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anion gap and nutrition

Chin-Chi Kuo, Hung-Chieh Yeh, Bradley Chen, Ching-Wei Tsai, Yu-Sheng Lin, Chiu-Ching Huang
The use of metformin in chronic kidney disease (CKD) population has been intensely debated with conflicting evidence. Large population studies are needed to inform risk assessment and therapeutic decision-making. We evaluated the associations among metformin, metabolic acidosis, and CKD in a 10-year nationally representative noninstitutionalized civilian population in the United States.In this cross-sectional study, a total of 2279 diabetic adults aged 20 years or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003 to 2012 were included and had measurements of serum bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, and chloride...
December 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Eric Mark J Lopez, Ehsan Ghetmiri, Lori M Gettle, Michael F Reed, Brian P McAllister
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2015: Lancet
C Blanco, F J Giráldez, N Prieto, L Morán, S Andrés, J Benavides, M L Tejido, R Bodas
Forty-four merino lambs (6 to 8 wk old; BW 15.6 ± 0.21 kg) were used to study the effect of adding different proportions of sunflower soap stock (SS) to pelleted total mixed ration (TMR) for fattening lambs on feed intake, animal growth and dressing percentage, ruminal fluid characteristics, and blood acid-base parameters. Lambs were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups (11 lambs per group), each randomly assigned to 1 dietary treatment: 00SS (0 g SS/kg TMR pellet), 15SS (15 g SS/kg TMR pellet), 30SS (30 g SS/kg TMR pellet), and 60SS (60 g SS/kg TMR pellet)...
September 2014: Journal of Animal Science
Christian M Lo Cascio, Tsogyal D Latshang, Malcolm Kohler, Thomas Fehr, Konrad E Bloch
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) leads to progressive paresis, respiratory failure and premature death. Long-term positive pressure ventilation can improve quality of life and survival, but previously unrecognized complications may arise. We analyzed the characteristics of severe metabolic acidosis occurring in 8 of 55 DMD patients, of 20-36 years of age, observed over a 5-year period. All patients were on positive pressure ventilation and were being treated for chronic constipation. Before admission, they had had a reduced intake of fluids and food...
2014: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Katharina A Witte, Jörg Driver, Tanja Rosenberger, Sven Adler, Ursula Siebert
BACKGROUND: Facing numerous challenges, such as illness, storms or human disturbance, some harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups lose contact to their dams and are found abandoned along the North Sea coast. In Schleswig-Holstein, pups with the prospect of surviving rehabilitation are admitted to the Seal Center Friedrichskoog. Despite elaborate clinical health assessments on admission, including differential hematology, in 2010, 17% of 108 admitted pups did not survive the first 20 days. The death rate during the years 2006 and 2009 varied between 9 and 19%...
2014: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Maria Galuppo, Renato Iori, Gina Rosalinda De Nicola, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
This study was focused on the possible neuroprotective role of (RS)-glucoraphanin, bioactivated with myrosinase enzyme (bioactive RS-GRA), in an experimental mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). RS-GRA is one of the most important glucosinolates, a thiosaccharidic compound found in Brassicaceae, notably in Tuscan black kale seeds. RS-GRA was extracted by one-step anion exchange chromatography, further purified by gel-filtration and analyzed by HPLC. Following, pure RS-GRA was characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectrometry and the purity was assayed by HPLC analysis of the desulfo-derivative according to the ISO 9167-1 method...
September 1, 2013: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Tejas Desai, Aditya Sudhalkar, Usha Vyas, Bakulesh Khamar
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether laboratory markers of methanol ingestion and subsequent toxicity can serve as predictors of visual outcomes in patients. METHODS: Retrospective medical record review of 122 patients in a cluster outbreak of methanol poisoning. Data collected included history, complete ocular and systemic examination details, time to presentation, amount of alcohol ingested, and results of laboratory investigations, such as hemogram, glucose levels, hematocrit level, arterial pH, methanol levels, potassium and bicarbonate levels, and anion and osmolar gap determination, as well as hepatic and renal function tests...
March 2013: JAMA Ophthalmology
Matthew K Abramowitz, Thomas H Hostetter, Michal L Melamed
It is well known that uremia causes an increase in the serum anion gap (AG); however, whether changes in the AG occur earlier in the course of chronic kidney disease is not known. Here we investigated whether different measures of the AG, as a marker of kidney function, are associated with mortality. To do this, we analyzed the available laboratory data of 11,957 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 to calculate AG using the traditional method, or one that was albumin-adjusted, as well as a full AG reflecting other electrolytes...
September 2012: Kidney International
Matthew K Abramowitz, Thomas H Hostetter, Michal L Melamed
Lower levels of serum bicarbonate and a higher anion gap have been associated with insulin resistance and hypertension in the general population. Whether these associations extend to other cardiovascular disease risk factors is unknown. To clarify this, we examined the association of serum bicarbonate and anion gap with cardiorespiratory fitness in 2714 adults aged 20-49 years in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The mean serum bicarbonate was 24.6 mEq/l and the mean anion gap was 10...
May 2012: Kidney International
Serife Suna Oguz, Ebru Ergenekon, Leyla Tümer, Esin Koç, Ozden Turan, Esra Onal, Canan Türkyilmaz, Yildiz Atalay
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a revolution in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) care, but this therapy is not without problems. A 35-week-old, 1300 g female infant was transferred to our NICU because of bilious vomiting and feeding problems. When enteral feeding was started again, a severe condition similar to the previous one developed. On the 24th day, the patient underwent surgery with a diagnosis of Hirschprung's disease. One week before surgery, the parenteral solutions were composed without vitamins because intravenous vitamin supplements suitable for infants were not available...
2011: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Patil Armenian, Roy R Gerona, Paul D Blanc, Alan H B Wu, Somnath Mookherjee
BACKGROUND: Anion gap metabolic acidosis is typically encountered in the emergency department (ED) setting as the result of shock, other endogenous metabolic derangements, or from exogenous toxicants. The differential diagnosis for toxicant-related acidosis (exemplified by common mnemonics) emphasizes acute overdose. CASE REPORT: The case we present manifested an anion gap (AG) metabolic acidosis due to a chronic intoxication: acetaminophen (APAP) overuse over a period of weeks...
July 2012: Journal of Emergency Medicine
L N Edwards, T E Engle, M A Paradis, J A Correa, D B Anderson
Increasing dietary electrolyte balance (dEB) has previously been shown to reduce the incidence of nonambulatory and noninjured swine, improve meat quality, and reduce the incidence of gastric ulcers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dEB under commercial conditions. Due to the variability in feed withdrawal, transport, and lairage conditions in the swine industry, it was necessary to determine first the persistence of blood changes during the marketing process after alteration of dEB...
December 2010: Journal of Animal Science
Wildon R Farwell, Eric N Taylor
BACKGROUND: In vitro data suggest that lower extracellular pH activates the immune system. We conducted a population-based study of the relation between serum acid-base status and inflammation. METHODS: We examined the serum anion gap and serum levels of bicarbonate and inflammatory biomarkers in 4525 healthy adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1999-2006. We excluded participants who had chronic disease, recent infection and an estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 mL/min per 1...
February 9, 2010: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
P Reddy, A D Mooradian
The anion gap (AG) measurement is a very useful tool in the evaluation of patients with acid-base disorders. Once metabolic acidosis is identified, AG will provide the important first step in the differential diagnosis of disorders that either increase the AG and those that leave the AG unchanged. Delta gap is the comparison between change (delta) in the AG and the change (delta) in bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)). Delta ratio, defined as delta AG:delta HCO(3)(-) is usually 1:1 in patients with an uncomplicated high AG acidosis...
October 2009: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Shawn D St Peter, Kuojen Tsao, Susan W Sharp, George W Holcomb, Daniel J Ostlie
BACKGROUND: Emesis after pyloromyotomy for pyloric stenosis is a common clinical phenomenon and the limiting factor in time to goal feeds. The amount of emesis that can be expected after myotomy is unknown. No data have been published that equip caregivers with the ability to understand which patients are more likely to have emesis and take longer to advance to goal feeds after pyloromyotomy. Therefore, we performed analysis of prospective data obtained from a randomized trial to determine if outcome can be predicted from preoperative or intraoperative variables...
November 2008: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Ryan N Dilger, David H Baker
A 72-h time-course study was conducted to elucidate the physiological mechanism underlying cysteine (Cys) toxicity in chicks beginning at 8-d posthatch. Biochemical markers quantified in plasma and liver samples collected from chicks receiving 30 g/kg excess dietary Cys were compared with baseline measurements from chicks receiving an unsupplemented corn-soybean meal diet over a 72-h feeding period. Concomitant with chick mortality were indices of acute metabolic acidosis, including a rapid increase (P < 0...
September 2008: Journal of Nutrition
W R Farwell, E N Taylor
AIMS: Metabolic acidosis may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. To date, there have been no population-based studies of acid-base status and insulin resistance. We examined the cross-sectional relations between serum bicarbonate, anion gap, and insulin resistance in a subset of healthy participants in the 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. METHODS: We included 1496 adults without diabetes or other chronic diseases...
July 2008: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Eric N Taylor, John P Forman, Wildon R Farwell
Increased production of organic acid can result in an elevated serum anion gap and may play a role in the development of hypertension. We studied the cross-sectional associations between anion gap and blood pressure and between serum bicarbonate and blood pressure in the 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We included 5043 adult participants who were not taking antihypertensive medications or diuretics and who denied hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other diseases...
August 2007: Hypertension
Xin-Kui Tian, Yi-Sheng Shan, Xing-Wei Zhe, Li-Tao Cheng, Tao Wang
BACKGROUND: Metabolic acidosis (MA) is common in chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) patients, and its pattern changes as renal function deteriorates. Although the prevalence of acidosis in peritoneal dialysis has been reported to be rather high, the causes of it have not been well studied. The present study was performed to examine the prevalence of metabolic acidosis in our continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients and its possible causes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from patients who received maintenance CAPD in our hospital and had been on dialysis for at least one month...
2005: Blood Purification
Maneerat Puwanant, Ladda Mo-Suwan, Sakda Patrapinyokul
D-lactic acidosis is a rare complication in children with short bowel syndrome. It results from fermentation of dietary carbohydrate by luminal bacteria in the small bowel caused by bacterial overgrowth. We present the case of a 14-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with short bowel syndrome from surgical treatment of midgut volvulus five years previously. His nutritional status was maintained by total parenteral nutrition and enteral feeding as tolerated. During hospitalization, episodic confusion and hyperpnea developed...
2005: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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