-Saharan Africa. We carried out a cross-sectional study of WaSH in 1,318 randomly selected rural HCF (hospitals, health centers, health posts, and clinics) in regions throughout Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia. Methods included questionnaires with head doctors and nurses to document WaSH access, continuity, quality, quantity and reliability, and analysis of drinking water samples for Escherichia coli...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jessica H Leibler, Daniel D Nguyen, Casey León, Jessie M Gaeta, Debora Perez
Persons experiencing homelessness in the United States experience significant barriers to self-care and personal hygiene, including limited access to clean showers, laundry and hand washing facilities. While the obstacles to personal hygiene associated with homelessness may increase risk of infectious disease, hygiene-related behaviors among people experiencing homelessness has received limited attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston, MA (n = 194) to identify hygiene-related self-care practices and risk factors for reduced hygiene in this population...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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