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psychopharmacological treatment of anxiety

Jérôme Brunelin, Marine Mondino, Rémy Bation, Ulrich Palm, Mohamed Saoud, Emmanuel Poulet
Despite the advances in psychopharmacology and established psychotherapeutic interventions, more than 40% of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not respond to conventional treatment approaches. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been recently proposed as a therapeutic tool to alleviate treatment-resistant symptoms in patients with OCD. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art and future clinical applications of tDCS in patients with OCD...
February 24, 2018: Brain Sciences
Rahel Hoffmann, Julia Große, Michaela Nagl, Dietger Niederwieser, Anja Mehnert, Anette Kersting
BACKGROUND: Approximately 10% of the individuals experiencing the death of a loved one develop prolonged grief disorder (PGD) after bereavement. Family members of haematological cancer patients might be particularly burdened since their loss experience is preceded by a very strenuous time of disease and aggressive treatment. However, support needs of relatives of cancer patients often remain unmet, also after the death of the patient. Therapeutic possibilities are enhanced by providing easily available and accessible Internet-based therapies...
February 27, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Kasper Rud Østergaard
BACKGROUND: Selective mutism (SM) is a debilitating childhood anxiety disorder characterized by a persistent lack of speech in certain social settings and is considered hard to treat. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments are the best described treatments in the literature. AIM: To test whether there is evidence on treatment based on CBT, medication or a combination of these. METHODS: Systematic and critical review of the literature on CBT and/or pharmacological treatments of SM...
February 15, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Laura Duque-Serrano, Liliana Patarroyo-Rodriguez, Dorothy Gotlib, Juan C Molano-Eslava
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this paper is to review psychiatric manifestations, comorbidities, and psychopharmacological management in individuals with acute porphyria (AP). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature begins to clarify associations between AP, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other psychopathology. Broad psychiatric symptoms have been associated to acute porphyria (AP) and correspond to a spectrum of heterogeneous manifestations such as anxiety, affective alterations, behavioral changes, personality, and psychotic symptoms...
February 2, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Heather L Smith-Schrandt, Erin Ellington
It is important for psychiatric nurses to be familiar with the clinical presentation and recommended treatment for selective mutism (SM), as it is a childhood anxiety disorder that is not commonly studied. This article provides a brief overview of its diagnostic criteria, prevalence, assessment, and history. Special attention is given to misconceptions regarding the disorder and differentiation of trauma and oppositional disorders. Two vignettes illustrate varied presentations of SM, with and without comorbid social phobia...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Joseph Ben-Sheetrit, Liat Huller-Harari, Michal Rasner, Nehemia Magen, Nitsa Nacasch, Paz Toren
BACKGROUND: Inadequate prenatal care has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. We sought to compare compliance with prenatal care visits (PCV), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and serum alfa-fetoprotein (aFP) in women with psychiatric disorders (PD) and healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects were 5395 women (1043 PD and 4352 controls), members of Clalit Health Services (Tel-Aviv district, Israel), who gave birth during 2004-2014. We used Generalized Estimating Equations with binary-logistic models, considering consecutive pregnancies as repeated measures with unbalanced design...
January 17, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Elizabeth E Hathaway, John T Walkup, Jeffrey R Strawn
Anxiety and depressive disorders are common in the pediatric primary care setting, and respond to both psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic treatment. However, there are limited data regarding the optimal treatment duration. This article systematically reviews guidelines and clinical trial data related to antidepressant treatment duration in pediatric patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. The extant literature suggests 9-12 months of antidepressant treatment for youth with major depressive disorder...
January 11, 2018: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
Eric A Storch, Sean Gregory, Alison Salloum, Troy Quast
This study aimed to examine the impact of Hurricane Katrina exposure on medication utilization among children with pre-existing anxiety and obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs). Medicaid claims data from 2004 to 2006 were analyzed. Children with pre-existing anxiety/OCRDs were compared as a function of those living in a Louisiana disaster area, Louisiana non-disaster area, or Texas in terms of filled prescriptions and average days medication supply. This was further examined as a function of disorder/medication type...
January 3, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Oliver D Howes, Maria Rogdaki, James L Findon, Robert H Wichers, Tony Charman, Bryan H King, Eva Loth, Gráinne M McAlonan, James T McCracken, Jeremy R Parr, Carol Povey, Paramala Santosh, Simon Wallace, Emily Simonoff, Declan G Murphy
An expert review of the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of autism spectrum disorder, and recommendations for diagnosis, management and service provision was coordinated by the British Association for Psychopharmacology, and evidence graded. The aetiology of autism spectrum disorder involves genetic and environmental contributions, and implicates a number of brain systems, in particular the gamma-aminobutyric acid, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems. The presentation of autism spectrum disorder varies widely and co-occurring health problems (in particular epilepsy, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and irritability) are common...
January 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Julia Shekunov, Janet Wozniak, Kristina Conroy, Elizabeth Pinsky, Maura Fitzgerald, Melissa F de Leon, Abigail Belser, Joseph Biederman, Gagan Joshi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of psychopharmacologic interventions in a psychiatrically referred sample of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: This retrospective chart review aimed at collecting demographic and clinical information, including data on DSM-IV-TR criteria-based psychiatric disorders and related current medication treatment and response. Data were collected in December 2011. Clinicians identified the target disorder for each medication and any adverse events...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Marta Carballal Mariño, Ana Gago Ageitos, Josefa Ares Alvarez, Mercedes Del Rio Garma, Clara García Cendón, Ana Goicoechea Castaño, Josefina Pena Nieto
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in primary care pediatrics in Atlantic Galicia. METHODS: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional prevalence study was carried out in 9 outpatient clinics in A Coruña and Pontevedra with a population of 8293 children between September and November 2015. A total of 1286 randomly selected patients from 0 to 14 years of age were included. From the medical history was registered: age, sex, psychiatric diagnosis established by DSM-IV-TR criteria in its five axes, professionals who participated in the diagnosis and treatment of the process and what type of treatment was received...
November 20, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Carmen Gimeno, Marisa Luisa Dorado, Carlos Roncero, Nestor Szerman, Pablo Vega, Vicent Balanzá-Martínez, F Javier Alvarez
Patients with alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) have a high prevalence of anxiety disorders (AnxDs). "Co-occurring disorders" refers to the coexistence of an AUD and/or drug related disorders with another non-addictive psychiatric disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of psychopharmacological treatments and psychotherapy in patients with AUD and AnxD and to propose recommendations for the treatment of patients with comorbid AnxDs and AUDs. Randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and clinical guidelines were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jordina Tor, Montserrat Dolz, Anna Sintes, Daniel Muñoz, Marta Pardo, Elena de la Serna, Olga Puig, Gisela Sugranyes, Inmaculada Baeza
The concept of being at risk for psychosis has been introduced both for adults and children and adolescents, but fewer studies have been conducted in the latter population. The aim of this study is to systematically review the articles associated with clinical description, interventions, outcome and other areas in children and adolescents at risk for psychosis. We searched in MEDLINE/PubMed and PsycINFO databases for articles published up to 30/06/16. Reviewed articles were prospective studies; written in English; original articles with Clinical High Risk (CHR) for psychosis samples; and mean age of samples younger than 18 years...
September 15, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Maherra Khambaty, Rajesh M Parikh
Cultural factors have influenced the presentation, diagnoses, and treatment of anxiety disorders in India for several centuries. This review covers the antecedents, prevalence, phenomenology, and treatment modalities of anxiety disorders in the Indian cultural context. It covers the history of the depiction of anxiety in India and the concept of culture in the classification of anxiety disorders, and examines the cultural factors influencing anxiety disorders in India. We review the prevalence and phenomenology of various disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety, and phobic disorder, as well as culture-specific syndromes such as dhat and koro in India...
June 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Konstantin N Loganovsky, Natalia A Zdanevich, Marina V Gresko, Donatella Marazziti, Tatiana K Loganovskaja
OBJECTIVE: The present paper aimed to explore the neuropsychiatric characteristics of the antiterrorism (ATO) combatants in the Donets Basin (Donbass) and to propose therapeutic strategies for managing their mental healthcare. METHODS: A total of 54 ATO combatants were included in our study and compared with four groups of subjects exposed to other emergencies, including the Chernobyl disaster and the war in Afghanistan. The neuropsychiatric features were assessed through psychopathological assessments, neurological examinations, and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG)...
August 15, 2017: CNS Spectrums
Kevin J McPeake, Daniel S Mills
BACKGROUND: Fear and anxiety based problems are common in dogs. Alongside behaviour modification programmes, a range of psychopharmacological agents may be recommended to treat such problems, but few are licensed for use in dogs and the onset of action of some can be delayed. The low affinity partial benzodiazepine receptor agonist imepitoin (Pexion™, Boehringer Ingelheim) is licensed for treating canine epilepsy, has a fast onset of action in dogs and has demonstrated anxiolytic properties in rodent models...
June 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Markus Dold, Lucie Bartova, Alexander Kautzky, Daniel Souery, Julien Mendlewicz, Alessandro Serretti, Stefano Porcelli, Joseph Zohar, Stuart Montgomery, Siegfried Kasper
This international, multicenter, cross-sectional study comprising 1346 adult in- and outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) investigated the association between MDD as primary diagnosis and comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a cross-sectional data collection process, the presence of comorbid PTSD was determined by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the patients' socio-demographic, clinical, psychopharmacological, and response information were obtained. Clinical features between MDD with and without concurrent PTSD were compared using descriptive statistics, analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), and binary logistic regression analyses...
July 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Yukio Ago, Shigeru Hasebe, Naoki Hiramatsu, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Takuma, Toshio Matsuda
The selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are generally used for the treatment of major depressive disorders, and the 5-HT1A and σ1 receptors are considered to be targets for treatment of psychiatric disorders. Some SSRIs such as fluvoxamine have agonistic activity towards for the σ1 receptor, but it is not known whether the effect on the receptor plays a key role in the pharmacological effects. We have recently demonstrated that fluvoxamine shows an anti-anhedonic effect in picrotoxin-induced model of anxiety/depression, while the SSRI paroxetine, which have little affinity for the σ1 receptor, does not...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Michela Gatta, Alessia Raffagnato, Stefania Mannarini, Laura Balottin, Irene Toldo, Marilena Vecchi, Clementina Boniver
BACKGROUND: Several studies have confirmed psychiatric comorbidity and a worse quality of life in children with epilepsy, but the clinical assessment and monitoring of these patients often pays insufficient attention to their psychological aspects alongside their neurological issues. The present study aims to describe the distribution of psychopathologies and their clinical evolution over 18 months in a sample of children followed up since the onset of their epilepsy. METHODS: After being diagnosed with epilepsy, 49 subjects (age 4-18y) were followed up with psychiatric and psychological assessments based on the use of dimensional and categorical psychometric tools...
April 20, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
Irene Joy I Dela Peña, Hee Jin Kim, Chrislean Jun Botanas, June Bryan de la Peña, Thi Hong Van Le, Minh Duc Nguyen, Jeong Hill Park, Jae Hoon Cheong
BACKGROUND: Panax vietnamensis Ha et Grushv. or Vietnamese ginseng (VG) is a recently discovered ginseng species. Studies on its chemical constituents have shown that VG is remarkably rich in ginseng saponins, particularly ocotillol saponins. However, the psychopharmacological effects of VG have not been characterized. Thus, in the present study we screened the psychopharmacological activities of VG in mice. METHODS: VG extract (VGE) was orally administered to mice at various dosages to evaluate its psychomotor (open-field and rota-rod tests), sedative-hypnotic (pentobarbital-induced sleeping test), antistress (cold swimming test), anxiolytic (elevated plus-maze test), and cognitive (Y-maze and passive-avoidance tests) effects...
April 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
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