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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742157/angiotensin-ii-system-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-contributes-to-autonomic-dysreflexia-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Kai Wang, Shaoxia Duan, Xueping Wen, Weizhong Wang, Shangping Fang, Dunyi Qi, Xiang Huan, Liwei Wang, Zhenzhou He
BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threating complication after spinal cord injury (SCI), characterized by episodic hypertension induced by colon or bladder distension. The objective of this study was to determine the role of impaired baroreflex regulation by the nucleus tractus solitarii(NTS) in the occurrence of AD in a rat model. METHODS: T4 spinal cord transection animal model was used in this study, which included 40 Male rats Colorectal distension (CD) was performed to assess AD and compare the changes of BP, HR, and BRS, six weeks after operation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741405/optimized-tpa-a-non-neurotoxic-fibrinolytic-agent-for-the-drainage-of-intracerebral-hemorrhages
#2
Romain Goulay, Mikaël Naveau, Thomas Gaberel, Denis Vivien, Jérôme Parcq
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most severe form of stroke. Catheter-delivered thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA) for the drainage of ICH is currently under evaluation in a phase III clinical trial (MISTIE III). However, in a pig model of ICH, in situ fibrinolysis with rtPA was reported to increase peri-lesional edema by promoting N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent excitotoxicity. In the present study, we engineered a non-neurotoxic tPA variant, OptPA, and investigated its safety and efficacy for in situ fibrinolysis in a rat model of ICH...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739483/structural-modeling-for-the-open-state-of-an-nmda-receptor
#3
Xiaodong Pang, Huan-Xiang Zhou
NMDA receptors are tetrameric ligand-gated ion channels that are crucial for neurodevelopment and higher order processes such as learning and memory, and have been implicated in numerous neurological disorders. The lack of a structure for the channel open state has greatly hampered the understanding of the normal gating process and mechanisms of disease-associated mutations. Here we report the structural modeling for the open state of an NMDA receptor. Staring from the crystal structure of the closed state, we repacked the pore-lining helices to generate an initial open model...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739134/nmda-receptor-modulation-by-dextromethorphan-and-acute-stress-selectively-alters-electroencephalographic-indicators-of-partial-report-processing
#4
Lisa J Weckesser, Sören Enge, Philipp Riedel, Clemens Kirschbaum, Robert Miller
Proceeding from a biophysical network model, the present study hypothesized that glutamatergic neurotransmission across the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) plays a key role in visual perception and its modulation by acute stress. To investigate these hypotheses, behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) indicators of partial report task processing were assessed in twenty-four healthy young men who randomly received a non-competitive NMDAR antagonist (0.8 mg/kg dextromethorphan, DXM) or a placebo, and concurrently accomplished a stress-induction (MAST) or control protocol in three consecutive sessions...
July 21, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738742/effects-of-erk1-2-kinases-inactivation-on-the-nigrostriatal-system-of-krushinsky-molodkina-rats-genetically-prone-to-audiogenic-seizures
#5
Nadezhda A Dorofeeva, Yuliya S Grigorieva, Liubov S Nikitina, Elena A Lavrova, Elizaveta V Nasluzova, Margarita V Glazova, Elena V Chernigovskaya
Recently, we demonstrated that inhibition of ERK1/2 activity by SL-327 treatment blocks seizure behavior in Krushinsky-Molodkina (KM) rats, which was mediated by altering of GABA and glutamate release mechanism in the hippocampus. Basal ganglia representing various subcortical cell groups play a significant role in the regulation of motor activity, including epileptiform seizures. OBJECTIVES:  To verify if nigrostriatal system could be also affected by SL-327 treatment we analyzed the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, D1 and D2 dopamine receptors, NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor as well as vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT2 and glutamic acid decarboxylases GAD65/67 in the striatum and substantia nigra of KM rats...
July 24, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738351/major-depression-as-a-neuroprogressive-prelude-to-dementia-what-is-the-evidence
#6
Brian E Leonard
Epidemiological studies implicate chronic depression as a predisposing factor for dementia in later life. However, the link is incompletely understood and controversial. The aim of this review is to consider some of the biological factors that contribute to neuroprogressive brain dysfunction in late life as a consequence of prolonged, low-grade inflammation in the course of depressive episodes. As chronic inflammation is known to precipitate increased apoptosis of neurons and astrocytes, this could be a contributing factor to brain dysfunction...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738102/anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-presenting-as-a-primary-psychotic-disorder
#7
Michele A Nelson, Jeannie D Lochhead, Gerald A Maguire
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737885/classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-memantine
#8
Shahrina Alam, Kaelyn Skye Lingenfelter, Aaron M Bender, Craig W Lindsley
Memantine was the first breakthrough medication for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and represents a fundamentally new mechanism of action (moderate-affinity, uncompetitive, voltage-dependent, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that exhibits fast on/off kinetics) to modulate glutamatergic dysfunction. Since its approval by the FDA in 2003, memantine, alone, and in combination with donepezil, has improved patient outcomes in terms of cognition, behavioral disturbances, daily functioning and delaying time to institutionalization...
July 24, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736332/5-hydroxytryptamine-2a-receptors-of-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-mediate-panic-like-behaviours-and-fear-induced-antinociception-elicited-by-neuronal-activation-in-the-central-nucleus-of-the-inferior-colliculus
#9
Raimundo da Silva Soares, Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Tayllon Dos Anjos-Garcia, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
It has been established that chemical stimulation of the inferior colliculus (IC) of laboratory animals evokes fear-related defensive responses, which are considered panic attack-like behaviours. In addition, there is evidence that defensive reactions provoked by chemical stimulation of midbrain tectum neurons may induce an antinociceptive response. Morphologically, the IC receives projections from other mesencephalic structures, such as the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), a region rich in serotonergic neurons that play a critical role in the control of defensive behaviours...
July 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734961/radix-puerariae-modulates-glutamatergic-synaptic-architecture-and-potentiates-functional-synaptic-plasticity-in-primary-hippocampal-neurons
#10
Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque Bhuiyan, Md Nazmul Haque, Md Mohibbullah, Yung Kyu Kim, Il Soo Moon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Neurologic disorders are frequently characterized by synaptic pathology, including abnormal density and morphology of dendritic spines, synapse loss, and aberrant synaptic signaling and plasticity. Therefore, to promote and/or protect synapses by the use of natural molecules capable of modulating neurodevelopmental events, such as, spinogenesis and synaptic plasticity, could offer a preventive and curative strategy for nervous disorders associated with synaptic pathology...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734458/rett-like-severe-encephalopathy-caused-by-a-de%C3%A2-novo-grin2b-mutation-is-attenuated-by-d-serine-dietary-supplement
#11
David Soto, Mireia Olivella, Cristina Grau, Judith Armstrong, Clara Alcon, Xavier Gasull, Macarena Gómez de Salazar, Esther Gratacòs-Batlle, David Ramos-Vicente, Víctor Fernández-Dueñas, Francisco Ciruela, Àlex Bayés, Carlos Sindreu, Anna López-Sala, Àngels García-Cazorla, Xavier Altafaj
BACKGROUND: N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play pivotal roles in synaptic development, plasticity, neural survival, and cognition. Despite recent reports describing the genetic association between de novo mutations of NMDAR subunits and severe psychiatric diseases, little is known about their pathogenic mechanisms and potential therapeutic interventions. Here we report a case study of a 4-year-old Rett-like patient with severe encephalopathy carrying a missense de novo mutation in GRIN2B(p...
June 16, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733356/steady-state-free-ca2-in-astrocytes-is-decreased-by-experience-and-impacts-arteriole-tone
#12
Eslam M F Mehina, Ciaran Murphy-Royal, Grant R Gordon
Astrocytes can control basal synaptic strength and arteriole tone via their resting Ca2+ activity. However, whether resting astrocyte Ca2+ can adjust to a new steady-state level, with an impact on surrounding brain cells, remains unknown. Using two-photon Ca2+ imaging in male rat acute brain slices of the somatosensory neocortex, we found that theta burst neural activity produced an unexpected long-lasting reduction in astrocyte free Ca2+ in the soma and endfeet. The drop in intracellular Ca2+ was attenuated by antagonists targeting multiple ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, and intracellular cascades involved Ca2+ stores and nitric oxide...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731926/history-of-anaesthesia-the-ketamine-story-past-present-and-future
#13
Georges Mion
: Ketamine's history begins in the 1950s in Detroit, Michigan, at Parke-Davis Laboratories. On 26 March 1956, Harold V. Maddox synthesised phencyclidine or PCP. Domino studied PCP effects in animals and in 1958, Greifenstein made the first trials of PCP in humans under the name of Sernyl. Sernyl did not cause depression of cardiovascular and respiratory functions, but elicited severe excitation with a very prolonged postoperative recovery. Because of its psychedelic effects, it became a street drug under the name of 'angel dust' and was placed on schedule II of Federal Controlled Substance Act (CSA) in 1978...
July 20, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731405/pro-death-nmda-receptor-signaling-is-promoted-by-the-glun2b-c-terminus-independently-of-dapk1
#14
Jamie McQueen, Tomas J Ryan, Sean McKay, Katie Fm Marwick, Paul E Baxter, Sarah M Carpanini, Thomas M Wishart, Thomas H Gillingwater, Jean C Manson, David Ja Wyllie, Seth Gn Grant, Barry McColl, Noboru Komiyama, Giles E Hardingham
Aberrant NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activity contributes to several neurological disorders, but direct antagonism is poorly tolerated therapeutically. The GluN2B cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (CTD) represents an alternative therapeutic target since it potentiates excitotoxic signaling. The key GluN2B CTD-centred event in excitotoxicity is proposed to involve its phosphorylation at Ser-1303 by DAPK1, that is blocked by a neuroprotective cell-permeable peptide mimetic of the region. Contrary to this model, we find that excitotoxicity can proceed without increased Ser-1303 phosphorylation, and is unaffected by DAPK1 deficiency in vitro or following ischemia in vivo...
July 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730861/comparative-outcomes-in-children-and-adults-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis
#15
Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Anusha K Yeshokumar, Deanna Saylor, Ana Arenivas, John C Probasco
This study compared neurologic disability and adaptive function in children and adults >1 year following anti- N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis diagnosis. Retrospective record review identified 12 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. At last follow-up, all surviving patients had "good" modified Rankin Score (0-2). Four children, 6 adults, and their families participated in a telephone interview. Median duration since diagnosis was similar for children (2.42 years, interquartile range 2...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730337/memantine-can-reduce-ethanol-induced-caspase-3-activity-and-apoptosis-in-h4-cells-by-decreasing-intracellular-calcium
#16
Xiaolong Wang, Jiajun Chen, Hongbo Wang, Hao Yu, Changliang Wang, Jiabin You, Pengfei Wang, Chunmei Feng, Guohui Xu, Xu Wu, Rui Zhao, Guohua Zhang
Caspase-3 activation and apoptosis are associated with various neurodegenerative disorders. Calcium activation is an important factor in promoting apoptosis. We, therefore, assessed the role of intracellular calcium in ethanol-induced activation of caspase-3 in H4 human neuroglioma cells and the protective effect of the NMDA receptor antagonist, memantine, on ethanol-induced apoptosis in H4 cells. H4 cells were treated with 100 mM EtOH (in culture medium) for 2 days. For interaction studies, cells were treated with memantine (4 μM), EDTA (1 mM), or BAPTA-AM (10 μM) before treatment with EtOH...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726541/characterization-of-postsynaptic-calcium-signals-in-the-pyramidal-neurons-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#17
Xu-Hui Li, Qian Song, Tao Chen, Min Zhuo
Calcium signaling is critical for synaptic transmission and plasticity. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors play a key role in synaptic potentiation in the anterior cingulate cortex. Most previous studies of calcium signaling focus on hippocampal neurons, little is known about the activity-induced calcium signals in the anterior cingulate cortex. In the present study, we show that NMDA receptor-mediated postsynaptic calcium signals induced by different synaptic stimulation in anterior cingulate cortex pyramidal neurons...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725942/l-arginine-supplementation-prevents-allodynia-and-hyperalgesia-in-painful-diabetic-neuropathic-rats-by-normalizing-plasma-nitric-oxide-concentration-and-increasing-plasma-agmatine-concentration
#18
Lusliany J Rondón, M C Farges, N Davin, B Sion, A M Privat, M P Vasson, A Eschalier, C Courteix
PURPOSE: Neuropathic pain is a common diabetic complication. It is characterized by symptoms of spontaneous and stimulus-evoked pain including hyperalgesia and allodynia. L-Arginine is a common precursor of many metabolites of biological interest, in particular, nitric oxide (NO), ornithine, and hence polyamines. In central nervous system, NO, glutamate, and polyamines share an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated effect. We hypothesized that a variation in arginine metabolism caused by diabetes may contribute to development and maintenance of neuropathic pain and to the worsening of clinical and biological signs of diabetes...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725180/endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-is-present-in-dendritic-spines-of-neurons-in-primary-cultures
#19
Ariel Caviedes, Manuel Varas-Godoy, Carlos Lafourcade, Soledad Sandoval, Javiera Bravo-Alegria, Thilo Kaehne, Angela Massmann, Jorge P Figueroa, Francisco Nualart, Ursula Wyneken
Nitric oxide exerts important regulatory functions in various brain processes. Its synthesis in neurons has been most commonly ascribed to the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) isoform. However, the endothelial isoform (eNOS), which is significantly associated with caveolae in different cell types, has been implicated in synaptic plasticity and is enriched in the dendrites of CA1 hippocampal neurons. Using high resolution microscopy and co-distribution analysis of eNOS with synaptic and raft proteins, we now show for the first time in primary cortical and hippocampal neuronal cultures, virtually devoid of endothelial cells, that eNOS is present in neurons and is localized in dendritic spines...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721821/current-perspectives-for-the-use-of-gonane-progesteronergic-drugs-in-the-treatment-of-central-hypoventilation-syndromes
#20
Camille Loiseau, Florence Cayetanot, Fanny Joubert, Anne-Sophie Perrin-Terrin, Philippe Cardot, Marie-Noëlle Fiamma, Alain Frugiere, Christian Straus, Laurence Bodineau
BACKGROUND: Central alveolar hypoventilation syndromes (CHS) encompass neurorespiratory diseases resulting from congenital or acquired neurological disorders. Hypercapnia, acidosis, and hypoxemia resulting from CHS negatively affect physiological functions and can be life-threatening. To date, the absence of pharmacological treatment implies that the patients must receive assisted ventilation throughout their lives. OBJECTIVE: To highlight the relevance of determining conditions in which using gonane synthetic progestins could be of potential clinical interest for the treatment of CHS...
July 19, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
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