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Treatment Resistant Anxiety Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332861/treatment-of-nightmares-in-psychiatric-inpatients-with-imagery-rehearsal-therapy-an-open-trial-and-case-series
#1
Thomas E Ellis, Katrina A Rufino, Michael R Nadorff
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the utility of Imagery Rehearsal Therapy (IRT) for nightmares in an inpatient psychiatric setting. Although IRT enjoys a substantial evidence base for efficacy in various populations, data with psychiatric inpatients are lacking. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 20 adult psychiatric inpatients (11 male, 9 female; mean age=43.4), in an extended stay psychiatric inpatient facility. All participants were diagnosed with multiple, treatment resistant, comorbid conditions, including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and substance-related disorders...
March 23, 2017: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273494/cortisol-as-a-predictor-of-psychological-therapy-response-in-anxiety-disorders-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Susanne Fischer, Anthony J Cleare
BACKGROUND: Although psychotherapy generally is effective in anxiety disorders, many patients are treatment-resistant. At the same time, some patients with anxiety disorders show alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the major stress-responsive systems. Since raised levels of the end product of the HPA axis, cortisol, adversely affect cognition, we hypothesised that more pronounced alterations in cortisol levels would be associated with a less favourable response to psychotherapy...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270744/use-of-the-exponential-and-exponentiated-demand-equations-to-assess-the-behavioral-economics-of-negative-reinforcement
#3
Jennifer E C Fragale, Kevin D Beck, Kevin C H Pang
Abnormal motivation and hedonic assessment of aversive stimuli are symptoms of anxiety and depression. Symptoms influenced by motivation and anhedonia predict treatment success or resistance. Therefore, a translational approach to the study of negatively motivated behaviors is needed. We describe a novel use of behavioral economics demand curve analysis to investigate negative reinforcement in animals that separates hedonic assessment of footshock termination (i.e., relief) from motivation to escape footshock...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266320/different-functioning-of-prefrontal-cortex-predicts-treatment-response-after-a-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-treatment-in-patients-with-major-depression
#4
Koji Masuda, Mari Nakanishi, Kana Okamoto, Chiwa Kawashima, Harumi Oshita, Ayako Inoue, Fuku Takita, Toshihiko Izumi, Yoshinobu Ishitobi, Haruka Higuma, Masayuki Kanehisa, Taiga Ninomiya, Yoshinori Tanaka, Jotaro Akiyoshi
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often resistant to treatment with usual approaches. Patients with MDD have shown hypofunction of the frontotemporal cortex in verbal fluency test (VFT)-related near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). METHODS: We examined whether the reactions to drug treatment in treatment-naive patients with MDD could be predicted by NIRS outcomes at the initial investigation. All subjects underwent psychological testing to determine levels of anxiety and depression...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249076/a-consensus-statement-on-the-use-of-ketamine-in-the-treatment-of-mood-disorders
#5
Gerard Sanacora, Mark A Frye, William McDonald, Sanjay J Mathew, Mason S Turner, Alan F Schatzberg, Paul Summergrad, Charles B Nemeroff
Importance: Several studies now provide evidence of ketamine hydrochloride's ability to produce rapid and robust antidepressant effects in patients with mood and anxiety disorders that were previously resistant to treatment. Despite the relatively small sample sizes, lack of longer-term data on efficacy, and limited data on safety provided by these studies, they have led to increased use of ketamine as an off-label treatment for mood and other psychiatric disorders. Observations: This review and consensus statement provides a general overview of the data on the use of ketamine for the treatment of mood disorders and highlights the limitations of the existing knowledge...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238701/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subcallosal-cingulate-for-treatment-refractory-anorexia-nervosa-1-year-follow-up-of-an-open-label-trial
#6
Nir Lipsman, Eileen Lam, Matthew Volpini, Kalam Sutandar, Richelle Twose, Peter Giacobbe, Devin J Sodums, Gwenn S Smith, D Blake Woodside, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa is a life-threatening illness. Brain circuits believed to drive anorexia nervosa symptoms can be accessed with surgical techniques such as deep brain stimulation (DBS). Initial results suggest that DBS of the subcallosal cingulate is safe and associated with improvements in mood and anxiety. Here, we investigated the safety, clinical, and neuroimaging outcomes of DBS of the subcallosal cingulate in a group of patients during 12 months of active stimulation...
February 23, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197107/augmentation-of-psychotherapy-through-alternative-preconscious-priming-a-case-series-exploring-effects-on-residual-symptoms
#7
Melha Zidani, Jean-Sébastien Audet, François Borgeat, Frederick Aardema, Kieron Philip O'Connor, Yasser Khazaal
The current paper describes a case series using a new strategy for facilitating change based on Augmentation of Psychotherapy through Alternative Preconscious Priming (APAP) (1) in the treatment of eight treatment-resistant patients suffering from social phobia or generalized anxiety disorder. The patients had previously only shown a partial response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) despite good treatment adherence. The patients completed APAP using a computerized program, which consisted of three steps during which alternative, more functional thoughts and beliefs relevant to the idiosyncratic difficulties experienced by the patients were formulated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141723/anxiety-associated-with-asthma-exacerbations-and-overuse-of-medication-the-role-of-cultural-competency
#8
Yousuke T Horikawa, Tina Y Udaka, Janet K Crow, John I Takayama, Martin T Stein
Toshi, a 14-year-old Japanese boy, had uncontrolled asthma after relocating from Japan with his family 1 year ago. In Japan, he was diagnosed with moderate, persistent asthma, which was controlled with salmeterol and albuterol on an as needed basis. Since moving to the United States, Toshi complained of frequent dyspnea.Initially, he was seen by a Japanese physician who prescribed 200 mg of fluticasone 3 times a day and albuterol nebulization as needed. When Toshi came to the Pediatric Primary Care Clinic, he reported using his nebulizer up to 25 times daily...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061973/the-melatonergic-system-in-anxiety-disorders-and-the-role-of-melatonin-in-conditional-fear
#9
F Huang, Z Yang, C-Q Li
BACKGROUND: Resistance to extinction of certain conditioned responses forms the basis of anxieties, phobias, and compulsions. There has been an available effective means of extinction-based exposure psychotherapy for the treatment of anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that has been hypothesized to result from impaired extinction of fear memory. PTSD is considered as a memory disorder within a Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction framework. Therefore, the aim of this review was to report the preclinical profile of melatonin, a pineal gland hormone, as a potential pharmacological option in the treatment of anxiety disorders such as PTSD, tested with the Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043839/primary-pediatric-care-psychopharmacology-focus-on-medications-for-adhd-depression-and-anxiety
#10
REVIEW
Jeffrey R Strawn, Eric T Dobson, Lisa L Giles
The evidence base for psychopharmacologic interventions in youth with depressive and anxiety disorders as well as attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has dramatically increased over the past two decades. Psychopharmacologic interventions commonly utilized in the pediatric primary care setting-selective serotonin (norepinephrine) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs/SSNRIs), stimulants and α2 agonists-are reviewed. General pharmacologic principles are summarized along with class-related side effects and tolerability concerns (e...
January 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043613/emotional-distress-patients-with-several-types-of-tuberculosis-a-pilot-study-with-patients-from-the-sanatorium-hospital-of-huambo
#11
Benvinda Xavier Paulo, Bruno Peixoto
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that emotional distress expressed in terms of anxiety and depression it is very high among tuberculosis (TB) patients. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine levels of anxiety, depression and emotional distress in patients with several types of TB and to determine the association between social-demographic and economical factors, clinical variables and anxiety, depression and emotional distress. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in a sample of 81 TB patients...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995381/the-behavioral-avoidance-task-with-anxious-youth-a-review-of-procedures-properties-and-criticisms
#12
REVIEW
Peter J Castagna, Thompson E Davis, Megan E Lilly
The measurement of avoidance behavior in youth with anxiety and related disorders is essential. Historically, the behavioral avoidance task (BAT) has been used as a measure of avoidance that can be tailored to a youth's particular fear. Although in use for over 90 years, there has yet to be a systematic review of its use, properties, etc. Here we examine the use of the BAT with youth as a measure of avoidance over the past 30 years. Studies have used the BAT as a measure of treatment outcome, to explore theories related to avoidance, and provide evidence for the psychometric properties of phobia questionnaires...
December 19, 2016: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960654/a-case-of-dose-escalation-of-quetiapine-in-persistent-insomnia-disorder
#13
Claudia Cornelis, Ann Van Gastel, Glenn Dumont, Violette Coppens, Bernard Sabbe, Manuel Morrens, Filip Van Den Eede
Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug, is recommended for the treatment of schizophrenia and mood disorders. In addition, given its sedative effects, a low dose of the agent is also widely used in the treatment of anxiety disorders, personality disorders, substance abuse, and sleep disturbances. In this case study, quetiapine was the first effective drug in reducing chronic insomnia in a male patient with a long treatment history. Because its effect declined over time, in the course of two years, a gradual dose increase led to a posology 50 times higher than the off-label dosage used to obtain sedation, i...
December 14, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922040/functional-urological-disorders-a-sensitized-defence-response-in-the-bladder-gut-brain-axis
#14
REVIEW
Carsten Leue, Joanna Kruimel, Desiree Vrijens, Adrian Masclee, Jim van Os, Gommert van Koeveringe
Functional urological and gastrointestinal disorders are interrelated and characterized by a chronic course and considerable treatment resistance. Urological disorders associated with a sizeable functional effect include overactive bladder (OAB), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Poor treatment outcomes might be attributable to untreated underlying psychological and psychiatric disorders, as the co-occurrence of functional urological and gastrointestinal disorders with mood and anxiety disorders is common...
December 6, 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908570/sleep-related-disorders-in-latin-american-children-with-atopic-dermatitis-a-case-control-study
#15
M Urrutia-Pereira, D Solé, N A Rosario, H J C Neto, V Acosta, C F Almendarez, M M Avalos, H Badellino, F Berroa, M Álvarez-Castelló, A J Castillo, R L Castro-Almarales, M M De la Cruz, A M Cepeda, C Fernandez, M González-León, J Lozano-Saenz, C Sanchez-Silot, J C Sisul-Alvariza, M Valentin-Rostan, R O S Sarni
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) has been associated with impairment of sleep. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep disorders in AD Latin-American children (4-10 years) from nine countries, and in normal controls (C). METHODS: Parents from 454 C and 340 AD children from referral clinics answered the Children Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), a one-week retrospective 33 questions survey under seven items (bedtime resistance, sleep duration, sleep anxiety, night awakening, parasomnias, sleep-disordered breathing and daytime sleepiness)...
November 28, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901245/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-report-on-two-cases-and-proposal-for-a-randomized-sham-controlled-trial
#16
Renata de Melo Felipe da Silva, André Russowsky Brunoni, Eurípedes Constantino Miguel, Roseli Gedanke Shavitt
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Neuromodulation techniques for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have expanded through greater understanding of the brain circuits involved in this disorder. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive technique, has been studied as an alternative for treatment-resistant OCD. We describe the design of a clinical trial using tDCS for OCD and report on the outcomes from two patients with primary OCD who were resistant to cognitive-behavioral therapy and to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and who received tDCS in an open manner during the training phase for the study procedures...
September 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866918/-children-and-adolescents-anxiety-disorders
#17
H Denis, A Baghdadli
Anxiety disorders were long underestimated in children by healthcare professionals, but they are now better diagnosed. They account for the most frequent psychiatric diagnosis between 6 and 18 years of age, with differences in prevalence or risk factors related to the clinical forms. Different clinical subtypes of anxiety disorders are detailed in this article: separation anxiety, specific phobia, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress syndrome, and obsessional-compulsive disorder...
January 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857509/preventing-adolescent-social-anxiety-and-depression-and-reducing-peer-victimization-intervention-development-and-open-trial
#18
Annette M La Greca, Jill Ehrenreich-May, Laura Mufson, Sherilynn Chan
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the development and initial evaluation of a transdiagnostic school-based preventive intervention for adolescents with elevated symptoms of social anxiety and/or depression and elevated peer victimization...
December 2016: Child & Youth Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825555/neuroticism-traits-selectively-impact-long-term-illness-course-and-cognitive-decline-in-late-life-depression
#19
Kevin J Manning, Grace Chan, David C Steffens
OBJECTIVES: Neuroticism is a broad construct that conveys a predisposition to experience psychological distress and negative mood states. Vulnerability to stress (VS) is one neuroticism trait that has been linked to worse mood and cognitive outcomes in older adults. We hypothesized that elevated VS would be associated with worse illness course and cognitive decline in older adults with late-life major depression (LLD). DESIGN: Participants were enrolled in the Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly (NCODE), a longitudinal investigation of the predictors of poor illness course and cognitive decline in LLD...
March 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806711/prevalence-and-correlates-of-depression-and-anxiety-among-patients-with-hiv-on-follow-up-at-alert-hospital-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#20
Getachew Tesfaw, Getinet Ayano, Tadesse Awoke, Dawit Assefa, Zelalem Birhanu, Getenet Miheretie, Genet Abebe
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders are common among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus than the non-infected individuals. The co-existence of these disorders are associated with barriers to treatment and worsening medical outcomes, including treatment resistance, increased risk for suicide, greater chance for recurrence and utilization of medical resources and/or increase morbidity and mortality. Therefore, assessing depression and anxiety among HIV patients has a pivotal role for further interventions...
November 2, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
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