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gastrointestinal tract cancer

Nazanin Abolhassani, Julien Castioni, Valérie Santschi, Gérard Waeber, Pedro Marques-Vidal
BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy (PP) and excessive polypharmacy (EPP) are increasingly common and associated with risk of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). We aimed to measure the trends and determinants of PP and DDIs among patients discharged from the Department of Internal Medicine of the Lausanne University Hospital. METHODS: The retrospective study included 17,742 adult patients discharged between 2009 and 2015. Polypharmacy and EPP were defined as the concomitant prescription of five or more and ten or more drugs, respectively...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Ting-Ying Lee, Chia-Wen Wang, Teng-Wei Chen, De-Chuan Chan, Guo-Shiou Liao, Hsiu-Lung Fan
BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer is unusually seen but can result in highly mortality rate. It makes challenge to diagnose for clinicians due to present asymptomatic or non-specific clinical presentation including abdominal pain, anorexia. It usually also accompanies with cholelithiasis (incidence is 1-2%) and incidentally detected by radiologic examination such as ultrasound, computed tomography or intra-operative intervention accidentally. Gallbladder cancer results in highly fatal malignancy because it is difficult to early detect...
March 20, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Zhijuan Qiu, Brian S Sheridan
The intestinal immune system plays an essential role in maintaining the barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract by generating tolerant responses to dietary antigens and commensal bacteria while mounting effective immune responses to enteropathogenic microbes. In addition, it has become clear that local intestinal immunity has a profound impact on distant and systemic immunity. Therefore, it is important to study how an intestinal immune response is induced and what the immunologic outcome of the response is...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Luigi Cavanna, Pietro Seghini, Camilla Di Nunzio, Elena Orlandi, Emanuele Michieletti, Elisa Maria Stroppa, Patrizia Mordenti, Chiara Citterio, Stefano Vecchia, Adriano Zangrandi
Central nervous system (CNS) metastases from cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are rare, and occur in 0.16-0.69% of patients with gastric or gastro-esophageal (GE) junction cancer. Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER-2) is associated with poor prognosis in the absence of HER-2-targeted therapy, and with an increased incidence of CNS metastases in patients with breast cancer. The role of HER-2 overexpression in CNS metastases is not well known in gastric adenocarcinoma. The purpose of the present retrospective study was to assess the incidence of CNS metastases and to evaluate the associations between the CNS and HER-2 status in a series of consecutive patients with gastric or GE junction cancer...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Yongrui Liu
Objective : To investigate the clinical effect of fast track surgery (FTS) in perioperative nursing of colorectal cancer surgery. Background : In recent years, many complicated surgery began to develop in the direction of low invasion and short hospital time, which provides an unprecedented opportunity for the development of fast track surgery (FTS). Methods : According to different nursing measures, 156 cases of colorectal cancer patients treated in our hospital were divided into FTS nursing group (86 cases) and traditional nursing group (70 cases)...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Nelson S Yee
Progress has been made in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers through advances in systemic therapies, surgical interventions, and radiation therapy. At the Multi-Disciplinary Patient Care in Gastrointestinal Oncology conference, the faculty members of the Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center presented a variety of topics that focused on this sub-specialty. This conference paper highlights the new development in systemic treatment of various malignant diseases in the digestive system. Results of the recent clinical trials that investigated the clinical efficacy of pegylated hyaluronidase, napabucasin, and L-asparaginase in pancreatic carcinoma are presented...
March 16, 2018: Biomedicines
Giulio Innamorati, Thomas M Wilkie, Havish S Kantheti, Maria Teresa Valenti, Luca Dalle Carbonare, Luca Giacomello, Marco Parenti, Davide Melisi, Claudio Bassi
BACKGROUND: Mutations activating the α subunit of heterotrimeric Gs protein are associated with a number of highly specific pathological molecular phenotypes. One of the best characterized is the McCune Albright syndrome. The disease presents with an increased incidence of neoplasias in specific tissues. MAIN BODY: A similar repertoire of neoplasms can develop whether mutations occur spontaneously in somatic tissues during fetal development or after birth. Glands are the most "permissive" tissues, recently found to include the entire gastrointestinal tract...
March 15, 2018: BMC Cancer
Cornelia Nitipir, Octav Ginghina, Liliana Popa, Florin Andrei, Nicolaie Tudor, Irina Radu, Cristian Iaciu, Cristina Orlov, Florina Vasilescu, Cristian Balalau, Grigoris Leon, Carolina Negrei, Maria Alexandra Barbu
Although gastric metastases have been estimated to occur in less than 2% of cancer patients, an increased use of upper digestive tract endoscopy allows for a higher detection of secondary gastric tumors. We describe the case of a 66-year-old male patient presenting with mild pain in the sternum and upper abdominal area. Physical examination revealed a right parietal skull tumor, with no other significant clinical changes. Upon exclusion of an acute coronary syndrome, upper digestive tract endoscopy was performed, showing the presence of an ulcerated tumor located in the gastric fundus...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Sang Yeon Cho, Jang Wook Gwak, Yoo Chul Shin, Daeju Moon, Jihyuok Ahn, Hyon Woo Sol, Sungha Kim, Gwanghun Kim, Hyun Mu Shin, Kyung Ha Lee, Ji Yeon Kim, Jin Soo Kim
Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is a transcriptional regulator of the Hippo pathway, which regulates the development and progression of a number of types of cancer, including that of the colon. In the present study, the expression levels of Hippo pathway genes and their clinical significance were investigated in 458 patients with colon adenocarcinoma (COAD), the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease globally, using data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Notably, mRNA expression of YAP1 was higher in COAD than in other types of gastrointestinal tract cancer...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Yan Xiu, Jie Zhang, Hongcheng Shi
A 73-year-old man presented with fatigue and anorexia and underwent FDG PET/CT scan to evaluate a right lung nodule revealed by a chest CT. The FDG PET/CT not only showed that the lung nodule was hypermetabolic but also revealed that there was significantly increased activity in the region of the duodenum. The findings were suspected as primary duodenal malignancy with metastases. However, an upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopic examination with further culture led to a diagnosis of duodenal cryptococcosis...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Lucia Negri, Napoleone Ferrara
The mammalian prokineticins family comprises two conserved proteins, EG-VEGF/PROK1 and Bv8/PROK2, and their two highly related G protein-coupled receptors, PKR1 and PKR2. This signaling system has been linked to several important biological functions, including gastrointestinal tract motility, regulation of circadian rhythms, neurogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer progression, hematopoiesis, and nociception. Mutations in PKR2 or Bv8/PROK2 have been associated with Kallmann syndrome, a developmental disorder characterized by defective olfactory bulb neurogenesis, impaired development of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons, and infertility...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Floor Wt Vergouwe, Madeleine Gottrand, Bas Pl Wijnhoven, Hanneke IJsselstijn, Guillaume Piessen, Marco J Bruno, René Mh Wijnen, Manon Cw Spaander
Esophageal atresia (EA) is one of the most common congenital digestive malformations and requires surgical correction early in life. Dedicated centers have reported survival rates up to 95%. The most frequent comorbidities after EA repair are dysphagia (72%) and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) (67%). Chronic GER after EA repair might lead to mucosal damage, esophageal stricturing, Barrett's esophagus and eventually esophageal adenocarcinoma. Several long-term follow-up studies found an increased risk of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal carcinoma in EA patients, both at a relatively young age...
March 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Nurul Mubarokah, Julie-Ann Hulin, Peter Ian Mackenzie, Ross A McKinnon, Alex Z Haines, Dong Gui Hu, Robyn Meech
The UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) have a crucial role in protection against dietary toxins and metabolism of orally administered drugs. A subset of UGTs including UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT1A10 are highly expressed in GI tissues and this has been shown to be at least partly directed by the caudal homeodomain transcription factor, CDX2. We sought to further define the factors involved in regulation of the UGT1A8-1A10 genes and identified a novel composite element located within the proximal promoters of these three genes that binds to both CDX2 and the hepatocyte nuclear factor HNF4α, and mediates synergistic activation by these factors...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
Nina Moroz, Robert Sitarz, Andrzej Mruk, Robert Bakalarz, Ewa Maciąg, Jakub Litwiński, Ryszard Wierzbicki
ntroduction: One of the most important goals of preparing a patient for elective gastrointestinal cancer surgery is prevention of postoperative complications. The literature gives many ways to prepare for surgery, but only a few suggests that pre-operative use of rifaximin provides benefits in the form of fewer perioperative complications and reduces the severity of pain during this period. O bjective: The presented project is a retrospective analysis of the effectiveness of rifaximin in the prevention of perioperative complications in patients treated in the Unit of General Surgery with the Orthopedic and Urology in the Hospital of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration in Lublin, and a review of international literature in this subject...
February 28, 2018: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
Nemany Abdelhamid Nemany Hanafy, Alessandra Quarta, Marzia Maria Ferraro, Luciana Dini, Concetta Nobile, Maria Luisa De Giorgi, Sonia Carallo, Cinzia Citti, Antonio Gaballo, Giuseppe Cannazza, Rosaria Rinaldi, Gianluigi Giannelli, Stefano Leporatti
LY2157299 (LY), which is very small molecule bringing high cancer diffusion, is a pathway antagonist against TGFβ. LY dosage can be diluted by blood plasma, can be captured by immune system or it might be dissolved during digestion in gastrointestinal tract. The aim of our study is to optimize a "nano-elastic" carrier to avoid acidic pH of gastrointestinal tract, colon alkaline pH, and anti-immune recognition. Polygalacturonic acid (PgA) is not degradable in the gastrointestinal tract due to its insolubility at acidic pH...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chieh-Lung Cheng, Yung-Cheng Su, Tsu-Yi Chao, Chung-Wu Lin, Sheng-Chieh Chou, Ming Yao, Sung-Hsin Kuo, Shan-Chi Yu
Intralymphatic spread is common in solid cancers, but has been rarely studied in lymphomas. Review of 635 extranodal specimens from 475 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients revealed intralymphatic spread in 10 surgical resection specimens from 10 patients including 9 de novo DLBCLs and 1 Richter transformation. The prevalence in de novo DLBCL with extranodal involvements was 1.65%. The most common involved site of intralymphatic spread was the gastrointestinal tract, followed by the female genital tract and breasts...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Mark B Bignell, Akash M Mehta, Sue Alves, Kandiah Chandrakumaran, Sanjeev P Dayal, Faheez Mohamed, Tom D Cecil, Brendan J Moran
AIM: Ovarian metastases from gastrointestinal tract malignancy have been considered an ominous finding with poor prognosis. The aim of this project was to determine the impact on survival, and potential cure, when cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) are combined to treat peritoneal malignancy in women with Krukenberg tumours. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data between January 2010 and July 2015...
March 4, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Kengo Onochi, Hisashi Shiga, So Takahashi, Noboru Watanabe, Sho Fukuda, Mitsuaki Ishioka, Shigeto Koizumi, Tamotsu Matsuhasi, Mario Jin, Katsunori Iijima
GOALS: To investigate retrospectively the risk factors for synchronous and metachronous cancers in the upper gastrointestinal tract in patients with superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). BACKGROUND: In patients who have received endoscopic resection (ER) for ESCC, synchronous and metachronous cancers are frequently detected not only in the esophagus but also in the head and neck area and the stomach. STUDY: A total of 285 patients who received ER for superficial ESCC were enrolled in this analysis...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Jessica Perochon, Lynsey R Carroll, Julia B Cordero
Adult stem cells play critical roles in the basal maintenance of tissue integrity, also known as homeostasis, and in tissue regeneration following damage. The highly conserved Wnt signalling pathway is a key regulator of stem cell fate. In the gastrointestinal tract, Wnt signalling activation drives homeostasis and damage-induced repair. Additionally, deregulated Wnt signalling is a common hallmark of age-associated tissue dysfunction and cancer. Studies using mouse and fruit fly models have greatly improved our understanding of the functional contribution of the Wnt signalling pathway in adult intestinal biology...
March 2, 2018: Genes
Tomasy Sarosiek, Małgorzata Stelmaszuk
Small intestine tumors are rarely diagnosed as they constitute only 0.6% of all malignant tumors, including about 1-3% of malignant neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. They also advocate for 0.2% of deaths caused by malignant tumors. Factors that increase the risk of disease include Crohn's disease, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), Lynch syndrome (HNPCC - hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer), Peuz-Jeghers syndrome, celiac disease and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Diagnosis of small intestinal tumors is difficult because the symptoms reported by patients are not characteristic...
February 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
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